WorldWideScience

Sample records for change winning public

  1. Astroparticles win over the public

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The first ever European Week of Astroparticle Physics, held from 10 to 17 October, provided an opportunity for the general public to learn about this still relatively little-known branch of science. Members of the public were able to meet scientists and find out more about a little-known branch of physics. A laser beam lit up the Paris sky each time a muon was detected at the top of the Montparnasse tower.The year 2009 was proclaimed the International Year of Astronomy in celebration of the 400th anniversary of the first astronomical observations by telescope, conducted by Galileo Galilei. While astronomy is a topic that the general public is familiar with and interested in, the same is not true of astroparticle studies, a branch of modern astronomy that in many ways is very close to particle physics. The ASPERA network, to which CERN belongs, coordinates European research on astroparticles. AS...

  2. Mitigation win-win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  3. Striatal connectivity changes following gambling wins and near-misses: Associations with gambling severity

    OpenAIRE

    van Holst, Ruth J.; Chase, Henry W.; Luke Clark

    2014-01-01

    Frontostriatal circuitry is implicated in the cognitive distortions associated with gambling behaviour. ‘Near-miss’ events, where unsuccessful outcomes are proximal to a jackpot win, recruit overlapping neural circuitry with actual monetary wins. Personal control over a gamble (e.g., via choice) is also known to increase confidence in one's chances of winning (the ‘illusion of control’). Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses, we examined changes in functional connectivity as...

  4. Public understanding of science wins 3m pounds boost

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science is to receive a grant of almost 3 million pounds from the Welcome Trust to support its work to promote the public understanding of science (2 paragraphs).

  5. Win-stay lose-shift strategy in formation changes in football

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Managerial decision making is likely to be a dominant determinant of performance of teams in team sports. Here we use Japanese and German football data to investigate correlates between temporal patterns of formation changes across matches and match results. We found that individual teams and managers both showed win-stay lose-shift behavior, a type of reinforcement learning. In other words, they tended to stick to the current formation after a win and switch to a different formation after a loss. In addition, formation changes did not affect the results of succeeding matches in most cases. The results indicate that a swift implementation of a new formation in the win-stay lose-shift manner may not be a successful managerial rule of thumb.

  6. Trend of public perception on nuclear energy and future PA programs for winning public consensus in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Seung-Jin [Organization for Korea Atomic Energy Awareness, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Before the second half of 1980`s, the Korean government could carry out the nuclear power projects easily without any oppositions. However, the anti-nuclear and environmental preservation movement has been more vigorous after Chernobyl accident. Since 1987, the democratized social environment and improved standard of living which is resulted from economic growth have increased the public interest on a positive environment and safety of life. Moreover, the introduction of local self-government system has imposed heavy burdens on nuclear power development. The prevailing of local egoism is also a hard task to overcome in securing nuclear facility sites. The public began to recognize the necessity of nuclear energy. However, this is still a far cry from the ultimate target to the site selection. Therefore, winning public acceptance is the most important issue in implementing the nation`s nuclear programs without significant obstacles, and it is necessary to develop sociopolitical approaches to deal with nuclear issues. (author)

  7. Trend of public perception on nuclear energy and future PA programs for winning public consensus in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the second half of 1980's, the Korean government could carry out the nuclear power projects easily without any oppositions. However, the anti-nuclear and environmental preservation movement has been more vigorous after Chernobyl accident. Since 1987, the democratized social environment and improved standard of living which is resulted from economic growth have increased the public interest on a positive environment and safety of life. Moreover, the introduction of local self-government system has imposed heavy burdens on nuclear power development. The prevailing of local egoism is also a hard task to overcome in securing nuclear facility sites. The public began to recognize the necessity of nuclear energy. However, this is still a far cry from the ultimate target to the site selection. Therefore, winning public acceptance is the most important issue in implementing the nation's nuclear programs without significant obstacles, and it is necessary to develop sociopolitical approaches to deal with nuclear issues. (author)

  8. Tracing Public Values Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    . This paper analyses a sample of job ads from 1966 to 2008 in Denmark and the Netherlands. The analysis reveals that Denmark and the Netherlands follow the same pattern: a) merit (expertise/professionalism) is and continues to be the most important selection criteria, but the meaning of merit explodes......Long term changes in public values are not easily detected. One important reason is the limited availability of reliable empirical data. Job advertisements allow us to go back in history for some decades and job ads may present us with the values that are supposed to guide civil servant behaviour...

  9. Striatal connectivity changes following gambling wins and near-misses: Associations with gambling severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, R.J. van; Chase, H.W.; Clark, L.

    2014-01-01

    Frontostriatal circuitry is implicated in the cognitive distortions associated with gambling behaviour. 'Near-miss' events, where unsuccessful outcomes are proximal to a jackpot win, recruit overlapping neural circuitry with actual monetary wins. Personal control over a gamble (e.g., via choice) is

  10. A welcoming approach to winning support [public relations policy at the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations policy of British Nuclear Fuels with respect to the Sellafield reprocessing centre is described. Key factors in reassuring the public on the safety of the plant have been the opening of an exhibition centre and a widely advertised open invitation to visit Sellafield together with a commitment to an open information policy and the promotion of understanding through the use of less technical language. An improvement in public confidence in Sellafield is reported. (U.K.)

