WorldWideScience

Sample records for change winning public

  1. Astroparticles win over the public

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The first ever European Week of Astroparticle Physics, held from 10 to 17 October, provided an opportunity for the general public to learn about this still relatively little-known branch of science. Members of the public were able to meet scientists and find out more about a little-known branch of physics. A laser beam lit up the Paris sky each time a muon was detected at the top of the Montparnasse tower.The year 2009 was proclaimed the International Year of Astronomy in celebration of the 400th anniversary of the first astronomical observations by telescope, conducted by Galileo Galilei. While astronomy is a topic that the general public is familiar with and interested in, the same is not true of astroparticle studies, a branch of modern astronomy that in many ways is very close to particle physics. The ASPERA network, to which CERN belongs, coordinates European research on astroparticles. AS...

  2. Assessing carbon stocks and modelling win-win scenarios of carbon sequestration through land-use changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce-Hernandez, R.; Koohafkan, P.; Antoine, J. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    This publication presents a methodology and software tools for assessing carbon stocks and modelling scenarios of carbon sequestration that were developed and tested in pilot field studies in Mexico and Cuba. The models and tools enable the analysis of land use change scenarios in order to identify in a given area (watershed or district) land use alternatives and land management practices that simultaneously maximize food production, maximize soil carbon sequestration, maximize biodiversity conservation and minimize land degradation. The objective is to develop and implement 'win-win' options that satisfy the multiple goals of farmers, land users and other stakeholders in relation to food security, carbon sequestration, biodiversity and land conservation.

  3. Mitigation win-win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  4. Public understanding of science wins 3m pounds boost

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science is to receive a grant of almost 3 million pounds from the Welcome Trust to support its work to promote the public understanding of science (2 paragraphs).

  5. Win-stay lose-shift strategy in formation changes in football

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Managerial decision making is likely to be a dominant determinant of performance of teams in team sports. Here we use Japanese and German football data to investigate correlates between temporal patterns of formation changes across matches and match results. We found that individual teams and managers both showed win-stay lose-shift behavior, a type of reinforcement learning. In other words, they tended to stick to the current formation after a win and switch to a different formation after a loss. In addition, formation changes did not affect the results of succeeding matches in most cases. The results indicate that a swift implementation of a new formation in the win-stay lose-shift manner may not be a successful managerial rule of thumb.

  6. Sharing is Winning: Cooperative Learning about Atmospheric Composition Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2010-09-01

    This contribution presents evolving good practice in disseminating the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists as established in ACCENT. The promotion of early-career scientists, and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues addressed by the "Training and Education" programme in the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). Dissemination avenues include a virtual knowledge train carrying the wealth of high-quality scientific learning material developed with experts involved in the ACCENT network. Learning opportunities on current research in atmospheric composition change in Europe were also created during face-to-face training workshops. Real-life examples of pressing air quality issues were addressed in meetings with stakeholder groups that offered opportunities for mutual learning in inspiring partnerships. In order to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change across Europe, activities were organized with the general public (e.g., Café Scientifique), where the participating early-career scientists were confronted with questions from lay people. For interested teachers, didactic translations of compact overviews on air quality science topics developed in ACCENT offer links with the typical European science curriculum and go beyond school book content. Some of the educational events, methods and tools are described in a booklet published in 2009 ("We Care for Clean Air!", ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6). The electronic version and all training material can be downloaded from www.accent-network.org/portal/education - a valuable resource for teachers and learners around the globe.

  7. Trend of public perception on nuclear energy and future PA programs for winning public consensus in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Seung-Jin [Organization for Korea Atomic Energy Awareness, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Before the second half of 1980`s, the Korean government could carry out the nuclear power projects easily without any oppositions. However, the anti-nuclear and environmental preservation movement has been more vigorous after Chernobyl accident. Since 1987, the democratized social environment and improved standard of living which is resulted from economic growth have increased the public interest on a positive environment and safety of life. Moreover, the introduction of local self-government system has imposed heavy burdens on nuclear power development. The prevailing of local egoism is also a hard task to overcome in securing nuclear facility sites. The public began to recognize the necessity of nuclear energy. However, this is still a far cry from the ultimate target to the site selection. Therefore, winning public acceptance is the most important issue in implementing the nation`s nuclear programs without significant obstacles, and it is necessary to develop sociopolitical approaches to deal with nuclear issues. (author)

  8. Strategy changes in subsequent fights as consequences of winning and losing in fruit fly fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-11-11

    In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests. In a recent report, we examined these loser and winner effects in greater detail and demonstrated that both winners and losers show short-term memory of the results of previous bouts while only losers demonstrate a longer-term memory that requires protein synthesis. The recent findings also suggested that an individual recognition mechanism likely exists that can serve important roles in evaluating the fighting ability of opponents and influencing future fighting strategy. In this article, we follow up on these results by asking how previous defeated and victorious flies change their fighting strategies in the presence of 2(nd) losing and winning flies, by searching for evidence of territory marking, and discussing the existing literature in light of our findings.

  9. Win-win initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specter, Herschel

    1999-03-01

    This paper explores the use of win-win initiatives as a means of making safety improvements while simultaneously reducing plant operating costs. A two-phased process for implementing these initiatives is provided. Near-term progress is emphasized in the first phase by using presently available information. The second phase addresses complex issues such as closure in the regulatory process, modernizing the role of determinism in decisionmaking, closer coupling of performance-based regulation and risk-informed regulation, modernizing the testing of important plant equipment, and the treatment of uncertainties.

  10. Striatal connectivity changes following gambling wins and near-misses: Associations with gambling severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, R.J. van; Chase, H.W.; Clark, L.

    2014-01-01

    Frontostriatal circuitry is implicated in the cognitive distortions associated with gambling behaviour. 'Near-miss' events, where unsuccessful outcomes are proximal to a jackpot win, recruit overlapping neural circuitry with actual monetary wins. Personal control over a gamble (e.g., via choice) is

  11. Weapons plutonium for electricity: a win-win-win solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, P. [Synatom, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Incorporating recovered weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel to produce electricity in currently operating reactors is presented as the best option for its disposition from a European utilities perspective. It would be a win-win-win solution. Firstly, it would be a win for the US government as the only technology readily available on an industrial scale and therefore the fastest way to convert the surplus plutonium to a highly proliferation resistant spent fuel form, as well as being the most cost-effective option. It would also have the political advantages of proving to the world that the US is dedicated to the elimination of its surplus plutonium without delay, receiving support from the Western allies of the US, and encouraging the Russians to take the same route. Secondly, it would be a win for the US utilities both in economic terms and in improving their public image through their contribution to world disarmament. Finally, it would be a win for the world as the fastest route to making disarmament irreversible and as the only solution that conserves natural resources. (8 figures; 14 references) (UK).

  12. Green, Reform, Win-Win

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Boao Forum for Asia this year enjoys three high lights, namely "Green, Reform and Win-Win".The old but hot topics attracted accumulated attention from the whole world, and more fresh ideas were ushered in.

  13. She wins You win

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨品文

    2006-01-01

    对于那些执著于人生理想的商业领袖们,他们背后的女人们也是不甘寂寞的,甚至可能成为这些企业传奇中最让人津津乐道的故事。在这个弥漫女性色彩的三月,我们想起“She wins You win”这句西方的古老谚语,发现它非常精确地描述了现代商业社会中这些大师和女人的某种相处方式。

  14. Tracing Public Values Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    in several directions; b) job ads develop into platforms for organizational branding with an emphasis on HR-related values although national logos enter the scene (the Danish royal crown, the Dutch national emblem); c) New Public Management values do not crowd out other values, rather value intensity...

  15. A Winning Framework for Public-Private Partnerships : Lessons from 60-plus IFC Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Florizone, Richard; Carter, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Despite global financial uncertainty and increased public mistrust of business, partnerships between the public and private sectors have continued to grow- driven by governments' need to access external financing and expertise, by the private sector's search for new opportunities, and by governments' desire to grow the private sector. This report addresses the critical question: how can th...

  16. What's so Hard about Win-Win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The win-win approach to solving conflicts, which has become popular in the business world, should be a natural for the school environment. Win-win thinking can foster a cooperative school climate by meeting educators' and students' needs for dignity, belonging, and respect. Yet win-win thinking faces a number of obstacles in schools, writes…

  17. Win-win finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotou, T.

    1997-07-01

    Sustainable development is grossly underfinanced. It will continue to be so, because the world is relying on conventional means to finance an unconventional idea. Official development assistance fell from 60 billion dollars in 1992 to 55 billion dollars in 1995 (in constant 1994 prices). The public sector in developing countries is underinvesting in environmental sustainability because of severe budget constraints, public sector deficits and more pressing expenditure needs. So is the private sector because, under prevailing institutional arrangements, it cannot recover costs and earn a decent rate of return from providing public goods. Other means of mobilising resources must be found. Such measures may include: phasing out subsidies, demand-scale management, better capture of resource vents, improved definition and security of property rights, and environmentally based taxation. Coal and petroleum based projects are frequently effectively subsidised. For sustainability energy efficiency measures should be subsidised, and energy consumption taxed. Increased use of economic instruments should be encouraged. 2 photos.

  18. Publication patterns of award-winning forest scientists and implications for the ERA journal ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vanclay, Jerome K

    2011-01-01

    Publication patterns of 79 forest scientists awarded major international forestry prizes during 1990-2010 were compared with the journal classification and ranking promoted as part of the 'Excellence in Research for Australia' (ERA) by the Australian Research Council. The data revealed that these scientists exhibited an elite publication performance during the decade before and two decades following their first major award. An analysis of their 1703 articles in 431 journals revealed substantial differences between the journal choices of these elite scientists and the ERA classification and ranking of journals. Implications from these findings are that additional cross-classifications should be added for many journals, and there should be an adjustment to the ranking of several journals relevant to the ERA Field of Research classified as 0705 Forestry Sciences.

  19. Soldiers in the Blogosphere Using New Media to Help Win the War for Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    OPSEC)3 or the limitations placed on free speech in the military4. Participation on social networking sites (such as MySpace or Facebook) or YouTube...new media include blogs, sales sites like Amazon that rely on customer reviews as part of search and recommendation criteria, social networking sites such...Other popular social networking sites have little to offer the Army as it seeks new ways to get its story told to the public. While they offer a

  20. Who Will Win the Game?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    一维

    2007-01-01

    <正>Peter:Do you think Brazil will win? Paul:Could be.Peter:I bet you that Brazil will win the game. Paul:Don’t be so sure.Italy is also one of the best teams in Europe.Peter:But Brazil had won five World Cup Champions.Paul:Things are changing! Peter:It’s

  1. Social acceptability of climate change policies; will energy efficiency always fail to win its case through the consultation process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pett, Jacky [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Which segments of society 'win' as a result of climate change policies? Actors generally support the principle of reduced emissions through decarbonising fuels, and many are convinced that reducing overall energy consumption is an essential strategy to prevent further damaging climate change. However, proposed strategies for ensuring that sufficient action is taken to reduce emissions suffer from complexity, uncertainty and dissent, especially from vested interests. The policy maker has to choose between many options, and many conflicting consultation responses, to select the most politically feasible and socially acceptable pathway. An FP6 funded project into Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for climate change is developing an innovative tool to support policy choice based on a mix of methods, using case studies to test the outputs. Resources include stakeholder deliberation on criteria necessary to evaluate pathway options. The first stage maps energy actors' perspectives of climate change, identifying key issues for socially acceptable policies for the 2012 - 2050 period that would either limit climate change to only 2 deg C increase, or provide a 'soft landing' to a world 5 degrees above present.This paper describes this mapping exercise and indicates the issues of most debate, on which rest the criteria for social acceptability. It describes how deliberative methods can involve stakeholders more effectively in policy formation, contrasts the roles of deliberation and consultation, and discusses the engagement of powerful vested interests with this approach. While there are considerable overlaps in perspectives of different actors, leading to specific points of contention, importantly, decisions on selection and engagement of stakeholders with the process become critical if the criteria for policy decisions are to be accepted by society.

  2. Biofuels: A win-win strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This article looks at the overall goal of stabilizing global climate change while achieving a sustainable energy future. On Earth Day 1993, President Clinton announced that the U.S. would comply with the Rio accord and bring U.S. greenhouse gas emissions back to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Since the transportation sector accounts for over 30 percent of domestic CO{sub 2} emissions, the large-scale use and deployment of biofuels would be a useful tool in achieving the Administration`s goals of limiting greenhouse gases. Biofuels such as ethanol, methanol, and biodiesel are expected to have lower emissions of greenhouse gases than those derived from petroleum or other fossil fuels. This marked difference is due to the {open_quotes}CO{sub 2} recycling effect{close_quotes} associated with the growth process of biomass renewable resources such as trees and grasses. This article covers the following topics: global climate change an future energy consumption, reducing greenhouse transportation sector emissions: improving fuel economy and switching to low-carbon emission fuel sources; integration of fuel economy and alternative fuels; biofuels as a transportation strategy for mitigating global climate change; a win-win strategy: biofuels reduce carbon dioxide while promoting sustainable economic growth; increasing biofuels utilization through government and industry cooperation. 5 figs.

  3. Changing attitudes in tourism - a possible way to win the battle with the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis should be viewed as an opportunity to make the changes needed for improving the tourism industry. These changes are necessary for the tourism industry and must be undertaken considering the necessity of transforming the economy into a Green Economy based on the sustainable development principles. This approach will ensure the sustainable development for the Tourism Industry. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance and the necessity of change in tourism, especially in the present context of economic and financial crisis.

  4. Wins, winning and winners: the commercial advertising of lottery gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, John L; Miller, Delthia

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed a sample of 920 lottery ads that were placed or played in Atlantic Canada from January 2005 to December 2006. A content analysis, involving quantitative and qualitative techniques, was conducted to examine the design features, exposure profiles and focal messages of these ads and to explore the connections between lottery advertising and consumer culture. We found that there was an "ethos of winning" in these commercials that provided the embedded words, signs, myths, and symbols surrounding lottery gambling and conveyed a powerful imagery of plentitude and certitude in a world of potential loss where there was little reference to the actual odds of winning. The tangible and emotional qualities in the ads were especially inviting to young people creating a positive orientation to wins, winning and winners, and lottery products that, in turn, reinforced this form of gambling as part of youthful consumption practices. We concluded that enticing people with the prospects of huge jackpots, attractive consumer goods and easy wins, showcasing top prize winners, and providing dubious depictions that winning is life-changing was narrow and misleading and exploited some of the factors associated with at-risk gambling.

  5. Examining land use change and cooking fuel-use in Uganda: implications and potential win-win scenarios for policy and carbon financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nicole; Semmens, Darius; Hawbaker, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Uganda is one of the world's most biodiverse countries, yet also one of the poorest. Human dependence on natural resources, especially from forests, is most pronounced in developing countries such as Uganda, where many people live in poverty and rely on fuel wood for cooking. These demands often compete with conservation efforts aimed at protecting forests and biodiversity. An understanding of trends in forest condition and local community use of forests is necessary to explore the implications of changing environmental conditions on the sustainability of Uganda's forests and forest-related socioeconomic activities. A human-environment framework is applied to this research by comparing environmental layers derived from remotely sensed imagery with socioeconomic data acquired from household surveys. Statistical modeling was used to explain the relationship between household characteristics (e.g., fuel use) and environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover change) and to quantify the role of spatial arrangement or pattern in understanding human-environment relationships (e.g., access and distance). The findings show that distance from protected forests is related to changes in household fuel type. For example, increases in charcoal as the primary cooking fuel is observed in households a closer distance to protected forests. This change is likely due to access to forest resources. The results of this study could inform policies aimed at protecting forests as well as protecting the interests of people in proximity to protected forests.

  6. Making it a win-win for all: global to local sustainability: international climate change agreements and shea production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu-Aib, Jakpa Sumaila Anwar

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, climate change has become one of the most important phenomena and a serious global concern to humans due to the severe threat it poses to life and property. As a result, carbon (C) storage potential of agroforestry systems has been recognized by the Kyoto Protocol as an alternative

  7. WIN Belarus report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana [Institute of Power and Nuclear Research, Sosny (Belarus)

    2008-07-01

    national WIN: WIN Belarus was established in December 1998 and at present has 17 members. Highlights of the last year and trends in Belarus: There are some problems with the natural gas supply in Belarus from Russia. Energy policy directed to use the local fuel resources and energy saving, but these resources can not provide for Belarus energy demand. Therefore made a decision of NPP construction. At present the NPP site is selected. WIN activities: Collection and analysis of articles in newspapers and journals on energy problems in Belarus and construction of nuclear power plant in our republic. Publication and distribution of newsletters on nuclear problems for public information and authorities, which are available for the press too. We took part in debates with environmental and other opponents on the ecological, economical and safety problems of nuclear technology. We published articles about nuclear energy (safety problems, environment and climate). Female communication: Collaboration with women organizations in Belarus (Women Alliance, Women group in physics and others). Future plans and goals for WIN: Participation in several international conferences and seminars. Publication and distribution of newsletters on nuclear problems for public information and authorities, which are available for the press too. Collection and analysis of articles in newspapers and journals on energy problems in Belarus and construction of nuclear power plant in our republic. Publication articles in newspapers and 'Industrial Safety' journal about using nuclear technology and radiation and power problems. Investigation problems of radioactive waste handling. Preparation trainings for journalists and public organizations on radiation problems, nuclear power and on un-traditional renewed sources of energy. We shall continue debates with opponents on the ecological, economical and safety problems of NPP. Collaboration with women and ecological organizations in Belarus (Women

  8. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture.

  9. A Win-Win Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Parkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This brief article reports on a collaborative book-borrowing policy between The Brendlinger Library of Montgomery County Community College and the Wissahickon Valley Public Library (WVPL, both located in Blue Bell, PA.  Beginning in January 2013, WVPL will donate books periodically to the Brendlinger Library in support of the students enrolled in Reading classes.  Circulation statistics will be reported to WVPL, and the books will be returned to WVPL for sale in the WVPL Friends of the Library book sale. Keywords: academic library; public library,  community college library; collaboration; developmental readers; reading programs; reading instruction; literacy; Montgomery County Community College; Wissahickon Valley Public Library

  10. First Chinese public hospital wins Joint Commission International accreditation: the Health Information Department played a key role in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Audrey; Jun, Cheng Li

    2008-07-01

    Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Hangzhou, China spent five years preparing for a Joint Commission International accreditation survey. In March 2007 it became the first public hospital on the Chinese mainland to attain international accreditation. The Health Information Department, managed according to Western standards, played an integral role in preparing the hospital for the survey.

  11. Change management in the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, L

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the management of change in a high profile public service with more than its fair share of political influences. Demonstrates the scale of change possible, given a clear strategy and a strong managerial commitment. Argues that this leads to high productivity, quality and value for money, with a strong element of organizational loyalty and ownership of the end product.

  12. Under scrutiny. As public anxiety grows over health care horror stories, consumers are starting to fight back. Guess who's winning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchik, G S

    1996-05-01

    "We're getting dozens of calls every day from people who are frustrated and fed up," says one health care consumer rights advocate. The scenario is familiar: first come the horror stories, then trailblazing, media-engaging lawsuits, and finally the public learning curve starts to accelerate. Then the heat gets turned up on the government to act. That's where we're at right now. Where will we be tomorrow?

  13. A Win-Win Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Beth Parkinson

    2013-01-01

    This brief article reports on a collaborative book-borrowing policy between The Brendlinger Library of Montgomery County Community College and the Wissahickon Valley Public Library (WVPL), both located in Blue Bell, PA.  Beginning in January 2013, WVPL will donate books periodically to the Brendlinger Library in support of the students enrolled in Reading classes.  Circulation statistics will be reported to WVPL, and the books will be returned to WVPL for sale in the WVPL Friends of the Libra...

  14. A study on the role of women experts to enhance public confidence on nuclear and to establish cooperation and collaboration strategies with the Women In Nuclear (WIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, K. R.; Kim, D. Y. and others

    2002-12-15

    This study conducted 'R and D Planning' for the projects which will be partially terminated at 2004. In each field, there are three projects in reactor and nuclear fuel field, seven in nuclear safety field and two projects in RI production and radiation application field. The followings are the detailed contents for each project. Research of present states of WIN web site world-widely, Introduction of activity of women in nuclear working in our country through web site of WIN-Global, Acquisition of information materials through active participation in WIN-Global association(10th WIN-Global Annual Meeting), Construction of database of women in nuclear and technical exchange infra in nation.

  15. Mechanisms of Change in Public Management Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Soininen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article draws conclusions from four separate case evaluations from different development programs in Finland and aims to discuss the role of welfare state values in new public management. The study develops a comprehensive picture of the change in public management since 2000. The synthesis of the four case studies follows the critical realism tradition. This article shows that cooperation forms the key mechanism in all public administration projects and in any changes to their structure. The new structure is the postmodern service production sector that still faces many challenges with regard to the traditional welfare state values. One of these is the conflict between the deep-seated moral imperatives of the old welfare state and the goal-attainment priorities of the new public management. While evaluation research has become one of the operations in public administration that fulfills the control function, the value bases of society, management, and evaluations should be balanced together. Also the objectives of public management and evaluations should be more clearly defined in relation to values other than efficiency. An applied science, like evaluation, needs basic social research to formulate, recognize, and conceptualize the new public management structure. Furthermore, there is an urgent requirement to address those values that underpin society as a whole.

  16. Customers and markets. International components for win-win relations; Kunden und Maerkte. Internationale Bausteine fuer Win-Win-Relationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, F.

    1998-09-01

    In deregulated energy markets, power supply companies change from commodity suppliers to service providers. The core of the process of change is a change in attitude, from producer to customer-oriented marketer; the means applied in the process are a diversified and integrated marketing strategy, targeting both external and internal conditions, which fits into a comprehensive concept of an integrated communications strategy. An international conference held in mid-June in Lisbon, organised by the associations Unipede and EURELECTRIC as well as the International Energy Agency (IEA), supplied a wealth of information on this topical issue spanning a broad range of interesting aspects, as eg. approaches to identify customer needs and correspondingly develop new services, or the quest for new business segments and possibilities of finding win-win relations for both customers and power producers. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Auf liberalisierten Strommaerkten entwickeln sich die Energieversorger zu Dienstleistern. Kern des Wandels ist der Weg von der Produktions- zur Kundenorientierung, Mittel eine differenzierte und integrierte Marketingstrategie, die nach aussen wie nach innen gerichtet ist und in ein umfassendes Konzept einer integrierten Kommunikationsstrategie eingepasst ist. Eine von den Verbaenden Unipede und EURELECTRIC sowie der Internationalen Energie-Agentur (IEA) Mitte Juni in Lissabon ausgerichtete internationale Konferenz lieferte hierzu eine Fuelle an Material. Es wurde thematisch ein weiter Bogen gespannt. Von der Ermittlung unterschiedlicher Kundenbeduerfnisse ueber Methoden, sich danach auszurichten sowie speziell entwickelte Marketingstrategien, bis hin zu neuen Betaetigungsfeldern wurde nach Moeglichkeiten gesucht, Win-Win-Relationen fuer Kunden und EVU darzustellen. (orig.)

  17. Engaging the public on climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Alice

    2016-03-01

    As a Jefferson Science Fellow from August 2014-August 2015, Alice Bean worked with the Office of Religion and Global Affairs at the U.S. Department of State on climate change and environmental issues. The Office of Religion and Global Affairs works to implement the National Strategy on Religious Leader and Faith Community Engagement which includes building partnerships on environmental issues. With the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties meeting 21 in December, 2015 in Paris, there were and continue to be great opportunities for physicists to interact with policy makers and the general public. As an experimental particle physicist, much was learned about climate change science, how the public views scientists, how science can influence policy, but most especially how to communicate about science.

  18. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W; Safford, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  19. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hamilton

    Full Text Available A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40% concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15% say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  20. Changing the public perception of physiotherapeutic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, L

    1994-01-01

    Market research was undertaken to establish the public perception of physiotherapy. Using this market research strategic recommendations for the future marketing of physiotherapy are made within the professional context. Marketing will be used to contribute to changing the public perception of physiotherapy. The market research involved a qualitative study of five focus groups of the general public and one focus group of physiotherapists. The responses from the focus groups were used to construct an appropriate questionnaire for the qualitative study. A random sample of 510 members of the general public were then surveyed. The market research results yielded the following key features: The best known conditions treated by physiotherapists are musculoskeletal. The least known are women and children. Client-centered care is sought. The importance of location gives potential for physiotherapists to capitalise on tailoring to clients in their area. Doctors are important for referral and communication about physiotherapy. Marketing should be used to inform doctors of what physiotherapy has to offer. A marketing orientation has begun within physiotherapy; however, it must 'fit' the culture initially to be successful. A marketing strategy should be developed on national, state and individual levels based on a strategic intent. At the state level, strategies must be responsive to area or regional needs. Marketing needs to target identified market segments such as workers compensation organisations. Individual physiotherapists must promote themselves within their region, particularly to doctors and clients with the use of relationship marketing. Informal presentations to community groups and school students about physiotherapy will increase their profile.

  1. Changing public perceptions of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    . In esperiment 1, attitude change experiments were conducted with consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK (N=1650). Different information strategies were tested against a control group for their ability to change consumers' attitudes and their influence on product choice. Results indicate...... that no attitude change occured. Instead, all strategies seemed to bolster pre-existing attitudes, thereby significantly decreasing consumers' preferences for GM products. The effect did not occur when consumers only saw a labeled product example. In experiment 2, we tested the effects of direct experience......Previous research concerning public perception of GM foods indicates that European consumers hold firm negative attitudes to GM foods. These attitudes, however, are not based on risk-benefit evaluations of particular products. Rather, they seem to be a function of general sociopolitical attitudes...

  2. Enhancing the Level of Opening up to Achieve Mutual Benefit and Win-win Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Feixiang

    2015-01-01

    From upholding opening up strategy of mutual benefit and win-win results to developing top-level design of higher level open economy,then further to putting forward targets of actively participating in global economic governance and supplying public products and enhancing voice in institutional building,and still further to opening the developing concepts and planning,the CPC Central Committee has commanded the deep insights for

  3. Shaping the Public Dialogue on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    In order to broaden the public dialogue about climate change, climate scientists need to leverage the potential of informal science education and recent advances in social and cognitive science. In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, etc.) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Extensive research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change and trust these institutions as reliable sources. Given that we spend less than 5% of our lifetime in a classroom, and only a fraction of that is focused on science, informal science venues will continue to play a critical role in shaping public understanding of environmental issues in the years ahead. Public understanding of climate change continues to lag far behind the scientific consensus not merely because the public lacks information, but because there is in fact too much complex and contradictory information available. Fortunately, we can now (1) build on careful empirical cognitive and social science research to understand what people already value, believe, and understand; and then (2) design and test strategies for translating complex science so that people can examine evidence, make well-informed inferences, and embrace science-based solutions. The New England Aquarium is leading a national effort to enable informal science education institutions to effectively communicate the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine ecosystems. This NSF-funded partnership, the National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), involves the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. We believe that skilled interpreters can serve as "communication strategists" by

  4. Quantifying the changing role of past publications

    CERN Document Server

    Orosz, Katalin; Pollner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our current societies increasingly rely on electronic repositories of collective knowledge. An archetype of these databases is the Web of Science (WoS) that stores scientific publications. In contrast to several other forms of knowledge -- e.g., Wikipedia articles -- a scientific paper does not change after its "birth". Nonetheless, from the moment a paper is published it exists within the evolving web of other papers, thus, its actual meaning to the reader changes. To track how scientific ideas (represented by groups of scientific papers) appear and evolve, we apply a novel combination of algorithms explicitly allowing for papers to change their groups. We (i) identify the overlapping clusters of the undirected yearly co-citation networks of the WoS (1975-2008) and (ii) match these yearly clusters (groups) to form group timelines. After visualizing the longest lived groups of the entire data set we assign topic labels to the groups. We find that in the entire Web of Science multidisciplinarity is clearly ove...

  5. Social acceptability of climate change policies; will energy efficiency always fail to win its case through the consultation process? Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pett, Jacky [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Which segments of society 'win' as a result of climate change policies? Actors generally support the principle of reduced emissions through decarbonising fuels, and many are convinced that reducing overall energy consumption is an essential strategy to prevent further damaging climate change. However, proposed strategies for ensuring that sufficient action is taken to reduce emissions suffer from complexity, uncertainty and dissent, especially from vested interests. The policy maker has to choose between many options, and many conflicting consultation responses, to select the most politically feasible and socially acceptable pathway. An FP6 funded project into Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for climate change is developing an innovative tool to support policy choice based on a mix of methods, using case studies to test the outputs. Resources include stakeholder deliberation on criteria necessary to evaluate pathway options. The first stage maps energy actors' perspectives of climate change, identifying key issues for socially acceptable policies for the 2012 - 2050 period that would either limit climate change to only 2 deg C increase, or provide a 'soft landing' to a world 5 degrees above present.This paper describes this mapping exercise and indicates the issues of most debate, on which rest the criteria for social acceptability. It describes how deliberative methods can involve stakeholders more effectively in policy formation, contrasts the roles of deliberation and consultation, and discusses the engagement of powerful vested interests with this approach. While there are considerable overlaps in perspectives of different actors, leading to specific points of contention, importantly, decisions on selection and engagement of stakeholders with the process become critical if the criteria for policy decisions are to be accepted by society.

  6. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  7. The Importance of Teaching a Win-Win Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Alan J.

    Most people are raised in a traditional environment which teaches that someone-winning implies that someone-loses. However, psychology and the examples provided in the Watergate scandal demonstrate that such a philosophy is neither productive nor beneficial. A "win-win" philosophy of cooperation, not competition, is needed for…

  8. University talents committed to public sports service--A Win-win strategy of marriage of college sports and community sports%高校人才致力于公共体育服务——高校体育与社区体育联姻的双赢策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐坤

    2012-01-01

      本文以高校体育和社区体育的联姻为背景,提出了双赢实施办法,对应用效果进行预期的分析,得出以下结论:高校体育和社区体育的联姻可以一举两得。其一得,可以有效缓解社区体育公共体育服务力量不足的问题,实现社区体育的科学、健康、良性的可持续发展;其二得,培养、提高学生的社会实践能力,为学生的实习、就业奠定坚实的基础。%  This paper takes the university sport and community sport marriage as the background, puts forward the measures for the implementation of a win-win situation, and analyzes the expected application effects, and then draw the following conclusion:college sports and community sports alliance can shoot two hawks with one arrow. On the one hand, it can effectively alleviate power shortage problem of the public sports service of community sports, and it also can promote scientific, healthy, benign, sustainable development of community sports;on the other hand, it can improve students' ability of social practice, lay a solid foundation of field trip and employment of them .

  9. What Matters Now How to Win in a World of Relentless Change, Ferocious Competition, and Unstoppable Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamel, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This is not a book about one thing. It's not a 250-page dissertation on leadership, teams or motivation. Instead, it's an agenda for building organizations that can flourish in a world of diminished hopes, relentless change and ferocious competition. This is not a book about doing better. It's not a manual for people who want to tinker at the margins. Instead, it's an impassioned plea to reinvent management as we know it-to rethink the fundamental assumptions we have about capitalism, organizational life, and the meaning of work. Leaders today confront a world where the unprecedented is the no

  10. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  11. Indemnification: Win/lose or win/win

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, G.M.

    1996-08-01

    Some of you may be wondering how an oil company employee came to be speaking on indemnity. I`ve been wondering that myself and have even considered the possibility that the conference thought it might be interesting to have a presentation in which the sacrificial lamb is led to the slaughter. I hope that`s not the case. I am not speaking today as a representative of Conoco or as a spokesperson for the operator perspective. I do not intend to tell you what position to take with respect to contractual indemnification. My purpose is to share with you some of my thoughts on indemnification and provide you with some perspective in which to consider your own objectives in structuring indemnities and evaluate whether your current positions meet those objectives. What is contractual indemnification? To some, it is a vehicle by which to transfer all the risk inherent in their operations to another party. Others view it as a means of protecting a deductible or self-insured retention. Some think of it as a bloodbath. There are a few who believe that it is a game in which the only way to win is to ensure the other party loses. The states of Texas and Louisiana believe contractual indemnities are {open_quotes}inequities foisted on certain contractors.{close_quotes} I would like to propose that indemnity can be nothing more than an economic transaction which attempts to allocate risk in a cost effective manner.

  12. How to win friends and influence people

    CERN Document Server

    Carnegie, Dale

    2010-01-01

    For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!

  13. IMPLICATIONS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Laurentiu Barcan Ph. D Student

    2010-01-01

    Governments must face a growing complexity and a greater acute needs more specialized staff to manage and solve new problems. Classical Administration, governed by a set of specific legislation is not adequate for this purpose. But as we shall see, is not redundant, obsolete. The new public management system that focuses on services provided to citizens and requires coherent coexistence and interaction of three areas: public administration, business sector and civil society.

  14. Winning strategies in congested traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Jarai-Szabo, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    One-directional traffic on two-lanes is modeled in the framework of a spring-block type model. A fraction $q$ of the cars are allowed to change lanes, following simple dynamical rules, while the other cars keep their initial lane. The advance of cars, starting from equivalent positions and following the two driving strategies is studied and compared. As a function of the parameter $q$ the winning probability and the average gain in the advancement for the lane-changing strategy is computed. An interesting phase-transition like behavior is revealed and conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions when the lane changing strategy is the better option for the drivers.

  15. After the reform : Change in Dutch public and private organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto Morales, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.; Heyse, L.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of new public management (NPM) expect public organizations to become more flexible and adaptive after administrative reforms, effectively showing convergence with patterns of organizational change in the private sector. This "convergence argument" is tested with a sample of 61 public and

  16. 2014 WIN3 Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Ling; Pries, Rachel; Stange, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the interplay between deep theory and intricate computation, this volume is a compilation of research and survey papers in number theory, written by members of the Women In Numbers (WIN) network, principally by the collaborative research groups formed at Women In Numbers 3, a conference at the Banff International Research Station in Banff, Alberta, on April 21-25, 2014. The papers span a wide range of research areas: arithmetic geometry; analytic number theory; algebraic number theory; and applications to coding and cryptography. The WIN conference series began in 2008, with the aim of strengthening the research careers of female number theorists. The series introduced a novel research-mentorship model: women at all career stages, from graduate students to senior members of the community, joined forces to work in focused research groups on cutting-edge projects designed and led by experienced researchers. The goals for Women In Numbers 3 were to establish ambitious new collaborations between women i...

  17. SOCIAL CHANGE, EMANCIPATORY EDUCATION AND PUBLIC SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Luiz Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The argument developed in this work seeks to reinforce the idea that, in the context of specific relations in capitalist society, the concept of social class acquires a meaning inherently articulated to substantial equality, which, in turn, is established as a principle for the construction of cultural plurality.The democratization of public school education is linked to the appropriation of knowledge historically denied to the working class. Overthrowing the mechanisms of subordination becomes a central action to a process that is guided by the high value attributed to work and to human emancipation. This is the condition in which public schools can contribute to a project of social transformation.

  18. Vestas- Will To Win

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2005 the new CEO of Vestas, Ditlev Engel introduces the corporate strategy Will to Win and with that Vestas experiences a streamlining of the organization. The internal environment is optimized and a focus towards reduction of variable costs through implementation of performance systems and reassignments of the company’s production plant is made. The overall financial position of the company is improved by the new incentives and by end 2008 Vestas has mamaged to reach a EBIT-ma...

  19. Public health adaptation to climate change in OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D.; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will—or should—include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine ho

  20. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  1. Using Win-Win Strategies to Implement Health in All Policies: A Cross-Case Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Molnar

    Full Text Available In spite of increasing research into intersections of public policy and health, little evidence shows how policy processes impact the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP initiatives. Our research sought to understand how and why strategies for engaging partners from diverse policy sectors in the implementation of HiAP succeed or fail in order to uncover the underlying social mechanisms contributing to sustainable implementation of HiAP.In this explanatory multiple case study, we analyzed grey and peer-review literature and key informant interviews to identify mechanisms leading to implementation successes and failures in relation to different strategies for engagement across three case studies (Sweden, Quebec and South Australia, after accounting for the role of different contextual conditions.Our results yielded no support for the use of awareness-raising or directive strategies as standalone approaches for engaging partners to implement HiAP. However, we found strong evidence that mechanisms related to "win-win" strategies facilitated implementation by increasing perceived acceptability (or buy-in and feasibility of HiAP implementation across sectors. Win-win strategies were facilitated by mechanisms related to several activities, including: the development of a shared language to facilitate communication between actors from different sectors; integrating health into other policy agendas (eg., sustainability and use of dual outcomes to appeal to the interests of diverse policy sectors; use of scientific evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of HiAP; and using health impact assessment to make policy coordination for public health outcomes more feasible and to give credibility to policies being developed by diverse policy sectors.Our findings enrich theoretical understanding in an under-unexplored area of intersectoral action. They also provide policy makers with examples of HiAP across wealthy welfare regimes, and improve

  2. Change Management in public sector: A case study of gas distribution firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shirvani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers different approaches for establishment of change management in governmental agencies. The proposed model of this paper uses Kotter’s 8-step method in an empirical investigation for a gas distribution firm located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The results of this study reveal that the organization was successful to create sense of urgency, form a powerful coalition, create a vision for change, communicate the vision, create short-term wins and build on the change. However, the organization was not successful on removing obstacles and changes in corporate culture. In addition, the sixth step, create short -term wins, receives the highest rate of success while removing the obstacles maintains the minimum rate of success. Finally, the survey demonstrates that gender and educational background do not have any impact on change management but age, job experience as well as job position influences change management, significantly.

  3. Win Market by Brand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhende

    2002-01-01

    Brand is symbol of product quality and strength of enterprise. As a typical culture in market economy, it has great influences in everyday life. Famous brands attract purchasing, which prospers enterprise. After China' s entry to WTO, Chinese economy has turned into a new page.As the world manufacturing base, China is to win international market with its own brands. Chunsheng Refractory Ltd., which specialized in quality silica bricks, has grown in size and strength. And our experiences proved how important the brand is for an enterprise.

  4. The Win-Win of Adult Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Adult degree programs have been seen as a win-win solution for private colleges and adult learners, but their innovative and often-entrepreneurial postures are not a natural fit with governance structures in more traditional institutions. Through narrative and illustrative vignettes, this chapter presents an overview of efforts employed by some…

  5. Win-win Imageries in a Soap Bubble World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the imagery and notions of personhood underlying the willingness to undertake extreme work among creative knowledge workers. The core argument is that extreme work is informed by pervasive win-win fantasies which can be recognized in a number of current organizational trends...

  6. Climate Change, Wildland Fires and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is contributing to an increase in the severity of wildland fires. The annual acreage burned in the U.S. has risen steadily since 1985, and the fire season has lengthened. Wildland fires impair air quality by producing massive quantities of particulate air polluta...

  7. Public understanding of climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U; Stern, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our review supports a constructivist account of human judgment. Public understanding is affected by the inherent difficulty of understanding climate change, the mismatch between people's usual modes of understanding and the task, and, particularly in the United States, a continuing societal struggle to shape the frames and mental models people use to understand the phenomena. We conclude by discussing ways in which psychology can help to improve public understanding of climate change and link a better understanding to action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  9. The changing nature of urban public places in Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashrur Rahman Mishu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, public places have been asserted as one of the key components of urban life for their physical, social, political, symbolic and environmental roles. However, the nature and quality of public places in recent years have raised the question how far these places remain ‘public’ in true sense. The study systematically explores how the public places of Dhaka have transformed throughout the history in different time periods. It attempts to assess the ‘publicness’ of the existing public places focusing on the changing nature of these places and the tensions arise from different perspectives. The research is descriptive and employs a case study approach. Osmany Uddan, a park situated in the prime location in the city center and the Hatirjheel, a recently developed lakeside area, have been considered as two cases. The findings from the case studies reveal that although these places are public considering the ownership, their quality and characteristics as public place are diminishing day by day. Limited physical and social accessibility have narrowed the group of users who can use the public place for a variety of purposes. Another major phenomenon which can be attributed to the changing nature of public place is the growing private interest. In this backdrop, it needs planning and design considerations to make public place more inclusive to diverse groups of people as such these places can perform multiple functions in balance.

  10. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  11. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Braks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  12. Research Solutions for a Win-Win-Win

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Barney

    2004-01-01

    Global fish production, consumption trends, and the trade in seafood products are dominated by the developing world, particularly Asia. The importance of fish to the poor as an affordable and readily available staple food and as a source of livelihood opportunities is rarely well documented and all too often under-weighted in the development decisionmaking process. The rapid pace of change in Asia renders the poor particularly vulnerable under such circumstances The world’s seas now appear to...

  13. Country Report WIN Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shin [Atomic Energy Council, 6F, No 80, Sec 1, Cheng-Gong Road, Yonghe City, 23452 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    assessment for Chinshan NPP, nuclear power up-rate for existing NPPs, NPP license renewal related studies, development of D and D technology, development of fuel cells and solar and wind power generation systems, and development and commercialization of radiopharmaceuticals. Among major nuclear regulatory activities during the past year include: establishment of a nuclear knowledge management web site, completion of review for power up-rate for Kuosheng NPP, oversight of the installation of automatic scram systems at NPPs during strong earthquakes, advancement of the electronically oriented radiation protection control operations, strengthening of safety controls of high-risk radiation sources, development of a mammography quality control program, and review and conditional approval of the preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) of the construction license application for the spent nuclear fuel dry storage facility at the Chinshan NPP. C - WIN Taiwan: Founded in 1994, WIN Taiwan now has 110 national members and 33 global members. 2007-2008 Activities and Achievements: 15. WIN Global Annual Meeting held (21-27 April 2007, Bali, Indonesia); Science Excursions at TPC's Northern Visitors Center and at radwaste volume reduction center (12 July 2007); WIN-Taiwan and ANS Taiwan Joint Annual Meeting at the National Tsing Hua University's newly re-established Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science (9 August 2007); workshop on 'understanding radiation and radioactive waste' (28 September 2007), Fall Seminar (7 December 2007), Steering and Advisory Committee Meetings (1 June and 1 November 2006, 11 January and 18 March, 2008)

  14. Winning the interviewing game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M F

    2000-01-01

    Those who don't "interview well" are not likely to receive the job offer, despite their qualifications. A job interview is actually a fierce competitive activity that offers only two grades: an A or F. By nature, physicians are competitive; they like to win. Infrequent interviewees are prone to making easily corrected mistakes, such as showing no enthusiasm or having poor eye contact. The key for interviewing success is preparation--doing research, developing a personal statement, and role-playing practice interviews. View the interview as a sales call whose bottom-line goal is to achieve an offer, or at least to let you leave with the option to return for future discussions.

  15. Introducing a Technological Change in a Public School Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. E.

    A segment of a longitudinal study of the changing management philosophy of a public school organization involves the introduction of a new technology--the use of an integrated information system--in an environment that was to have been prepared for change. The administrators and staff of the organization had participated in a feasibility study…

  16. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D.; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will—or should—include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation—cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning—and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning. PMID:27618074

  17. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D

    2016-09-07

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will-or should-include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation-cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning-and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning.

  18. Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. Continuity and change in Mexico's Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Uribe Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform process within the Mexican health system undertaken since the eighties that led to an increasing privatization of health services. It argues that such process have been led by a small group of techno-bureaucratic actors that have changed institutional rules according to their interests without considering the interests of local governments, public services providers and public health services users.

  20. Does the weather influence public opinion about climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; McDaniel, J.

    2010-12-01

    Public opinion in North America about the science of anthropogenic climate change and the motivation for policy action has been variable over the past twenty years. The trends in public opinion over time have been attributed the general lack of pressing public concern about climate change to a range of political, economic and psychological factors. One driving force behind the variability in polling data from year to year may be the weather itself. The difference between what we “expect” - the climate - and what we “get” - the weather - can be a major source of confusion and obfuscation in the public discourse about climate change. For example, reaction to moderate global temperatures in 2007 and 2008 may have helped prompt the spread of a “global cooling” meme in the public and the news media. At the same time, a decrease in the belief in the science of climate change and the need for action has been noted in opinion polls. This study analyzes the relationship between public opinion about climate change and the weather in the U.S. since the mid-1980s using historical polling data from several major organizations (e.g. Gallup, Pew, Harris Interactive, ABC News), historical monthly air temperature (NCDC) and a survey of opinion articles from major U.S. newspapers (Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Houston Chronicle, USA Today). Seasonal and annual monthly temperature anomalies for the northeastern U.S and the continental U.S are compared with available national opinion data for three general categories of questions: i) Is the climate warming?, ii) Is the observed warming due to human activity?, and iii) Are you concerned about climate change? The variability in temperature and public opinion over time is also compared with the variability in the fraction of opinion articles in the newspapers (n ~ 7000) which express general agreement or disagreement with IPCC Summary for Policymakers consensus statements on climate change (“most of

  1. Connecting public administration and change management literature : The effects of policy alienation on resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The main goal of this article is to contribute to change management literature in the public sector. A recent literature review argues that there is a gap in the literature on change management specifically using the public administration perspective. We therefore analyze resist

  2. QIN Dahe wins IMO prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Prof.QIN Dahe,a glaciologist and climatologist from the CAS Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research,has been elected to win the prestigious Prize of the International Meteorology Organization (IMO) in 2008.

  3. Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX): A Public-Private Partnership for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.; Lee, T. J.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, computing and knowledge collaborative that houses satellite, climate and ancillary data where a community of researchers can come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform with access to large supercomputing resources. As a part of broadening the community beyond NASA-funded researchers, NASA through an agreement with Amazon Inc. made available to the public a large collection of Climate and Earth Sciences satellite data. The data, available through the Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX) platform hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud, consists of large amounts of global land surface imaging, vegetation conditions, climate observations and climate projections. In addition to the data, users of OpenNEX platform can also watch lectures from leading experts, learn basic access and use of the available data sets. In order to advance White House initiatives such as Open Data, Big Data and Climate Data and the Climate Action Plan, NASA over the past six months conducted the OpenNEX Challenge. The two-part challenge was designed to engage the public in creating innovative ways to use NASA data and address climate change impacts on economic growth, health and livelihood. Our intention was that the challenges allow citizen scientists to realize the value of NASA data assets and offers NASA new ideas on how to share and use that data. The first "ideation" challenge, closed on July 31st attracted over 450 participants consisting of climate scientists, hobbyists, citizen scientists, IT experts and App developers. Winning ideas from the first challenge will be incorporated into the second "builder" challenge currently targeted to launch mid-August and close by mid-November. The winner(s) will be formally announced at AGU in December of 2014. We will share our experiences and lessons learned over the past year from OpenNEX, a public-private partnership for

  4. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Jaclyn A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%, severe weather (68% and poor air-quality (57%. Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into

  5. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change

  6. Leadership in academic and public libraries a time of change

    CERN Document Server

    Düren, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In a time when libraries have to face constant change, this book provides examples and advises on how to lead when change is needed (for example, when quality management is implemented or when libraries have to merge or to relocate). Engaging with how constant change affects leadership in libraries and how leaders in libraries act in times of change, this book is aimed at practitioners and students of Library and Information Science (LIS) alike, and is based on both theory and expert interviews from leaders in academic and public libraries that are in the midst, or are now coming out of a proc

  7. Climate change impacts: Public policies and perception in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elona Pojani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the main impacts of climate change in Albania. More specifically the paper will try to analyze the public response toward these new challenges. This analysis will be preceded by a brief review of the international literature regarding climate change consequences. In addition, the paper will discuss public perception and awareness toward climate change. This discussion will be based on a survey which has involved a wide range of population. The main results of the survey show that the level of awareness of the study group (which consisted mainly on high educated participants about climate change and its relationship with the development is very low. Therefore more emphasis should be put to information regarding environmental issues, through education system and awareness campaigns.

  8. Public Perception of Climate Change in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odafivwotu Ohwo

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the public perception of climate change in Yenagoa. The sample survey method was adopted, which involved the administration of 360 questionnaires to randomly selected households. The results showed that 43.33% of respondents lack adequate knowledge of climate change. Further interview revealed that 55.3% of the respondents are unaware that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major greenhouse gas, contributing about 55% to global warming. It was revealed that responde...

  9. Changing Governance and Authority Relations in the Public Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Major changes in the governance of higher education and the public sciences have taken place over the past 40 or so years in many OECD countries. These have affected the nature of authority relationships governing research priorities and the evaluation of results. In particular, the increasing exogeneity, formalisation and substantive nature of…

  10. Social Marketing, Stages of Change, and Public Health Smoking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…

  11. Climate change sentiment on Twitter: An unsolicited public opinion poll

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Emily M; Mitchell, Lewis; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news. In this research, we analyze tweets containing the word "climate" collected between September 2008 and July 2014. We determine how collective sentiment varies in response to climate change news, events, and natural disasters. Words uncovered by our analysis suggest that responses to climate change news are predominately from climate change activists rather than climate change deniers, indicating that Twitter is a valuable resource for the spread of climate change awareness.

  12. Public confusion over climate change : the role of the media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotto, L.

    2000-06-01

    The factors which have affected the public's effort to deal with climate change were presented. While the public claims to believe that something should be done about climate change, there is reason to question whether they really understand and accept the measures required to slow the progress of global warming. For example, personal lifestyle choices generally reflect an appreciation of what individuals want to do about global warming, but sales of gas guzzling sport utility vehicles have reached record highs. Governments are doubtful of the depth of public understanding of the climate change issue and the author suggests that it is understandable why they hesitate to to take measures such as imposing green taxes on fossil fuels. It is clear that this would be unpopular. One of the main reasons for a lack of public understanding and commitment is the continuing effort by global warming skeptics to dispute the reality of global warming and its negative impacts. The debate has shifted to a preoccupation with legalistic definitions of proof, a refusal to deal realistically with scientific uncertainty and a failure to address the question of risk. This paper also addressed the issue of how the media is having difficulty in dealing with the complex debate between scientists and skeptics regarding global warming research. It was argued that the media generally lacks an understanding of scientific detail and fails to examine evidence with much rigour.

  13. Win at Work! The Everybody Wins Approach to Conflict Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Proven techniques for resolving workplace conflicts. After years of seeing clients struggling and their businesses suffering with destructive conflicts, Diane Katz developed The Working Circle, a step-by-step process that helps everyone in business resolve conflict in a non-confrontational, creative, collaborative way. Win at Work! provides you with a no-nonsense guide based on real-life examples of people at pivotal points in their careers. Filled with practical wisdom, it reveals how you can move around the roadblocks that, if left unattanded, can stop you in your tracks. Win at Work! also h

  14. Ethics and public perception of climate change: exploring the Christian voices in the US public debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.; Petersen, A.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change raises many questions with strong moral and ethical dimensions that are important to address in climate-policy formation and international negotiations. Particularly in the United States, the public discussion of these dimensions is strongly influenced by religious groups and leaders.

  15. Changing market values? Tensions of contradicting public management discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2016-01-01

    that the discursive tensions between such value-laden practices indicate a changing marketization associated with collaboration and trust, yet also competition. Research limitations/implications To research it becomes critical to advance theoretical and empirical knowledge on the constitutive effects of such complex......The purpose of this paper is to address studies of New Public Governance (NPG) as a post-New Public Management (NPM) tendency. Although NPG is considered a contrast to NPM and its market incentives, it argues that the practices emerging in tensions of NPM and NPG discourses indicate not a clear...... in practice. Drawing on a case study from the Danish daycare sector, it investigates local collaborative governance initiatives that develop new quality-management methods. Findings The study elucidates how NPM and NPG discourses collide in local practices of public sector management within daycare. It shows...

  16. Winning Faces Vary By Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...

  17. The Distribution of Climate Change Public Opinion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenberger, Matto; Howe, Peter; Lachapelle, Erick; Stokes, Leah; Marlon, Jennifer; Gravelle, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    While climate scientists have developed high resolution data sets on the distribution of climate risks, we still lack comparable data on the local distribution of public climate change opinions. This paper provides the first effort to estimate local climate and energy opinion variability outside the United States. Using a multi-level regression and post-stratification (MRP) approach, we estimate opinion in federal electoral districts and provinces. We demonstrate that a majority of the Canadian public consistently believes that climate change is happening. Belief in climate change's causes varies geographically, with more people attributing it to human activity in urban as opposed to rural areas. Most prominently, we find majority support for carbon cap and trade policy in every province and district. By contrast, support for carbon taxation is more heterogeneous. Compared to the distribution of US climate opinions, Canadians believe climate change is happening at higher levels. This new opinion data set will support climate policy analysis and climate policy decision making at national, provincial and local levels.

  18. A Photo Contest: Everybody Wins!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Cathryn

    1996-01-01

    Profiles the winners of a national photography contest for students who are deaf and includes the prize-winning photographs. Information is provided on how to sponsor a photography contest, including choosing the theme, size range, contestants, and timelines for exhibition. Ways to have the photos judged and exhibited are also addressed. (CR)

  19. Do quantum strategies always win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Namit; Benjamin, Colin

    2015-11-01

    In a seminal paper, Meyer (Phys Rev Lett 82:1052, 1999) described the advantages of quantum game theory by looking at the classical penny flip game. A player using a quantum strategy can win against a classical player almost 100 % of the time. Here we make a slight modification to the quantum game, with the two players sharing an entangled state to begin with. We then analyze two different scenarios: First in which quantum player makes unitary transformations to his qubit, while the classical player uses a pure strategy of either flipping or not flipping the state of his qubit. In this case, the quantum player always wins against the classical player. In the second scenario, we have the quantum player making similar unitary transformations, while the classical player makes use of a mixed strategy wherein he either flips or not with some probability " p." We show that in the second scenario, 100 % win record of a quantum player is drastically reduced and for a particular probability " p" the classical player can even win against the quantum player. This is of possible relevance to the field of quantum computation as we show that in this quantum game of preserving versus destroying entanglement a particular classical algorithm can beat the quantum algorithm.

  20. Italian protesters win concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  1. Trusting in the change of New Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit

    2016-01-01

    public management (NPM) trusting has changed based on concepts of making actors “accountable” and processes “transparent” through management models based on documentation and evaluation. These management models emphasize detailed process interventions and regulation. Service delivering became......The purpose of this chapter is to examine how trust becomes reconstructed and reconfigured while a new regime of public management seems incrementally to emerge. Through decades, trusting was based upon judgments made by subject matter experts rooted in professions. From that point, due to new...... on trusting rooted in partnerships across professional disciplines and across organizational silos. Also engagement of the citizens (users) and the civil society seems to be part of the new regime. Management models of a higher order e.g. impact management instead of process management are introduced allowing...

  2. Climate Change Sentiment on Twitter: An Unsolicited Public Opinion Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Emily M; Reagan, Andrew J; Mitchell, Lewis; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news. In this research, we analyze tweets containing the word "climate" collected between September 2008 and July 2014. Through use of a previously developed sentiment measurement tool called the Hedonometer, we determine how collective sentiment varies in response to climate change news, events, and natural disasters. We find that natural disasters, climate bills, and oil-drilling can contribute to a decrease in happiness while climate rallies, a book release, and a green ideas contest can contribute to an increase in happiness. Words uncovered by our analysis suggest that responses to climate change news are predominately from climate change activists rather than climate change deniers, indicating that Twitter is a valuable resource for the spread of climate change awareness.

  3. Climate Change Sentiment on Twitter: An Unsolicited Public Opinion Poll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Cody

    Full Text Available The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news. In this research, we analyze tweets containing the word "climate" collected between September 2008 and July 2014. Through use of a previously developed sentiment measurement tool called the Hedonometer, we determine how collective sentiment varies in response to climate change news, events, and natural disasters. We find that natural disasters, climate bills, and oil-drilling can contribute to a decrease in happiness while climate rallies, a book release, and a green ideas contest can contribute to an increase in happiness. Words uncovered by our analysis suggest that responses to climate change news are predominately from climate change activists rather than climate change deniers, indicating that Twitter is a valuable resource for the spread of climate change awareness.

  4. Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; Kovats, R S; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Corvalan, C

    2006-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere arising from the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change may affect health through a range of pathways, for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, reduction in cold related deaths, increased floods and droughts, changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. The overall balance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations in low-income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Europe shows that high-income countries may also be adversely affected. Adaptation to climate change requires public health strategies and improved surveillance. Mitigation of climate change by reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing a number of uses of the renewable energy technologies should improve health in the near-term by reducing exposure to air pollution.

  5. Chang Sei Kim's Activities on Public Health in Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Yunjae

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After graduating from Severance Medical College in 1916, Chang Sei Kim went to Shanghai to work as a missionary in a adventist hospital. The establishment of the Korean Provisional Government led him to participate in the independence movement. Educating nurses to assist the forthcoming war for independence, he seemed to realize the fact that the health of Koreans would be a key factor for achieving independence. He left for the U.S. to conduct comprehensive research on medicine. Chang Sei Kim was the first Korean to receive a Ph. D. degree of Public Health, graduating from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1925. He then gained an opportunity to work for Korea as a professor at Severance Medical College. His objective was the 'Reconstruction of the Korean People In Terms of Physical Constitution.' He pointed out that Koreans' weak state of health was a major reason for Korea's colonization. To gain independence, he emphasized that the Korean people should receive education on public health in order to improve the primitive conditions of sanitation. There is little doubt that Chang Sei Kim's ideas developed Heungsadan's views on medicine in terms of its stress on cultivation of ability, especially considering the fact that he was a member of the organization. As a member of the colonized who could not participate in the developing official policy, Chang Sei Kim was not able to implement his ideas fully, because an individual or a private organization could not carry out policy on public health as large a scale as the government did. Never giving up his hopes for Korean independence, he rejected requests to assume official posts in the Government-General. That was why he was particularly interested in the Self-Governing Movement in 1920s Korea. If the movement had attained its goal, he might have worked for the enhancement of sanitary environment as a director of Sanitary Department. His application for funding to establish

  6. Stereotypes and Educators: How Can We Change the Public's Perception of Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses what the public wants from educators in public schools, re-evaluates the stereotype of educators, proposes improvement of communication, and recommends a media-blitz to change the public's perception of educators. (JK)

  7. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations. Learning that they won, the team was enthusiastic: "We are very pleased to hear this fantastic news and are looking forward to the trip!" Another winner was Marta Kotarba, with her teacher Grzegorz Sęk, from the school IV Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Tadeusza Kościuszki, Poland. Her prize is a trip to the Hispano-German Astronomical Observatory of Calar Alto in Almeria, Spain, kindly donated by the Spanish Council for Scientific Research. Marta's project "Galaxy Zoo and I" tells how she joined the website "Galaxy Zoo" to study galaxies and help astronomical researchers understand the structure of the Universe. Galaxy Zoo volunteers classify galaxies into different types, such as spiral or elliptical - a task much more easily done by humans than computers. Marta explains that the project "is like an adventure to me. Galaxy Zoo gives me abilities to enlarge my knowledge about the Universe and to gain new skills." Her winning entry also shows how anyone can get involved in the world of real astronomical research, simply by using the Internet. A third winner, of a trip to Königsleiten Observatory in Austria, is Andreia Nascimento with her teacher Leonor Cabral, from Escola Secundária da Cidadela in Portugal. Her project, on "Hunting for Open Star Clusters" near young stars, used data from the robotic Faulkes Telescope in Hawaii, which is used for research-based science education. "Catch a Star" also includes an artwork competition, for which students created artwork with an astronomical theme. This competition, through which students can get involved with astronomy even outside of science classes, has become increasingly popular, with over one thousand entries this year from around the world. Not only were prizes awarded by public votes in a web gallery, but special prizes were awarded by Garry Harwood, a Fellow and life member of the International Association of Astronomy Artists. Harwood said: "It

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Gould; Linda Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.50B-1 - Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees. 1.50B-1 Section 1.50B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50B-1 Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees. (a)...

  10. Argumentation Key to Communicating Climate Change to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Argumentation plays an important role in how we communicate climate change science to the public and is a key component integrated throughout the Next Generation Science Standards. A scientific argument can be described as a disagreement between explanations with data being used to justify each position. Argumentation is social process where two or more individuals construct and critique arguments (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Nussbaum, 1997). Sampson, Grooms, and Walker's (2011) developed a framework for understanding the components of a scientific argument. The three components start with a claim (a conjecture, conclusion, explanation, or an answer to a research question). This claim must fit the evidence (observations that show trends over time, relationships between variables or difference between groups). The evidence must be justified with reasoning (explains how the evidence supports the explanation and whey it should count as support). In a scientific argument, or debate, the controversy focuses on how data were collected, what data can or should be included, and what inferences can be made based on a set of evidence. Toulmin's model (1969) also includes rebutting or presenting an alternative explanation supported by counter evidence and reasoning of why the alternative is not the appropriate explanation for the question of the problem. The process of scientific argumentation should involve the construction and critique of scientific arguments, one that involves the consideration of alternative hypotheses (Lawson, 2003). Scientific literacy depends as much on the ability to refute and recognize poor scientific arguments as much as it does on the ability to present an effective argument based on good scientific data (Osborne, 2010). Argument is, therefore, a core feature of science. When students learn to construct a sound scientific argument, they demonstrate critical thinking and a mastery of the science being taught. To present a convincing argument in support of

  11. AGU Journals Among Most Cited Publications in Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jon

    2010-03-01

    Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) and Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (JGR-D) both ranked among the top 10 of the most highly cited research publications on climate change over the past decade in a recent analysis by sciencewatch.com, an Internet tool published by the Thomson Reuters Web of Science® that tracks trends and performances in basic research. Although Nature and Science—the multidisciplinary heavyweights—led the field, GRL ranked fifth and JGR-D ranked sixth. The study was conducted by searching the Web of Science® database for terms such as “global warming,” “climate change,” “human impact,” and other key phrases in journal articles published and cited between 1999 and the spring of 2009. The analysis produced over 28,000 papers, from which sciencewatch.com identified the most cited institutions, authors, and journals. To see the analysis in full, visit http://sciencewatch.com/ana/fea/09novdecFea/.

  12. Climate change in Brazil: public policies, political agenda and media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaide Lombardo, Magda; Costa Freitas, Ruimar (Univ. Estadual Paulista, Univ. de Sao Paulo Bela Vista, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    2010-07-15

    The climate change and sustainable development issue, especially in the context of energy production, have been on the current national policy rhetoric, reflecting the focus of the issue on the world scenario. The Brazilian Agroenergy Plan (2006-2011), considered as an strategic action of the federal government, is an attempt to organize a propose for Research, Development, Innovation and Technology Transfer, aiming to grant sustainability, competitiveness and greater equity between the agroenergy chain agents, starting with the reality analysis and future perspectives for the world energetic matrix. In this context, this research seeks to analyze the proposals of the State of Sao Paulo to the laws implementations that allows the goal accomplishment of 20% reduction on the greenhouse effect emissions until 2020 (base 2005), through action to the deforestation control, creation of an adaptation fund, establishment of a sustainable transportation system, mapping the vulnerabilities of the territory and financial mechanisms to the development of a low carbon economy. From the perspective of the national media coverage agenda, that has extensively approached the climate changes theme, this research collaborates to the analysis of sustainable projects inside the Brazilian perspective and context. This research will emphasize the relation between media, political speech and public policies

  13. Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying: A Win-Win Spectrum Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective spectrum sharing architecture is proposed to enable the legacy noncognitive secondary system to coexist with the primary system. Specifically, we suggest to install a few intermediate nodes, namely, the cognitive relays, to conduct the spectrum sensing and coordinate the spectrum access. To achieve the goal of win-win between primary and secondary systems, the cognitive relay may act as a cooperator for both of them, and an Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying (OCR scheme is specially devised. In this scheme, the cognitive relay opportunistically switches among three different working modes, that is, Relay for Primary Link (RPL, Relay for Secondary Link (RSL, or Relay for Neither of the Links (RNL, respectively, based on the channel-dependent observation of both systems. In addition, the transmit power for cognitive relay and secondary transmitter in each mode are optimally determined by maximizing the transmission rate of secondary system while keeping or even reducing the outage probability of primary system. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed spectrum sharing scheme.

  14. Public Communication Model for Practical Countermeasure on Climate Change Risk: On the Subject of Establishing Public Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SeongKyung

    2010-09-15

    Risk problems occurred by climate change distinguishes itself from other problems in its nature and influence. It is reasonable for ordinary citizens are unable to realize the climate change problems, and great gap exists between potential disaster and perception of the public as a result. These problems must be solved via democratic procedures and processes. Raising probability concerning governance of climate change risks is possible by balance and harmony of political will, apposite policy, and public supports by participation. This research proposes for establishment of realistic public sphere which is a precondition for countermeasure.

  15. Public meetings: important changes to prepare the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    The summer holidays are over. And like every year around this time the Staff Association comes to meet you in your Departments to inform you about the topics currently being discussed at CERN. We count very much on the exchange of views and opinions between you and us that takes place during these meetings. Once again in 2011 there are a wide range of topics to be discussed. We shall also explain you why we need to see a maximum number of motivated candidates stand at the forthcoming elections for the Staff Council in November 2011. For all these reasons we invite all of you to attend our public meetings. Overview of the topics to be discussed New rules for our health insurance as of 1st January 2012 General aspects (general rules, ceilings, bonus) Replacement of annual deductible by three reimbursement rates Benefit changes (hospitalisation, optics) New benefits (UAT/UAP, refractive surgery, prevention) Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2011 : le...

  16. Public meetings: important changes to prepare the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    The summer holidays are over. And like every year around this time the Staff Association comes to meet you in your Departments to inform you about the topics currently being discussed at CERN. We count very much on the exchange of views and opinions between you and us that takes place during these meetings. Once again in 2011 there are a wide range of topics to be discussed. We shall also explain you why we need to see a maximum number of motivated candidates stand at the forthcoming elections for the Staff Council in November 2011. For all these reasons we invite all of you to attend our public meetings. Overview of the topics to be discussed New rules for our health insurance as of 1st January 2012 General aspects (general rules, ceilings, bonus) Replacement of annual deductible by three reimbursement rates Benefit changes (hospitalisation, optics) New benefits (UAT/UAP, refractive surgery, prevention) Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2011 : l...

  17. Ways to Win at Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Nichols, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip identifies ways to "WIN" at vocabulary learning. Specifically, the approach conveys three morphological strategies in the mnemonic "WIN." These three strategies remind students to find smaller units of meaning within bigger words, look for those units in other words that they know, and notice the context. Each…

  18. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  19. 78 FR 65980 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation... have produced draft Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans (``Implementation Plans'') that... health and the environment. As EPA articulated in its draft Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plan,...

  20. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  1. 76 FR 20366 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring... request for public comments on the Management Operations interim scoring notice. The document....hud.gov/offices/reac/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The proposed management...

  2. Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement : an organisational change perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grandia (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFor the execution of policies, as well as for its own operations, governments procure goods and services, ranging from paper and pencils to fighter planes, cleaning services and public road works. In the European Union public procurement represents 16% of the gross domestic product.

  3. Changing public space. The recent redevelopment of Dutch city squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melik, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Public spaces in Dutch city centres are increasingly subject to facelifts. The car parking that dominated city squares until the 1980s has been removed and replaced by modern street furniture, city stages, and an abundance of sidewalk caf鳮 At the same time, public spaces are more controlled by camer

  4. Changing Market-Values? Tensions of Public Management Discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address studies of New Public Governance (NPG) as a post-New Public Management (NPM) tendency. Although NPG is considered a contrast to NPM and its market incentives, it argues that the practices emerging in tensions of NPM and NPG discourses indicate not a clear...

  5. Changing public attitudes to antibiotic prescribing: can the internet help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Madle

    2004-02-01

    Conclusions Health information websites can play a significant role in influencing public knowledge and attitudes. Further research is needed to investigate how people learn from these interventions and to determine their long-term impact on public attitudes and subsequent behaviour.

  6. Re-thinking barriers to organizational change in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nigel; Saltman, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    Public hospitals are well known to be difficult to reform. This paper provides a comprehensive six-part analytic framework that can help policymakers and managers better shape their organizational and institutional behavior. The paper first describes three separate structural characteristics which, together, inhibit effective problem description and policy design for public hospitals. These three structural constraints are i) the dysfunctional characteristics found in most organizations, ii) the particular dysfunctions of professional health sector organizations, and iii) the additional dysfunctional dimensions of politically managed organizations. While the problems in each of these three dimensions of public hospital organization are well-known, and the first two dimensions clearly affect private as well as publicly run hospitals, insufficient attention has been paid to the combined impact of all three factors in making public hospitals particularly difficult to manage and steer. Further, these three structural dimensions interact in an institutional environment defined by three restrictive context limitations, again two of which also affect private hospitals but all three of which compound the management dilemmas in public hospitals. The first contextual limitation is the inherent complexity of delivering high quality, safe, and affordable modern inpatient care in a hospital setting. The second contextual limitation is a set of specific market failures in public hospitals, which limit the scope of the standard financial incentives and reform measures. The third and last contextual limitation is the unique problem of generalized and localized anxiety, which accompanies the delivery of medical services, and which suffuses decision-making on the part of patients, medical staff, hospital management, and political actors alike. This combination of six institutional characteristics - three structural dimensions and three contextual dimensions - can help explain why

  7. Dynamics of Enterprise Architecture in the Korean Public Sector: Transformational Change vs. Transactional Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kichan Nam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise architecture (EA is one of the most important tools for implementing e-government effectively and delivering high-quality information technology services to citizens. To develop a robust EA research model with key success factors, we apply the theory of organizational change proposed by Burke and Litwin, using the concepts of transformational and transactional change. The analysis is conducted by using South Korea’s EA project launched in 2003. This study classifies EA implementation in the South Korean public sector into three stages and explains the characteristics of each stage from the organizational change perspective. We raise the issue of EA application level compounded by the problem of diverse EA definitions and discuss the difficulties of EA implementation based on the framework of organizational change. In addition, 20 EA experts are surveyed to confirm the findings of this study. Finally, we propose a new research model for future empirical study based on the presented findings. We believe that this study, as an in-depth review of EA implementation from an organizational change perspective, will benefit EA experts from a practical point of view, as well as academics from a research perspective.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-09

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.

  9. Clean energy development is a win-win-win for jobs, economic growth and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learner, H.A. [Environmental Law and Policy Center, IL (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Environmental Law and Policy Center of Illinois has recently released several publications promoting clean energy development to improve environmental quality and public health for the Midwest. This presentation emphasized how the clean energy development plan can create new jobs and stimulate economic growth. For example, the electric power industry is currently relying on 1950's energy technology. Modernizing the electricity industry would be good for both the economy and the environment. Repowering the industry would promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The presentation also compared a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and a clean energy development plan scenario for 2010 and 2020. It was suggested that policy changes may be required to ensure change. In the BAU scenario, electricity demand would increase annually, large additions of natural gas capacity would be used to meet the demand, and coal plants would increase their output. Under the clean energy development plan, electricity demand would flatten out, coal and nuclear plants would be replaced with renewables (mostly wind) or clean, natural gas generation. Under the clean energy development plan NOx would be reduced by 71 per cent, SOx by 56 per cent, mercury by 50 per cent, and carbon dioxide by 51 per cent. The clean energy development plan improves the environment by reducing air and water pollution and improves electricity reliability. 8 tabs., 20 figs.

  10. Public healthcare in Mozambique: strategic issues in the ICT development during managerial changes and public reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, B; Macome, E

    2007-06-01

    It has been predicted that major introduction of information communication technology (ICT) for health care organisations (HCO) over the next 10 years will be used to achieve the universal coverage and improve the quality of health care delivered to people. Which is the best strategy on ICT transfer, adoption and adaptation for the local Mozambican HCO? This paper argues that a sociotechnical approach of ICT development can help policy makers and health managers to address the technology transfer in a better and more appropriate way to their social context and to the public health reforms in progress. The urgency of health care demands (e.g. AIDS epidemic) and the institutional changes implemented by the Government and the local Ministry of Health (MOH), open a dynamic process of re-organisation inside the health institutions in the next years. This process needs to be monitored and initiatives planned, which places pressure on the evolution of health information system (HIS). The increase in the use of ICT can be an ally for health managers. The emergence of the open source software (OSS) and the recent ICT market trends towards networking may also enable local HCO to better face and solve the long process of health care standardisation, which usually prepares and accompanies any introduction of ICT. On the other side, the "big bang" introduction of electronic packages, devices and software applications may be an obstacle framing and anchoring local HCO to external settings, "modern" and universal models. Thus, a uniform step-by-step implementation of hospital-based health information system is desirable.

  11. The transcription factor WIN1/SHN1 regulates Cutin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannangara, Rubini; Branigan, Caroline; Liu, Yan; Penfield, Teresa; Rao, Vijaya; Mouille, Grégory; Höfte, Herman; Pauly, Markus; Riechmann, José Luis; Broun, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The composition and permeability of the cuticle has a large influence on its ability to protect the plant against various forms of biotic and abiotic stress. WAX INDUCER1 (WIN1) and related transcription factors have recently been shown to trigger wax production, enhance drought tolerance, and modulate cuticular permeability when overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that WIN1 influences the composition of cutin, a polyester that forms the backbone of the cuticle. WIN1 overexpression induces compositional changes and an overall increase in cutin production in vegetative and reproductive organs, while its downregulation has the opposite effect. Changes in cutin composition are preceded by the rapid and coordinated induction of several genes known or likely to be involved in cutin biosynthesis. This transcriptional response is followed after a delay by the induction of genes associated with wax biosynthesis, suggesting that the regulation of cutin and wax production by WIN1 is a two-step process. We demonstrate that at least one of the cutin pathway genes, which encodes long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase LACS2, is likely to be directly targeted by WIN1. Overall, our results suggest that WIN1 modulates cuticle permeability in Arabidopsis by regulating genes encoding cutin pathway enzymes.

  12. Public agility and change in a network environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engers, T.; Boer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by c

  13. A Scandinavian Public Transport Model? Reform Changes in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza; Næss, Petter;

    2016-01-01

    the public transport sector is changing, taking public transport governance in various directions. This paper provides an overview of the changes and similarities in public transport governance in Scandinavian countries from the 1970s to 2012, discussing whether it is justifiable to speak of a Scandinavian......Scandinavian public transport, especially aspects of how the Scandinavian countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, and Norway) have created governing structures for a cohesive public transport system, is often cited positively in international research. Scandinavia is often treated as a homogeneous unit...... in public transport research, which sometimes refers to the “Scandinavian model of public transport”. It is not uncommon for conclusions regarding Scandinavian countries to be based on analyses of just one country. Is there actually such a thing as a Scandinavian model of public transport? All around Europe...

  14. Changing Public Perception in Wisconsin: Manufacturing a "Good Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    Careers in manufacturing are high-wage and high-tech. Yet, a future workforce shortage may be on the horizon. It appears a negative public perception--one that brings to mind low wages, assembly-line work and lay-offs--is thwarting young adults from pursuing manufacturing careers across the country. This article describes how the Wisconsin…

  15. Public Agility and Change in a Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Engers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by changes in the law; changes in the organization’s environment often create a need to redesign business processes, reallocate roles and responsibilities, and reorder tasks. Moreover, preparations for change are not limited to the internal processes and systems of these organizations. Propagation of changes to network partners and redesign of network arrangements can be an enormous challenge. In the AGILE project, we develop a design method, distributed service architecture, and supporting tools that enable organizations - administrative and otherwise - to orchestrate their law-based services in a networked environment. This paper explains the Agile approach and describes some of its key principles.

  16. Editorial: Have We Changed the World Yet? (Oh, Just Wait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Leeder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In brief: It’s our birthday! As In the Library with the Lead Pipe turns four, the editors reflect on its evolution into an award-winning publication. We also share our plans to expand Lead Pipe into a nonprofit organization that will further our mission to identify problems, offer constructive solutions, and create positive change in the [...

  17. 78 FR 48185 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Public Meeting Date Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ....L.X.SS.020H0000; HAG13-0257] Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Public Meeting Date Change AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Change in Public Meeting Date. SUMMARY: In... Council (SMAC) will meet as indicated below: DATES: The August 15-16, 2013 SMAC meeting has...

  18. Public apprehension of emerging infectious diseases: are changes afoot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue".

  19. A Win-Win-Win Proposition -- Academia and Industry Working Together for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, J.

    2011-12-01

    geoscience, to include having applied real problem solving via a robust field camp experience. In addition, we look for the maturity and ability to conduct independent research, to integrate broad suites of data, and to work as a team. We look for the ability to communicate results. We do not look for a focus on petroleum. We have many decades of experience in how to best develop that particular discipline quickly, to meet current and future business conditions. There are recurring themes that facilitate successful transition from Academia to a practicing industry geoscientist. These themes include giving students a good grounding in STEM, not just geology; one-on-one mentoring; sharing our passion for the science by sharing our research; and sharing the entire breadth of career opportunities. Similar best practices have been identified to encourage under-represented minority students and women to study STEM. Perhaps this is a suite of habits we should be practicing more broadly. This suite of habits takes extra time, extra effort, and extra money. But if geoscience mentors in Academia, Industry, and professional societies work together, we will be able to create a win for Academia, a win for Industry, and a win for students. (1) Gonzales and Keane, 2011, "Status of the Geoscience Workforce -- 2011," AGI, p. 123.

  20. Fukushima effects in Germany? Changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Dorothee; Wolling, Jens

    2016-10-01

    Based on a literature review on factors that explain media effects and previous findings on media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power, this article examines the effects of Fukushima on media coverage and public opinion in Germany in two studies. The first study uses content analysis data to analyse changes in media coverage, and the second one is based on panel survey data to examine attitude changes on an individual level. The results of both studies show changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power. Furthermore, the second study reveals that individual attitude changes cannot necessarily be explained by the same factors as the distribution of attitudes.

  1. The Study of Destructive Effects of Exposure to WIN 55212-2, an Agonist of Cannabinoid Receptor, during Pregnancy on CNS Function of Rats’ Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shabani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cannabinoid consumption including hashish and WIN55212-2 during pregnancy has destructive affect on the development of fetus and the performance of CNS. Method: WIN treated group received daily 0.5 or 1mg/kg WIN suspended in 1% tween 80 saline (s.c. at a volume of 1 ml/kg from days 5 to 20 of pregnancy. Third, fifth and seventh weeks after birth, the effects of maternal WIN consumption on infants body weight, mortality, histological changes, motor performance and memory function were assessed. Results: Prenatal WIN consumption associated with atrophy of cerebellum cortex in granular and Purkinje cells layers. WIN treatment of pregnant rats produced a significant decrease in the rearing frequency of the offspring, but significantly increased the grooming frequency at 22, 36 and 50 days of age. During the acquisition trials, approach latencies were not significantly different between all groups of rats (50 days old.When the trial was repeated 24 hours and seven days later (retention trial, the avoidance latencies of the WIN-exposed group were significantly shorter than those of control and sham animals. The mortality percent was increased significantly and litter size was decreased significantly in WIN (1mg/kg treated rats compared to the control, sham and WIN (0/5 mg/kg treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to WIN, cannabinoid agonist, induces possibly a long-term alteration on histological, motor performance and learning and memory parameters.

  2. More than a message: framing public health advocacy to change corporate practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Wallack, Lawrence; Woodruff, Katie

    2005-06-01

    Framing battles in public health illustrate the tension in our society between individual freedom and collective responsibility. This article describes how two frames, market justice and social justice, first articulated in a public health context by Dan Beauchamp, influence public dialogue on the health consequences of corporate practices. The authors argue that public health advocates must articulate the social justice values motivating the changes they seek in specific policy battles that will be debated in the context of news coverage. The authors conclude with lessons for health education practitioners who need to frame public health issues in contentious and controversial policy contexts. Specific lessons include the importance of understanding the existing values and beliefs motivating the public health change being sought, the benefits of articulating core messages that correspond to shared values, and the necessity of developing media skills to compete effectively with adversaries in public debate.

  3. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  4. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokan, Nikola; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    2016-01-01

    parameters, but not if the government is not allowed to borrow to cover revenue shortfalls for current age-related spending. In that context, balanced budget rules are not an approriate form of fiscal rule. The implication is that a government facing demograhic change or demands for more welfare spending...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  5. Teaching Win-Win Better Prepares Students for Subsequent Experiences in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Alan J.

    The psychology of competition and winning, especially in relation to learning and motivation, is discussed. The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) approach to coursework is proposed as a means of using the winning philosophy in education. Also suggested is the inclusion into coursework design of a form of rhetoric developed by Carl Rogers…

  6. The effects of win-win conditions on revenue-sharing contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies revenue-sharing contracts in distribution chains in the presence of win-win conditions. Revenue-sharing contracts are a mechanism to coordinate the firms in a distribution chain. Under these contracts the retailer shares its revenue with the supplier in exchange for a lower wholes

  7. Challenging the win-win discourse on conservation and development: analyzing support for marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Chaigneau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation designations such as protected areas are increasing in numbers around the world, yet it is widely reported that many are failing to reach their objectives. They are frequently promoted as opportunities for win-win outcomes that can both protect biodiversity and lead to economic benefits for affected communities. This win-win view characterizes the dominant discourse surrounding many protected areas. Although this discourse and the arguments derived from it may lead to initial acceptance of conservation interventions, this study shows how it does not necessarily result in compliance and positive attitudes toward specific protected areas. Consequently, the discourse has important implications not just for making the case for protected area implementation, but also for the likelihood of protected areas reaching their objectives. We explain how the win-win discourse influences support for marine protected areas (MPAs and, ultimately, their success. Using data from focus groups, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews at three MPA sites in the Philippines, we identified three reasons why the win-win discourse can negatively influence prolonged support for MPAs: dashed expectations, inequity, and temptation. Through an understanding of these issues, it becomes possible to suggest improvements that can be made pre-MPA implementation that can lead to prolonged support of MPAs. A focus on less tangible and economic MPA benefits, aligning MPA goals with cultural and social values, and higher levels of transparency when describing MPA outcomes are all ways in which prolonged support of MPAs can be bolstered.

  8. Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Arsel, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Adaman, F.; Aguilar, B.; Agarwal, B.; Corbera, E.; Ezzine de Blas, D.; Farley, J.; Froger, G.; Garcia-Frapolli, E.; Gómez-Baggethun, E.; Gowdy, J.; Kosoy, N.; Le Coq, J.F.; Leroy, P.; May, P.H.; Méral, P.; Mibielli, P.; Norgaard, R.; Ozkaynak, B.; Pascual, U.; Pengue, W.; Perez, M.; Pesche, D.; Pirard, R.; Ramos-Martin, J.; Rival, L.; Saenz-Segura, F.; Hecken, G. van; Vatn, A.; Vira, B.; Urama, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary we critically discuss the suitability of payments for ecosystem services and the most important challenges they face. While such instruments can play a role in improving environmental governance, we argue that over-reliance on payments as win-win solutions might lead to ineffectiv

  9. Toward Win-win Cooperation Through Amity, Sincerity, Mutual Benefit and Inclusiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We will work with other members of the international community to boost green development, advocate low-carbon way of life, emphasize sharing of energy-saving and environmental protection technologies, and foster a global climate governance system that is fair, reasonable, and focused on win-win cooperation.

  10. Climate change and local public health in the United States: preparedness, programs and perceptions of local public health department directors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    Full Text Available While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department--and other key stakeholders in their community--had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department, their state health department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the necessary expertise to help them create an effective mitigation or adaptation plan for their jurisdiction; and most respondents felt that their health department needed additional funding, staff and staff training to respond effectively to climate change. These data make clear that climate change adaptation and prevention are not currently major activities at most health departments, and that most, if not all, local health departments will require assistance in making this transition. We conclude by making the case that, through their

  11. Climate change and local public health in the United States: preparedness, programs and perceptions of local public health department directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Chadwick, Amy; McBride, Dennis; Chuk, Michelle; Ebi, Kristie L; Balbus, John

    2008-07-30

    While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department--and other key stakeholders in their community--had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department, their state health department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the necessary expertise to help them create an effective mitigation or adaptation plan for their jurisdiction; and most respondents felt that their health department needed additional funding, staff and staff training to respond effectively to climate change. These data make clear that climate change adaptation and prevention are not currently major activities at most health departments, and that most, if not all, local health departments will require assistance in making this transition. We conclude by making the case that, through their words and actions

  12. [Climatic changes in Scandinavia--consequences for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanestrøm, I

    1999-01-30

    Atmospheric composition and climate conditions are of great importance for health. Increasing consumption of fossil fuels ever since the industrial revolution has resulted in higher contents of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Primarily, this will increase the global temperature. Secondarily, it may change the patterns of precipitation and droughts. Higher extreme temperatures will have a negative effect on health. Climate changes can also change the living conditions of undesirable insects and microbes. The ozone gas in the atmosphere acts as a shield against the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Chlorofluorocarbons contribute to reduction of the ozone layer and increase ultraviolet radiation. Increased exposure of the skin to this radiation may cause damage such as sunburn and skin cancer. In order to avoid damage, it is of importance to wear protective clothing or use effective sunshades.

  13. Public attitudes toward programs of large-scale technological changes: Some reflections and policy prescriptions, appendix E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The question of how ready the public is for the implementation of large-scale programs of technological change is considered. Four vital aspects of the issue are discussed which include: (1) the ways in which the public mis-perceives the change process, (2) the ways in which recent history impacts on public attitudes, (3) the ways in which the public divides among itself, and (4) the fundamentals of public attitudes towards change. It is concluded that nothing is so critical in the 1970's to securing public approval for large-scale planned change projects as is securing the approval by change-agents of the public.

  14. Public Perception of Climate Change and the New Climate Dice

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    "Climate dice", describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons relative to climatology, have become progressively "loaded" in the past 30 years, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3{\\sigma}) warmer than climatology. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface in the period of climatology, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming, because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change.

  15. Public Perception of Climate Change and the New Climate Dice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    "Climate dice", describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 years, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3 sigma) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming, because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change.

  16. Public health impacts of city policies to reduce climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Clive E; Hiscock, Rosemary; Asikainen, Arja;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Climate change is a global threat to health and wellbeing. Here we provide findings of an international research project investigating the health and wellbeing impacts of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in urban environments. Methods:  Five European and two Chinese city...... authorities and partner academic organisations formed the project consortium. The methodology involved modelling the impact of adopted urban climate-change mitigation transport, buildings and energy policy scenarios, usually for the year 2020 and comparing them with business as usual (BAU) scenarios (where...... policies had not been adopted). Carbon dioxide emissions, health impacting exposures (air pollution, noise and physical activity), health (cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer and leukaemia) and wellbeing (including noise related wellbeing, overall wellbeing, economic wellbeing and inequalities) were...

  17. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on March 29, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Paragraph N, Fuel Surcharge, in accordance with Section...

  18. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 that will become effective January 1, 2011. The interim change updates the personnel security requirements for...

  19. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on April 26, 2010. The interim change adds safety requirements for Motor Carriers authorized to provide...

  20. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on February 17, 2010. The interim change removes Motor Surveillance Service (MVS) from Item 107 and replaces Item...

  1. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on October 1, 2010. The interim change adds Item 180, Rail In-Transit Visibility (Rail ITV) Reporting, to Section...

  2. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on Monday, June 28, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Part VI, Paragraph A, Advancing Charges...

  3. Change Management And Performance Of Public Secondary Schools In Siaya Sub County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okiiya Andrew Sande

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current focus on change management practices in the Public sector has been significantly induced by new public management paradigm shift that places heavy emphasis on managing for results. This is an emerging issue particularly in public secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to relate public secondary schools with the practice of generally established change management best practices. The specific objectives of the study were to establish change management practices adopted by Public Secondary Schools in Siaya Sub County. The study population consisted of all the 38 Public Secondary Schools in Siaya Sub County which necessitated the adoption of a descriptive cross-sectional survey design and the school managers were to respond to questionnaire items designed to address aspects of best change management practices. The researcher wanted to find out the extent to which the schools practiced these virtues. The school managers stated that they moderately practiced aspects of planning committed leadership workforce alignment stakeholder involvement and had defined governance structures in their institutions. However the extents were varying from one school to the next. Multiple regressions were run using the change management practices dimensions established against performance dimensions of student enrolment participation in co-curricular activities KCSE achievement financial management and provision of teaching and learning resources and development of school infrastructure. The study found out that change management practices adopted by the institutions significantly influenced performance. The study recommends that there is need to break from status quo and bureaucratic inefficiency associated with public institutions and be ready to implement comprehensive change management practices to maximize on resource utilization our public educational institutions. The study would contribute towards broadening the knowledge base of

  4. Winning Vaidman's game without unspeakable information

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2003-01-01

    Vaidman described how a team of three players, each of them isolated in a remote booth, could use a three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state to always win a game which would be impossible to always win without quantum resources. However, Vaidman's method requires all three players to share a common reference frame; it does not work if the adversary is allowed to disorientate one player. Here we show how to always win the game, even if the players do not share any reference frame. The introduced method uses a 12-qubit state which is invariant under any transformation $R_a \\otimes R_b \\otimes R_c$ (where $R_a = U_a \\otimes U_a \\otimes U_a \\otimes U_a$, where $U_j$ is a unitary operation on a single qubit) and requires only single-qubit measurements. A number of further applications of this 12-qubit state are described.

  5. 76 FR 10053 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ..., Office of Public and Indian Housing, Real Estate Assessment Center (REAC), 550 12th Street, SW., Suite... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Scoring...

  6. 76 FR 10050 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring... of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the management operations indicator of the... process for the PHAS management operations indicator. The purpose of the management operations...

  7. 76 FR 10047 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ...). Opinion(s) on Supplemental Information Applies to the FDS. (Statement of Auditing Standard (SAS) 29 ``in... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring.... SUMMARY: This notice provides additional information to public housing agencies (PHAs) and members of...

  8. Toastmaster's Inspired Pedagogical Changes: From a Speech Class into a Public Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Action research is used to view pedagogical changes, first in a speech class and then in a public relations course over a five-year period. The course instructor gained experience as a member of a Toastmasters International club and used Toastmasters-like activities, to revise content in the courses. Ultimately, students in the public relations…

  9. Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals: Publication Manual Change Sheet 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This second change sheet for its publication manual states the American Psychologist Association's policy on sexist language in its journals offers some general principles for journal authors to consider, and suggests some ways to avoid sexist language. (Author)

  10. Cosmic Bubble Image Wins NRAO Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    A striking image of an enormous bubble blown into the dusty gas disk of our own Milky Way galaxy has won first place in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's second annual Radio Astronomy Image Contest. Dr. Jayanne English of the University of Manitoba led the team that made the winning image using data from the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. Cosmic Bubble Image Giant "Bubble" in Milky Way's Gas CREDIT: English et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for large files and full information English and her collaborators Jeroen Stil and Russ Taylor, from the University of Calgary, will share the grand prize of $1,000 from Associated Universities, Inc., the research corporation that operates the observatory for the NSF. "We congratulate Dr. English for producing an outstanding image that beautifully illustrates the power of our radio telescopes," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanding image gallery on the observatory's Web site. English's winning image shows a giant bubble in the Milky Way's dusty gas disk. The bubble has been sculpted by the wind and radiation force from a few dozen hot, massive stars along with the explosive force of supernova explosions from dying stars. The bubble, seen in the faint radio glow of hydrogen gas, is some 30,000 light-years from Earth and measures 1,100 by 520 light-years. If the bubble, in the constellation Vulpecula, were visible to human eyes, it would appear to be eight times the diameter of the full Moon in the sky. The image was made using data collected as part of the VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS), a set of systematic observations of the Milky Way. This survey, led by

  11. "It's a question of prestige": Climate change as public policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdi Lelandais, Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Climate change has been a preoccupation of public bodies in Turkey since the country signed the UNFCC in 2004. Before then, periodic environmental policies were enacted, but under the remit of each Cabinet ministry and without handing over central control of the Ministry of the Environment. Furthermore, no action-oriented policies on climate change were developed. The issue came to public prominence relatively recently in Turkey, but interest in the issues at state is ...

  12. Examining How Manufacturing Corporations Win Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Bing Tsai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted 14 criteria for order-winners and qualifiers as the attributes for evaluation. The first stage used a simultaneous importance-performance analysis to analyse the competitive market situations of a corporation and its competitors. The second stage used the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method to analyse the attributes causal relationships and levels of influence; then two methods of analysis were integrated to analyse and re-formulate the competitive strategies for the winning orders. As well as serving as a novel theory-based method to examine how manufacturers win orders, the proposals in this study can be applied to practical industry experiences.

  13. Match statistics related to winning in the group stage of 2014 Brazil FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Gomez, Miguel-Ángel; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Identifying match statistics that strongly contribute to winning in football matches is a very important step towards a more predictive and prescriptive performance analysis. The current study aimed to determine relationships between 24 match statistics and the match outcome (win, loss and draw) in all games and close games of the group stage of FIFA World Cup (2014, Brazil) by employing the generalised linear model. The cumulative logistic regression was run in the model taking the value of each match statistic as independent variable to predict the logarithm of the odds of winning. Relationships were assessed as effects of a two-standard-deviation increase in the value of each variable on the change in the probability of a team winning a match. Non-clinical magnitude-based inferences were employed and were evaluated by using the smallest worthwhile change. Results showed that for all the games, nine match statistics had clearly positive effects on the probability of winning (Shot, Shot on Target, Shot from Counter Attack, Shot from Inside Area, Ball Possession, Short Pass, Average Pass Streak, Aerial Advantage and Tackle), four had clearly negative effects (Shot Blocked, Cross, Dribble and Red Card), other 12 statistics had either trivial or unclear effects. While for the close games, the effects of Aerial Advantage and Yellow Card turned to trivial and clearly negative, respectively. Information from the tactical modelling can provide a more thorough and objective match understanding to coaches and performance analysts for evaluating post-match performances and for scouting upcoming oppositions.

  14. Functional responses to the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in neonatal rats of both genders: influence of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcel, Erika; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; de Ceballos, María L; Ramirez, Belén G; Marco, Eva Maria; Fernández, Beatriz; Rubio, Marina; Guaza, Carmen; Viveros, Ma-Paz

    2004-07-01

    We have studied behavioural, biochemical and endocrine responses to the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in neonatal rats, as well as the effects of weaning on such responses. We used preweanling rats (20 days of age), 25-day-old weaned rats (weaning at Day 22) and 25-day-old nonweaned rats of both sexes. The behavioural effects of WIN were assessed in the nociceptive tail immersion test and in the open field. We also analysed the effect of weaning on corticosterone responses to WIN (radioimmunoassay) as well as on WIN-stimulated [35S] GTPgammaS binding in periaqueductal grey (PAG) and striatum. The cannabinoid agonist induced a modest increase in pain thresholds, whereas the effect of the drug on open-field activity, particularly on vertical activity, was much more marked. The weaning process appeared to reduce the baseline nociceptive latencies of the female rats. No significant effect of weaning on the behavioural responses to WIN was found. However, the group of weaned females (but not males) showed a significantly reduced WIN-stimulated [35S] GTPgammaS binding in the striatum. The cannabinoid agonist significantly increased the corticosterone levels of 25-day-old rats with the effect being more marked in weaned than in nonweaned animals. The results suggest that the weaning process might produce some sexually dimorphic developmental changes in CB1 receptor function.

  15. Organizational Transformation in Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan in the Quest of Change Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shafique Butt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to see the organizational transformations in public sector organizations and to observe which factors have great influence in transforming public sector organizations of Pakistan. In a world of growing customer opportunities and declining income, many organizations are finding ways to do more with less by consolidating and putting together departments, functions, business processes, IT infrastructure and entire organizations. Can public sector organizations revolutionize? Organizational Transformation comes about when a company reorganizes itself or practices a sudden change in culture. The objective of this study is to portray the key characteristics which are normally considered for organizational transformation in public sector organizations of Pakistan. Research questionnaire was developed and distributed to public sector organizations in Pakistan. Data analysis was done through SPSS. The results were astonishing and all variables have positive impact on organizational transformation in public sector of Pakistan.

  16. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay...... believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation investments rely...... heavily on public funding and hence on public support. Our results suggest that cross-country coordination of conservation efforts under climate change will be challenging in terms of achieving an appropriate balance between cost-effectiveness in adaptation and the concerns of a general public who seem...

  17. Addressing disruptive behaviors in the organizational setting: the win-win approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors can have a significant impact on organizational dynamics and work relationships and a profound negative effect on staff and patient satisfaction, performance efficiency, and patient outcomes. Despite the growing call for action, many organizations still have difficulty in addressing these issues in a consistent, effective manner. Presented below is a model that focuses on causes and barriers and offers solutions designed to promote a "What's in it for me?" win-win approach for improving morale, job satisfaction, and patient care.

  18. The "One Belt and One Road" is an Important Mutually Beneficial and Win-win Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long; Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    The"One Belt and One Road"strategic conception carries the dream of development and prosperity of countries concerned,and gives the ancient Silk Road a brand new content of the time.In September and October 2013,President Xi Jinping proposed building the"New Silk Road Economic Belt"(One Belt)and the"Twenty-first Century Maritime Silk Road"(One Road)strategic conception respectively,emphasizing a mutual-beneficial and win-win

  19. Texas Public School Nutrition Policy Changes Sources of Middle School Student Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the impact of school food policy changes on student intake. This study assessed changes in student intake by food source after the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was implemented. Anonymous lunch food records, with food source identified, were collected from students ...

  20. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it has released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1. The...

  1. The Challenge of Social Change to Public Policy and Developmental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    This paper documents the social changes that have taken place in the American family during the last quarter century and suggests that these changes have created the need for new directions in both public policy and developmental research. The general trend reveals progressive fragmentation and isolation of the family in its child rearing role, as…

  2. Winning American Hearts and Minds: Country Characteristics, Public Relations and Mass Media%如何赢得美国民心:国家特征、公共关系与大众媒体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 帕米拉·休梅克

    2012-01-01

    文章采用内容分析方法并结合现有数据以及盖洛普的调查数据,分析了32个国家的政治、经济和文化特征以及它们在美国的公关活动如何影响美国媒体对这些国家的报道以及美国民众对这些国家的看法。研究发现,一个国家与美国在语言、宗教等文化因素和政冶体制方面越相似,美国媒体对该国的报道越正面,美国民众对该国的态度越友善。同时,本文的研究还发现,在控制国家特征和公关活动等变量的影响后,美国民众对媒体报道越正面的国家的态度更为友善。%This study looks at how 32 countries' political, economic and cultural characteristics and their public relations effort in the United States may influence U.S. media's coverage of these countries and Americans' opinions toward the countries. Using content analysis, existing statistics and Gallup's survey data, the study finds that a country's cultural similarity to the U.S. in terms of language, religion, and political freedom is significant in predicting U.S. media's coverage of the country and Americans' opinion toward the country, with more similarity leading to more positive coverage and more favorable opinions. The valence of news coverage shows a significant positive effect on Americans' opinions toward foreign countries when taking country characteristics and public relations effort into consideration.

  3. Turning a Spermatogenic Wave into a Tsunami: Synchronizing Murine Spermatogenesis Using WIN 18,4461

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Evanoff, Ryan; Mitchell, Debra; Kent, Travis; Small, Christopher; Amory, John K.; Griswold, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The BDADs (bis-[dichloroacetyl]-diamines) are compounds that can inhibit spermatogenesis via blocking the metabolism of vitamin A. We utilized one specific BDAD, WIN 18,446, to manipulate the endogenous production of retinoic acid (RA) in the testis to further investigate the action of this compound on mammalian sperm production. Transient treatment of adult male mice with WIN 18,446 blocked spermatogonial differentiation and induced significant changes in the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. WIN 18,446 treatment of neonatal mice also blocked spermatogonial differentiation and, followed by injection of RA, induced synchronous spermatogenesis in adulthood. The net result was pulsatile, rather than normal continuous, release of sperm from the seminiferous epithelium. This study describes a novel technique that can enrich for specific germ cell populations within the testis, representing a valuable new tool for studying spermatogenesis. PMID:23284139

  4. Why public opinion changes: the implications for health and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lawrence R; Mettler, Suzanne

    2011-12-01

    Research on stasis or change in public opinion toward health, health policy, and medical care tends to focus on short-term dynamics and to emphasize the impact of discrete messages communicated by individual speakers in particular situations. This focus on what we term "situational framing," though valuable in some respects, is poorly equipped to assess changes that may occur over the longer term. We focus, instead, on "structural framing" to understand how institutionalized public health and health care policies impact public opinion and behavior over time. Understanding the dynamics of public opinion over time is especially helpful in tracking the political effects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as it moves from the debate over its passage to its implementation and operation.

  5. [Evolution of the climate change concept and its impact in the public health of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zavaleta, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The term "climate change" is not a new concept but its impact on public health is under constant review. We know that climate has already changed and will continue to change for centuries with the rise in average global temperature, and the associated rise in sea level. This fact makes mitigation efforts relevant only in the very long term and for generations of humans whose parents have not yet been born. When we talk about public health in the context of climate change, we are talking about adaptation. In the present, countries that are currently the most affected by climate change are precisely countries like Peru, without a significant carbon footprint at the global level but that are highly sensitive to the effects of climate. Without reliable climate projections, the health impact of climate change can be uncertain and complicated. Nevertheless, at the local level, every district can identify its vulnerabilities and define priorities to protect the health of its population. There are, and it can also be developed, environmental health indicators that can help monitor how well we are adapting and how prepared we are for changes in the climate. Adaptation to climate change implies improving living conditions, enhancing epidemiological surveillance systems and extending access to healthcare. The fight against the effects of climate change in public health is a fight against poverty and inequality, and that is nothing new in Peru.

  6. Win-Win-Win: Reflections from a Work-Integrated Learning Project in a Non-Profit Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale C MacKrell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the educational aspects of an information systems work-integrated learning (WIL capstone project for an organization which operates to alleviate homelessness in the Australian non-profit sector. The methodology adopted for the study is Action Design Research (ADR which draws on action research and design research as a means for framing a project's progress. Reflective insights by the project stakeholders, namely, students, academics, and the non-profit client, reveal a curriculum at work through internal features of the organization; personal features of the participants and features of the external environment. Preliminary findings suggest that students in a WIL project for a non-profit are highly engaged, especially when they become aware of the project’s social value. As well, the improvement of professional skills and emotional intelligence by students is more likely in real-life practice settings than in other less authentic WIL activities, equipping graduates for the workforce with both strong disciplinary and generic skills. Win-win-win synergies through project collaboration represent worthwhile outcomes to education, industry and research.

  7. Communication and marketing as climate change-intervention assets a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The understanding that global climate change represents a profound threat to the health and well-being of human and nonhuman species worldwide is growing. This article examines the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behavior in ways consistent with climate change prevention and adaptation objectives. Specifically, using a framework based on an ecologic model of public health, the paper examines: (1) the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behaviors of concern, including support for appropriate public policies; (2) potential target audiences for such programs; and (3) the attributes of effective climate change messages. Communication and marketing interventions appear to have considerable potential to promote important population behavior change objectives, but there is an urgent need for additional translational research to effectively harvest this potential to combat climate change.

  8. Feeling the squeeze: public service employees are pessimistic about organisational changes brought on buy cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from Warwick University and Birkbeck College have been tracking\\ud the views and experiences of UK public service employees over the last year as\\ud they cope with the changes in their organisations, initially signalled in the\\ud Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR) of October 2010. Tina Kiefer suggests\\ud that after the CSR, public sector employees have been more pessimistic about\\ud the impact of change on their work and reported lower levels of emotional wellbeing,\\ud and less f...

  9. A study of changing information needs of contemporary public library users in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Guihua; CHEN; Xueqiao

    2009-01-01

    Public libraries should be vigilant and responsive to the ever changing information needs of their clientele functioning in a society undergoing through rapid change due to technological innovations.China is currently experiencing a social and technological transformation of great magnitude in terms of metamorphosing itself from a traditional society to one that is driven by information technologies.Our research study,taking this proposition into account,did a questionnaire survey on 954 library information users at five major public libraries.This research study has discovered that the information needs of public library users today reflect some of the peculiar characteristics of their society in changing times which is driven largely by the rapid development and application of new information technologies.It shows that there is a newly added demand emphasis on certain categories of library resources and services by the Chinese reading public.Our research findings have identified such needs basically in the following five functional areas of public libraries,namely,1)Increased demands for economic resources,2)rising expectations for more effective and efficient library services,3)a convenient location and an amicable environment congenial to learning,4)a suitable place for engaging in intellectual dialogues and in socialization,and 5)a few other technological amenities and information technology-based digital resources and facilities in addition to a rich repository of library materials in print format.Finally,our paper concludes its discussion with a few observation remarks about the changing trend of public libraries’visions,missions and operations vis-à-vis a contextual background of the ever heightened public expectations for getting quality information services in a timely manner in order for them to function effectively in an information-oriented society such as that of ours today.

  10. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies.

  11. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators in a Rural District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change represents a significant and growing threat to population health. Rural areas face unique challenges, such as high rates of vulnerable populations; economic uncertainty due to their reliance on industries that are vulnerable to climate change; less resilient infrastructure; and lower levels of access to community and emergency services than urban areas. This article fills a gap in public health practice by developing climate and health environmental public health indicators for a local public health department in a rural area. We adapted the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network's framework for climate and health indicators to a seven-county health department in Western Kentucky. Using a three-step review process, we identified primary climate-related environmental public health hazards for the region (extreme heat, drought, and flooding) and a suite of related exposure, health outcome, population vulnerability, and environmental vulnerability indicators. Indicators that performed more poorly at the county level than at the state and national level were defined as “high vulnerability.” Six to eight high vulnerability indicators were identified for each county. The local health department plans to use the results to enhance three key areas of existing services: epidemiology, public health preparedness, and community health assessment. PMID:28352286

  12. China-US Trade Relations:Win-Win Picture Distorted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若谷

    2008-01-01

    At present China-U.S.trade relations are in a state of confusion.Although both countries have gained tremendous benefits from the bilateral trade relationship,some Americans have intentionally distorted some basic facts regarding China-U.S.trade relations. Based on an analysis of some official and nonofficial research reports published in the United States,this article holds that the China-U.S.trade imbalance is the symptom of a bigger issue stemming from the contradiction between the United States as the world’s sole superpower and China as an emerging power.Economic globalisation came about due to the needs of western developed countries represented by the United States to boost economic development.Only by seizing the opportunities of economic globalisation, has China gained strong economic growth. Such a development is changing the world political,economic,military and cultural landscape that have been shaped since the post-cold-war era,and has to some extent raised doubt or suspicion on the part of the United States and its western allies.This is a manifestation of how unprepared some people in the United States and other western countries are in the face of China’s rapid development and rising status.So,their immediate reaction has been to seek protection for themselves,and try their utmost to prevent China’s rapid growth from impacting on the international framework and their vested interests.

  13. Post G20: The Challenge of Change, Implementing Evidence-based Public Order Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...... the change called for appears to have been so slow and what can be done to assist reform. This paper suggests that developing an evidence-based policing approach within the field of public order policing to inform police decision-making would provide the answers. By doing so, the paper addresses some...... of the possible barriers to implementing evidence-based policing in public order and calls for police academic partnership to overcome these to make ‘change’ an ongoing reality....

  14. The Future is Now: Reducing Psychological Distance to Increase Public Engagement with Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte; Hine, Donald W; Marks, Anthony D G

    2017-02-01

    Many people perceive climate change as psychologically distant-a set of uncertain events that might occur far in the future, impacting distant places and affecting people dissimilar to themselves. In this study, we employed construal level theory to investigate whether a climate change communication intervention could increase public engagement by reducing the psychological distance of climate change. Australian residents (N = 333) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: one framed to increase psychological distance to climate change (distal frame), and the other framed to reduce psychological distance (proximal frame). Participants then completed measures of psychological distance of climate change impacts, climate change concern, and intentions to engage in mitigation behavior. Principal components analysis indicated that psychological distance to climate change was best conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of four components: geographic, temporal, social, and uncertainty. Path analysis revealed the effect of the treatment frame on climate change concern and intentions was fully mediated by psychological distance dimensions related to uncertainty and social distance. Our results suggest that climate communications framed to reduce psychological distance represent a promising strategy for increasing public engagement with climate change.

  15. Woman's Changing Place: A Look at Sexism. Public Affairs Pamphlet Number 509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nancy

    This Public Affairs Pamphlet reviews how early childhood conditioning, education, religion, sports, business and finance, and mass media limit women's development and opportunities and, further, how women are working to effect change in their own lives and in society. The following are briefly discussed: (1) efforts being made by child care…

  16. The Micropolitics of Educational Change Experienced by Novice Public Middle School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Louis F.

    2013-01-01

    Novice public middle school principals currently face the challenge of navigating internal micropolitical structures while negotiating educational change during a period of decline. This year-long qualitative study detailed the lived experiences of two suburban novice middle school principals as they found themselves leading within a…

  17. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #6: PUBLICATION OF FIRST REPORT FROM MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT (MARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research news edition announces the publication of the first report from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA). The report is entitled, *Climate Change Impacts in the Mid-Atlantic Region -- A Workshop Report.* MARA is being conducted as part of the USGCRP First Nation...

  18. Rising CO2, climate change, and public health: Exploring the links to plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the issue of anthropogenic climate forcing and public health is widely recognized, one fundamental aspect has remained underappreciated; the impact of climatic change on plant biology and the well-being of human systems. To critically evaluate the extant and probable links between plant fun...

  19. Using Online Tools to Assess Public Responses to Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophea Sasaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the Annex 1 countries to the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Japan is committed to reducing 6% of the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve this commitment, Japan has undertaken several major mitigation measures, one of which is the domestic measure that includes ecologically friendly lifestyle programs, utilizing natural energy, participating in local environmental activities, and amending environmental laws. Mitigation policies could be achieved if public responses were strong. As the internet has increasingly become an online platform for sharing environmental information, public responses to the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be assessed using available online tools. We used Google Insights for Search, Google AdWords Keyword Tool, and Google Timeline View to assess public responses in Japan based on the interest shown for five search terms that define global climate change and its mitigation policies. Data on online search interests from January 04, 2004 to July 18, 2010 were analyzed according to locations and categories. Our study suggests that the search interests for the five chosen search terms dramatically increased, especially when new mitigation policies were introduced or when climate change related events were organized. Such a rapid increase indicates that the Japanese public strongly responds to climate change mitigation policies.

  20. Tracing public values change: a historical study of civil service job advertisements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.R.; Beck Jørgensen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Long term changes in public values are not easily detected. One important reason is the limited availability of reliable empirical data. Job advertisements allow us to go back in history for some decades and job ads may present us with the values that are supposed to guide civil servant behavior. Th

  1. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...

  2. Large Scale Pedagogical Transformation as Widespread Cultural Change in Mexican Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how and under what conditions a new pedagogy can spread at scale using the Learning Community Project (LCP) in Mexico as a case study. Started as a small-scale, grassroots pedagogical change initiative in a handful of public schools, LCP evolved over an 8-year period into a national policy that spread its pedagogy of tutorial…

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGING ROLE OF PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Sandra; Mimba, Ni Putu S. H.; Van Helden, G. Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a framework for understanding changes in the demand for and supply of performance information in public sector organizations in less developed countries (LDCs). New Institutional Sociology (NIS) is used to argue that pressures from specific stakeholders stimulate organizations

  4. Has No Child Left Behind Changed the Face of Leadership in Public Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell-Lamb, Judy; O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.

    2013-01-01

    A national study examined the perceptions of educational leaders and classroom leaders as to the changes that have occurred in public P-12 schools since the inception of No Child Left Behind. Administrators and teachers who had remained in the same district for five years, and who had been in the field of education since at least 2002, were asked…

  5. When the White House Changes Party, Do Economists Change Their Tune on Budget Deficits?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Large budget deficits represent a burden on the future, and debt accumulation eventually poses great problems. Economists writing for the public can either highlight such truths, neglect the issue, or try to allay worries or excuse or justify large budget deficits (as anti-recession policy, for example). Economists affiliated or aligned with one of the parties may be suspected of changing their positions on budget deficits to serve their favored party or win favor with its constituency. This ...

  6. Near wins prolong gambling on a video lottery terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Denis; Caron, Anne; Aubert, Jonathan; Desrochers, Véronique; Ladouceur, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether near wins can prolong gambling activity on a video lottery terminal. In a three-reel game, near wins were operationally defined as two identical symbols followed by a third different symbol. Players in an experimental condition were exposed to 27% near wins in a series of continuous losses, whereas players in a control group were exposed to none. Participants played as long as they wished, and received real money for their wins. The results showed that players in the near win condition played 33% more games than did the control group. The results of this study suggest that near wins can be added to the list of factors that may motivate people to gamble despite the probability of monetary loss.

  7. Prepare for X-Win32 - the new X11 server software for Windows computers

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    Starnet X-Win32 will replace Exceed as the X11 Server software on Windows computers by February 2012. X11 Server software allows a Windows user to have a graphical user interface on a remote Linux server. This change, initially motivated by a significant change of license conditions for Exceed, brings an easier integration of Windows and Linux logon mechanisms. At the same time, X-Win32 addresses the common use cases while providing a more intuitive configuration interface. CERN Predefined Connections will be available as before. They offer an easy way of starting applications on LXPLUS using PuTTY or starting the KDE, GNOME or ICE window managers. Since X-Win32 is better integrated with SSH and CERN Kerberos compared to Exceed, it is much simpler to set up secure access to Linux services. The decision to choose X-Win32 as the new X11 software resulted from an evaluation that involved various user communities and support teams. More information, including the documented use cases, is available at https://...

  8. 78 FR 9387 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan... Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plans in response to the President's October 2009 Executive Order (E.O... of EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan has been posted to a public docket and is available on...

  9. Changes in the relationship between nursing home financial performance and quality of care under public reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyoung; Werner, Rachel M

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between financial performance and quality of care in nursing homes is not well defined and prior work has been mixed. The recent focus on improving the quality of nursing homes through market-based incentives such as public reporting may have changed this relationship, as public reporting provides nursing homes with increased incentives to engage in quality-based competition. If quality improvement activities require substantial production costs, nursing home profitability may become a more important predictor of quality under public reporting. This study explores the relationship between financial performance and quality of care and test whether this relationship changes under public reporting. Using a 10-year (fiscal years 1997-2006) panel data set of 9444 skilled nursing facilities in the US, this study employs a facility fixed-effects with and without instrumental variables approach to test the effect of finances on quality improvement and correct for potential endogeneity. The results show that better financial performance, as reflected by the 1-year lagged total profit margin, is modestly associated with higher quality but only after public reporting is initiated. These findings have important policy implications as federal and state governments use market-based incentives to increase demand for high-quality care and induce providers to compete based on quality.

  10. Organizational change for services integration in public human service organizations: experiences in seven counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Thomas; Patti, Rino; Daly, Donna; Tucker-Tatlow, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of organizational change strategies employed in seven county human service agencies to improve the coordination of services through the structural integration of previously free standing organizations or the development of voluntary interagency collaborative service delivery systems. The central question involves the identification of organizational change tactics which contributed to the success of the organizational change initiatives. The literature on organizational change is reviewed, with particular attention to a framework developed by Fernandez and Rainey based on their extensive review and synthesis of the research on successful change strategies in the public and business sectors. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from over 250 individuals and from agency documents. Findings are compared with the success factors identified by Fernandez and Rainey, and refinements to their propositions are suggested. More precise methods for measuring successful and unsuccessful change initiatives are suggested. Implications for practice and research are presented.

  11. Improving Public Engagement With Climate Change: Five "Best Practice" Insights From Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sander; Maibach, Edward; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Despite being one of the most important societal challenges of the 21st century, public engagement with climate change currently remains low in the United States. Mounting evidence from across the behavioral sciences has found that most people regard climate change as a nonurgent and psychologically distant risk-spatially, temporally, and socially-which has led to deferred public decision making about mitigation and adaptation responses. In this article, we advance five simple but important "best practice" insights from psychological science that can help governments improve public policymaking about climate change. Particularly, instead of a future, distant, global, nonpersonal, and analytical risk that is often framed as an overt loss for society, we argue that policymakers should (a) emphasize climate change as a present, local, and personal risk; (b) facilitate more affective and experiential engagement; (c) leverage relevant social group norms; (d) frame policy solutions in terms of what can be gained from immediate action; and (e) appeal to intrinsically valued long-term environmental goals and outcomes. With practical examples we illustrate how these key psychological principles can be applied to support societal engagement and climate change policymaking.

  12. Health systems in developing countries: public sector managers and the management of contradictions and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew; Collins, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Health sector reform in the past decade has tended to focus on remodelling institutional relations and changing methods of health system financing. Little attention has been paid to human resources. This paper focuses on one category of health sector staff, health managers and planners, and the tensions they face in carrying out their roles. An understanding of these tensions has been neglected in the policy-making process. The paper is divided into two parts. Firstly, it will set out the nature of three tensions that public sector health managers and planners face: changes in the health care system; the contradictions between public interest and private gain; and changes in the forms of accountability. Secondly, it will suggest ways forward in relation to these problems, paying particular attention to the role of international agencies.

  13. Changes in use of county public health services following implementation of Alabama's immigration law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Blackburn, Justin; Manzella, Bryn; Welty, Elisabeth; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-11-01

    Several states have enacted legislation restricting undocumented immigrants' access to publicly funded health benefits not protected by federal law. Using electronic health records from 140,856 county health department visits, we assessed the monthly change in Latino patients' visits compared to non-Latinos 12 months before and after implementation of Alabama's immigration law. We used ICD-9 diagnosis codes to determine whether visits included services exempt under the law: immunizations, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and communicable diseases, and family planning. Differences between groups in the mean percent change were assessed with t-tests. Among children younger than 18 years, there were no significant differences by ethnicity. Visits among Latino adults decreased by 28% for communicable diseases, 25% for STIs, and 13% for family planning; this was significantly different from changes among non-Latino adults (p public's health.

  14. [Imaginary dimension and intersubjectivity in public health organizations: implications to managerial work and organizational change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Creuza da Silva

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with organization management in a new perspective, stressing the micro-social aspects and the role of individuals in the process of implementing change in public health organizations such as hospitals. Following the paths of French psychosociology, the article approaches the imaginary, intersubjective and collective dimensions of these organizations, highlighting the ways hospitals' directors and employees engage themselves in a struggle for power, affiliation and recognition. An essentially interactive and intersubjective activity, management is examined in the light of psychoanalysis's leadership function. It seems crucial to take into account the directors' potential structuring role in order to understand the organizational changing processes. Nevertheless, the mounting crisis in Rio de Janeiro public health services does not favor change and the building of personal bonds, but disruption, dismantle of institutional affiliations. In this scenario, the management structuring function and the director's social and psychological mediating role lose ground.

  15. Changing characteristics of psychiatric patients: private and public care in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Kepecs, J G; Henry, W E

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the social and cultural characteristics of psychiatric patients have been changing over time. It is important from a professional and public policy point of view to understand better the nature of these changes, and to what they are related. This paper presents data showing that: 1) psychiatric care is increasingly reaching patients of lower socio-economic status, and 2) changes in patient characteristics are related to the growth in the proportion of psychiatric care given in organisationally based non-private practice settings.

  16. Public Perception of Climate Change in a Period of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papoulis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study surveys the opinion of the residents of the Athens area in Greece on a wide range of issues related to climate change, such as their environmental consciousness and awareness and their willingness to take action against climate change. This study is performed at a time of a severe economic crisis in Greece. Based on a questionnaire, this study examines the general trends reported on various environmental issues, more particularly concerning climate change. The main results are that Greek citizens are aware of the problems of environmental and of climate change and also believe that the environmental quality of Greece is quite poor. They believe they are fairly well informed about climate change. However, the current economic crisis in Greece has reversed the progress made in the past concerning the awareness of climate change. Also, the citizens have very low confidence in the public authorities and the big enterprises to deal with climate change, while they have high level of trust in scientific and environmental organizations. They agree with public actions, but are against individual actions to protect the environment as they consider the main stakeholders (state, industry to be mainly responsible for environmental degradation.

  17. What wins public support? Communicating or obfuscating welfare state retrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Elmelund-Præstekær; M. Baggesen Klitgaard; G. Schumacher

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that in order to evade electoral punishment governments obfuscate welfare state retrenchment. However, governments do not uniformly lose votes in elections after they cut back on welfare benefits or services. Recent evidence indicates that some of these unpopular reforms ar

  18. Patrik and Putrik and Clown Ferdl; Findings and Cognition on the Television Perception of Children and Young People Based on the Prize-Winning Programmes of Prix Jeunesse 1966. Publications of the Internationales Zentralinstitut fur das Jugend- und Bildungsfernsehen, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Francine, Ed.; Burger, Anette, Ed.

    The results of an investigation of the reactions of young children (ranging from four to nine years of age) in France, Germany, England, America, and Czechoslovkia to two Prix Jeunesse winning television films are examined in this document. Summarized reports from each of the participating countries for the film "Patrik and Putrik" and,…

  19. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  20. Oscars 2010:Kathryn Bigelow Wins Best Director

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍小军; 李新

    2010-01-01

    @@ "The Hurt Locker"defeated"Avatar"-the biggest movie of all time-to win Best Picture at the 82nd Academy Awards Sunday. "Hurt Locker" won five other Oscars,including,in a surprising main sweep,Best Director for Kathryn Bigelow. She made history as the first woman to receive the honor. Only three other women have been nominated(提名): Lina Wertmüller for "Seven Beauties",Jane Campion for "The Piano" and Sofia Coppola for "Lost in Translation".

  1. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  2. “Open”: the changing relation between citizens, public administration, and political authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Maier-Rabler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "Open" is not just a fancy synonym for transparent and accountable. The "Open" in Open Government, Open Data, Open Information, and Open Innovation stands for the changing relation between citizens and authorities. Many citizens no longer accept the passive stance representative democracy held for them. They take an active approach in setting up better means of collaboration by ICTs. They demand and gain access to their historically grown collective knowledge stored in government data. Not just on a local level, they actively shape the political agenda. Open Government is to be seen in the context of citizens‘ rights: the right to actively participate in the process of agenda-setting and decision-making. Research into open government needs to address the value of the changing relation between citizens, public administration, and political authority. The paper argues finally for the application of the Public Value concept to research into open government.

  3. Public Debt Tipping Point Studies Ingnore How Exchange Rate Changes May Create A Financial Meltdowns

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Robin; Selten, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    In studies concluding that public debt may hamper GDP, the debt tipping effects are estimated as if there were a single world currency. This means that such studies ignore the likely biggest cause of changes in growth rates, namely damage from exchange rate liquidity shocks because we do not live in the fairyland of a single world currency. The conclusions of these studies are accordingly invalid. They deflect attention from a prime danger, namely an exchange-rate-precipitated global meltdown...

  4. Public Preferences to CCS:How does it Change Across Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashworth, Peta; Einsiedel, Edna; Howell, Rhys; Brunsting, Suzanne; Boughen, Naomi; Boyd, Amanda; Shackley, Simon; Van Bree, Bas; Jeanneret, Talia; Stenner, Karen; Medlock, Jennifer; Mabon, Leslie; (ynke) Feenstra, C.f.j.; Hekkenberg, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to extend an Australian developed large group process which proved effective in engaging the general public on issues related to climate change, energy technologies, and the overall shift towards a low carbon society. The results from Australia, the Netherlands, Canada and Scotland found that in each of the geographic locations the context varied, and participants reported different experiences and understanding of each topic. This paper explores how context may h...

  5. Barriers to Curricular Change in General Education Mathematics at a Large Public Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study looked for barriers to curricular change in general education mathematics at a large public university (LPU) in the Western United States. The literature showed that a number of national organizations dealing in math education have recommended alternatives to the traditional algebra-intensive curriculum. LPU still relies predominantly on traditional College Algebra as its quantitative literacy (QL) course. With such an algebra-heavy emphasis, students may be missing mor...

  6. Knowledge as a driver of public perceptions about climate change reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Visschers, Vivianne H. M.; Siegrist, Michael; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    It is intuitive to assume that concern about climate change should be preceded by knowledge about its effects. However, recent research suggests that knowledge about climate change has only a limited effect on shaping concern about climate change. Our view is that this counterintuitive finding is a function of how knowledge is typically measured in studies about climate change. We find that if it is measured in a domain-specific and multidimensional way, knowledge is indeed an important driver of concern about climate change--even when we control for human values. Likewise, different dimensions of knowledge play different roles in shaping concern about climate change. To illustrate these findings, we present the results from a survey deployed across six culturally and politically diverse countries. Higher levels of knowledge about the causes of climate change were related to a heightened concern. However, higher levels of knowledge about the physical characteristics of climate change had either a negative or no significant effect on concern. Efforts aimed at improving public knowledge about climate change are therefore not the lost cause that some researchers claim they may be.

  7. Public Health-Related Impacts of Climate Change inCalifornia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, D.M.; Motallebi, N.; Kleeman, M.; Cayan, D.; Hayhoe,K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Miller, N.L.; Jin, J.; VanCuren, R.A.

    2005-12-01

    In June 2005 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger issued Executive Order S-3-05 that set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for California, and directed the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency to report to the governor and the State legislature by January 2006 and biannually thereafter on the impacts to California of global warming, including impacts to water supply, public health, agriculture, the coastline, and forestry, and to prepare and report on mitigation and adaptation plans to combat these impacts. This report is a part of the report to the governor and legislature, and focuses on public health impacts that have been associated with climate change. Considerable evidence suggests that average ambient temperature is increasing worldwide, that temperatures will continue to increase into the future, and that global warming will result in changes to many aspects of climate, including temperature, humidity, and precipitation (McMichael and Githeko, 2001). It is expected that California will experience changes in both temperature and precipitation under current trends. Many of the changes in climate projected for California could have ramifications for public health (McMichael and Githeko, 2001), and this document summarizes the impacts judged most likely to occur in California, based on a review of available peer-reviewed scientific literature and new modeling and statistical analyses. The impacts identified as most significant to public health in California include mortality and morbidity related to temperature, air pollution, vector and water-borne diseases, and wildfires. There is considerable complexity underlying the health of a population with many contributing factors including biological, ecological, social, political, and geographical. In addition, the relationship between climate change and changes in public health is difficult to predict for the most part, although more detailed information is available on temperature

  8. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the 'moral hazard' argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies-the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed 'self-enhancing' values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed.

  9. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Large Cities: A Global Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will have significant impacts on human health, and urban populations are expected to be highly sensitive. The health risks from climate change in cities are compounded by rapid urbanization, high population density, and climate-sensitive built environments. Local governments are positioned to protect populations from climate health risks, but it is unclear whether municipalities are producing climate-adaptive policies. In this article, we develop and apply systematic methods to assess the state of public health adaptation in 401 urban areas globally with more than 1 million people, creating the first global baseline for urban public health adaptation. We find that only 10% of the sampled urban areas report any public health adaptation initiatives. The initiatives identified most frequently address risks posed by extreme weather events and involve direct changes in management or behavior rather than capacity building, research, or long-term investments in infrastructure. Based on our characterization of the current urban health adaptation landscape, we identify several gaps: limited evidence of reporting of institutional adaptation at the municipal level in urban areas in the Global South; lack of information-based adaptation initiatives; limited focus on initiatives addressing infectious disease risks; and absence of monitoring, reporting, and evaluation.

  10. Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Hashim, Zailina; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses how climate undergo changes and the effect of climate change on air quality as well as public health. It also covers the inter relationship between climate and air quality. The air quality discussed here are in relation to the 5 criteria pollutants; ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Urban air pollution is the main concern due to higher anthropogenic activities in urban areas. The implications on health are also discussed. Mitigating measures are presented with the final conclusion.

  11. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  13. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  14. 78 FR 47004 - Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given to change the dates of the seasonal closure of public land in the Bald Ridge Area that was...

  15. An Application to WIN/ISIS Database on Local Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lechien

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A Translated Article containing an application to how WIN/ISIS database work on local network. It starts with main definitions, and how to install WIN/ISIS on PC, and how to install it on the local network server.

  16. On winning sets and non-normal numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mance, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In \\cite{SchmidtGames}, W. Schmidt proved that the set of non-normal numbers in base $b$ is a {\\it winning set}. We generalize this result by proving that many sets of non-normal numbers with respect to the Cantor series expansion are winning sets. As an immediate consequence, these sets will be shown to have full Hausdorff dimension.

  17. A winning strategy for 3 x n Cylindrical Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huneke, S. C.; Hayward, R.; Toft, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    For Cylindrical Hex on a board with circumference 3, we give a winning strategy for the end-to-end player. This is the first known winning strategy for odd circumference at least 3, answering a question of David Gale. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  19. Human Health Impacts of and Public Health Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Weather and climate are among the factors that determine the geographic range and incidence of several major causes of ill health, including undernutrition, diarrheal diseases and other conditions due to unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation, and malaria. The Human Health chapter in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, and that projected climate change will increase the risks of climate-sensitive health outcomes, particularly in lower-income populations, predominantly within tropical/subtropical countries. Those at greatest risk include the urban poor, older adults, children, traditional societies, subsistence farmers, and coastal populations, particularly in low income countries. The cause-and-effect chain from climate change to changing patterns of health determinants and outcomes is complex and includes socioeconomic, institutional, and other factors. The severity of future impacts will be determined by changes in climate as well as by concurrent changes in nonclimatic factors and by the adaptation measures implemented to reduce negative impacts. Public health has a long history of effectively intervening to reduce risks to the health of individuals and communities. Lessons learned from more than 150 years of research and intervention can provide insights to guide the design and implementation of effective and efficient interventions to reduce the current and projected impacts of climate variability and change.

  20. Winning in sequential Parrondo games by players with short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K. W.; Ma, H. F.; Wu, D.; Lui, G. C.; Szeto, K. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The original Parrondo game, denoted as AB3, contains two independent games: A and B. The winning or losing of games A and B is defined by the change of one unit of capital. Game A is a losing game if played continuously, with winning probability p=0.5-ε , where ε =0.003 . Game B is also losing and has two coins: a good coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{g}}=0.75-ε is used if the player’s capital is not divisible by 3, otherwise a bad coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{b}}=0.1-ε is used. The Parrondo paradox refers to the situation where the mixture of games A and B in a sequence leads to winning in the long run. The paradox can be resolved using Markov chain analysis. We extend this setting of the Parrondo game to involve players with one-step memory. The player can win by switching his choice of A or B game in a Parrondo game sequence. If the player knows the identity of the game he plays and the state of his capital, then the player can win maximally. On the other hand, if the player does not know the nature of the game, then he is playing a (C, D) game, where either (C  =  A, D  =  B), or (C  =  B, D  =  A). For a player with one-step memory playing the AB3 game, he can achieve the highest expected gain with switching probability equal to 3/4 in the (C, D) game sequence. This result has been found first numerically and then proven analytically. Generalization to an AB mod(M) Parrondo game for other integers M has been made for the general domain of parameters {{p}\\text{b}}\\text{A}}<{{p}\\text{g}} . We find that for odd M the Parrondo effect does exist. However, for even M, there is no Parrondo effect for two cases: the initial game is A and the initial capital is even, or the initial game is B and the initial capital is odd. There is still a possibility of the Parrondo effect for the other two cases when M is even: the initial game is A and the initial capital is odd, or the initial game is B and the initial

  1. The Public Health Impacts of Climate Change in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kendrovski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Projected climatic changes for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia for the period 2025–2100 will be most intense in the warmest period of the year with more frequent and more intense heat-waves, droughts and flood events compared with the period 1961–1990. The country has examined their vulnerabilities to climate change and many public health impacts have been projected. A variety of qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used in the assessment: literature reviews, interviews, focus groups, time series and regression analysis, damage and adaptation cost estimation, and scenario-based assessment. Policies and interventions to minimize the risks and development of long-term adaptation strategies have been explored. The generation of a robust evidence base and the development of stakeholder engagement have been used to support the development of an adaptation strategy and to promote adaptive capacity by improving the resilience of public health systems to climate change. Climate change adaptation has been established as a priority within existing national policy instruments. The lessons learnt from the process are applicable to countries considering how best to improve adaptive capacity and resilience of health systems to climate variability and its associated impacts.

  2. Mid-term evaluation of the Climate Change Action Fund : Public education and outreach (PEO) Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    In February 1998, the Government of Canada established the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) to assist Canada in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CCAF managed a budget of 150 million dollars over three years, and the Public Education and Outreach (PEO) Block was allocated 30 million dollars of that total for its operations. Its mandate was to increase public awareness and understanding on the topic of climate change, as well as providing the required information to effect reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and adapt to climate change. An evaluation into this program was conducted, and it covered the period September 2000 to January 20, 2001. To date, 152 projects have been approved, which represents an investment of approximately 17.5 million dollars. Approximately 6 million dollars have been spent on the awareness component, while government communication activities used approximately 3.1 million dollars. Staff and project management fees in support of the program account for the remaining funds. This report addressed the performance to date in meeting the objectives, and also included recommendations for improved effectiveness. PEO files and records, a report entitled Interim review of the Climate Change Action Fund PEO Program, interviews with Departmental representatives, and interviews with external stakeholder groups formed the basis for the findings and recommendations. It was determined that future direction represents the most critical issue facing the PEO block. 1 tab.

  3. The Effect of Information Provision on Public Consensus about Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, Tatyana; Shurchkov, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Despite over 20 years of research and scientific consensus on the topic, climate change continues to be a politically polarizing issue. We conducted a survey experiment to test whether providing the public with information on the exact extent of scientific agreement about the occurrence and causes of climate change affects respondents' own beliefs and bridges the divide between conservatives and liberals. First, we show that the public significantly underestimated the extent of the scientific consensus. We then find that those given concrete information about scientists' views were more likely to report believing that climate change was already underway and that it was caused by humans. However, their beliefs about the necessity of making policy decisions and their willingness to donate money to combat climate change were not affected. Information provision affected liberals, moderates, and conservatives similarly, implying that the gap in beliefs between liberals and conservatives is not likely to be bridged by information treatments similar to the one we study. Finally, we conducted a 6-month follow-up with respondents to see if the treatment effect persisted; the results were statistically inconclusive.

  4. Does Reality Matter? Social and Science Bases of Public Beliefs about Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Schaeffer, K. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Hamilton, L.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of public perceptions about trends in Arctic sea ice find that over two-thirds are aware of the multi-decade decrease. This awareness differs sharply across ideological and educational subgroups, however. It does not appear to shift in response to scientific and media discussion following a September with unusually low (2012) or somewhat higher (2013) sea ice extent. Other perceptions about Arctic change, such as impacts on mid-latitude weather, follow similar patterns with sharp ideological difference and limited response to external events, including science reports. On the other hand, public accuracy on basic factual questions that do not by themselves imply directional change (such as location of the North Pole) may be very low, and among some subgroups accurate knowledge shows an oddly negative correlation with self-confidence about understanding of climate change. These results from 13 surveys over 2011-2015 suggest that biased assimilation filters the acceptance of information about Arctic change, with implications for science communication.

  5. Win-Win-Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, members of a strategic planning committee at Woodberry Forest School set a goal to re-engage African-American and Hispanic alumni, many of whom had lost touch with the Virginia boarding school for boys. One of the committee's ideas was to launch a mentoring program to connect current minority students with minority alumni. Two years…

  6. Assessing perceived health risks of climate change : Canadian public opinion 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    This paper discussed a survey conducted to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of Canadians in relation to climatic change. A total of 1600 telephone surveys were conducted with a broad range of age groups. The study showed that climate change is considered by many Canadians to pose a significant threat at both local and global levels. Evidence of climate change has been noted in many communities. However, relatively few Canadians understand how climate change may impact human health. While many Canadians associated climatic change with air pollution hazards and ozone depletion, most Canadians were not aware of the potential negative health impacts related to changes in disease vectors, extreme weather events, and coastal flooding. The strongest awareness and concern about health impacts were expressed by Canadians concerned about global warming. Individuals with chronic health conditions were more likely to be attuned to the potential health impacts of climatic change. Seniors viewed climate change as a longer term problem. Only 10 per cent of Canadians viewed global warming as a major health risk. Sixty-nine per cent of Canadians believed that global warming was happening, while 63 per cent attributed climate change to human activity. Nearly half of all respondents believed that an extreme weather disaster would affect their community during the course of their lifetime. The report suggested that marketing or communications campaigns should build public awareness of the health risks associated with direct or proximal environmental risks. Information about health risks should be specific, and communications should be tailored to age cohorts. Television and print media should be used to build awareness of the health risks of climate change. Provincial concerns related to climatic change were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  7. The impact of changes in county public health expenditures on general health in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T; Martinez-Gutierrez, Maria S; Navab, Bahar

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in the per capita expenditures of county departments of public health on county-level general health status. Using panel data on 40 counties in California (2001-2009), dynamic panel estimation techniques are combined with the Lewbel instrumental variable technique to estimate an aggregate demand for health function that measures the causal cumulative impact that per capita public health expenditures have on county-level general health status. We find that a $10 long-term increase in per capita public health expenditures would increase the percentage of the population reporting good, very good or excellent health by 0.065 percentage points. Each year expenditures were increased would result in ∼24,000 individuals moving from the 'poor or fair health' category to the 'good, very good or excellent health' category across these 40 counties. In terms of the overall impact of county public health departments on general health status, at current funding levels, each annual expenditure cycle results in over 207,000 individuals being in the 'good, very good or excellent' categories of health status rather than the 'poor or fair' categories.

  8. Hand in hand: public endorsement of climate change mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Morton, Thomas A; Dessai, Suraje

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated how an individual's endorsements of mitigation and adaptation relate to each other, and how well each of these can be accounted for by relevant social psychological factors. Based on survey data from two European convenience samples (N = 616 / 309) we found that public endorsements of mitigation and adaptation are strongly associated: Someone who is willing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) is also willing to prepare for climate change impacts (adaptation). Moreover, people endorsed the two response strategies for similar reasons: People who believe that climate change is real and dangerous, who have positive attitudes about protecting the environment and the climate, and who perceive climate change as a risk, are willing to respond to climate change. Furthermore, distinguishing between (spatially) proximal and distant risk perceptions suggested that the idea of portraying climate change as a proximal (i.e., local) threat might indeed be effective in promoting personal actions. However, to gain endorsement of broader societal initiatives such as policy support, it seems advisable to turn to the distant risks of climate change. The notion that "localising" climate change might not be the panacea for engaging people in this domain is discussed in regard to previous theory and research.

  9. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300 000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Results: Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. Conclusions: The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. PMID:25983329

  10. Publicity as policy: the changing role of press and public relations at the BMA, 1940s-80s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between policy and publicity or public relations (PR) have been questioned since the emergence of professional public relations in the early-twentieth century. In the field of health and medicine organised PR activity began to flourish in the decades following World War Two. Its presence became evident in government departments, in professional associations, voluntary bodies and campaigning groups. Increasingly, policy decisions had to be publicly performed through rituals like the press conference. This chapter documents the development of press and PR activity at the British Medical Association (BMA) from the 1950s to the 1980s. The BMA provides a well-documented case, which can be used to suggest broader shifts in the association between policy and publicity.

  11. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    Environmental degradation and unsustainable development were addressed on a global scale at the UN Summits in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and Johannesburg in 2002. This article presents analyses of Danish television coverage of these two summits and related topics viewing the media stories as exemplary...... cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...... development towards post-environmentalism. Already ecological modernisation can be perceived as post-environmentalist, but this article wants to suggest a downfall also for ecological modernisation as a prominent discourse and a more direct challenge to the legitimacy of environmental concern and thus...

  12. Barselsrettigheder til danske fædre – en win win situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Borchorst, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Det er vigtigt at sikre selvstændige orlovsrettigheder til mænd i Danmark. Danske fædres orlovsrettigheder er i dag de svageste i Norden, og det er forklaringen på, at de også tager den næstkorteste orlov i nordisk sammenhæng. Den danske orlovslovgivning har været præget af blokpolitik, og forskn...... forskning og viden har ikke spillet nogen større rolle for beslutningerne. Det er beklageligt, fordi det peger i retning af, at øremærket orlov til far skaber en win-win situation for fædre, børn og mødre, mener forskerne Lotte Bloksgaard og Anette Borchorst....

  13. Performance indicators related to points scoring and winning in international rugby sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Dean G; Hopkins, Will G; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M

    2014-05-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team's points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key pointsSuccessful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball.Selected performance indicators may be used to

  14. Performance Indicators Related to Points Scoring and Winning in International Rugby Sevens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Dean G.; Hopkins, Will G.; Pyne, David B.; Anson, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team’s points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key points Successful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball. Selected performance indicators may be used

  15. Win-CC Control Extension Development: Pressure-Enthalpy Win-CC Panel

    CERN Document Server

    Gaona, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews in detail the development and implementation of a Win-CC Control Extension for both Windows and Linux Platforms. The Control Extension consists in a Win-CC panel linked by dynamic libraries (*.dll or *.so) to the NIST Thermodynamics properties library. This linking permits to handle in real time different thermodynamic properties of a wide range of refrigerants. The Win-CC panel uses this information to produce a Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram of any required refrigeration cycle. In general, the p-H diagram enhance the understanding of the refrigeration cycle and facilitate the control and supervision of the system. Ideally, this control extension will be part of several Cooling Projects at CERN such as ATLAS IBL and CMS TIF. The development of this tool required several weeks of programming in C++ in both Linux and Windows platforms. At the end, the tool was constructed successfully and tested in both operating systems. The following sections go deeper into the develop, operation, and impleme...

  16. Why sustainable population growth is a key to climate change and public health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, Peter; Stoneham, Melissa

    2011-12-01

    Australia's population could reach 42 million by 2050. This rapid population growth, if unabated, will have significant social, public health and environmental implications. On the one hand, it is a major driver of climate change and environmental degradation; on the other it is likely to be a major contributor to growing social and health issues including a decline in quality of life for many residents. Disadvantaged and vulnerable groups will be most affected. The environmental, social and health-related issues include: pressure on the limited arable land in Australia; increased volumes of industrial and domestic waste; inadequate essential services; traffic congestion; lack of affordable housing; declining mental health; increased obesity problems; and inadequate aged care services. Many of these factors are related to the aggravation of climate change and health inequities. It is critical that the Australian Government develops a sustainable population plan with stabilisation of population growth as an option. The plan needs to ensure adequate hospitals and healthcare services, education facilities, road infrastructure, sustainable transport options, water quality and quantity, utilities and other amenities that are already severely overburdened in Australian cities. There is a need for a guarantee that affordable housing will be available and priority be given to training young people and Indigenous people for employment. This paper presents evidence to support the need for the stabilisation of population growth as one of the most significant measures to control climate change as well as to improve public health equity.

  17. EMU, the changing role of public debt and the revival of sovereign credit risk perception

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Kai Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Using annual data for 21 OECD countries we provide evidence of remarkable mispricing of sovereign bonds for the so-called GIIPS countries before the start of the financial crisis. Our results also qualify the view of pronounced overpricing in the crisis. In detail, we find: (i) Since the 1980s the role of public debt for the pricing of government bonds has changed twice: First-time in the aftermath of the signing of the Maastricht treaty, and again with the wake-up call due to the onset of th...

  18. Win-Stay-Lose-Learn Promotes Cooperation in the Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma. PMID:22363470

  19. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma.

  20. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkui Liu

    Full Text Available Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related win-stay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma.

  1. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs.

  2. How do the media affect public perception of climate change and geohazards? An Italian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaré, Federico A.; Oppizzi, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    This paper uses a combination of a qualitative approach and a quantitative, software-based approach to explore the Italian print media construction of climate change and geohazards between 2007 and 2010. We have broken down our analysis in two sections: the first one deals with the coverage of climate change; the second one focuses on the media representation of hydrogeological hazards and extreme events in Italy. Our software-based, qualitative and quantitative analysis of 1253 storylines from two major Italian broadsheets (the La Repubblica and the Corriere della Sera) has enabled us to assess the presence of typical journalistic frames such as conflict and dramatization, as well as newly-introduced ones such as "prevention vs damages", and "weather vs climate". Our results show that the two newspapers appear to have different "agendas" that might have different impacts on their own readerships: the La Repubblica has been on the forefront of forging a broad public consensus on the need for actions aimed at tackling climate change, whereas the Corriere della Sera has gradually built a journalistic agenda aimed at minimizing the urgency of the climate change problem. As regards the media's representation of hydrogeological hazards, we have confirmed what assessed by previous research, i.e. that Italian journalists still prefer to focus on damages rather than prevention; on a better note, the tendency of the Italian press to confuse weather with climate, blaming climate change for extreme rainfalls causing landslides and floods, has decreased in the last four years.

  3. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  4. On winning sets and non-normal numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Mance, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In \\cite{SchmidtGames}, W. Schmidt proved that the set of non-normal numbers in base $b$ is a {\\it winning set}. We generalize this result by proving that the set of non-normal numbers with respect to the $\\beta$-expansion, where $\\beta$ is a Pisot-Vijayaraghavan number, is a winning set. Additionally, we show that several sets of non-normal numbers with respect to the Cantor series expansion are winning sets. As an immediate consequence, all of these sets will be shown to have full Hausdorff dimension.

  5. Changing public perceptions of genetically modified foods: Effects of consumer information and direct product experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    . In experiment 1, attitude change experiments were conducted with consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK (N=1650). Different information strategies were tested against a control group for their ability to change consumers' attitudes and their influence on product choice. Results indicate......Previous research concerning public perception of GM foods indicates that European consumers hold firm negative attitudes to GM foods. These attitudes, however, are not based on risk-benefit evaluations of particular products. Rather, they seem to be a function of general sociopolitical attitudes...... and values. Two policies can be adopted in such a situation: (a) consumers can be actively informed regarding the risks and benefits and (b) consumers can be given the opportunity to evaluate products on the basis of direct experience. The effectiveness of both policies was tested in two experiments...

  6. Immigration and changes in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy : an emerging public health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldo Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years Italy is confronting with massive migratory movements from developing countries where hemoglobinopathies are widespread. This is causing a large diffusion and a changing spectrum in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy. Methods Investigations recently published in Italy on hemoglobinopathies among immigrants were revised in order to appreciate the impact of immigration from developing countries on epidemiology of these pathologies and to outline adequate guidelines of prevention. Results Although in Italy there is a limited number of investigations regarding the relation between immigration and hemoglobin disorders, published data show that in our Nation there is a changing and increasing spectrum of hemoglobinopathies linked to immigration. Conclusions Prospective and retrospective actions of public healthy preventive policy are requested, based upon information (health educational programs for immigrants and caregivers, screenings among immigrants (school screening, pre-marital, preconception and early pregnancy screening, newborn screening, counseling for foreign at-risk couples and healthy carriers.

  7. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  8. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  9. Policy Directions Addressing the Public Health Impact of Climate Change in South Korea: The Climate-change Health Adaptation and Mitigation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yong Seung; Ha, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, caused by global warming, is increasingly recognized as a major threat to mankind's survival. Climate change concurrently has both direct and modifying influences on environmental, social, and public health systems undermining human health as a whole. Environmental health policy-makers need to make use of political and technological alternatives to address these ramifying effects. The objective of this paper is to review public health policy in Korea, as well as internationall...

  10. Wisconsin Partnerships to Educate and Engage Public Audiences on Climate Change Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S.; Rowley, P.; Crowley Conn, K.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity and scale of climate change-related challenges requires more than one strategy to share meaningful information with public audiences. This presentation will discuss a few initiatives to engage the public originating from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. First, a local partnership between the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) and the Aldo Leopold Nature Center (ALNC), an informal learning center with a new climate change "classroom" which recently acquired a Science on a Sphere (SOS) exhibit. Second, an informal education project funded by the NOAA Office of Education coordinated by CIMSS in partnership with the national SOS Network with the goal of helping museum docents share meaningful interpretation of real-time weather and climate data. CIMSS staff has been conducting weather and climate discussions on a Magic Planet display for several years. This "mini-SOS" is powered by a solar panel on the roof, modeling the essential Sun-Earth connection and the first principle of climate literacy. However, the convenient proximity of CIMSS and ALNC provides a perfect opportunity to test "SOS-scale" talking points posted on a weekly docent blog to the benefit of the entire SOS Network. Two other Wisconsin projects of note include the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts, a partnership between the University and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and a pilot project between CIMSS and NOAA's National Weather Service to engage storm spotters in climate mitigation and stewardship. Ideally, the synergistic benefits and lessons learned from these collaborations can inform similar efforts in order to galvanize meaningful responses to climate change.

  11. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  12. Determining Fitness-For-Use of Ontologies Through Change Management, Versioning and Publication Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fu, L.; Ma, X.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is a large and growing number of domain ontologies available for researchers to leverage in their applications. When evaluating the use of an ontology it is important to not only consider whether the concepts and relationships defined in the ontology meet the requirements for purpose of use, but also how the change management, versioning and publication practices followed by the ontology publishers affect the maturity, stability, and long-term fitness-for-use of the ontology. In this presentation we share our experiences and a list of best practices we have developed when determining fitness for use of existing ontologies, and the process we follow when developing of our own ontologies and extensions to existing ontologies. Our experience covers domains such as solar terrestrial physics, geophysics and oceanography; and the use of general purpose ontologies such as those with representations of people, organizations, data catalogs, observations and measurements and provenance. We will cover how we determine ontology scope, manage ontology change, specify ontology version, and what best practices we follow for ontology publication and use. The implications of following these best practices is that the ontologies we use and develop are mature, stable, have a well-defined scope, and are published in accordance with linked data principles.

  13. Slovenian case of strategic change management in the public sector: Towards the Lisbon Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Tekavčič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Slovenian case of strategic change management process with emphasis on the movement towards the implementation of Lisbon Strategy goals. The EU will be “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world”, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion. These are crucial priorities of the Lisbon strategy. These changes in public sector organizations have enormous significance for regional development in Slovenia. The aim of the paper is to consider and discuss the development of Slovenian public administration priorities in the process directed towards the implementation of Lisbon Strategy goals. Paper also highlights recent achievements of Slovenian e-administration strategy. In the paper the explanatory case study research method was used (Yin, 2002, with focus on longitudinal and pre-post methodological techniques. The research findings outline, that strategic management methods applied in the case support the implementation of Lisbon Strategy goals in Slovenia.

  14. 75 FR 36099 - Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health Service Act AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... allopathic or osteopathic medicine. Below are details on how the ACA changes Section 723 of the Public Health... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  15. The birth of a community, the death of the win: Player production of the Middle-earth Collectible Card Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Bisz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Collectible card games (CCGs are at the midpoint of the spectrum of gameplaying: half game, half story. An examination of a CCG based on Tolkien's Middle-earth illustrates the ways in which fans of the story have changed the game, especially in removing the focus on winning.

  16. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.

    2007-09-27

    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. Developing public awareness for climate change: Support from international research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, F.J.; Clements, W.E.

    1998-12-31

    Developing regional and local public awareness and interest in global climate change has been mandated as an important step for increasing the ability for setting policy and managing the response to climate change. Research programs frequently have resources that could help reach regional or national goals for increasing the capacity for responding to climate change. To obtain these resources and target recipients appropriately, research investigators need clear statements of national and regional strategies or priorities as a guide. One such program, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has a requirement to develop local or regional education enrichment programs at their observational sites in the central US, the tropical western Pacific (TWP), and on the north slope of alaska. ARM's scientific goals will result in a flow of technical data and as well as technical expertise that can assist with regional needs to increase the technical resources needed to address climate change issues. Details of the ARM education program in the Pacific will be presented.

  18. Climate change: The challenges for public health preparedness and response- An Indian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Rajan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremes weather changes surpassing their usual statistical ranges and tumbling records in India could be an early warning bell of global warming. Extreme weather events like the recent record setting in western Indian city of Mumbai or all time high fatalities due to the heat wave in southern Indian states or increasing vulnerability of easten Indian states to flood could all be a manifestation of climate change in the Asian subcontinent. While the skeptics may be inclined to dismiss these events as simple local aberrations, when viewed in an epidemiological paradigm in terms of person, time and space couple with frequency, intensity and fatalities, it could well be an early manifestation of climate change. Global warming poses serious challenge to the health sector and hence warrants emergency health preparedness and response. Climate-sensitive diseases are among the largest global killers, hence major brunt of global climate change in terms of adverse health impact will be mostly borne by poor and developing countries in Asia, given the levels of poverty, nutional levels and poor public health infrastructure.

  19. Winning and losing tree species of reassembly in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B; Palik, Brian J; He, Hong S

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity.

  20. Winning and Losing Tree Species of Reassembly in Minnesota’s Mixed and Broadleaf Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Palik, Brian J.; He, Hong S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota’s mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity. PMID:23613911

  1. Winning and losing tree species of reassembly in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice B Hanberry

    Full Text Available We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity.

  2. Changing Expectations of College: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This installment reporting on the 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of American's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools focuses on American's views of the value of a high school and a college education and the affordability of college. It is the first year the poll included enough respondents to be able to break out sentiments of specific demographic…

  3. Public Administration as an academic disicpline: Trends and changes in the COCOPS academic survey of European Public Administration scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); D.S.D. Curry; S. Gadellaa (Stefanie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report summarises the finding from the COCOPS academic survey, a survey of public administration academics in European countries fielded in 2013. Respondents were asked to reflect on the state of the discipline and general trends within the discipline and in practi

  4. Integrating human responses to climate change into conservation vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sean L; Venter, Oscar; Jones, Kendall R; Watson, James E M

    2015-10-01

    The impact of climate change on biodiversity is now evident, with the direct impacts of changing temperature and rainfall patterns and increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events on species distribution, populations, and overall ecosystem function being increasingly publicized. Changes in the climate system are also affecting human communities, and a range of human responses across terrestrial and marine realms have been witnessed, including altered agricultural activities, shifting fishing efforts, and human migration. Failing to account for the human responses to climate change is likely to compromise climate-smart conservation efforts. Here, we use a well-established conservation planning framework to show how integrating human responses to climate change into both species- and site-based vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans is possible. By explicitly taking into account human responses, conservation practitioners will improve their evaluation of species and ecosystem vulnerability, and will be better able to deliver win-wins for human- and biodiversity-focused climate adaptation.

  5. Feeling the squeeze: public service employees are pessimistic about organisational changes brought on by cuts\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from Warwick University and Birkbeck College have been tracking the views and experiences of UK public service employees over the last year as they cope with the changes in their organisations, initially signalled in the Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR) of October 2010. Tina Kiefer suggests that after the CSR, public sector employees have been more pessimistic about the impact of change on their work and reported lower levels of emotional well-being, and less favourable attitud...

  6. Leaders in high temperature superconductivity commercialization win superconductor industry award

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider curretn leads project head Amalia Ballarino named superconductor industry person of the year 2006. Former high temperature superconductivity program manager at the US Department of energy James Daley wins lifetime achievement award. (1,5 page)

  7. The "Win-Win" initiative: a global, scientifically based approach to resource sparing treatment for systemic breast cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzawawy Ahmed

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among females. Its incidence shows a trend towards an increase in the next decade, particularly in developing countries where less than of 5% of resources for cancer management are available. In most breast cancer cases systemic cancer treatment remains a primary management strategy. With the increasing costs of novel drugs, amidst the growing breast cancer rate, it can be safely assumed that in the next decade, newly developed cancer drugs will become less affordable and therefore will be available to fewer patients in low and middle income countries. In light of this potentially tragic situation, a pressing need emerges for science-based innovative solutions. Methods In this article, we cite examples of recently published researches and case management approaches that have been shown to lower overall treatment costs without compromising patient outcomes. The cited approaches are not presented as wholly inclusive or definitive solutions but are offered as effective examples that we hope will inspire the development of additional evidence-based management approaches that provide both efficient and effective breast cancer treatment Results We propose a "win-win" initiative, borne in the year of 2008 of strategic information sharing through preparatory communications, publications and our conference presentations. In the year 2009, ideas developed through these mechanisms can be refined through focused small pilot meetings with interested stakeholders, including the clinical, patient advocate, and pharmaceutical communities, and as appropriate (as proposed plans emerge, governmental representatives. The objective is to draw a realistic road map for feasible and innovative scientific strategies and collaborative actions that could lead to resource sparing; i.e. cost effective and tailored breast cancer systemic treatment for low and middle income countries. Conclusion The

  8. Who Wins The Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Busse, Meghan R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  9. A Survey of ’Quick Wins’ in Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    out over the vast area of northern Manchuria , in a rectangle formed by Kailar, Tsitsihar, Harbin and Sakhalian. It con- sisted of three infantry...of Manchuria , August 1945 5 Third Arab-Israeli War, 1967 6 Almost Quick Wins German Invasion of Russia (Operation "Barbarossa"), 1941 7...1941-1942 Soviet Invasion of Manchuria . August 1945 Third Arab-Israeli War, 1967 Almost Quick Wins Operation Barbarossa, The German Campaign in

  10. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  11. On Winning Conditions of High Borel Complexity in Pushdown Games

    CERN Document Server

    Finkel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Some decidable winning conditions of arbitrarily high finite Borel complexity for games on finite graphs or on pushdown graphs have been recently presented by O. Serre in [ Games with Winning Conditions of High Borel Complexity, in the Proceedings of the International Conference ICALP 2004, LNCS, Volume 3142, p. 1150-1162 ]. We answer in this paper several questions which were raised by Serre in the above cited paper. We first show that, for every positive integer n, the class C_n(A), which arises in the definition of decidable winning conditions, is included in the class of non-ambiguous context free omega languages, and that it is neither closed under union nor under intersection. We prove also that there exists pushdown games, equipped with such decidable winning conditions, where the winning sets are not deterministic context free languages, giving examples of winning sets which are non-deterministic non-ambiguous context free languages, inherently ambiguous context free languages, or even non context fre...

  12. WIN55,212-2 protects oligodendrocyte precursor cells in stroke penumbra following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing SUN; Yin-quan FANG; Hong REN; Tao CHEN; Jing-jing GUO; Jun YAN; Shu SONG; Lu-yong ZHANG; Hong LIAO

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To explore whether the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 could protect oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs)in stroke penumbra,thereby providing neuroprotection following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Methods:Adult male SD rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (p-MCAO).The animals were administered WIN55,212-2 at 2 h,and sacrificed at 24 h after the ischemic insult.The infarct volumes and brain swelling were assessed.The expression of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the stroke penumbra was examined using Western blot assay.The pathological changes and proliferation of neural glial antigen 2-positive OPCs (NG2+ cells) in the stroke penumbra were studied using immunohistochemistry staining.Results:p-MCAO significantly increased the expression of CB1 within the stroke penumbra with the highest level appearing at 2 h following the ischemic insult.Administration of WIN55,212-2 (9 mg/kg,iv) significantly attenuated the brain swelling,and reduced the infarct volume as well as the number of tau-immunoreactive NG2+ cells (tau-1+/NG2+ cells) in the stroke penumbra.Moreover,WIN55,212-2 significantly promoted the proliferation of NG2+ cells in the stroke penumbra and in the ipsilateral subventricular zone at 24 h following the ischemic insult.Administration of the selective CB1 antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg,iv) partially blocked the effects caused by WIN55,212-2.Conclusion:Tau-1 is expressed in NG2+ cells following permanent focal cerebral ischemic injury.Treatment with WIN55,212-2 reduces the number of tau-1+/NG2+ cells and promotes NG2+ cell proliferation in the stroke penumbra,which are mediated partially via CB1 and may contribute to its neuroprotective effects.

  13. CERN repeats last year's running win

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CERN first team successfully defended the title won last year in the 20th annual Cross Inter-Entreprises held at Collex-Bossy on Saturday 7 October. 101 teams of four runners representing firms from all over the Geneva area finished the 6.2 km race, through forest and over fields. In spite of two members of last year’s winning team being absent through injury this time, the first team was still 38 seconds faster than in 1999. The second and third CERN teams also excelled with places in the first 15 teams. In this race the teams start at one-minute intervals and the time of each team is that of its third runner to finish, so they try to run in a group of three or four all the way. The full results of all teams can be found at: http://www.Club-association.ch/CHP Placings of the CERN teams 1st 21:53 Cornelis, Ecarnot, Ehmele, Nisbet 6th 22:50 Cornet, Eklund, Rick, Ruiz Llamas 13th 24:24 Dunkel, Guillot, Montejo Raez, Zamiatin 35th 28:22 Cameron, Galbraith, Revol, Scalisi

  14. Win a lift to the future!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Group is organising a competition offering people at CERN the chance to submit their ideas and win a ticket to the Lift10 Conference, which will be held in Geneva from 5 to7 May.   Lift is a community of technology "pioneers", created in 2006. It now involves more than 4,000 people from over 60 countries, who meet regularly in Europe and in Asia to explore the social implications of new technologies and the major shifts ahead. CERN is one of the academic partners of the next Lift conference, whose theme is "Connected people”. For this occasion, 10 free tickets to the conference will be awarded to the "CERNois" who come up with the best answers to the question: “How would you contribute to Lift10?” Those taking part in the competition can choose from among the following categories: - run workshop(s); - cover the conference on a blog; - coordinate a discussion during the breaks; - organize a lift@home ...

  15. A model for establishing a win-win relationship between a wood pellets manufacturer and its customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uran, Vedran [ENERGETSKE USLUGE Ltd., Ilica 52, 10000, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the possibility of establishing a win-win relationship between a wood pellets manufacturer and its customers when the manufacturer possesses a power plant fueled by biomass and buys wood material from forest companies. Two prerequisites must be fulfilled for this relationship. First, the price of wood pellets should be lower than the fuel currently used by potential wood pellets customers and, second, the price of wood material as a raw material for producing the wood pellets should not jeopardize the profitability of the operations of the wood pellets manufacturer, who also produces electricity from biomass and sells it to the state at the feed-in tariff price. A mathematical model has been developed for each prerequisite and applied to several examples. The results demonstrate that a win-win relation can be established in Croatia and most of the Member States of the EU. (author)

  16. The ProteomeXchange consortium in 2017: supporting the cultural change in proteomics public data deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Csordas, Attila; Sun, Zhi; Jarnuczak, Andrew; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Ternent, Tobias; Campbell, David S.; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Okuda, Shujiro; Kawano, Shin; Moritz, Robert L.; Carver, Jeremy J.; Wang, Mingxun; Ishihama, Yasushi; Bandeira, Nuno; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The ProteomeXchange (PX) Consortium of proteomics resources (http://www.proteomexchange.org) was formally started in 2011 to standardize data submission and dissemination of mass spectrometry proteomics data worldwide. We give an overview of the current consortium activities and describe the advances of the past few years. Augmenting the PX founding members (PRIDE and PeptideAtlas, including the PASSEL resource), two new members have joined the consortium: MassIVE and jPOST. ProteomeCentral remains as the common data access portal, providing the ability to search for data sets in all participating PX resources, now with enhanced data visualization components. We describe the updated submission guidelines, now expanded to include four members instead of two. As demonstrated by data submission statistics, PX is supporting a change in culture of the proteomics field: public data sharing is now an accepted standard, supported by requirements for journal submissions resulting in public data release becoming the norm. More than 4500 data sets have been submitted to the various PX resources since 2012. Human is the most represented species with approximately half of the data sets, followed by some of the main model organisms and a growing list of more than 900 diverse species. Data reprocessing activities are becoming more prominent, with both MassIVE and PeptideAtlas releasing the results of reprocessed data sets. Finally, we outline the upcoming advances for ProteomeXchange. PMID:27924013

  17. Open access to scientific publications - an analysis of the barriers to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Bo-Christer Björk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of the Internet is that the dissemination of scientific publications in a few years has migrated to electronic formats. The basic business practices between libraries and publishers for selling and buying the content have, however, not changed much. Scientists have in protest against the high subscription prices of mainstream publishers started Open Access (OA journals and e-print repositories, which distribute scientific information freely. Despite widespread agreement among academics that OA would be the optimal distribution mode for publicly financed research results, OA channels still constitute only a marginal phenomenon in the global scholarly communication system. This paper discusses, in view of the experiences of the last ten years, the many barriers hindering a rapid proliferation of Open Access. The discussion is structured according to the main OA channels; peer-reviewed journals for primary publishing, subject-specific and institutional repositories for secondary parallel publishing. It also discusses the types of barriers, which can be classified as: legal framework, IT-infrastructure, business models, indexing services and standards, academic reward system, marketing and critical mass.

  18. The ProteomeXchange consortium in 2017: supporting the cultural change in proteomics public data deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W; Csordas, Attila; Sun, Zhi; Jarnuczak, Andrew; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Ternent, Tobias; Campbell, David S; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Okuda, Shujiro; Kawano, Shin; Moritz, Robert L; Carver, Jeremy J; Wang, Mingxun; Ishihama, Yasushi; Bandeira, Nuno; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-04

    The ProteomeXchange (PX) Consortium of proteomics resources (http://www.proteomexchange.org) was formally started in 2011 to standardize data submission and dissemination of mass spectrometry proteomics data worldwide. We give an overview of the current consortium activities and describe the advances of the past few years. Augmenting the PX founding members (PRIDE and PeptideAtlas, including the PASSEL resource), two new members have joined the consortium: MassIVE and jPOST. ProteomeCentral remains as the common data access portal, providing the ability to search for data sets in all participating PX resources, now with enhanced data visualization components.We describe the updated submission guidelines, now expanded to include four members instead of two. As demonstrated by data submission statistics, PX is supporting a change in culture of the proteomics field: public data sharing is now an accepted standard, supported by requirements for journal submissions resulting in public data release becoming the norm. More than 4500 data sets have been submitted to the various PX resources since 2012. Human is the most represented species with approximately half of the data sets, followed by some of the main model organisms and a growing list of more than 900 diverse species. Data reprocessing activities are becoming more prominent, with both MassIVE and PeptideAtlas releasing the results of reprocessed data sets. Finally, we outline the upcoming advances for ProteomeXchange.

  19. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sousa

    Full Text Available Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  20. Dispelling the Myths: Can Psychoeducation Change Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Holly; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The public desires more punitive sentencing for sex offenders; however, treatment has been shown to be most effective in increasing public safety. It has been suggested that public education about the benefits of sex offender treatment could influence public policy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief psychoeducational…

  1. Inequality, communication, and the avoidance of disastrous climate change in a public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro; Dannenberg, Astrid; Kallis, Giorgos; Löschel, Andreas

    2011-07-19

    International efforts to provide global public goods often face the challenges of coordinating national contributions and distributing costs equitably in the face of uncertainty, inequality, and free-riding incentives. In an experimental setting, we distribute endowments unequally among a group of people who can reach a fixed target sum through successive money contributions, knowing that if they fail, they will lose all their remaining money with 50% probability. In some treatments, we give players the option to communicate intended contributions. We find that inequality reduces the prospects of reaching the target but that communication increases success dramatically. Successful groups tend to eliminate inequality over the course of the game, with rich players signaling willingness to redistribute early on. Our results suggest that coordination-promoting institutions and early redistribution from richer to poorer nations are both decisive for the avoidance of global calamities, such as disruptive climate change.

  2. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  3. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the

  4. A Win-Win Strategy for economic wealth and climate protection -equally important for the first and the third world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Klima- und Energieforschung

    1997-09-01

    Reduction targets for a desired degree of climate protection are negotiated at the international circuit. Concrete measures for reaching such targets are implemented at the national and city levels. Demonstrated here for electricity use in the commercial sector of the City of Muenster is a ``Win-Win Strategy`` which, if correctly done will result on in winners. Specifically, it is shown that electricity use between 1990 and 2005 in a Trend Scenario would increase by ca. 25%, while in the Climate Protection Scenario it could decrease by ca.23% due to savings and substitution measures. The benefits, costs, and net gains are computed for different price developments. Rough estimates show that over the next 10 years the ``Win Win Strategy`` could provide 256 additional jobs in the commercial sector of Muenster, and about 700000 new jobs when projected for Germany as a whole. Additionally, studies show that implementing the electricity efficiency potential in five Western European countries by 2020 could save between 20 and 50 Bil. (billion) ECU, whilst the need for some 90 additional 1000 MW power plants could be avoided. Finally, the policy options discussed here can help tap this huge available energy efficiency gold mine by the North and the South alike. The function of the ``Win Win Strategy`` is to help supply the funds for paving the way toward a sustainable future. (author)

  5. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    theory and practice. Along with its usage in graduate and postgraduate education, "Climate" is used as a framework for a developed basic information course on climate change for common public. In this course basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are described for non-specialists. The course will also include links to relevant information resources on topical issues of Earth Sciences and a number of case studies, which are carried out for a selected region to consolidate the received knowledge.

  6. CDM. Is it a 'win-win' strategy for rural poverty alleviation in India?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, Smita [Department of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132001 (India)

    2007-09-15

    India is perceived to be one of the most attractive Non-Annex I countries for CDM project development. There are more than 350 projects in the CDM pipeline, largely in the areas of renewable energy, energy efficiency in industries and fossil fuel switching. This paper examines the socio-economic component of sustainable development commitments of the CDM projects to see if they can make any impact on rural poverty in India, since the goal of poverty alleviation lies at the core of the country's development priorities. The study concludes that CDM is not contributing to rural poverty alleviation to any notable extent. Nearly all the projects have a business orientation and are not directed to the development of rural poor. Even the renewable energy projects will have limited role in up-liftment of the masses below poverty line due to their weak resource base. For CDM to emerge as a 'win-win' strategy for poverty alleviation projects should be aimed at the rural communities and designed to accelerate agricultural growth in the rain-fed regions of the country.

  7. Ombud's Corner: fellows and students – a win-win equation

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    The hundreds of Fellows and students working at CERN bring precious new blood into the Laboratory. At the same time, CERN offers them invaluable work experience that will have a significant impact on their future careers. It is important that we all work together to make this a win-win situation with lasting positive effects for all concerned over the years to come.   Fellows and students are just setting out on a great professional adventure.  Some of them are very young, others are a bit more experienced … and what happens during this early period can have vast consequences on their approach to work and indeed on their overall careers. They all come here with their hard earned skills and a high degree of motivation, ready to make the most out of an internship at CERN. Sometimes, they are called to integrate into well-established units; at other times, they are asked to join complex collaborations. Almost always they have to deal with new information, new cultures, new t...

  8. Achieving ecological restoration by working with local people: a Chinese scholar seeks win-win paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao's story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they can combine them with environmental restoration efforts to produce long-term sustainable solutions. In this paper, we share Cao's 28 years of experience because we believe that his scientific and practical spirit, and his belief that it is necessary to work directly with the people affected by environmental projects, will inspire other scholars and practitioners to achieve similar successes.

  9. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  10. Changes in sexual behavior following a sex education program in Brazilian public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Heloísa Helena Siqueira Monteiro; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Bertoni, Neilane; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of possible changes in sexual behavior in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The program is inserted within the context of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices and focuses on the positive aspects of sexuality. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. A total of 4,795 questionnaires were included in this analysis. The program succeeded in more than doubling consistent condom use with casual partners and in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68%. The intervention had no effect on age at first intercourse or on adolescents' engagement in sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in generating positive changes in the sexual behavior of adolescents, while not stimulating participation in sexual activities.

  11. Marketing graduate student wins national research award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2009-01-01

    Bige Saatcioglu, a doctoral candidate in marketing in the Pamplin College of Business, has won the American Marketing Association's (AMA) marketing and public policy dissertation competition this year.

  12. The Worldviews Network: Digital Planetariums for Engaging Public Audiences in Global Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R. J.; Koontz, K.; Yu, K.; Gardiner, N.; Connolly, R.; Mcconville, D.

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing the capabilities of digital planetariums, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, the California Academy of Sciences, NOVA/WGBH, The Elumenati, and affiliates of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration formed the Worldviews Network. The network's mission is to place Earth in its cosmic context to encourage participants to explore connections between social & ecological issues in their backyards. Worldviews launched with informal science institution partners: the American Museum of Natural History, the Perot Museum of Nature & Science, the Journey Museum, the Bell Museum of Natural History, the University of Michigan Natural History Museum, and the National Environmental Modeling & Analysis Center. Worldviews uses immersive visualization technology to engage public audiences on issues of global environmental change at a bioregional level. An immersive planetarium show and dialogue deepens public engagement and awareness of complex human-natural system interactions. People have altered the global climate system. Our communities are increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events. Land use decisions that people make every day put both human lives and biodiversity at risk through direct and indirect effects. The Worldviews programs demonstrate the complex linkages between Earth's physical and biological systems and their relationship to human health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources, and energy. We have focused on critical thresholds, such as freshwater use, biodiversity loss, land use change, and anthropogenic changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. We have been guided by environmental literacy principles to help our audiences understand that humans drive current trends in coupled human-natural systems--and that humans could choose to play an important role in reversing these trends. Museum and planetarium staff members join the Worldviews Network team and external advisers to produce programs that span cosmic, global, and

  13. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  14. Climate change damages to Alaska public infrastructure and the economics of proactive adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, April M; Larsen, Peter; Boehlert, Brent; Neumann, James E; Chinowsky, Paul; Espinet, Xavier; Martinich, Jeremy; Baumann, Matthew S; Rennels, Lisa; Bothner, Alexandra; Nicolsky, Dmitry J; Marchenko, Sergey S

    2017-01-10

    Climate change in the circumpolar region is causing dramatic environmental change that is increasing the vulnerability of infrastructure. We quantified the economic impacts of climate change on Alaska public infrastructure under relatively high and low climate forcing scenarios [representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5] using an infrastructure model modified to account for unique climate impacts at northern latitudes, including near-surface permafrost thaw. Additionally, we evaluated how proactive adaptation influenced economic impacts on select infrastructure types and developed first-order estimates of potential land losses associated with coastal erosion and lengthening of the coastal ice-free season for 12 communities. Cumulative estimated expenses from climate-related damage to infrastructure without adaptation measures (hereafter damages) from 2015 to 2099 totaled $5.5 billion (2015 dollars, 3% discount) for RCP8.5 and $4.2 billion for RCP4.5, suggesting that reducing greenhouse gas emissions could lessen damages by $1.3 billion this century. The distribution of damages varied across the state, with the largest damages projected for the interior and southcentral Alaska. The largest source of damages was road flooding caused by increased precipitation followed by damages to buildings associated with near-surface permafrost thaw. Smaller damages were observed for airports, railroads, and pipelines. Proactive adaptation reduced total projected cumulative expenditures to $2.9 billion for RCP8.5 and $2.3 billion for RCP4.5. For road flooding, adaptation provided an annual savings of 80-100% across four study eras. For nearly all infrastructure types and time periods evaluated, damages and adaptation costs were larger for RCP8.5 than RCP4.5. Estimated coastal erosion losses were also larger for RCP8.5.

  15. Climate change damages to Alaska public infrastructure and the economics of proactive adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, April M.; Larsen, Peter; Boehlert, Brent; Neumann, James E.; Chinowsky, Paul; Espinet, Xavier; Martinich, Jeremy; Baumann, Matthew S.; Rennels, Lisa; Bothner, Alexandra; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Marchenko, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the circumpolar region is causing dramatic environmental change that is increasing the vulnerability of infrastructure. We quantified the economic impacts of climate change on Alaska public infrastructure under relatively high and low climate forcing scenarios [representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5] using an infrastructure model modified to account for unique climate impacts at northern latitudes, including near-surface permafrost thaw. Additionally, we evaluated how proactive adaptation influenced economic impacts on select infrastructure types and developed first-order estimates of potential land losses associated with coastal erosion and lengthening of the coastal ice-free season for 12 communities. Cumulative estimated expenses from climate-related damage to infrastructure without adaptation measures (hereafter damages) from 2015 to 2099 totaled $5.5 billion (2015 dollars, 3% discount) for RCP8.5 and $4.2 billion for RCP4.5, suggesting that reducing greenhouse gas emissions could lessen damages by $1.3 billion this century. The distribution of damages varied across the state, with the largest damages projected for the interior and southcentral Alaska. The largest source of damages was road flooding caused by increased precipitation followed by damages to buildings associated with near-surface permafrost thaw. Smaller damages were observed for airports, railroads, and pipelines. Proactive adaptation reduced total projected cumulative expenditures to $2.9 billion for RCP8.5 and $2.3 billion for RCP4.5. For road flooding, adaptation provided an annual savings of 80–100% across four study eras. For nearly all infrastructure types and time periods evaluated, damages and adaptation costs were larger for RCP8.5 than RCP4.5. Estimated coastal erosion losses were also larger for RCP8.5. PMID:28028223

  16. Award-Winning Research in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotz, Geraldo Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear Colleague, In 2016, the International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology has awarded the two best systematic and/or literature reviews published in our journal in 2015, seeking to highlight articles that form the foundations and concepts of universal knowledge. We believe this serves to identify, evaluate, and interpret all available and relevant studies for a specific thematic issue. The objective is to review the state of the art, confronting the existing evidence on a given subject, and thus seeking new lines of research. Systematic reviews with meta-analyses used globally by the medical community allow us to ensure that we have as precise a summary as possible, of all the trials that took place on a particular medical science topic. With this effort, we wish to appreciate and honor awarded authors, encouraging new talents in international otorhinolaryngological research with a commitment to stimulate education and technological development through research and training. The studies that stood out were the following: 1. Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review Fernanda Saffer, José Faibes Lubianca Neto, Cassiano Rösing, Caroline Dias, Luciane Closs Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015 Jan;19(1:80–5. 2. Tinnitus Neural Mechanisms and Structural Changes in the Brain: The Contribution of Neuroimaging Research Patricia Simonetti, Jeanne Oiticica Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015 Jul;19(3:259–65. We hope to review them in future publications. Best wishes, Geraldo Pereira Jotz, Editor-in-Chief Aline Bittencourt, Co-Editor

  17. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  18. Domain of the Gods: Do traditional beliefs hinder public acceptance of the human role in climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S.

    2008-12-01

    Public acceptance of new scientific discoveries like natural selection, plate tectonics, or the human role in climate change naturally lags behind the pace of the discoveries. In the case of climate change, unease or outright rejection of the scientific evidence for the role of human activity in climate change has been a hindrance to mitigation and adaptation efforts. This skepticism is normally attributed to everything from the quality of science education, to disinformation campaigns by representatives of the coal and gas industry, to individual resistance to behavioral change, to the nature of the modern information culture. This skepticism of scientific evidence for climate change, though often inspired by politics, economics and the particular dynamics of climate change, may actually be rooted in ancient beliefs that the climate is beyond the influence of humans. In this presentation, I will outline how the notion that humans control or influence the weather runs contrary to thousands of years of belief in a separation between the earth - the domain of man - and sky - the domain of the gods. Evidence from religious history, traditional villages in the Pacific (Fjij and Kiribati) and from public discourse in North America all indicates that the millennia-old belief in an earth-sky separation hinders people's acceptance that human activity is affecting the climate. The human role in climate change therefore represents a substantial paradigm shift, similar to the role of natural selection in human evolution. These deep roots of climate change skepticism must be factored into public climate change education efforts.

  19. Comparison of total and cardiovascular death rates in the same city during a losing versus winning super bowl championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; McDonald, Scott; Leeka, Justin; Poole, W Kenneth

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in death rates when a local football team participated in the Super Bowl. Los Angeles (LA) played in the Super Bowl twice: on January 20, 1980 (LA Rams vs Pittsburgh Steelers, which LA lost), and on January 22, 1984 (LA Raiders vs Washington Redskins, which LA won). Data from LA County were analyzed for all-cause and circulatory death rates for the Super Bowl and the following 14 days when LA played (Super Bowl-related days) and control days (from January 15 to the end of February for 1980 to 1983 and 1984 to 1988). The Super Bowl-related days during LA's losing 1980 game were associated with higher daily death rates in LA County (per 100,000 population) for all deaths (2.4482 vs 2.0968 for control days, p Super Bowl-related days during the winning 1984 game were associated with a lower rate of all-cause death (2.1870 vs 2.3205 for control days, p = 0.0302). In conclusion, the emotional stress of loss and/or the intensity of a game played by a sports team in a highly publicized rivalry such as the Super Bowl can trigger total and cardiovascular deaths.

  20. Sustainability reporting in public sector organisations: Exploring the relation between the reporting process and organisational change management for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Ana Rita; Lozano, Rodrigo; Ceulemans, Kim; Ramos, Tomás B

    2017-05-01

    Sustainability Reporting has become a key element in different organisations. Although there have been a number of academic publications discussing the adoption of sustainability reports in the public sector, their numbers have been quite low when compared to those focussing on corporate reports. Additionally, there has been little research on the link between sustainability reporting in Public Sector Organisations (PSOs) and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability (OCMS). This paper focuses on the contribution of sustainability reporting to OCMS. A survey was sent to all PSOs that have published at least one sustainability report based on the GRI guidelines. The study provides a critical analysis of the relation between sustainability reporting and OCMS in PSOs, including the drivers for reporting, the impacts on organisation change management, and the role of stakeholders in the process. Despite still lagging in sustainability reporting journey, PSOs are starting to use sustainability reporting as a communication tool, and this could drive organisational changes for sustainability.

  1. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P; Ebi, Kristie L; Culp, Derrin; Redlener, Irwin

    2015-08-11

    The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region's coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region's unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region's ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  2. Winning at litigation through decision analysis creating and executing winning strategies in any litigation or dispute

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, John

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first in-depth guide to applying the philosophy, theory, and methods of decision analysis to creating and executing winning legal strategies. With explanations that progress from introductory to advanced and practice problems at the end of each chapter, this is a book the reader will want to use and refer to for years to come. Practicing decision analysts, operations research and management science students, attorneys and law students will find this book an invaluable addition to their knowledge and skills. John Celona has over three decades of experience in teaching and applying decision analysis. John lectures in the School of Engineering at Stanford University and is on faculty at The Stanford Center for Professional Development, the American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Sciences, and the Academy of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management.

  3. The burgeoning field of transdisciplinary adaptation research in Quebec (1998-): a climate change-related public health narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Bélanger, Diane; Lapaige, Véronique; Labbé, Yolaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a public health narrative on Quebec's new climatic conditions and human health, and describes the transdisciplinary nature of the climate change adaptation research currently being adopted in Quebec, characterized by the three phases of problem identification, problem investigation, and problem transformation. A transdisciplinary approach is essential for dealing with complex ill-defined problems concerning human-environment interactions (for example, climate change), for allowing joint research, collective leadership, complex collaborations, and significant exchanges among scientists, decision makers, and knowledge users. Such an approach is widely supported in theory but has proved to be extremely difficult to implement in practice, and those who attempt it have met with heavy resistance, succeeding when they find the occasional opportunity within institutional or social contexts. In this paper we narrate the ongoing struggle involved in tackling the negative effects of climate change in multi-actor contexts at local and regional levels, a struggle that began in a quiet way in 1998. The paper will describe how public health adaptation research is supporting transdisciplinary action and implementation while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction to tackle a life-world problem (adaptation of the Quebec public health sector to climate change) in multi-actors contexts has progressively been established during the last 13 years. The first of the two sections introduces the social context of a Quebec undergoing climate changes. Current climatic conditions and expected changes will be described, and attendant health risks for the Quebec population. The second section addresses the scientific, institutional and normative dimensions of the problem. It corresponds to a "public health narrative" presented in three phases: (1) problem identification (1998-2002) beginning in northern Quebec; (2) problem investigation (2002-2006) in which

  4. Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It's the modern consumer mind - compete to eat, save to the grave, throw to the wind to win! Never the game that's im portant - it's the beer , the fag. . . and if you're broke it's just the "odds" to turn you on. "Socrates didn't play dice games. He drank a lot. And when he was drunk he would go watch the game and give advice. It was because of bad advice that he was eventually sentenced to death. . . Back then it was more fun. Nobody knew anything about odds. It was just put down your money, you toss the dice, you laugh, you take another drink." - to Cassidy,it's knowing the odds that's put everybody on pot. Rack Cassidy's Winning at Poker and Games of Chance lampoons the illogic logic of modern "instructed" man. It is a disturbingly funny caricature of a nonsensical consumer's mind trying to ratio nalize the game of life, and what comes out is "hash" - not meat and potatoes. The book is high philosophical slapstick comedy ila Charlie Chaplin on paper in today's scene. To Cassidy, consumer thinking has made intellectual nitwits of us. We're always ex plaining in detail about what we don't have the slightest real understanding of, but we go on and on like automats spitting out words and words which in the long run make no sense to our__ selves and much less to the other poor broken down human calculat ing machines - especially when we try to give logic to our il/logical vices and fears.

  5. Changes in employers' image of ideal dentists and managers in the Swedish public dental sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Cecilia; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2002-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that employers are keen to have employees whose attitudinal and behavioral traits are consistent with the employers' ideology. One way of ascertaining the image of ideal individuals is to analyze the required qualifications in job advertisements. The aim of this study was to explore possible changes in the employers' view of the ideal manager and dentist in the Swedish Public Dental Health Service (PDHS). The study investigated the kinds and frequencies of manifestly required qualifications concerning vacancies in the PDHS from January 1990 to December 1998. All job advertisements intended for dentists and managers on different hierarchical levels in general dentistry were included (n = 1152); 5705 qualification demands were analyzed by content analysis permitting quantitative descriptions of the textual material as well as an analysis of the underlying characteristics over time. The study indicates that, for dentists, dental professional qualifications or qualifications in accordance with the official objective of dental care were insufficient. While requests for qualifications relating to the economic organizational goals of the PDHS increased during the latter part of the period under study, requests relating to the dental profession decreased. For managers, too, the demands for dental professional qualifications had decreased at the end of the studied period compared to the demands for managerial qualifications and non-professional qualifications, which had increased. In conclusion, the job advertisement portrays the ideal dentist and manager primarily as an economic organizational asset.

  6. Win-win solutions for the climate and the ozone layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    After some 20 years of effective action under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, governments are now addressing the fact that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and some of the chemicals used as substitutes for them are greenhouse gases that together contribute significantly to global warming. Policymakers face a serious dilemma. Stopping the destruction of the ozone layer is vital for protecting human health and vulnerable ecosystems. But minimizing climate change and its expected consequences for both manmade and natural systems is also essential. What can be done to tackle both the ozone and climate change challenges without making unacceptable trade-offs or compromises? To answer this question, the governing bodies of the Montreal Protocol and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change jointly requested a scientific and technical assessment. Working Groups I (science) and III (mitigation) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), together with the ozone regime's Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), responded by producing a Special Report in April 2005 entitled 'Safeguarding the ozone layer and the global climate system: issues related to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs)'. Based on the most up-to-date scientific and technical literature available, the report concludes that it will indeed be possible to maintain the Montreal Protocol's momentum while achieving the goals of the Climate Change Convention and its Kyoto Protocol. It identifies a portfolio of solutions that - if energetically applied - could cut the global warming contribution of CFCs and their replacements in half by the year 2015 compared to 2002 levels. This reduction can be achieved even though global economic growth will boost demand for the functions traditionally provided by CFCs. UNEP has produced this short public information booklet with the aim of making the Special Report

  7. Quality and Change Management at the Malaysian Public School System. The case of SIGS

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between total quality management implementation in Malaysian public schooling system, student passing rate and achievement, and the level of governmental spending on public education. This research aims to develop better understanding of the underlying principles to such high student performance in the general examination, and whether substantial governmental investments in public education can yield over time such high performance. T...

  8. BMC Ecology image competition 2014: the winning images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Simon; Henderson, Caspar; Baguette, Michel; Bonsall, Michael B; Hughes, David; Settele, Josef

    2014-08-29

    BMC Ecology showcases the winning entries from its second Ecology Image Competition. More than 300 individual images were submitted from an international array of research scientists, depicting life on every continent on earth. The journal's Editorial Board and guest judge Caspar Henderson outline why their winning selections demonstrated high levels of technical skill and aesthetic sense in depicting the science of ecology, and we also highlight a small selection of highly commended images that we simply couldn't let you miss out on.

  9. Come rain or shine? Public expectation on local weather change and differential effects on climate change attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y; Jim, C Y

    2015-11-01

    Tailored messages are instrumental to climate change communication. Information about the global threat can be 'localised' by demonstrating its linkage with local events. This research ascertains the relationship between climate change attitude and perception of local weather, based on a survey involving 800 Hong Kong citizens. Results indicate that concerns about climate change increase with expectations about the likelihood and impacts of local weather change. Climate change believers attend to all three types of adverse weather events, namely, temperature rises, tropical cyclones and prolonged rains. Climate scepticism, however, is not associated with expectation about prolonged rains. Differential spatial orientations are a possible reason. Global climate change is an unprecedented and distant threat, whereas local rain is a more familiar and localised weather event. Global climate change should be articulated in terms that respect local concerns. Localised framing may be particularly effective for engaging individuals holding positive views about climate change science.

  10. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrusfield, M; Ortega, C; de Blas, I; Noordhuizen, J P; Frankena, K

    2001-05-05

    Recent changes in veterinary medicine have required quantitative epidemiological techniques for designing field surveys, identifying risk factors for multifactorial diseases, and assessing diagnostic tests. Several relevant techniques are brought together in the package of veterinary epidemiological computer software, WIN EPISCOPE 2.0, described in this paper. It is based on Microsoft Windows and includes modules for the design and analysis of field surveys, control campaigns and observational studies, and a simple mathematical model. It provides comprehensive 'Help' screens and should therefore be useful not only in field investigations but also for teaching veterinary epidemiology.

  11. Public interest in climate change over the past decade and the effects of the ‘climategate’ media event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R. L.; Goldsmith, Gregory R.

    2014-05-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific consensus concerning anthropogenic climate change, many in the non-expert public perceive climate change as debated and contentious. There is concern that two recent high-profile media events—the hacking of the University of East Anglia emails and the Himalayan glacier melt rate presented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—may have altered public opinion of climate change. While survey data is valuable for tracking public perception and opinion over time, including in response to climate-related media events, emerging methods that facilitate rapid assessment of spatial and temporal patterns in public interest and opinion could be exceptionally valuable for understanding and responding to these events’ effects. We use a novel, freely-available dataset of worldwide web search term volumes to assess temporal patterns of interest in climate change over the past ten years, with a particular focus on looking at indicators of climate change skepticism around the high-profile media events. We find that both around the world and in the US, the public searches for the issue as ‘global warming,’ rather than ‘climate change,’ and that search volumes have been declining since a 2007 peak. We observe high, but transient spikes of search terms indicating skepticism around the two media events, but find no evidence of effects lasting more than a few months. Our results indicate that while such media events are visible in the short-term, they have little effect on salience of skeptical climate search terms on longer time-scales.

  12. Advancing Health Equity and Climate Change Solutions in California Through Integration of Public Health in Regional Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Solange M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant public health danger, with a disproportionate impact on low-income and communities of color that threatens to increase health inequities. Many important social determinants of health are at stake in California climate change policy-making and planning, and the distribution of these will further impact health inequities. Not only are these communities the most vulnerable to future health impacts due to the cumulative impacts of unequal environmental exposures a...

  13. 75 FR 39954 - Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests; Public Meeting; Change of Meeting Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests; Public Meeting... entitled ``Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests.'' A new address is given for those attending the public... interested stakeholders to discuss the agency's oversight of laboratory developed tests. FDA announced in...

  14. A Critical Exploration of Changing Definitions of Public Good in Relation to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between higher education (HE) and public good can be traced to Kant's argument that universities critically held society to account. Mill, Newman and Arnold suggested knowledge itself was a public good. In the twentieth century, economists argued education could drive national technological progress. More recently…

  15. Governance of Banks in an Era of Regulatory Change and Declining Public Confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minto, Andrea; McCormick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms have become more intrusive for banks than might be thought appropriate for “ordinary corporates”. “Heavier” regulation in this area is justified by the public interest at stake in bank activity and the risk to the public interest if a bank is allowed to fail (and the cos

  16. Persistence and Change: Paul Watzlawick's Influence on Presumption in Public Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartanen, Michael

    This paper presents a theory of presumption in public debate based upon Paul Watzlawick's principles of communication. The first section of the paper details briefly the nature of presumption in contemporary argumentation theory. The second section hypothesizes a role for presumption in public debate derived principally from Watzlawick's works.…

  17. Changes in Obesity Awareness, Obesity Identification, and Self-Assessment of Health: Results from a Statewide Public Education Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Adam G.; Boyle, Tracy F.; Hill, James O.; Lindley, Corina; Weiss, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of obesity, individuals may be desensitized to weight as a personal health concern. Purpose: To evaluate changes in obesity awareness associated with a statewide public education campaign in Colorado. Methods: Cross-sectional random digit dial telephone surveys (n = 1,107 pre, n = 1101 post) were conducted…

  18. Changes in Student Fee Levels in California's Public Postsecondary Education Systems. Commission Fact Sheet 04-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares student fee levels near the time of adoption of the Masterplan in 1969 with 2004. Changes in the level and use of student fees include the following: (1) California public universities have increased student fees dramatically over the past 15 years--still, they are among the lowest when compared with other states; (2)…

  19. Adult Education for Social and Environmental Change in Contemporary Public Art Galleries and Museums in Canada, Scotland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, pubic art galleries and museums have a well-deserved reputation for elitism, colonialism and exclusion and they are, therefore, frequently omitted from the discourse of adult education. However, the escalating social, cultural and ecological problems of this new century have placed pressure on these public institutions to change and…

  20. 新版GMP与Simatic WinCC%The New Version of GMP and Simatic WinCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸿祥

    2011-01-01

    介绍新版GMP发布的背景及对制药行业自动化系统提出的新要求。GMP认证规范以及Simatic WinCC对于FDA 21 CFR Part 11法规的遵从情况。%This essay maily describe the background of new released GMP and fresh demand on automation system of pharmaceutical industry.The certification specifications of GMP and compliance response FDA 21 CFR Part 11 for Simatic WinCC are introduced in detail.

  1. Authorized manufacturing changes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezér, Balázs; Buzás, Zsuzsanna; Sebeszta, Miklós; Zrubka, Zsombor

    2016-05-01

    Background The quality of biologicals, including biosimilars, is subject to change as a result of manufacturing process modifications following initial authorization. It is important that such product changes have no adverse impact on product efficacy or safety, including immunogenicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the number and types of manufacturing changes for originator mAbs (the reference for the comparability exercise to confirm biosimilarity) according to European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documentation and to ascertain the level of risk these changes might impart. The extensive body of evidence contained in the EPAR documents can help support the EMA during the EC marketing authorization approval process for biosimilars, since it provides a broad base of scientific experience. Research designs and methods For EPAR-listed mAbs, details of all changes listed chronologically in the EPAR were evaluated and described. Based on these descriptions the manufacturing changes can be categorized by risk status (low, moderate or high). Results Entries for 29 mAbs with publicly available EPAR reports were reviewed. These contained details of 404 manufacturing changes authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA): 22 were categorized as high risk, 286 as moderate risk and 96 as low risk manufacturing changes. A limitation of this analysis is that it only summarizes publicly available data from EPAR documents. Conclusions Manufacturing change data indicate that the EMA has significant experience of process changes for originator mAbs, and the impact they may have on the efficacy and safety of biologicals. This experience will be useful in biosimilar product development to ensure adherence to sound scientific principles. Compared with the established manufacturing process for a reference product, the production of biosimilars will usually be different. Consequently, in addition to a comprehensive comparative functional and physicochemical

  2. Abstinence and Relapse Rates Following a College Campus-Based Quit & Win Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; An, Larry; Luo, Xianghua; Scherber, Robyn M.; Berg, Carla J.; Golden, Dave; Ehlinger, Edward P.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To conduct and evaluate Quit & Win contests at 2 2-year college and 2 4-year university campuses. Participants: During Spring semester, 2006, undergraduates (N = 588) interested in quitting smoking signed up for a Quit & Win 30-day cessation contest for a chance to win a lottery prize. Methods: Participants (N = 588) completed a…

  3. Winning Horizon2020 with Open Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Elbæk, Mikael Karstensen; Rettberg, Najla

    2016-01-01

    ” in future, rather than just research output. OS can also be an effective tool for research managers to transfer knowledge to society, and optimize the use and re-use by unforeseen collaborators. For funders, OS offers a better return on investment (ROI) for public funding, and underpins the EU Digital...

  4. Blogs and Twitter in medical publications: too unreliable to quote, or a change waiting to happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Biswas, Tamoghna

    2011-09-27

    With the ubiquitous connectivity offered by the Internet, social media sites (like Twitter and Facebook) and personal publishing platforms (blogs) are proliferating rapidly. In this new, evolving scenario of social media, these tools become an important medium to disseminate information at a lightning speed. However, the conventional medical publication model is less than eager to regard them as equivalent to traditional modes of information dissemination. In this article we examine the role played by social media as a critic of the medical publication system, and how it acts as a safeguard by building a platform for post-publication peer review.

  5. D2 dining center wins whole grains challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Brandi

    2007-01-01

    The Whole Grains Council and Oldways food issues advocacy group challenged restaurants and foodservice operations across the country to step up to the plate and offer more whole grain options this summer. Virginia Tech's Dining Services did just that and swept the competition, winning the college/university category, as well as the grand prize, beating out entries from nine other categories.

  6. Winning in straight sets helps in Grand Slam tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Dries R.; Kempeneers, Jurgen; Koning, Ruud H.; Spieksma, Frits C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we study whether fatigue resulting from the previous match affects a player's chances of winning his (or her) next match in Grand Slum tennis. We measure relative fatigue levels of two opponents by looking at the difference in number of sets played in their previous match. We d

  7. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school district,…

  8. WinFood data from Kenya and Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owino, Victor O; Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Omollo, Selina

    2015-01-01

    during randomized, controlled trials (WinFood Study) designed to assess the efficacy of locally produced complementary foods based on traditional animal-source foods (edible termites and spiders) to support growth and nutritional status in Kenyan and Cambodian infants. METHODS: In a randomized...

  9. Steal These Ideas! Winning Activities from Real Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several winning activities for students in the classroom. These activities include: (1) making Abraham Lincoln costumes; (2) creating frosty scenes from torn-paper collage for a grammar activity; (3) listening to Dr. Martin Luther King's "I have a Dream" speech; (4) hosting an architectural challenge for a kindergarten class;…

  10. The Sport League's Dilemma : Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either t

  11. Cogeneration: a winning game for the players who risk it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Cogeneration holds out the tantalizing prospect of lower utility rates and affordable energy. But the stakes are high. Now an expert player - the cogen developer - offers to negotiate the gameboard and guarantee a win to those willing to take a chance on his services.

  12. Economic Education Experiences of Award Winning Alaska Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monica, Ed.

    Award-winning economic education projects devised by Alaska teachers included three elementary (K-6) projects and three second level (7-12) ones. Faith Greenough's students (Chinook Elementary School, Anchorage) compared Tlingit traditional and market economies in Alaska, so economics became an integrated part of elementary instruction. Marie…

  13. LGBT Caucus sponsors award-winning film and PBS director

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The LGBT faculty-staff caucus at Virginia Tech will host the award-winning PBS film director Daniel Karslake, and an educational screening of "For the Bible Tells Me So" at The Lyric Theatre Thursday, Nov. 29 at 7 p.m.

  14. Winning Facebook - and the Rest of the World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hansen, Kasper Møller; Schwartz, Sander Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of nine leading candidates’ communication on Facebook during the parliament election campaign in Denmark in fall 2011. It relates their communication to the historical use of social media in Denmark by politicians, to Danish candidate campaign communication in general...... conclude that certain types of content may win Facebook, but the election itself is still largely won through TV....

  15. A SAS Interface for Bayesian Analysis with WinBUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Wang, Lijuan; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian methods are becoming very popular despite some practical difficulties in implementation. To assist in the practical application of Bayesian methods, we show how to implement Bayesian analysis with WinBUGS as part of a standard set of SAS routines. This implementation procedure is first illustrated by fitting a multiple regression model…

  16. Responsible Climate Change Adaptation : Exploring, analysing and evaluating public and private responsibilities for urban adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Cities are vulnerable to climate change. To deal with climate change, city governments and private actors such as businesses and citizens need to adapt to its effects, such as sea level rise, storm surges, intense rainfall and heatwaves. However, adaptation planning and action is often hampered when

  17. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  18. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  19. Implementing and translating change in health care and public organizations - what researchers know and what to do about it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    clear conclusions about the nature of and the cause and effect relationships related to organizational change in all of these communities. The difficulties are related to the study of organizational change as being realism and becoming realism and to the status of the knowledge claims......In Denmark as well in other countries, new innovative ideas are continuously introduced in order to change health care and other public organizations. As a consequence health care and other professionals are often asking themselves how to introduce these ideas effectively. When asking...

  20. 75 FR 69475 - Notice Regarding Changed Venue for Public Hearing On a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... nepacomments@nsf.gov . The presentation slides used by NSF at the public hearings are posted on the NSF Web... perceived inconsistency between the presentation and the Draft PEIS, the language in the Draft PEIS...

  1. The Politics of Neutrality and the Changing Role of Expertise in Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article explores and discusses the ongoing attempt to reinstate an ethos of neutrality in public administration. It focuses on the political benefits and costs of contemporary strategies in public administration for using expertise based on an ethos of neutrality. On the one hand, expertise ...... of expertise as a mode of supporting neutrality is also problematic inasmuch as it may serve to endorse a politics of necessity and, unwittingly, reduce the scope of political agency....

  2. Policy Directions Addressing the Public Health Impact of Climate Change in South Korea: The Climate-change Health Adaptation and Mitigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Seung; Ha, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, caused by global warming, is increasingly recognized as a major threat to mankind's survival. Climate change concurrently has both direct and modifying influences on environmental, social, and public health systems undermining human health as a whole. Environmental health policy-makers need to make use of political and technological alternatives to address these ramifying effects. The objective of this paper is to review public health policy in Korea, as well as internationally, particularly as it relates to climate change health adaptation and mitigation programs (such as C-CHAMP of Korea), in order to assess and elicit directions for a robust environmental health policy that is adaptive to the health impacts of climate change. In Korea, comprehensive measures to prevent or mitigate overall health effects are limited, and the diffusion of responsibility among various government departments makes consistency in policy execution very difficult. This paper proposes integration, synergy, and utilization as the three core principles of policy direction for the assessment and adaptation to the health impacts of climate change. For specific action plans, we suggest policy making based on scientifically integrated health impact assessments and the prioritization of environmental factors in climate change; the development of practical and technological tools that support policy decisions by making their political implementation more efficient; and customized policy development that deals with the vulnerability of local communities.

  3. Effectively Communicating Information about Dynamically Changing Arctic Sea Ice to the Public through the Global Fiducials Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Friesen, B.; Wilson, E.; Noble, S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 15, 2009, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released a report, Scientific Value of Arctic Sea Ice Imagery Derived Products, advocating public release of Arctic images derived from classified data. In the NAS press release that announced the release, report lead Stephanie Pfirman states "To prepare for a possibly ice-free Arctic and its subsequent effects on the environment, economy, and national security, it is critical to have accurate projections of changes over the next several decades." In the same release NAS President Ralph Cicerone states "We hope that these images are the first of many that could help scientists learn how the changing climate could impact the environment and our society." The same day, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced that the requested images had been released and were available to the public on a US Geological Survey Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Library website (http://gfl.usgs.gov). The website was developed by the USGS to provide public access to the images and to support environmental analysis of global climate-related science. In the statement describing the release titled, Information Derived from Classified Materials Will Aid Understanding of Changing Climate, Secretary Salazar states "We need the best data from all places if we are to meet the challenges that rising carbon emissions are creating. This information will be invaluable to scientists, researchers, and the public as we tackle climate change." Initially about 700 Arctic sea ice images were released. Six years later, the number exceeds 1,500. The GFP continues to facilitate the acquisition of new Arctic sea ice imagery from US National Imagery Systems. This example demonstrates how information about dynamically changing Arctic sea ice continues to be effectively communicated to the public by the GFP. In addition to Arctic sea ice imagery, the GFP has publicly released imagery time series of more than 125 other environmentally important

  4. WinRAR 添加新的右键菜单

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2007-01-01

    @@ WinRAR是我们经常使用的压缩软件,而其中最常用的功能直接用右键菜单进行压缩或是解压缩操作.不过,WinRAR自带的几项菜单项总有这样或那样的不便之处,下面我们就来为WinRAR的右键菜单增加新选项(注意:根据情况修改WinRAR的安装路径,本文以WinRAR安装在C:\\Program files\\Winrar\\为例).

  5. Organizational change, psychosocial work environment, and non-disability early retirement: a prospective study among senior public employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-02-06

    Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly data on non-disability early retirement transfer were obtained from the DREAM register database, which holds weekly information about all public benefit payments in Denmark. Hazard ratios (HR) for early retirement following employees' 60 (th)birthday were estimated with Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results Exposure to change of management [HR 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.66], mergers (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), and relocation of work unit (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) increased rate of non-disability early retirement, while demerging of work unit did not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79-1.33). Work units with lower levels of social capital (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.41), organizational justice, (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and quality of management (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) increased rate of early retirement. Conclusion Organizational change and poor psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level.

  6. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AS A TOOL TO CHANGE THE IMAGE OF A COUNTRY IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vaxevanidou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the means, the methods, and the techniques of public diplomacy that a country in crisis, such as Greece, should use. The paper addresses the very issues of whether a country in crisis can conduct public diplomacy and whether it should be recognized as a legitimate and powerful actor in the field. In a broader sense, it focuses on the processes that a country should follow and how a better understanding and framing of its situation, principles, and policy can be provided. A crucial factor for such countries is the choice of communication channels, which includes traditional tools like press releases, letters to editor, editorials, interviews, or more active tools like social media, events, campaigns, and networking. In this paper, three dimensions of public diplomacy are examined, and appropriate tools to be developed in the short, medium and long-term are proposed. The results of the study are based on case studies, methods, and tools employed by Greece during the last years that the country has faced a huge economic crisis. There is a short presentation on the methods that Greece tries to adopt in order to enhance its image worldwide. Keywords: reactive public diplomacy, proactive public diplomacy, relationship building

  7. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor stimulation and blockade on food consumption and body weight in rats treated with a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska, Elżbieta; Bojanowska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and endocannabinoids are involved in appetite control. Recently we have demonstrated that cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor antagonist and GLP-1 receptor agonist synergistically suppress food intake in the rat. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of GLP-1 receptor stimulation or blockade on feeding behavior in rats treated with WIN 55,212-2, a CB1 receptor agonist. Material/Methods Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats. In the first experiment the effects of increasing doses (0.5–4.0 mg/kg) of WIN 55,212-2 injected intraperitoneally on 24-hour food consumption were tested. In further experiments a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), and WIN 55,212-2 or a GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, and WIN 55,212-2 were injected intraperitoneally at subthreshold doses (that alone did not change food intake and body weight) to investigate whether these agents may interact to affect food intake in rats. Results WIN 55,212-2 administered at low doses (0.5–2 mg/kg) did not markedly change 24-hour food consumption; however, at the highest dose, daily food intake was inhibited. Combined administration of WIN 55,212-2 and exendin (9-39) did not change the amount of food consumed compared to either the control group or to each agent injected alone. Combined injection of WIN 55,212-2 and exendin-4 at subthreshold doses resulted in a significant decrease in food intake and body weight in rats. Conclusions Stimulation of the peripheral CB1 receptor by its agonist WIN 55,212-2 can induce anorexigenic effects or potentiate, even at a subthreshold dose, the effects of exendin-4, a known anorectic agent. Hence, this dual action of the cannabinoid system should be considered in the medical use of CB1 agonists. PMID:23291632

  8. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Background Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Methods Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). Results 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. Conclusions These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. PMID:28087545

  9. Heterogeneous resource allocation can change social hierarchy in public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public Goods Games represent one of the most useful tools to study group interactions between individuals. However, even if they could provide an explanation for the emergence and stability of cooperation in modern societies, they are not able to reproduce some key features observed in social and economical interactions. The typical shape of wealth distribution - known as Pareto Law - and the microscopic organization of wealth production are two of them. Here, we introduce a modification to the classical formulation of Public Goods Games that allows for the emergence of both of these features from first principles. Unlike traditional Public Goods Games on networks, where players contribute equally to all the games in which they participate, we allow individuals to redistribute their contribution according to what they earned in previous rounds. Results from numerical simulations show that not only a Pareto distribution for the payoffs naturally emerges but also that if players don't invest enough in one round...

  10. Productivity in public welfare services is changing: the standpoint of strategic competence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Seija

    2013-01-01

    In Finland the municipal restructuring project was launched in 2005. Its goal is to create a system that ensures high-quality municipal welfare services for everyone, continuing into the future. The main focus of this research is to examine the tension between strategic competence-based management and productivity in public welfare services. The theoretical basis covers theories regarding strategic competence-based management and productivity. To guarantee services and quality it is important to strengthen the supply of employees, competence, development, leverage, and benefits in public organizations. Leadership has a significant role in strategic competence-based management.

  11. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  12. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools…

  13. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  14. Continuity and Change in the Pursuit of a Democratic Public Mission for Our Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, G. Thomas; Goodlad, John I.

    2008-01-01

    An essential mission of schools, Mr. Bellamy and Mr. Goodlad argue, is ensuring that each new generation understands the principles and institutions that support democratic life. Schools require vigilant stewardship to serve this public purpose. Much of the needed work is local, but it depends on new and challenging collaborations among education…

  15. Local heat stroke prevention plans in Japan: characteristics and elements for public health adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Imai, Chisato; Masumo, Kanako

    2011-12-01

    The adverse health effects from hot weather and heat waves represent significant public health risks in vulnerable areas worldwide. Rising temperatures due to climate change are aggravating these risks in a context of fast urbanization, population growth and societal ageing. However, environmental heat-related health effects are largely preventable through adequate preparedness and responses. Public health adaptation to climate change will often require the implementation of heat wave warning systems and targeted preventive activities at different levels. While several national governments have established such systems at the country level, municipalities do not generally play a major role in the prevention of heat disorders. This paper analyzes selected examples of locally operated heat-health prevention plans in Japan. The analysis of these plans highlights their strengths, but also the need of local institutions for assistance to make the transition towards an effective public health management of high temperatures and heat waves. It can also provide useful elements for municipal governments in vulnerable areas, both in planning their climate change and health adaptation activities or to better protect their communities against current health effects from heat.

  16. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the ‘moral hazard’ argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies—the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed ‘self-enhancing’ values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed. PMID:25404680

  17. Shifts in guidelines for ethical scientific conduct: how public and private organizations create and change norms of research integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Oliver, Amalya L

    2009-02-01

    We analyze the activities and actors involved in articulating and diffusing guidelines for ethical scientific conduct from 1975 to the present. We use a theoretical framework of institutional change at the organizational-field level to examine the co-evolution of the structure of the organizational field of 'scientific research' and its institutional logic. Public agencies have long provided funding to US universities to support faculty research, expecting that implicit norms of scientific conduct would guide behavior. Growing publicity about research fraud in the late 1960s and early 1970s triggered a shift from implicit norms to explicit behavioral proscriptions, with strong administrative oversight. As private sources of research funding exert new pressures on research behavior, public-private partnerships are emerging to articulate explicit, yet voluntary prescriptive norms of research integrity. The analysis demonstrates the co-evolution and co-dependence of changes in the identity and strength of influential actors in the field of scientific research and changes in the norms of scientific conduct. We examine how the normative guidelines have been constructed over time, illustrating the persistence of earlier norms as the foundation for current guidelines. We conclude with implications for future research conduct.

  18. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  19. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  20. Winning on our Issues with Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tattersall

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Social movement organisations need to have a pragmatic understanding of our current weaknesses and challenge ourselves to be much more adventurous for how to build social power and transformative change. This article considers three core weaknesses of our activist organisations, including how our issue agenda is often reactive, our disconnection from place and our poor track record on collaboration. It then suggests that the hope for stronger social change lies with a proactive issue agenda, strong reciprocal coalitions and the ability to move campaigns at multiple scales (locally, regionally, nationally, globally. The article includes a variety of examples that suggest how this stronger kind of organising is possible.

  1. Safety and communication, a winning combination

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    Since 2013, in line with its mission to support CERN’s proactive communication policy in matters of safety, the HSE unit has been following an annual plan for disseminating information on occupational health and safety and environmental protection.   Safety information designed to underline the importance of prevention is published through a variety of channels: Announcements in the CERN Bulletin, Safety bulletins, notably outlining lessons to be learned in the wake of accidents/incidents occuring at CERN, Safety alerts calling for immediate action, sent by e-mail to the services concerned, Prevention campaigns on the CERN site, Poster campaigns in well frequented public areas. Photo: Christoph Balle. Please heed all prevention messages and apply them in your everyday life. Also, we will be pleased to receive any information or suggestions you may have on safety matters. If you have questions about the HSE unit’s communication activities, please send us an e...

  2. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  3. Validation of White-Matter Lesion Change Detection Methods on a Novel Publicly Available MRI Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Žiga; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Špiclin, Žiga

    2016-10-01

    Changes of white-matter lesions (WMLs) are good predictors of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). Based on longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging the changes can be monitored, while the need for their accurate and reliable quantification led to the development of several automated MR image analysis methods. However, an objective comparison of the methods is difficult, because publicly unavailable validation datasets with ground truth and different sets of performance metrics were used. In this study, we acquired longitudinal MR datasets of 20 MS patients, in which brain regions were extracted, spatially aligned and intensity normalized. Two expert raters then delineated and jointly revised the WML changes on subtracted baseline and follow-up MR images to obtain ground truth WML segmentations. The main contribution of this paper is an objective, quantitative and systematic evaluation of two unsupervised and one supervised intensity based change detection method on the publicly available datasets with ground truth segmentations, using common pre- and post-processing steps and common evaluation metrics. Besides, different combinations of the two main steps of the studied change detection methods, i.e. dissimilarity map construction and its segmentation, were tested to identify the best performing combination.

  4. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management.

  5. Public Perception of Climate Change: The Importance of Knowledge and Cultural Worldviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The importance of knowledge for lay people's climate change concerns has been questioned in recent years, as it had been suggested that cultural values are stronger predictors of concern about climate change than knowledge. Studies that simultaneously measured knowledge related to climate change and cultural values have, however, been missing. We conducted a mail survey in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (N = 1,065). Results suggested that cultural worldviews and climate-related knowledge were significantly related with people's concern about climate change. Also, cultural worldviews and climate-relevant knowledge appeared important for people's willingness to change behaviors and to accept climate change policies. In addition, different types of knowledge were found to have different impacts on people's concern about climate change, their willingness to change behaviors, and their acceptance of policies about climate change. Specifically, causal knowledge significantly increased concern about climate change and willingness to support climate-friendly policies. We therefore concluded that risk communication should focus on causal knowledge, provided this knowledge does not threaten cultural values.

  6. He Who Best Manages Intersubjectivity - Wins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.

    This paper will reflect on the last 20 years of changes in military intelligence education within the context of a paradigm shift. Essentially the paper will argue that many of the methods used by military intelligence today, including support to narrative warfare, human terrain mapping, and non-...

  7. WINNING HEARTS AND MINDS IN THE NAMIBIAN BORDER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieneke Eloff de Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine acknowledged the importance of securing the allegiance and cooperation of the population. This article demonstrates that, in the operational zone, the responsibility of winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian people largely fell to the SADF (South African Defence Force. Although the SADF dedicated considerable resources to this task, these efforts were often at cross-purposes with those of institutions in the political, police and administrative domains. In addition, there was a lack of unity and purpose within the SADF. This article argues that lack of unity between and within the different domains undermined the effort at winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian population, and must at least partly have contributed to SWAPO´s victory in the 1989 elections.

  8. Risk communication, public engagement, and climate change: a role for emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the potential role that emotions might play in enticing a lifestyle that diminishes climate change. Climate change is an important challenge for society. There is a growing consensus that climate change is due to our behavior, but few people are willing to significantly adapt their lifestyle. Empirical studies show that people lack a sense of urgency: they experience climate change as a problem that affects people in distant places and in a far future. Several scholars have claimed that emotions might be a necessary tool in communication about climate change. This article sketches a theoretical framework that supports this hypothesis, drawing on insights from the ethics of risk and the philosophy of emotions. It has been shown by various scholars that emotions are important determinants in risk perception. However, emotions are generally considered to be irrational states and are hence excluded from communication and political decision making about risky technologies and climate change, or they are used instrumentally to create support for a position. However, the literature on the ethics of risk shows that the dominant, technocratic approach to risk misses the normative-ethical dimension that is inherent to decisions about acceptable risk. Emotion research shows that emotions are necessary for practical and moral decision making. These insights can be applied to communication about climate change. Emotions are necessary for understanding the moral impact of the risks of climate change, and they also paradigmatically provide for motivation. Emotions might be the missing link in effective communication about climate change.

  9. International emissions trading: a win/win solution for the challenge of Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, W. [TransAlta Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-04-01

    The contention of this author is that the technology change and capital stock renewal required to meet the Kyoto targets will, in effect, take much longer than the current Kyoto timeframe (2008-2012) would allow. This being the case, plus the fact that a tonne of carbon dioxide is a tonne of carbon dioxide anywhere on the globe, emission offset by cutting emissions elsewhere, or sequestering carbon is the most sensible short-to-medium term solution. With this argument as the base, the paper discusses the economic rationale for international emissions trading (IET), enumerates the experience with emissions trading to date in the United States, the pilot schemes such as GERT, PERT and KEFFI in Canada, and internal trades between subsidiaries. It also describes the role of the U.S. Emissions Marketing Association and the International Emissions Trading Association, reviews existing problems such as the formulation of international rules (at COP 6 in the Hague in November 2000), the level of transaction costs, host countries demand for a percentage of the credits, recipient country rules, types of credits, the potential for trade disputes, enforcement/compliance regimes, banking and credit for early action, buyer vs. seller liability, equity issues, and a host of other as yet unforeseen situations. The paper also examines the workplan of the International Emissions Trading Association and supports its efforts to urge private sector input into international negotiations, promote knowledge and support for emissions trading, build public credibility for the concept, bring together potential buyers and sellers, and build partnerships between developed and developing nations. The paper predicts that following the IETA workplan, international emissions trading could become a multi-billion dollar business by 2010; deliver real and verifiable emission cuts and sequestration; offer industry the least cost option; add to the national credits inventory for Canada and other credit

  10. EXCEPTIONAL COLLOQUIUM : Digital scholarship and the changing nature of scientific publication

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Digital media have extended the number of channels that scientists (and other academics) use to communicate and share information. Digital technologies have the potential to make all stages of the research process more visible in the public sphere, and to audiences that have, on occasion, opportunities for interaction and engagement. But digital technologies also are introducing novel demands on researchers, requiring skills and competencies on the part of scientists that are encapsulated by the concept of digital scholarship. In this presentation we explore this developing context via a case study: the publication of emails from the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (also known as ‘climategate’). The findings of three reviews of ‘climategate’ will be discussed in terms of their implications for science communication. This episode may indirectly influence the ways that scientific knowledge is produced and verified, and what information and data are required to be archived for cir...

  11. Lactation and the labor market: breastfeeding, labor market changes, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, J

    1997-01-01

    Public health authorities in the United States actively promote breast-feeding, with target goals for increased beast-feeding rates by the year 2000. In recent decades, however, there has been an increase in the number of American mothers with infants who are in the labor market. Drawing together research examining the intersection of breast-feeding and women's involvement in paid employment, as well as various labor market analyses, this study explores how national recommendations advocating increased breast-feeding among new mothers in paid work are reconciled with economic pressures to return to the labor force in the early postpartum period. This analysis highlights those employment-related factors that constrain the practice of breast-feeding, thereby impeding "choice" over infant feeding method for many mothers. Finally, there is an attempt to explore various employer and public policies and strategies potentially supportive of breast-feeding among mothers in paid employment.

  12. How Insurgents Win: Examining the Dynamics of Modern Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    insurgents that do not. These are by no means the only literary works covering the use of safe havens by insurgent groups. Almost every book, article, or...19. 23 Ivan Arreguín-Toft, “How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict,” International Security 26, no. 1 (2001): 93–128. 9...conflict. 2. Hypotheses This thesis separates the theories discussed in the previous literature review into five independent hypotheses. Each hypothesis

  13. Optimizing Distribution Problems using WinQSB Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mihai Amariei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we are presenting a problem of distribution using the Network Modeling Module of the WinQSB software, were we have 5 athletes which we must assign the optimal sample, function of the obtained time, so as to obtain the maximum output of the athletes. Also we analyzed the case of an accident of 2 athletes, the coupling of 3 athletes with 5 various athletic events causing the maximum coupling, done using the Hungarian algorithm.

  14. BMC Ecology Image Competition 2015: the winning images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenski, Catherine J; Porzecanski, Ana Luz; Baguette, Michel; Clobert, Jean; Hughes, David; Settele, Josef

    2015-07-29

    For the third time, BMC Ecology is delighted to announce the winners of our Image Competition. This year featured entries from all over the world and showcased not only the creativity and talent of the participants, but also the exquisite beauty and diversity of our planet. We are pleased to present the winning selections of the editorial board of the journal and guest judge Dr. Ana Luz Porzecanski, as well as some highly commended images that are sure to impress.

  15. Changing Public Policy Due to Saudi City of Jeddah Flood Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naill M. Momani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discussed the last flood disaster which occurred in Jeddah City-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 25th of November 2009 which caused more than 121 fatalities and billions of dollars in losses in addition to around 20,000 sheltered families which cause a shift in public policy to deal with natural disasters in Saudi Arabia. Approach: We followed the flood disaster events starting from rain fall to the recovery stage. Then, timeline for the event is constructed with the intention to document and draw lessons for quick response in future disasters. Results: Natural causes and human errors and lack of clear public policy to deal with natural disasters were the most contributors to human and monetary losses due to the flood disaster in Jeddah City. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is necessary to have declared public policy for accountability which enable decision makers develop and implement policies and procedures, as well as plans to deal with natural and man-made disasters.

  16. Why do winners keep winning? Androgen mediation of winner but not loser effects in cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui F.; Silva, Ana; Canário, Adelino V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal conflicts are influenced by social experience such that a previous winning experience increases the probability of winning the next agonistic interaction, whereas a previous losing experience has the opposite effect. Since androgens respond to social interactions, increasing in winners and decreasing in losers, we hypothesized that socially induced transient changes in androgen levels could be a causal mediator of winner/loser effects. To test this hypothesis, we staged fights between dyads of size-matched males of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). After the first contest, winners were treated with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate and losers were supplemented with 11-ketotestosterone. Two hours after the end of the first fight, two contests were staged simultaneously between the winner of the first fight and a naive male and between the loser of first fight and another naive male. The majority (88%) of control winners also won the second interaction, whereas the majority of control losers (87%) lost their second fight, thus confirming the presence of winner/loser effects in this species. As predicted, the success of anti-androgen-treated winners in the second fight decreased significantly to chance levels (44%), but the success of androgenized losers (19%) did not show a significant increase. In summary, the treatment with anti-androgen blocks the winner effect, whereas androgen administration fails to reverse the loser effect, suggesting an involvement of androgens on the winner but not on the loser effect. PMID:19324741

  17. Plan to win your career battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, P M

    1995-05-01

    It is ironic that the central focus of our profession is predicated on our ability to plan; however, when the subject of career planning is discussed, we often leave it to change. Our career should be a series of planned events. The notion of doing a good job is no longer the key to a career. We must be proactive and develop a personal marketing strategy.

  18. New public management and management changes in Dutch local government : some recent experiences and future topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, H.J. ter

    2006-01-01

    Since about 1985, Dutch municipalities and provinces, i.e. local government, initiated many reforms and change projects in the field of their management control, which are lumped together here as ‘management changes’. Was the introduction of these changes mainly based on functionalist, ‘rational’ co

  19. A study on the promotion of cooperation with 'women in nuclear (WIN)- global'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, K. R.; Kim, D. Y. [and others

    2001-04-01

    International collaboration with WIN-Global. 1) Evaluation on current status for the foundation of WIN-Korea and investigation on the 1st to 8th WIN-Global conferences for the arrangement of 9th WIN-Global conferences 2) Manifestation on the roles of WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 3) Encouragement of active participation for WIN-Global activies -Establishment of internet net working for effective communication through the internet net working between women in science in Korea and other foreign countries. 1) Preparation and Organization of Women in Korea 2) Foundation of WIN-Korea Home Page in Net 3) Assembly of data for the net work construction in Korea - Enhancement of international cooperation between WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 1) Invitation of 9th WIN-Global Conference in Seoul, Korea 2) Enrollment of one of the Executives and Strengthening the activity of WIN-Korea as member of Board members 3) Characterization on main movements of WIN-Global through the active participation in international activities. - Arrangement for the 9th WIN-Global conference 1) Opperation of Organizing Committee and Supporting Committee and Secretariat 2) Supporting the 9th WIN-Global Confernce.

  20. Win-Wind. Simulation of regional decision making on wind energy; Win-Wind. Regionale besluitvorming over wind gesimuleerd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, M.I.C.A. [HASKONING Ingenieurs- en Architectenbureau, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    From 11-13 November 1998 3 regional debates on the use of wind energy were organized by HASKONING and Resource Analysis by order of the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem). Use has been made of the simulation tool Win-Wind: a role play, supported by a computer program, including maps and information on fictive, though realistic, projects in the field of wind power and policies with respect to the infrastructure and the environment (nature) in the Netherlands. The dynamic performance and the flexibility of the computer program (adjustments can be made immediately and the results can be discussed at the end of the debate) make Win-Wind an excellent tool, not only to discuss the political development and site selection for wind energy and of wind turbines on a provincial and regional level, but also to discuss other subjects with respect to spatial planning.

  1. How to win the blame game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D G

    2001-01-01

    At some companies, people are all too quick to point fingers, leaving employees more concerned about avoiding blame than about achieving results. Such organizations, ruled by "CYA," have given blame a bum rap. David Baldwin, a former Major League pitcher, says blame can be a powerful and constructive force. It can be an effective teaching tool that helps people avoid repeating their mistakes. When used judiciously--and sparingly--blame can also prod people to put forth their best efforts, while maintaining both their confidence and their focus on goals. Indeed, blame can have a very positive effect when it's done for the right reasons. The key, then, is the way that blame is managed, which can influence how people make decisions and perform their jobs and ultimately affect the culture and character of an organization. In the course of his research on how Major League Baseball managers make decisions, Baldwin became fascinated by the subject of blame--what functions it serves and how it's best managed. His observations led him to identify five rules of blame, which, he says, apply to any organization, whether it's the LA Dodgers, General Motors, or a small start-up. First, know when to blame--and when not to. Second, blame in private and praise in public. Third, realize that the absence of blame can be far worse than its presence. Fourth, manage misguided blame. And fifth, be aware that confidence is the first casualty of blame. Managers who follow these rules will use blame in the most positive and effective ways possible, Baldwin says. Without these rules, blame becomes an ever-more difficult balancing act: Too much erodes people's confidence, while too little hinders them from reaching their full potential.

  2. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years...... attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking...

  3. Local socioeconomic changes and public fiscal implications of coal development in Wayne County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, J. E.; Mosena, P. W.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-09-01

    This report attempts to characterize the economic and societal effects likely to accompany increased coal mining in and around Wayne County, West Virginia. The study concludes that population growth and increased demands for public services, with the exceptions of requirements for new roads, water, and sewer services, will be minimal as a result of the two new 2-million-tons-per-year deep mines planned for the area. The study estimates that both the County and the school district will experience positive new fiscal balances; i.e., more incremental annual revenue than additional mine-related annual expenditures. However, the town of Wayne is expected to experience a negative fiscal balance throughout the period of mine production. The study and its findings are each unique in several ways. First, the findings are somewhat unique in that major impacts (rapid population in-migration, shortages in housing and public services, and fiscal imbalances) are not projected to occur. In the heart of the coal mining district of Southern West Virginia similar levels of new mining may well have much different results. In areas, for example, where there are greater shortages of developable land, less adequate public and private infrastructure, and/or fewer available trained workers, the coal-related impacts would be dramatically different than those found for Wayne County. A second unique feature of this study concerns the manner in which it was originated and conducted. This study presents estimates of impacts for Wayne County and its associated jurisdictions which represent the combined knowledge and expertise of all parties involved: the citizens ofWayne County, the County Commission, the Advisory Board, the representatives from the Governor's Office, and the Argonne staff.

  4. Changing patterns in volatile anaesthetic agent consumption over seven years in Victorian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, L; Tay, S; Aykanat, V; Segal, R; Tan, C O; Peyton, P; McNicol, L; Story, D A

    2014-09-01

    Evidence-based choices of volatile agents can increase health cost efficiencies. In this pharmaco-economic study, we evaluated the trends and costs of volatile agent use in Australian public hospitals. The total number of volatile agent (isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane) bottles ordered and inflation-adjusted costs were collected from 65 Victorian public hospitals from 2005 to 2011. Environmental costs were measured through the 100-year global warming potential index as carbon dioxide equivalents. During this time period, the aggregate inflation-adjusted expenditure was $39,209,878. Time series analysis showed that bottles of isoflurane ordered decreased by 419/year (99% confidence interval (CI): -603 to -235); costs decreased by $56,017/year (99% CI: -$93,243 to -$18,791). Bottles of sevoflurane increased by 1,330/year (99% CI: 1141 to 1,519); costs decreased by $423,3573/year (99% CI: -$720,030 to -112,783). Bottles of desflurane increased by 726/year (99% CI: 288 to 1,164); costs increased by $171,578/year (99% CI: $136,951 to $206,205). The amount of calculated greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere over this period was 37,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents, with isoflurane contributing 6%, sevoflurane 17%, and desflurane 77% of this total. In conclusion, isoflurane is no longer being used in the majority of Victorian public hospitals, with sevoflurane and desflurane remaining as the primary volatile agents, utilised respectively at a ratio of 2.2 to 1, and costs at 0.8 to 1.

  5. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhe, E-mail: lizhe1212@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ouyang Minggao, E-mail: ouymg@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: > Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. > Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. > Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. > Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. > The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  6. Networked practices of intangible urban heritage: the changing public role of Dutch heritage professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the changing roles of heritage professionals by focusing on the participatory practices of intangible urban heritage. Developments towards democratisation in the heritage sector led to a growing expectation that heritage profe

  7. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  8. Distributed Leadership in Organizational Change Processes: A Qualitative Study in Public Hospital Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette; Jonasson, Charlotte; Ovesen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes that the emergence and boundaries of distributed leadership (DL) are developed in a dynamic interplay with planned as well as emergent organizational change. The empirical findings are based on a qualitative, longitudinal case study with interviews conducted at two different...... hospital units in the context of a larger hospital merger within the Danish health care system. The paper adds to prior studies arguing that DL contributes positively to planned organizational change by instead providing examples of how ongoing changes in contextual conditions such as routine....../non-routine, various goals, and organizational planning affect a simultaneous widening or restriction of the local DL. In return, such local DL also leads to ongoing changes in the form of novel work routines for improved collaboration. Moreover, the findings show that restrictions of DL are in some cases considered...

  9. Climate change and rising energy costs will change everything: a new mindset and action plan for 21st century public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, G; Hanlon, P; Romanes, F

    2008-07-01

    Western governments currently prioritize economic growth and the pursuit of profit above alternative goals of sustainability, health and equality. Climate change and rising energy costs are challenging this consensus. The realization of the transformation required to meet these challenges has provoked denial and conflict, but could lead to a more positive response which leads to a health dividend; enhanced well-being, less overconsumption and greater equality. This paper argues that public health can make its best contribution by adopting a new mindset, discourse, methodology and set of tasks.

  10. "I was that close": Investigating Players' Reactions to Losses, Wins, and Near-Misses on Scratch Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madison; Graydon, Candice; Dixon, Mike J

    2016-03-01

    While scratch cards are a popular, accessible, and inexpensive form of gambling, very little is known about how they affect and influence the player. This study sought to understand the physiological and subjective experience of scratch card play, with special emphasis on the effect of near-miss outcomes (i.e. uncovering two out of three "grand prize" symbols needed to win said prize), which are remarkably prevalent in scratch card games. Thirty-eight undergraduate students from the University of Waterloo each played two custom scratch card games and experienced three types of outcomes (losses, wins and near-misses) while their skin conductance levels (SCLs) and post-reinforcement pauses were recorded. Each participant also rated each outcome in terms of its subjective level of arousal, valence, and frustration. Our results indicate that players interpreted near-misses as negatively valenced, highly arousing, frustrating losses, and were faster to move onto the next game following this type of outcome than following winning outcomes. Additionally, near-miss outcomes were associated with the largest amount of change in SCLs as the outcome was revealed. This work has implications for the problem gambling literature as it provides evidence of the frustration hypothesis of near-misses in scratch cards, and is the first study to examine the physiological and psychological experiences of scratch card players.

  11. How change of public transportation usage reveals fear of the SARS virus in a city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear. These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear. About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50-70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays.

  12. 'Radical blueprint for social change'? Media representations of New Labour's policies on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rosemary; Hunt, Kate; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2003-09-01

    For almost two decades prior to the election of the New Labour government in 1997, inequalities in health were largely absent from the political debate in Britain. New Labour sought to bring inequalities, and the role of poverty as a 'root cause' of ill-health, back on to the public agenda. This paper analyses four key documents (Green and White Papers) laying out their proposals for public health. We explore the shifting emphasis on health inequalities between the four official documents, and between the documents and their associated press release. The paper also analyses how this translated into media coverage. It identifies common themes across the press coverage - such as criticisms about lack of targets - but also shows how coverage varied (e.g. between UK 'national' and 'Scottish' press). Finally, the study highlights the crucial issue of political context and news timing, illustrating how the English White Paper was overshadowed by other health stories which formed the basis for attacks on the Labour government in general and the Health Minister in particular.

  13. PUBLIC SERVICE TELEVISION'S DIFFERENT WAYS OF DEALING WITH A CHANGED MEDIA LANDSCAPE: A COMPARISON OF PRE-ELECTION PROGRAM FORMATS ON DUTCH-SPEAKING AND FRENCH-SPEAKING BELGIAN PUBLIC TELEVISION

    OpenAIRE

    Eva De Smedt; Anouk Bouckaert

    2011-01-01

    Under the influence of a changing international media landscape, political programming on public service television has changed considerably since the beginning of the 1990s. Political television debates and interviews increasingly take place within hybrid program formats, in which traditional stylistic boundaries are challenged. This article focuses on the Belgian example and analyses how two Belgian public service broadcasters, the Dutch-speaking Vlaamse Radio-en Televisieomroep (VRT) and t...

  14. Working with invalid boundary conditions: lessons from the field for communicating about climate change with public audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, A.

    2015-12-01

    There is an ongoing need to communicate with public audiences about climate science, current and projected impacts, the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the requirement to prepare for changes that are likely unavoidable. It is essential that scientists are engaged and active in this effort. Scientists can be more effective communicators about climate change to non-scientific audiences if we recognize that some of the normal "boundary conditions" under which we operate do not need to apply. From how we are trained to how we think about our audience, there are some specific skills and practices that allow us to be more effective communicators. The author will review concepts for making our communication more effective based upon his experience from over 60 presentations about climate change to public audiences. These include expressing how your knowledge makes you feel, anticipating (and accepting) questions unconstrained by physics, respecting beliefs and values while separating them from evidence, and using the history of climate science to provide a compelling narrative. Proper attention to presentation structure (particularly an opening statement), speaking techniques for audience engagement, and effective use of presentation software are also important.

  15. Sofía Casanova and the First World War. Changing the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Crespo, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sofía Casanova was a Spanish journalist and a Red Cross voluntary during World War One. Her chronicles were published by right wing diary ABC. Sofía Casanova was married with polish philosopher Wicenty Lutoslawski since 1887, lived at Polonia, and it is able to think about her as a “regular” middle-up class woman. However, if it is developed a biographic approach and it is focused in Casanova’s representations about both public and private spheres during Great War, some differences show up. Between 1914 and 1918, there was an irregular modification in gender system. The war impact in every-day life was an asymmetric modification of public-private boundaries. That historical phenomenon also depended on gender cross-wise categories as class, religion and nationalism. Sofía Casanova was in rear of the eastern front: she was both a witness and and a principal actor in all those events that modified public sphere.Sofía Casanova fue una periodista española y voluntaria de la Cruz Roja durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Sus crónicas fueron publicadas por el diario conservador ABC. Sofía Casanova estaba casada con el filósofo polaco Wicenty Lutoslawski desde 1887, vivía en Polonia, y es factible pensar en ella como una mujer de clase media “al uso”. Sin embargo, si se lleva a cabo una aproximación biográfica y ésta se centra en las representaciones de Casanova sobre las esferas de lo público y lo privado durante la Gran Guerra, algunas diferencias se presentan. Entre 1914 y 1918, hubo una modificación irregular en el sistema de género. El impacto de la guerra en la vida cotidiana consistió en una modificación asimétrica de las fronteras público-privado. Ese fenómeno histórico también dependía de unas categorías transversales al género como la clase, la religión y el nacionalismo. Sofía Casanova estuvo en la retaguardia del frente oriental: fue tanto testigo como protagonista de todos esos acontecimientos que

  16. The lived experience of climate change knowledge, science and public action

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dina

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the idea that daily lived experiences of climate change are a crucial missing link in our knowledge that contrasts with scientific understandings of this global problem. It argues that both kinds of knowledge are limiting: the sciences by their disciplines and lived experiences by the boundaries of everyday lives.  Therefore each group needs to engage the other in order to enrich and expand understanding of climate change and what to do about it. Complemented by a rich collection of examples and case studies, this book proposes a novel way of generating and analysing knowl

  17. Public buildings: what will change in the regulation; ERP: ce qui va changer dans la reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchin, Th.

    2000-09-01

    The new French official texts about the safety regulations of electrical installations and lighting systems in public buildings will be published soon. This technical supplement to the August-September 2000 issue of J3E summarizes the main modifications given to the previous texts concerning the fire resistance of materials, conductors and cables, and of electrotechnical equipments, and the conformability of lighting systems (ambient and emergency lighting). Specific rules are detailed for each type of building: conference, show and meeting rooms, shops and commercial centers, restaurants and cafeterias, hotels and guest houses, dancing and game halls, schools and recreational centers, libraries, exhibition halls, medical centers, big tops and tents etc.. (J.S.)

  18. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  19. Alcohol policy enforcement and changes in student drinking rates in a statewide public college system: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Sion K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.

  20. Study on the Winning Probability for a Bid in Procurement Combinational Auction with Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian; HUANG He

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the processes to determine winning probability for the correspondingbidder's deterministic bid are presented. The analysis of the winning probability is Crucial for studying the bidding equilibria and designing the mechanism of procurement combinational auctions (CAs), and it also provides the decision making support for bidders who are in commercial synergies surrounding.Finally, an example is used to illustrate the feasibility and detailed processes of calculating winning probability.

  1. The Social Security Administration's Youth Transition Demonstration Projects: Interim Report on Colorado Youth WINS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This report presents first-year evaluation findings for the Colorado Youth WINS (Work Incentive Network of Supports) project, which served youth in four counties from August 2006 to December 2009. Using process analysis, the report found Youth WINS, as implemented, deviated from the program model in ways that may have reduced its potential to achieve certain critical objectives. However, Youth WINS participants were more likely to have used services to promote employment than the control group.

  2. The Changing Demography of Public School Teachers: Some Implications for Faculty Turnover in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Anthony Gary

    1980-01-01

    The paper assesses changes in class origin of three racial groups of teachers (White, Black, and Mexican American) in a major Southwestern metropolis. Variables associated with a desire to quit teaching are measured. Findings indicate when class origin is introduced as a control, race ceases to differentiate between those planning to leave…

  3. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: I, Surface energy budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  4. Change in Language Policy in Malaysia: The Reality of Implementation in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Saran Kaur

    2006-01-01

    In Malaysia, a sudden change in language policy, from Bahasa Melayu to English, has been instituted for the disciplines of science and technology at varying levels of the educational system. For this paper, it will be the domain of higher education that will be focused on. In 2005, the students who had their pre-university courses in English would…

  5. Change of "Habitus": The Young People and the Free Public University in Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira de Melo, Patricia; Romani Campos, Luís Henrique; Zarias, Alexandre; Gonçalves Ferreira, Suzy Luna Nobre

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the results of the research "A interiorização recente das Instituições públicas e gratuitas de ensino superior no Nordeste: efeitos e mudanças" [The recent implementation of new federal universities in the Northeast of Brazil: effects and changes], performed by the Joaquim Nabuco Foundation. One of its main mottos is…

  6. An approach for assessing human health vulnerability and public health interventions to adapt to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; Kovats, R Sari; Menne, Bettina

    2006-12-01

    Assessments of the potential human health impacts of climate change are needed to inform the development of adaptation strategies, policies, and measures to lessen projected adverse impacts. We developed methods for country-level assessments to help policy makers make evidence-based decisions to increase resilience to current and future climates, and to provide information for national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The steps in an assessment should include the following: a) determine the scope of the assessment; b) describe the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; c) identify and describe current strategies, policies, and measures designed to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; d) review the health implications of the potential impacts of climate variability and change in other sectors; e) estimate the future potential health impacts using scenarios of future changes in climate, socioeconomic, and other factors; f) synthesize the results; and g) identify additional adaptation policies and measures to reduce potential negative health impacts. Key issues for ensuring that an assessment is informative, timely, and useful include stakeholder involvement, an adequate management structure, and a communication strategy.

  7. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  8. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue 164

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  9. The WinBraille approach to producing Braille wuickly and effectively

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Mats; Burman, Per

    2002-01-01

    With WinBraille it is possible to emboss directly from a word processor like Microsoft Word on any of Index Braille's embossers, and on-the-fly contract the document into grade 2 Braille. The benefit of WinBraille is that it has a simple interface for the novice, but is still powerful for the advanced user. WinBraille contains Windows drivers for Index Braille's embossers, the WinBraille application, contraction rules for more than 20 languages, a contraction rule editor, predefined profiles ...

  10. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  11. Exporting climate change and environmental degradation. How Dutch public money is used to finance the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.; Stockman, L.; Muttitt, G.; Horta, K.; Kochladze, M.; Lisitsyn, D.; Barannikova, N.

    2005-06-15

    According to this report Dutch public money is being used to support oil production in developing countries through Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as the World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as Atradius (the Dutch Export Credit Agency) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). The Dutch government contributes to MDBs in two ways: through financial contributions using public money and by voting on the boards of the banks. This report demonstrates the need for far greater parliamentary oversight over the Dutch role in MDBs to keep the use of Dutch public money in line with Dutch government policy. Three case studies illustrate that recent oil projects financed and supported by MDBs and other Dutch government departments are failing the poor and undermining national and international targets on development and climate change: the Cameroon Pipeline in West Africa; the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline system in the South Caucasus and the Sakhalin-II Oil and Gas Project in far eastern Russia.

  12. Public Communication of Technical Issues in Today's Changing Visual Language - 12436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Laura [Potomac Communications Group (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Communication regarding the management of radioactive materials is a well-established challenge. Residents and consumers have suspected for years that companies and governments place short-term economic concerns ahead of health and safety. This skepticism is compounded with increased attention to safety issues at nuclear power plants everywhere after Fukushima. Nonetheless, today's environment presents unexpected opportunities to transform public fear into teachable moments that bring knowledge and facts to discussions on nuclear energy. In the weeks following Japan's crisis, the lack of reliable information on radiation levels saw citizens taking to the streets with dosimeters and Geiger counters in crowd-sourced radiation monitoring efforts. Efforts, based mainly online, represent a growing set of examples of how internet and cell-phone technology are being put to use in emergency situations. The maps, graphs and tables created to meet public interest also exemplify some of the psychological priorities of audiences and present learning tools that can improve future education efforts in non-emergency situations. Industry outreach efforts often consist of technical details and quantitative data that are difficult for lay audiences to interpret. The intense attention to nuclear energy issues since last March has produced a wide array of visual samples. Citizen monitors, news organizations, government agencies and others have displayed quantitative information in innovative ways. Their efforts offer new perspective on what charts, maps and info graphics do - or need to do - to illustrate requirements, record assessments and promote understanding of nuclear-waste issues. Surveying the best examples, nuclear communicators can improve their offerings of easy-to-use, evidence-based visuals to inform stakeholders. Familiar to most communications professionals in the nuclear industry, risk communication is a science-based approach with over three decades of

  13. Changes in publication statistics when electronic submission was introduced in an international applied science journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J. Swatland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a refereed journal in the food and agriculture sector, papers were tracked over a five-year period during the introduction of electronic submissions. Papers originated in the Americas and Pacific region and were processed in Canada. Acceptance times for revised papers were reduced (P < 0.001 to 59% of the original, from 156.5 ± 69.1 days to 92.8 ± 57.5 days. But the start of electronic submission coincided with a change in the geographical origin of papers, with papers from Anglophone countries changing from a 61% majority to a 42% minority. It is possible that submissions from non-Anglophone sources were facilitated, thus creating challenges to the traditional Anglophone reviewer population.

  14. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas P Gross; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Researc...

  15. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.

  16. Readiness of Makassar Public High School Counsellors in Coping Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Dasmawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the readiness of State High School counsellors in the city of Makassar who are confronted with organizational change. The assessment is viewed from the aspect of preparedness of counsellors that includes self-esteem, optimism and perceived control. A mixed method was used in this study that was simultaneously embedded. Survey questionnaires were distributed to 68 counsellors of State High Schools in Makassar for purposes of quantitative analysis, while an interview was conducted to five counsellor-coordinators for purposes of qualitative analysis.  Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to best analyze the quantitative data, while the qualitative data was analyzed manually. The study revealed that the level of readiness of the 68 counsellors’ performance was low in coping with organizational change. This implies that there is a need for the counsellors to improve their performance in the future. Through the qualitative analysis, it was found out that the counsellors have numerous difficulties in their ability to cope with organizational change, while the result of good performance was noted in the quantitative analysis that was conducted.

  17. A paradigm analysis of ecological sustainability: The emerging polycentric climate change publics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminiau, Job B.

    Climate change poses significant complications to the development model employed by modern societies. Using paradigm analysis, the dissertation explains why, after 21 years, policy failure haunts the field: a key impediment is the unquestioned assumption that policy must adhere to an economic optimality principle. This results in policy models which fail to uphold sustainability, justice, and equality due to an emphasis on economic growth, technology, and technical and bureaucratic expertise. Unable to build consensus among low- and high-carbon economies, and searching for what one economist has called an oxymoron -- "sustainable growth" (Daly, 1997) -- the policy process has foundered with its only international convention (the Kyoto Protocol) having lost relevance. In the midst of this policy failure, the dissertation offers and defends the premise that alternative strategies have emerged which signal the prospect of a paradigm shift to ecological sustainability -- a paradigm in which social change takes places through commons-based management and community authorship in the form of network governance and where sustainability serves as governor of growth -- something unavailable in an optimality-guided world. Especially, a strategy of polycentricity is discussed in detail in order to elucidate the potential for a paradigm shift. This discussion is followed by an evaluation of two innovative concepts -- the Sustainable Energy Utility and the Solar City -- that might fit the polycentricity strategy and bring forth transformative change. The dissertation finds considerable potential rests in these two concepts and argues the critical importance of further development of innovative approaches to implement the ecological sustainability paradigm.

  18. The Diffusion of Global Models of Appropriate Leadership Behavior: Explaining Changing Leadership Priorities of High Ranking Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    , which emphasizes the importance of diffusion and translation of global models of legitimate behavior. The hypothesis is that certain globally legitimated notions of good leadership gradually became more widespread among municipal senior managers from the start of the 1990s to the end of the 2000s......The question posed is whether and how public senior managers’ perceptions of what is important in performing their roles have changed from the beginning of the 1990s to the end of the 2000s. The theoretical approach to the analysis is based on a macro-phenomenological institutional perspective....... The empirical analyses are based on multivariate regression analyses of survey data generated among Danish municipal senior managers in 1992, 2006 and 2008. The study clearly indicates that a change has taken place in leadership orientation among Danish municipal senior managers towards globally legitimated...

  19. Evaluating the effects of ideology on public understanding of climate change science: how to improve communication across ideological divides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Asim; Todd, Anne Marie

    2010-11-01

    While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H1] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H2] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H3] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H1 and H3, but reject H2. Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.

  20. Finding Win-Win Forms of Economic Development Outreach: Shared Priorities of Business Faculty and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacdayan, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The mission statements of many public (taxpayer-supported) colleges promise economic development outreach to local business communities. Unfortunately, faculty may be hard-pressed to devote time to outreach. The author looks for specific outreach activities that garner strong support from both faculty and business representatives. The author…

  1. HistoricaI EvoIution of War Winning Mechanism and Its EnIightenment%战争制胜机理的历史演变及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨未强; 刘书雷; 邓启文

    2016-01-01

    战争和科技发展密切相关,科学技术在军事上的应用,引起武器装备、编制体制、军事思想乃至战争形态等方面的重大变化,并推动战争制胜机理从体能制胜到信息制胜、从单元制胜到体系制胜。在战争制胜机理的历史演变过程中,虽然科技制胜思想逐渐引起重视,但政治与谋略制胜思想的重要性并没有发生改变,这几种思想交织融合共同构成当前战争的主体制胜思想。我们应深刻把握战争制胜机理的时代特征,着力加强侦察预警系统和作战单元信息融合能力建设,不断增强信息化条件下体系作战能力,并前瞻科技发展,努力掌握未来军事竞争的战略主动权。%War is closely related to technology development.The application of science and tech-nology in the military field causes significant changes in the fields of weapons and equipments,mili-tary organizations ,military thinking and even war forms and etc,and facilitates the shift of winning mechanism of war from physical winning to information winning,from unit winning to system win-ning.During the historic evolution of winning mechanism of war,though the thinking of technologi-cal winning draws more attentions,the importance of political and strategic winning mechanism has never changed.The integration of the above concepts constitutes the main winning theories for mod-ern wars.We should deeply understand the characteristics of winning mechanism,make effort to enhance the capacity of integration of warning systems and information of operational units,keep pro-moting the operational capacity of the system in the information-based background as well as forward-looking in technological development,and make effort to master the strategic initiatives of future military competition.

  2. Changes in beliefs and attitudes toward people with depression and schizophrenia - results of a public campaign in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Anna C; Mnich, Eva E; Ludwig, Julia; Daubmann, Anne; Bock, Thomas; Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2016-03-30

    We examined the impact of a mental health awareness campaign on public attitudes. The campaign was embedded in the project psychenet - Hamburg Network for Mental Health. Beliefs and attitudes were examined before and after specific awareness measures in Hamburg (intervention region) and Munich (control region). Analyses were based on representative surveys (2011: N=2014; 2014: N=2006). Vignettes with symptoms suggestive of depression respectively schizophrenia were presented, followed by questions on social distance, beliefs and emotional reactions. Analyses of variance tested variations between regions over time and differences between those aware of the campaign and those not aware. In 2014, 7.3% (n=74) of the Hamburg respondents were aware of the psychenet campaign. Regarding the total sample, there were minor changes in attitudes. Differentiated according to campaign awareness among Hamburg respondents, those who were aware showed less desire for social distance toward a person with depression. Moreover, respondents aware of the campaign stated less often that a person with schizophrenia is in need of help. The campaign had small impact on attitudes. A substantial change in ingrained attitudes toward persons with mental health problems is difficult to achieve with interventions targeting the general public.

  3. Risk perceptions and public debates on climate change: a conceptualisation based on the theory of a functionally-differentiated society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rhomberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass media and its mechanisms of production and selection play a crucial role in the definition of climate change risks. Different form of logic in the political, scientific and media systems are vital aspects in the public debate on this issue. A theoretical analysis of these aspects needs a framework in terms of social theory: Luhmann’s concept of a functionally-differentiated society and the mechanisms of structural couplings could help to understand the relations and interplay of these systems in the climate-debate. Based on this framework and various empirical studies, this paper suggests: different logics lead to different climate-definitions in science, politics and mass media. Climate change became interesting, but not until it was located in the political decision-making process. Climate issues become publicly interesting, when they are clear, contentious and can be linked to Elite-Persons. In contrast to scientific communication, news media make great efforts to be clear and definite in their communications.

  4. QR Code Recognition System Based on WinCE Embedded Platform%基于WinCE平台的QR条码识别系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2010-01-01

    简单介绍了QR码的基本结构,分析了在基于WinCE的嵌入式平台上QR码图像数据的灰度化、滤波、二值化、定位及矫正等预处理的实现过程.重点讨论了系统在WinCE平台上如何实现实时图像采集的问题,并设计了一个基于WinCE手机移动平台的QR码识别系统.

  5. Sciencetogo.Org: Using Humor to Engage a Public Audience with the Serious Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Rabkin, D.; Wilson, R.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators, scientists, and communication experts from multiple universities as well as a Science museum will report on the impact of ScienceToGo.org, which is an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) exhibit targeting adults riding a major subway system. The campaign's goal is to design, implement, and study the efficacy of an OHMM model for free choice science learning about our changing climate. Subway riders represent a diverse and captive audience with most of them spending an average of one hour a day in the subway system. Through the use of specially designed OHMM such as train placards, platform posters, and virtual resources the campaign engages a potential audience of 500,000 riders/day with opportunities to learn climate change science informally. The primary goal of the ScienceToGo.org campaign is to engage, entertain, and educate the adult subway riding community in major U.S. city about climate change as a real, relevant, and solvable local challenge. A naturalistic quasi-experimental inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design with half of the subway system exposed to the project signage (experimental group) and the other half not being exposed to the project signage (control group). To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, analytic data associated with website, social media, web app, focus groups, and observations. This campaign is an example of how an individual's daily routine may be enhanced with an informal science learning opportunity. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The campaign makes deliberate use of humor and fun to engage a public and diverse audience with the serious issue of climate change. The research that will be presented will reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy when communicating science to a diverse

  6. EFFECT OF OPERATION CONDITIONS ON CHANGE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krivoshapov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of analytical determination of the efficiency of the entire vehicle and individual units are stated. The dependences of change of the efficiency depending on the speed and load modes of vehicle operation are specified. The mathematical model takes into account the real characteristics of the road and transport machines operating conditions. The results of calculation of the indicator and the mechanical efficiency of the engine, transmission and the wheel efficiency, total efficiency of the car, depending on the category of roads, weight and the speed of the machine on example of GAZ-3307 truck are presented.

  7. WinCC与Visual C的OPC通讯实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明月; 王松

    2012-01-01

      本文利用OPC接口实现了服务器WinCC组态软件和模型机Visual C++客户端的通讯,完成了两者之间的数据交换。详细介绍了Visual C++应用程序的代码实现过程,最终完成了OPC服务器与客户端的实时通讯。

  8. Scientists and Public: Is the Information Flow Direction Starting to Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Doce, D.; Bee, E. J.; Bell, P. D.; Marchant, A. P.; Reay, S.; Richardson, S. L.; Shelley, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Over half of the population of the UK own a smartphone, and about the same number of people uses social media such as Twitter. For the British Geological Survey (BGS) this means millions of potential reporters of real-time events and in-the-field data capturers, creating a new source of scientific information that could help to better understand and predict natural processes. BGS first started collecting citizen data, using crowd-sourcing, through websites and smartphone apps focused on gathering geological related information (e.g. mySoil and myVolcano). These tools ask volunteers to follow a guided form where they can upload data related to geology and geological events; including location, description, measurements, photos, videos, or even instructions on sending physical samples. This information is used to augment existing data collections. Social media provides a different channel for gathering useful scientific information from the public. BGS is starting to explore this route with the release of GeoSocial-Aurora , a web mapping tool that searches for tweets related to aurora sightings and locates them as markers on a map. Users are actively encouraged to contribute by sending tweets about aurora sightings in a specific format, which contains the #BGSaurora hashtag, the location of the sighting, and any comments or pictures. The tool harvests these tweets through the Twitter REST API and places them on the map, enabling the user to generate clusters and heatmaps. GeoSocial-Aurora provides scientists with a potential tool for gathering useful data for scientific analysis. It collects actual aurora sighting locations, enabling users to check where the aurora is taking place in real time. This may, in time, help scientists to improve future predictions of when and where auroras are visible.

  9. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1) better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2) help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  10. How to change organisational culture: Action research in a South African public sector primary care facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sa, Angela; Christodoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. Aim To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Setting Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA) survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA) and had 6 months of coaching. Results Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Conclusion Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group. PMID:27608671

  11. How to change organisational culture: Action research in a South African public sector primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. Aim: To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Setting: Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA and had 6 months of coaching. Results: Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Conclusion: Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group.

  12. The Public Administration Accounting in the Light Public Finance Managements Reform and Changes of the New Accounting Directive of the European Parliament and the European Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košovská Iveta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of public administration accounting is to secure a database of relevant information essential for the management of public finances and need for presenting of operations results of our country within the European Union (EU. The accounting of public administration entities should provide a true and fair view on the assets and liabilities, as well as the financial situation and the use of public appropriations. After the entry of the Slovak Republic (SR to the European Union (EU the International Public Sector Accounting Standards began to be applied in our legislation. They provide a uniform basis for the data consolidation as well as more efficient information for the economic decisions of individual users

  13. Public perception of climate change in a period of economic crisis in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Santos-Corrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis is performed to measure Puerto Rican citizens’ perceptions of environmental issues and global climate change (GCC. Puerto Rico (PR is presently facing an economic crisis that began in 2010. In addition, the island has faced many extreme weather events that have greatly impacted the economy, including a dry period that lasted from the beginning of 2014 until the end of 2015 [1]. By replicating a study done in Greece (GR, [2] found that the citizens of PR are more informed about GCC (43% than Greeks (34%. However, only 29% of Puerto Ricans said they knew about the effects of greenhouse gases, as compared to 44% of Greeks. The citizens of PR (67% and GR (91% claim they do not have confidence that their respective governments and agencies will be able to face GCC. In both cases, they have a higher confidence level in environmental organizations than in the scientific community. In PR, 89% of the citizens are concerned about the degradation of natural resources. At 64%, this concern is also significant in the case of GR, although the figure has decreased from previous years. Both countries place more responsibility in the hands of those in government and industry to take action on GCC. That being said, the people of GR have made it known they are willing to perform individual actions as well.

  14. OpenGL Programming under Win32 Environment%Win32环境下的OpenGL程序设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑竞华

    2006-01-01

    OpenGL是目前公认的三维图形开发标准,在Win32环境下开发高质量高性能的三维图形应用程序,OpenGL是比较理想的选择.简要介绍Win32环境下,使用OpenGL进行图形操作的具体步骤,详细介绍Win32环境下进行OpenGL编程涉及的相关技术细节,如关联设备描述表和绘制描述表、图形显示与重绘、实时动画与交互操作等,并编写一个简单的动画例程,较全面地演示了Win32环境下的OpenGL编程方法.

  15. 建设“双赢”商标打造卓越品牌%Build an excellent brand by constructing win-win marks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张厚生

    2012-01-01

    安徽双赢再生资源集团把商标品牌建设作为提高集团核心竞争力、扩大无形资产的有效抓手。建设“双赢”商标,为集团发展注入知识产权动力,形成品牌价值,激发持续发展活力,赢得广阔的市场和无限的商机。%Anhui Win-win Recycling Resources Group made brand construction as an efficient approach to improve key competitive capability and expand invisible assets. By constructing the Win-win marks, it puts intellectual power into group development, benefits the brand construction, stimulates the sustainable vitality, and brings broad market and unlimited business op.portunities.

  16. 26 CFR 31.3402(q)-1 - Extension of withholding to certain gambling winnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension of withholding to certain gambling... to certain gambling winnings. (a)(1) General rule. Every person, including the Government of the.... With respect to reporting requirements for certain payments of gambling winnings not subject...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6011-3 - Requirement of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings. 1.6011-3 Section 1.6011-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings. (a) General rule. Except as provided...

  18. From making pamphlets to making policies: results from a collaborative training to increase knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy for achieving public health policy and systems change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Reuer, Jennifer R; Colman, Victor; Norman, Robbi Kay

    2009-04-01

    Steps to a Healthier Washington, in collaboration with other programs in the Washington State Department of Health and external partners, has implemented training to improve public health practice and create greater organizational and staff capacity for promoting effective policy and systems changes, including reducing disparities. The training is grounded in behavior change and adult learning theories. A comprehensive post training evaluation found long-term improvements in self-efficacy, reported changes in work, and attribution of those changes to the training. Organizations working to refocus public health work on policy and systems change should consider providing skills-based policy training to their staff. This study suggests that an integrated training, using adult learning theory, has led to long-term improvements in capacity among public health staff and partners.

  19. Climate changes, environment and infection: facts, scenarios and growing awareness from the public health community within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Christos; Dekas, Konstantinos; Charvalos, Ekatherina

    2011-12-01

    increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation and malnutrition due to alterations in agricultural products. Different kind of incidents in Europe with extreme weather events demonstrated effects on public health. The recent outbreak of the insect-borne Chikungunya virus in Italy in 2007 is an example of the kind of new health threat that the EU must be vigilant to confront. In addition, health effects of flooding, have been related to an excess cases of leptospirosis and campylobacter enteritis. Such examples have been demonstrated reported after flooding in the Czech Republic. Similarly, an increase of cryptosporidiosis in the United Kingdom has been related to flooding. Changing vector distributions associated with tickborne encephalitis and malaria have also been demonstrated in EU. A recently reported case of malaria in Italy in June 2008, suspected to be indigenously acquired, has shown how easily malaria could be reintroduced into several countries in the region. Another case of malaria in Greece in May 2010 affecting a young man living in a forestry region was claimed at KEELPNO-the Greek Center for disease control. Would this latest case be considered closely related to the one from Italy? If yes, then Public Health Services should elaborate plans to affront possible tickborne diseases. Heat waves are important causes of mortality on mortality are important. The deaths seen in France in 2003 from a heat wave are projected to be repeated, as heat waves become more severe. However, heat waves impacts on the transmission and severity of infectious diseases have not been elucidated. Finally scientific challenges include the elucudation of climate changes and extreme weather condition impact on infection transmission and outcome, human immune system changes and infection response, outbreak scenarios, animal and plant health and public health preparedness. European action plans to affront climate changes related health and infection problems are developed by the EU

  20. Climate changes and their effects in the public health: use of poisson regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bodini Alonso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the daily number of hospitalizations in São Paulo City, Brazil, in the period of January 01, 2002 to December 31, 2005. This data set relates to pneumonia, coronary ischemic diseases, diabetes and chronic diseases in different age categories. In order to verify the effect of climate changes the following covariates are considered: atmosphere pressure, air humidity, temperature, year season and also a covariate related to the week day when the hospitalization occurred. The possible effects of the assumed covariates in the number of hospitalization are studied using a Poisson regression model in the presence or not of a random effect which captures the possible correlation among the hospitalization accounting for the different age categories in the same day and the extra-Poisson variability for the longitudinal data. The inferences of interest are obtained using the Bayesian paradigm and MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.Neste artigo, analisamos os dados relativos aos números diários de hospitalizações na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil no período de 01/01/2002 a 31/12/2005 devido a pneumonia, doenças isquêmicas, diabetes e doenças crônicas e de acordo com a faixa etária. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de mudanças climáticas são consideradas algumas covariáveis climáticas os índices diários de pressão atmosférica, umidade do ar, temperatura e estação do ano, e uma covariável relacionada ao dia da semana da ocorrência de hospitalização. Para verificar os efeitos das covariáveis nas respostas dadas pelo numero de hospitalizações, consideramos um modelo de regressão de Poisson na presença ou não de um efeito aleatório que captura a possível correlação entre as contagens para as faixas etárias de um mesmo dia e a variabilidade extra-poisson para os dados longitudinais. As inferências de interesse são obtidas usando o paradigma bayesiano e métodos de simulação MCMC (Monte Carlo

  1. Design of a Pressure Control System with WinCC and PLC%基于WinCC和PLC的压力调节系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万鑫森

    2013-01-01

    A method of pressure auto control is introduced,which uses WinCC configuration software and S7-200 series PLC. The process of parameter collection program with PLC,OPC date link and trendline configuration with WinCC is described in detail,with which the function of system parameter setup, trendline display, date record and memory are achieved on WinCC client. At last, the system is tested in simulated setting and the result shows that the pressure auto control of aerostst operates well.%介绍了一种采用WinCC组态软件和S7-200系列PLC实现压力自动调节的方法。详细描述了PLC参数采集编程、OPC数据链接、WinCC在线趋势组态的过程,并在WinCC客户端实现系统参数设置、在线趋势显示、数据记录和存储、报警提示等功能。最后,模拟运行测试的结果表明该系统很好的完成了浮空器的压力自动调节。

  2. Which early works are cited most frequently in climate change research literature? A bibliometric approach based on Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Werner; Thor, Andreas; Bornmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric analysis focuses on the general history of climate change research and, more specifically, on the discovery of the greenhouse effect. First, the Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS) is applied to a large publication set on climate change of 222,060 papers published between 1980 and 2014. The references cited therein were extracted and analyzed with regard to publications, which appeared prior to 1971 and are cited most frequently. Second, a new method for establishing a more subject-specific publication set for applying RPYS (based on the co-citations of a marker reference) is proposed (RPYS-CO). The RPYS of the climate change literature focuses on the history of climate change research in total: Which are the early works that are still alive in recent climate change related publications (in the form of most frequently cited references) and thus are most important for the evolution of this broad research field? We identified 25 highly-cited publications over all disciplines, which ...

  3. Neuroprotective effect of WIN55,212-2 against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced toxicity in the rat brain: involvement of CB1 and NMDA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-López, Marisol; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Aguilera, Gabriela; de Lima, María Eduarda; Colpo-Ceolin, Ana; Rangel-López, Edgar; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Rembao-Bojórquez, Daniel; Túnez, Isaac; Luna-López, Armando; Lazzarini-Lechuga, Roberto; González-Puertos, Viridiana Yazmín; Posadas-Rodríguez, Pedro; Silva-Palacios, Alejandro; Königsberg, Mina; Santamaría, Abel

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS), and agonists acting on cannabinoid receptors (CBr), are known to regulate several physiological events in the brain, including modulatory actions on excitatory events probably through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activity. Actually, CBr agonists can be neuroprotective. The synthetic CBr agonist WIN55,212-2 acts mainly on CB1 receptor. In turn, the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) produces striatal alterations in rats similar to those observed in the brain of Huntington’s disease patients. Herein, the effects of WIN55,212-2 were tested on different endpoints of the 3-NP-induced toxicity in rat brain synaptosomes and striatal tissue. Motor activity was also evaluated. The 3-NP (1 mM)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation was attenuated by WIN55,212-2 (1 µM) in synaptosomal fractions. The intrastriatal bilateral injection of 3-NP (500 nmol/µL) to rats increased lipid peroxidation and locomotor activity, augmented the rate of cell damage, and decreased the striatal density of neuronal cells. These alterations were accompanied by transcriptional changes in the NMDA (NR1 subunit) content. The administration of WIN55212-2 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) to rats for six consecutive days, before the 3-NP injection, exerted preventive effects on all alterations elicited by the toxin. The prevention of the 3-NP-induced NR1 transcriptional alterations by the CBr agonist together with the increase of CB1 content suggest an early reduction of the excitotoxic process via CBr activation. Our results demonstrate a protective role of WIN55,212-2 on the 3-NP-induced striatal neurotoxicity that could be partially related to the ECS stimulation and induction of NMDAr hypofunction, representing an effective therapeutic strategy at the experimental level for further studies.

  4. WIN 55,212-2, agonist of cannabinoid receptors, prevents amyloid β1-42 effects on astrocytes in primary culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aguirre-Rueda

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, a neurodegenerative illness involving synaptic dysfunction with extracellular accumulation of Aβ1-42 toxic peptide, glial activation, inflammatory response and oxidative stress, can lead to neuronal death. Endogenous cannabinoid system is implicated in physiological and physiopathological events in central nervous system (CNS, and changes in this system are related to many human diseases, including AD. However, studies on the effects of cannabinoids on astrocytes functions are scarce. In primary cultured astrocytes we studied cellular viability using MTT assay. Inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators were determined by ELISA and Western-blot techniques both in the presence and absence of Aβ1-42 peptide. Effects of WIN 55,212-2 (a synthetic cannabinoid on cell viability, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress were also determined. Aβ1-42 diminished astrocytes viability, increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels and p-65, COX-2 and iNOS protein expression while decreased PPAR-γ and antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn SOD. WIN 55,212-2 pretreatment prevents all effects elicited by Aβ1-42. Furthermore, cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 also increased cell viability and PPAR-γ expression in control astrocytes. In conclusion cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 increases cell viability and anti-inflammatory response in cultured astrocytes. Moreover, WIN 55,212-2 increases expression of anti-oxidant Cu/Zn SOD and is able to prevent inflammation induced by Aβ1-42 in cultured astrocytes. Further studies would be needed to assess the possible beneficial effects of cannabinoids in Alzheimer's disease patients.

  5. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies.

  6. [WinDiet. Support decision system for the assessment of nutritional status and diet prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, E A; Siqueira, A D; Monteiro, J B; Ludwig, A

    1998-09-01

    A "Sistema de Apoio à Decisão para Avaliação do Estado Nutricional e Prescrição de Dietas" called "WinDiet" was developed. The system was developed on a computer compatible to IBM-PC standard. For system processing procedures through the computer, that is, interpretation, compilation, table generation en others, it was selected the Delphi version 1.0 software, from Borland International, for its using facilities, data basis accomplishment, communication environment and mainly an ample availability of mathematic, impression and programming resources besides allowing for all the programming operations to be accomplished on Windows environment. Knowing the procedures for nutritional evaluation and diet prescription was possible by consulting to text books, periodicals and the area experts. This system allows for individual nutritional assessment applying the anthropometric methods such as weight, height, skinfold thickness measurings, the lab methods such as albumin, transferrin, height/creatinin index and others, the dietary methods by food consumption recall, and the clinical methods that give emphasis to pathological antecedents and indicative sings of nutritional status. The software also turns possible to prescribe and calculate diets from recommendation besides having an actual data basis which may be changed or modified. Yet it maintains the individual description from all evaluation and menus, emitting its complete reports. It was verified that it reduce significantly the working time and increase the precision of estimate and nutritional diagnosis. Thus, the WinDiet may be used in nutritionist's offices, ambulatories, hospitals as well as on nutritional researches and education.

  7. Preference pulses and the win-stay, fix-and-sample model of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Two groups of six rats each were trained to respond to two levers for a food reinforcer. One group was trained on concurrent variable-ratio 20 extinction schedules of reinforcement. The second group was trained on a concurrent variable-interval 27-s extinction schedule. In both groups, lever-schedule assignments changed randomly following reinforcement; a light cued the lever providing the next reinforcer. In the next condition, the light cue was removed and reinforcer assignment strictly alternated between levers. The next two conditions redetermined, in order, the first two conditions. Preference pulses, defined as a tendency for relative response rate to decline to the just-reinforced alternative with time since reinforcement, only appeared during the extinction schedule. Although the pulse's functional form was well described by a reinforcer-induction equation, there was a large residual between actual data and a pulse-as-artifact simulation (McLean, Grace, Pitts, & Hughes, 2014) used to discern reinforcer-dependent contributions to pulsing. However, if that simulation was modified to include a win-stay tendency (a propensity to stay on the just-reinforced alternative), the residual was greatly reduced. Additional modifications of the parameter values of the pulse-as-artifact simulation enabled it to accommodate the present results as well as those it originally accommodated. In its revised form, this simulation was used to create a model that describes response runs to the preferred alternative as terminating probabilistically, and runs to the unpreferred alternative as punctate with occasional perseverative response runs. After reinforcement, choices are modeled as returning briefly to the lever location that had been just reinforced. This win-stay propensity is hypothesized as due to reinforcer induction.

  8. The Mediating Roles of Internal Context Variables in the Relationship between Distributed Leadership Perceptions and Continuous Change Behaviours of Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, Yasar; Zayim, Merve; Beycioglu, Kadir; Sincar, Mehmet; Ugurlu, Celal T

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at building a theoretical base for continuous change in education and using this base to test the mediating roles of two key contextual variables, knowledge sharing and trust, in the relationship between the distributed leadership perceptions and continuous change behaviours of teachers. Data were collected from 687 public school…

  9. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Adianto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To perform in silico experimentation conveniently with this genomics data, biologists need tools to process and compare datasets routinely and explore the obtained results interactively. The complexity of such experimentation requires these tools to be based on an e-Science approach, hence generic, modular, and reusable. A virtual laboratory environment with workflows, workflow management systems, and Grid computation are therefore essential. Findings Here we apply an e-Science approach to develop SigWin-detector, a workflow-based tool that can detect significantly enriched windows of (genomic features in a (DNA sequence in a fast and reproducible way. For proof-of-principle, we utilize a biological use case to detect regions of increased and decreased gene expression (RIDGEs and anti-RIDGEs in human transcriptome maps. We improved the original method for RIDGE detection by replacing the costly step of estimation by random sampling with a faster analytical formula for computing the distribution of the null hypothesis being tested and by developing a new algorithm for computing moving medians. SigWin-detector was developed using the WS-VLAM workflow management system and consists of several reusable modules that are linked together in a basic workflow. The configuration of this basic workflow can be adapted to satisfy the requirements of the specific in silico experiment. Conclusion As we show with the results from analyses in the biological use case on RIDGEs, SigWin-detector is an efficient and reusable Grid-based tool for discovering windows enriched for features of a particular type in any sequence of values. Thus, SigWin-detector provides the

  10. Climate and Global Change: Programs and Services Reaching Public and K-12 Audiences at a National Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Munoz, R.; Lu, G.; Ammann, C.

    2004-05-01

    The study of climate and global change is an important on-going focal area for scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Programs overseen by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach (UCAR-EO) help to translate NCAR's scientific programs, methodologies, and technologies, and their societal benefits to over 80,000 visitors to the NCAR Mesa Laboratory each year. This is accomplished through the implementation of exhibits, guided tours, an audiotour, programs for school groups, and a teachers' guide to exhibits which is currently in development. The Climate Discovery Exhibit unveiled in July 2003 offers visitors a visually engaging and informative overview of information, graphics, artifacts, and interactives describing the Earth system's dynamic processes that contribute to and mediate climate change, the history of our planet's changing climate, and perspectives on geographic locations and societies around the world that have potential to be impacted by a changing climate. Climate Futures, an addition to this exhibit to open in the summer of 2004, will help visitors to understand why scientists seek to model the global climate system and how information about past and current climate are used to validate models and build scenarios for Earth's future climate, while clarifying the effects of natural and human-induced contributions to these predictions. UCAR-EO further strives to enhance public understanding and to dispel misconceptions about climate change by bringing scientists' explanations to visitors who learn about atmospheric sciences while on staff-guided tours and/or while using an audiotour developed in 2003 with a grant from the National Science Foundation. With advanced reservations, a limited number of visitors may experience demonstrations of climate models in the NCAR Visualization Laboratory. An instructional module for approximately 5,000 visiting school children and a teachers guide

  11. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  12. Time Critical Social Mobilization: The DARPA Network Challenge Winning Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Galen; Pan, Wei; Cebrian, Manuel; Crane, Riley; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    It is now commonplace to see the Web as a platform that can harness the collective abilities of large numbers of people to accomplish tasks with unprecedented speed, accuracy and scale. To push this idea to its limit, DARPA launched its Network Challenge, which aimed to "explore the roles the Internet and social networking play in the timely communication, wide-area team-building, and urgent mobilization required to solve broad-scope, time-critical problems." The challenge required teams to provide coordinates of ten red weather balloons placed at different locations in the continental United States. This large-scale mobilization required the ability to spread information about the tasks widely and quickly, and to incentivize individuals to act. We report on the winning team's strategy, which utilized a novel recursive incentive mechanism to find all balloons in under nine hours. We analyze the theoretical properties of the mechanism, and present data about its performance in the challenge.

  13. Survey of electrochemical metal winning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, L.E.

    1979-03-01

    The subject program was undertaken to find electrometallurgical technology that could be developed into energy saving commercial metal winning processes. Metals whose current production processes consume significant energy (excepting copper and aluminum) are magnesium, zinc, lead, chromium, manganese, sodium, and titanium. The technology of these metals, with the exception of titanium, was reviewed. Growth of titanium demand has been too small to justify the installation of an electrolyte process that has been developed. This fact and the uncertainty of estimates of future demand dissuaded us from reviewing titanium technology. Opportunities for developing energy saving processes were found for magnesium, zinc, lead, and sodium. Costs for R and D and demonstration plants have been estimated. It appeared that electrolytic methods for chromium and manganese cannot compete energywise or economically with the pyrometallurgical methods of producing the ferroalloys, which are satisfactory for most uses of chromium and manganese.

  14. Financing Higher Education in South Africa: Public Funding, Non-Government Revenue and Tuition Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, G.; Cloete, N.

    2008-01-01

    The funding of public higher education is currently a moot issue in South Africa. Public funding has been declining and opportunities for winning non-government revenue remain limited. The frequent raising of tuition fees, which is one of the main strategies public universities have resorted to mitigate declining state funding is not without…

  15. Combining ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2} and OTEC; a win-win solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golmen, L.G.; Masutani, S.M. [NIVA, Regional Office Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Norwegian Institute for Water Research

    2001-07-01

    OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) and deep CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration share several technological similarities. OTEC uses cold deep sea water as a thermal sink for a heat engine that generates clean energy while ocean sequestration uses it as a sink for anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Both technologies have the potential for application in the future but require additional technical development. Furthermore, the economics of dedicated OTEC and CO{sub 2} sequestration systems are currently unfavourable; so that co-products that jointly utilize the relatively expensive marine systems may be necessary to offset costs. This paper describes a new concept, 'CO{sub 2}TEC', in which the two systems are combined for mutual benefit. The proposed synergy includes the sharing of platforms and equipment; addition of CO{sub 2} to the warm water OTEC intakes to prevent biofouling of pipelines and heat exchangers; and exploiting the negatively buoyant CO{sub 2} enriched sea water to drive part of the upward water transport for OTEC. In the combined system, CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration contributes to the production of clean renewable energy which may enhance its chances to gain public acceptance. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Win-win for wind and wildlife: a vision to facilitate sustainable development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Kiesecker

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production, making appropriate siting and mitigation particularly important. Species that require large unfragmented habitats and those known to avoid vertical structures are particularly at risk from wind development. Developing energy on disturbed lands rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce cumulative impacts to wildlife. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that it will take 241 GW of terrestrial based wind development on approximately 5 million hectares to reach 20% electricity production for the U.S. by 2030. We estimate there are ∼7,700 GW of potential wind energy available across the U.S., with ∼3,500 GW on disturbed lands. In addition, a disturbance-focused development strategy would avert the development of ∼2.3 million hectares of undisturbed lands while generating the same amount of energy as development based solely on maximizing wind potential. Wind subsidies targeted at favoring low-impact developments and creating avoidance and mitigation requirements that raise the costs for projects impacting sensitive lands could improve public value for both wind energy and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Win-Win for Wind and Wildlife: A Vision to Facilitate Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Fargione, Joe; Doherty, Kevin; Foresman, Kerry R.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Naugle, Dave; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Niemuth, Neal D.

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production, making appropriate siting and mitigation particularly important. Species that require large unfragmented habitats and those known to avoid vertical structures are particularly at risk from wind development. Developing energy on disturbed lands rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce cumulative impacts to wildlife. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that it will take 241 GW of terrestrial based wind development on approximately 5 million hectares to reach 20% electricity production for the U.S. by 2030. We estimate there are ∼7,700 GW of potential wind energy available across the U.S., with ∼3,500 GW on disturbed lands. In addition, a disturbance-focused development strategy would avert the development of ∼2.3 million hectares of undisturbed lands while generating the same amount of energy as development based solely on maximizing wind potential. Wind subsidies targeted at favoring low-impact developments and creating avoidance and mitigation requirements that raise the costs for projects impacting sensitive lands could improve public value for both wind energy and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21533285

  18. Identify Current Deficiencies in Public Private Partnership Practices and Areas which Resist PPP Being an Attractive Investment Model in Infrastructure Developments – Case Study from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. L. Perera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Public- Private Partnerships is becoming a popular investment model since late 1980s and 1990s in the world. PPPs in the delivery of public services have become a phenomenon which is spreading around the globe and generating great interest among governments, investors and other key project stakeholders. Public- Private Partnerships avoid the often negative effects of either exclusive public ownership or outright privatization. This is seen as a win-win situation for both public and private entities where they undertake large scale projects. This balanced approach is especially welcomed in public services which touch on every human being‟s basic needs & economic development of a country. Basically in this research, it is attempted to address three main objectives, which are to identify the current Public- Private Partnerships coverage on infrastructure projects in Sri Lanka, to identify current deficiencies in Public- Private Partnerships practices and areas which resist Public- Private Partnerships being an attractive investment model in infrastructure developments in Sri Lankan context and to propose an improved PublicPrivate Partnerships framework/model that can be used effectively and address the identified problems in infrastructure developments in Sri Lanka. Based on a structured questionnaire, data collection has been done using a selected sample. Then, the data set has been evaluated using Likert Scale and giving weights for that and the total percentage of score. Lack of the knowledge and deficiencies of the PPP framework are main issues in PPP practice in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is not much popular investment model to infrastructure development at the moment. Further the government should change their role from developer and operator to facilitator to improve the PPP practice in Sri Lanka

  19. Covering Risks in the Public Administration – an In-Depth Analysis of the Regulatory Changes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cocosatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing in a trans-disciplinary manner the institutional and functional changesof the public administration under crisis. The current analysis looks in depth of the financial, economic, and,more importantly, social crisis in relation to the reforms imposed by both the internal and externalstakeholders. The decision-makers have not taken into account the risk factors, triggering legislativeincoherence and instability due to the challenging and approval as non-constitutional of many such normativeacts by the Romanian Constitutional Court. The research objectives search to clear up the measures’coherence in the context of a declining public budget and a negative growth period, when the shrunk publicfunds need to be properly allocated. Therefore, the answer that our research is looking for should pertain tothe following concern: can the government’s actions be considered solutions to the problems raised by thecurrent context? The answers shall aim at both restoring the legal and economic balance, as defined in theworking hypothesis. The lax fiscal policy of the expenditures brings about an involuntary fiscal contraction inthe event of an economic downturn (Rosen and Gayer, 2010, as it was the case in Romania. Those lack ofprudence shall be addressed in our analysis, with specific reference to the already established literatureexplanations involving the decision-makers trust in the „good days shall be around forever”, which triggers abelief that the expenditures’ expansion can be permanent. Regarding the paper methodology, this study isproceeding via bibliographical research, so that the reasoning behind the paper is clearly underlined as thisresearch is actually triggered by the radical changes made by both legislatures and practitioners as a responseto crisis. Further, the manuscript makes use of direct observation and legislative analysis and extensivedocumentary research of national tax policy and statistics relevant

  20. Developing and managing win-win supplier relationships in the energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, C. [Acklands-Grainger Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Boguski, R. [Epilog Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The key strategies for the successful management of long-term supplier relationships were described along with the business case for developing choice agreements for suppliers. The degree to which alliances are important for key commodities was also discussed along with the competitive advantages and disadvantages to forming alliances. A supplier perspective on how suppliers are changing their business approach to add value to their enterprise was also presented. The paper also described how different companies can make sure that they are choosing the right trading partner.

  1. Which early works are cited most frequently in climate change research literature? A bibliometric approach based on Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Haunschild, Robin; Thor, Andreas; Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    This bibliometric analysis focuses on the general history of climate change research and, more specifically, on the discovery of the greenhouse effect. First, the Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS) is applied to a large publication set on climate change of 222,060 papers published between 1980 and 2014. The references cited therein were extracted and analyzed with regard to publications, which are cited most frequently. Second, a new method for establishing a more subject-specific publication set for applying RPYS (based on the co-citations of a marker reference) is proposed (RPYS-CO). The RPYS of the climate change literature focuses on the history of climate change research in total. We identified 35 highly-cited publications across all disciplines, which include fundamental early scientific works of the nineteenth century (with a weak connection to climate change) and some cornerstones of science with a stronger connection to climate change. By using the Arrhenius (Philos Mag J Sci Ser 5(41):237-276, 1896) paper as a RPYS-CO marker paper, we selected only publications specifically discussing the discovery of the greenhouse effect and the role of carbon dioxide. Using different RPYS approaches in this study, we were able to identify the complete range of works of the celebrated icons as well as many less known works relevant for the history of climate change research. The analyses confirmed the potential of the RPYS method for historical studies: Seminal papers are detected on the basis of the references cited by the overall community without any further assumptions.

  2. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  3. Win32 PE病毒研究%The Research of PE Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 陈建熊

    2006-01-01

    计算机病毒在近年来发展很快,从早期的DOS病毒到现在的Win32病毒,它成为直接威胁计算机信息安全主要因素.Win32 PE文件格式是Windows操作系统主要的可执行文件格式.主要介绍Win32 PE文件病毒的机理、关键技术及其传染的过程,以期对其的破解和控制有助.

  4. Application of configuration software WinCC in logistics automatic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yifang; Duan, Zhengang; Lian, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yang, Wenying

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents the application of WinCC in Logistics Automatic Control System on the experiment facility of miniature warehouse. The information management system, the supervisory control system and the PLC execution part are developed. The communication between WinCC and PLC based on the PROFIBUS protocol is implemented. DDE Communication, VB as server and WinCC as client, is realized. The system combines information management and supervisory control together and works well. It would be applicable to industry after deeper study.

  5. Vapex win-win: Process should please environmentalists as much as bean counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2003-09-01

    Characteristic features and advantages of the Vapex bitumen recovery system, currently undergoing pilot field testing at Alberta's Dover research facility are discussed. (Dover is the former Underground Test Facility, originally operated by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA)). Vapex is a non-thermal bitumen extraction method which, unlike SAGD uses a vaporized solvent in place of steam to decrease bitumen viscosity in-situ. As such, Vapex eliminates the need for steam generating and water treatment and recycling facilities, all of which are required by SAGD. The Vapex process also significantly reduces the need for natural gas, and eliminates the demand for fresh water; both important advantages at a time when the cost of natural gas is high, and Alberta is threatened with water shortages. No less significant are the expectations that Vapex will cut atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by up to 85 per cent, and its apparent suitability to develop thin reservoirs which would not be economically viable with SAGD. Solvents used are mixtures of propane and methane; the proportions of each and concentration are expected to change as reservoir conditions change. Industry partners participating in the pilot field study anticipate that production with Vapex may be only half of SAGD per well, requiring the drilling of twice the number of wells to match SAGD production. Current estimates call for the first pair of wells to begin production in about three months time. The second pair will be jump-started with an initial injection of steam to initiate first production, although eventually the process is expected to run at the normal reservoir temperature of about 8 degree Celsius.

  6. Some of Bronze Casting Public Sculptures Received the China's Public Sculpture Achievement Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Public sculpture is usually regarded not only as a symbol of a city, but is as a treasure of a city's memory and a point of cohesion for the residents' memory and emotions. Co-sponsored by the Ministry of Housing and Urban- Rural Development, and the Ministry of Culture, organized by the National Urban Sculpture Developing and Guiding Committee, the winning artworks of the China's Public Sculpture Achievement Award were unveiled on December 30, 2009.

  7. Chronic Heart Failure: We Are Fighting the Battle, but Are We Winning the War?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Atherton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure represents an end-stage phenotype of a number of cardiovascular diseases and is generally associated with a poor prognosis. A number of organized battles fought over the last two to three decades have resulted in considerable advances in treatment including the use of drugs that interfere with neurohormonal activation and device-based therapies such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Despite this, the prevalence of heart failure continues to rise related to both the aging population and better survival in patients with cardiovascular disease. Registries have identified treatment gaps and variation in the application of evidenced-based practice, including the use of echocardiography and prescribing of disease-modifying drugs. Quality initiatives often coupled with multidisciplinary, heart failure disease management promote self-care and minimize variation in the application of evidenced-based practice leading to better long-term clinical outcomes. However, to address the rising prevalence of heart failure and win the war, we must also turn our attention to disease prevention. A combined approach is required that includes public health measures applied at a population level and screening strategies to identify individuals at high risk of developing heart failure in the future.

  8. Changing perspectives in biobank research: from individual rights to concerns about public health regarding the return of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Joanna Stjernschantz; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    During the past decade, various guidelines that imply a duty for researchers to disclose information obtained through research to participants have emerged. The character and extent of this obligation have been debated extensively, with much attention devoted to the decisiveness of the validity and utility of the results in question. The aim of this paper is to argue that individual results from research on materials stored in large-scale biobanks, consisting of samples taken within the healthcare system or of altruistically donated materials, should not be returned. We will defend the thesis that medical research on these biobanks should be viewed as a collective project to improve public health, and that available resources should be utilized to pursue this goal. We argue that there is a need for a change of perspectives. Medical research should not primarily be viewed as a danger that individuals must be protected from, but rather be recognized as constituting a necessary defense against current and future diseases. Research that bears the prospect of advancing medicine and that can be carried out at no risk to individuals should be endorsed and facilitated. This calls for a shift of focus from autonomy and individual rights toward collective responsibility and solidarity.

  9. Barriers to use of geospatial data for adaptation to climate change and variability: case studies in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Joan L

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents two case studies of the barriers to the use of geospatial data in the context of public health adaptation to climate change and variability. The first case study is on the hazards of coastal zone development in the United States with the main emphasis on Hurricane Katrina. An important barrier to the use of geospatial data is that the legal system does not support restrictions on land use intended to protect the coastal zone. Economic interests to develop New Orleans and the Mississippi River, both over the long term and the short term, had the effect of increasing the impact of the hurricane. The second case study is epidemics of climate-sensitive diseases with the main emphasis on malaria in Africa. Limits to model accuracy may present a problem in using climate data for an early warning system, and some geographic locations are likely to be more suitable than others. Costs of the system, including the costs of errors, may also inhibit implementation. Deriving societal benefits from geospatial data requires an understanding of the particular decision contexts and organizational processes in which knowledge is developed and used. The data by themselves will not usually generate a societal response. Scientists working in applications should develop partnerships to address the use of geospatial data for societal benefit.

  10. Europe’s Southeastern Gateway: Romania’s Public Policy Respose to Changing Patterns of World Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a follow-up to one published in December of 2012 (Hamlin and Lazar, 2012. Global trade and related transportation are changing dramatically. Trends are diff cult to fol-low, but important in the effect on cities, coun-tries and continents. Over the past two decades, rising energy prices, rising wages, environmen-tal concerns and other factors have produced a shift back to ocean shipping as an important transportation mode. While slower than other modes, ocean freighter transport can be lower in cost and create lower carbon emissions. These advantages continue to improve as container freighters are becoming larger. The purpose of the article is to look more closely at the public and private sector response in the key Romania port of Constanţa. The f rst part will lay out the current situation. The second will update and evaluate the Eastern European responses to the current situation, looking closely at the Port of Constanţa.

  11. Adaptation of public space to climatic change. Municipalities starting with climate adaptation; Aanpassen openbare ruimte aan klimaatverandering. Gemeenten aan de slag met klimaatadaptatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-02-15

    Climate change will impact the urban environment. This publication helps communities in determining the risks and opportunities in adapting public space to climate change. A roadmap shows what can be decided and how a municipality can start to work on climate adaptation. Eleven inspiring examples are included. [Dutch] Klimaatverandering heeft gevolgen voor de stedelijke leefomgeving. Deze publicatie helpt gemeenten bij het vaststellen van de risico's en de kansen bij het aanpassen van de openbare ruimte aan klimaatverandering. Een stappenplan maakt duidelijk wat kan worden besloten en hoe een gemeente aan de slag kan gaan met klimaatadaptatie. Ter inspiratie zijn elf voorbeelden opgenomen.

  12. Win/win: creating collaborative training opportunities for behavioral health providers within family medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Integrating behavioral health into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address health behavior change, and manage behavioral health issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models.

  13. A win-win technique of stabilizing sand dune and purifying paper mill black-liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hanjie; Penning de Vries FRITS; JIN Yongcan

    2009-01-01

    The principle and technique were reported here to produce lignin-based sand stabilizing material (LSSM) using extracted lignin from black liquor of straw paper mills. Field tests by using LSSM to stabilize and green sand dunes started in 2002. The field experiment was carried out in August 2005 when the newly formed plant community was 3 years old. The results from the comprehensive field experiment demonstrated that unlike polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, LSSM was plant-friendly material and could be used in combination with seeding and planting of desert species. By the help of LSSM, the desert species (i.e., Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. and Artemisia desertorum Spreng. etc.) could be used to form community in 2-3 yeas and to stabilize sand dune effectively. The newly formed community was sustainable under an extremely dry climate conditions. The organic matter and total nitrogen in the soil increased significantly as the community were formed, while the change in P and K contents of the soil was negligible.

  14. The need of a win-win regulation regarding the harmonization of advantages for the renewable energy sector and the concerns about the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraru Dan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is the evolution of theories and suppositions regarding environment and growth. The sustainable green growth and the sustainable green capitalism concepts have attracted the interest and imagination of policy makers and industry, and also stimulated many exciting new ideas and practical actions such as the “triple bottom line” which refers to harmonizing and balancing out the three interests that are linked with sustainable business: economic, environmental and social ones. The policy has to create a workable association between what the government can ensure and not tax and what it cannot ensure and must tax. In this manner we get a win-win regulation meaning that both sides win. National and supranational policies are part of the macro-level governance and very relevant for the sustainable development of the EU Member States and for the stability of the EU itself.

  15. Science teacher improvement: A study of the change in preparation and qualifications of public middle school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickler, Nicole I. Z.

    According to the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (1996), a teacher's professional preparation, their work conditions and sense of efficacy are fundamental to improving elementary and secondary education. These factors lie at the core of educational reforms that seek to raise standards, reshape curricula, and restructure the way schools operate. The call to reconceptualize the practice of teaching and the interaction between teachers and students ring hollow without a careful examination of actions that have taken place in the workplace of teachers themselves. A national profile that identifies key characteristics of the current status of public middle school science teachers preparation, teaching qualifications, and work environments can provide a context for better understanding the current conditions that confront science teachers. This study seeks to provide critical information in four major areas: (1) preservice learning and teaching assignment; (2) continued learning; (3) supportive work environment, and (4) teachers' sense of efficacy. This study is based on current efforts by the National Center for Education Statistics (LACES) to collect data of key indicators of teacher preparation and qualifications using a large-scale survey administered to a nationally representative sample of full-time public school teachers whose primary teaching assignment is in science. In this effort, the information reported in this study utilizes the NCES's Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS) from 1987--88 and 1993--94. Significant change between 1987--77 and 1993--94 was determined using a t-test for independent means. In addition, frequency counts were analyzed using a chi-square statistic to determine if more "qualified middle school science teachers" were located in particular schools by urbanicity location or/and percent minority enrollment. In general, the quality of middle school science teachers across the country is declining. Teachers report they

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of cannabinoid agonist WIN55, 212 on mouse experimental colitis is related to inhibition of p38MAPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ya-Jing; Li, Yong-Yu; Lin, Xu-Hong; Li, Kun; Cao, Ming-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and the possible mechanisms of an agonist of cannabinoid (CB) receptors, WIN55-212-2 (WIN55), in mice with experimental colitis, so as to supply experimental evidence for its clinical use in future. METHODS We established the colitis model in C57BL/6 mice by replacing the animals’ water supply with 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 consecutive days. A colitis scoring system was used to evaluate the severity of colon local lesion. The plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon tissue were measured. The expressions of cannabinoid receptors, claudin-1 protein, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and its phosphorylated form (p-p38) in colon tissue were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. In addition, the effect of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38, was investigated in parallel experiments, and the data were compared with those from intervention groups of WIN55 and SB alone or used together. RESULTS The results demonstrated that WIN55 or SB treatment alone or together improved the pathological changes in mice with DSS colitis, decreased the plasma levels of TNF-α, and IL-6, and MPO activity in colon. The enhanced expression of claudin-1 and the inhibited expression of p-p38 in colon tissues were found in the WIN55-treated group. Besides, the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors was enhanced in the colon after the induction of DSS colitis, but reduced when p38MAPK was inhibited. CONCLUSION These results confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect and protective role of WIN55 on the mice with experimental colitis, and revealed that this agent exercises its action at least partially by inhibiting p38MAPK. Furthermore, the results showed that SB203580, affected the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the mouse colon, suggesting a close linkage and cross-talk between the p38

  17. Does a Least-Preferred Candidate Win a Seat? A Comparison of Three Electoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hizen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the differences between two variations of proportional representation (PR, open-list PR and closed-list PR, are analyzed in terms of their ability to accurately reflect voter preference. The single nontransferable vote (SNTV is also included in the comparison as a benchmark. We construct a model of voting equilibria with a candidate who is least preferred by voters in the sense that replacing the least-preferred candidate in the set of winners with any loser is Pareto improving, and our focus is on whether the least-preferred candidate wins under each electoral system. We demonstrate that the least-preferred candidate never wins under the SNTV, but can win under open-list PR, although this is less likely than winning under closed-list PR.

  18. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leydimere J. C.; Costa, Marcos H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Coe, Michael T.

    2013-06-01

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO2. The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO2, (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2, (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha-1, 2.7 Mg-grains ha-1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Flooding: Changes in Risk Before, During and After Flooding Require Appropriate Public Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Thomas; Murray, Virginia; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While many of the acute risks posed by flooding and other disasters are well characterised, the burden of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the wide range of ways in which this avoidable poisoning can occur around flooding episodes is poorly understood, particularly in Europe. The risk to health from CO may continue over extended periods of time after flooding and different stages of disaster impact and recovery are associated with different hazards. Methods A review of the literature was undertaken to describe the changing risk of CO poisoning throughout flooding/disaster situations. The key objectives were to identify published reports of flood-related carbon monoxide incidents that have resulted in a public health impact and to categorise these according to Noji’s Framework of Disaster Phases (Noji 1997); to summarise and review carbon monoxide incidents in Europe associated with flooding in order to understand the burden of CO poisoning associated with flooding and power outages; and to summarise those strategies in Europe which aim to prevent CO poisoning that have been published and/or evaluated. The review identified 23 papers which met its criteria. The team also reviewed and discussed relevant government and non-government guidance documents. This paper presents a summary of the outcomes and recommendations from this review of the literature. Results Papers describing poisonings can be considered in terms of the appliance/source of CO or the circumstances leading to poisoning.The specific circumstances identified which lead to CO poisoning during flooding and other disasters vary according to disaster phase. Three key situations were identified in which flooding can lead to CO poisoning; pre-disaster, emergency/recovery phase and post-recovery/delayed phase. These circumstances are described in detail with case studies. This classification of situations is important as different public health messages are more appropriate at different

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning and flooding: changes in risk before, during and after flooding require appropriate public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Thomas; Murray, Virginia; Baker, David

    2014-07-03

    Introduction While many of the acute risks posed by flooding and other disasters are well characterised, the burden of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the wide range of ways in which this avoidable poisoning can occur around flooding episodes is poorly understood, particularly in Europe. The risk to health from CO may continue over extended periods of time after flooding and different stages of disaster impact and recovery are associated with different hazards. Methods A review of the literature was undertaken to describe the changing risk of CO poisoning throughout flooding/disaster situations. The key objectives were to identify published reports of flood-related carbon monoxide incidents that have resulted in a public health impact and to categorise these according to Noji's Framework of Disaster Phases (Noji 1997); to summarise and review carbon monoxide incidents in Europe associated with flooding in order to understand the burden of CO poisoning associated with flooding and power outages; and to summarise those strategies in Europe which aim to prevent CO poisoning that have been published and/or evaluated. The review identified 23 papers which met its criteria. The team also reviewed and discussed relevant government and non-government guidance documents. This paper presents a summary of the outcomes and recommendations from this review of the literature. Results Papers describing poisonings can be considered in terms of the appliance/source of CO or the circumstances leading to poisoning.The specific circumstances identified which lead to CO poisoning during flooding and other disasters vary according to disaster phase. Three key situations were identified in which flooding can lead to CO poisoning; pre-disaster, emergency/recovery phase and post-recovery/delayed phase. These circumstances are described in detail with case studies. This classification of situations is important as different public health messages are more appropriate at different phases