  11. Russia: New stage in nuclear policy and in the struggle for winning public trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nuclear unit was commissioned in Russia in 1993), has begun to show great interest to it again, especially after the nuclear specialists have 'passed from words to deeds' and launched intensive works in order to start the Rostov NPP, the construction of which had been suspended in 1990. The struggle for Rostov NPP commissioning, going on with considerable antagonism of various forces (including such a specific Russian public force, as the Cossacks), has become the beginning of a principally new stage in Russian nuclear specialists' relations with the public. The key principle of this new approach was to refuse from 'defending position'. A good example of Minatom's 'attack action' was shown by the proposal concerning Russia's going out to the world market of nuclear fuel reprocessing, supported by a portfolio of legislative initiatives, which include the draft law on environmental programs for rehabilitation of the country's radiation contaminated areas, financed from foreign trade operations with irradiated nuclear fuel. It should be noted, that the first attack of the 'greens' in connection with this Minatom's initiative - in form of collecting the signatures in support of all-Russia antinuclear referendum - has petered out in the Central Election Commission. Further steps of Russian nuclear leaders - active position in the open discussion of the structural reform in the energy sector and proposals on nuclear branch's consolidation - continue the course aimed at changing the role of Russia's nuclear development opponents to that of 'running after'. In these conditions Minatom, with active support of the Nuclear Society of Russia, has adopted a decision to reconsider its very organisation of PR activities. Its main features - adequate financing and appropriate material support, establishment of a 'brain centre' - a public council supported by a team of the best national and international experts, as well as creation of a structure of public information centres on regional

  12. A Winning Framework for Public-Private Partnerships : Lessons from 60-plus IFC Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Florizone, Richard; Carter, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Despite global financial uncertainty and increased public mistrust of business, partnerships between the public and private sectors have continued to grow- driven by governments' need to access external financing and expertise, by the private sector's search for new opportunities, and by governments' desire to grow the private sector. This report addresses the critical question: how can th...

  13. The Responsive Public Library: How to Develop and Market a Winning Collection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sharon L.; Wallace, Karen L.

    This book provides a broad, introductory overview of issues affecting the marketing of public library collections, with examples and research results from more than 200 libraries of all sizes. This new edition of the work updates and expands the original, referencing new studies (published since 1992), encompassing more of the literature from…

  14. Publication patterns of award-winning forest scientists and implications for the ERA journal ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vanclay, Jerome K

    2011-01-01

    Publication patterns of 79 forest scientists awarded major international forestry prizes during 1990-2010 were compared with the journal classification and ranking promoted as part of the 'Excellence in Research for Australia' (ERA) by the Australian Research Council. The data revealed that these scientists exhibited an elite publication performance during the decade before and two decades following their first major award. An analysis of their 1703 articles in 431 journals revealed substantial differences between the journal choices of these elite scientists and the ERA classification and ranking of journals. Implications from these findings are that additional cross-classifications should be added for many journals, and there should be an adjustment to the ranking of several journals relevant to the ERA Field of Research classified as 0705 Forestry Sciences.

  15. Winning Hearts and Minds: Public Good Provision in the Shadow of Insurgency

    OpenAIRE

    Scoones David

    2013-01-01

    A simple model of public good expenditure is developed where government service levels are affected by a potential insurgency. Counterinsurgency measures can reduce the effectiveness of resistance and alter the level of support for the government. In general, a very limited counterinsurgency is not useful; the government would rather alter the policy mix to reduce support for insurgents. In some cases, enhanced counterinsurgency capacity can lead to more rather than less resistance as the mix...

  16. Who Will Win the Game?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    一维

    2007-01-01

    <正>Peter:Do you think Brazil will win? Paul:Could be.Peter:I bet you that Brazil will win the game. Paul:Don’t be so sure.Italy is also one of the best teams in Europe.Peter:But Brazil had won five World Cup Champions.Paul:Things are changing! Peter:It’s

  17. Continuous improvement: A win... win process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementing a continuous improvement (CI) process within PanCanadian's oil and gas production operations might have been a simple assignment if one were not also trying to capture the hearts and imaginations of the people in a changing work environment. Meeting the challenge is resulting in big payoffs to both the organization and its people. The plan used within the Company's Production Division to successfully introduce the CI process is discussed. A brief insight is provided on the process philosophy, with emphasis placed on planning, training and coaching used to launch the process. Also reviewed at length are the impediments to change and the challenges faced when changing an organization's culture. In a CI work environment, the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing 'win-win' situation for both the Company and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants and enjoying their work more in a team environment. The Company is winning through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to many innovative ideas which the employees have implemented. 4 refs

  18. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  19. Winning hearts and minds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The greatest problem in communication is the illusion that it has been accomplished' (George Bernard Shaw). Over the past few decades we have seen major shifts in opinion as to what makes a business successful. The 1950's and 1960's saw a production focus whilst the 1970's and 1980's saw progressive change towards quality and 'customer is king' as key business drivers. A popular view now suggests that the next step change will be towards internal marketing, based on the concept that, in the future, winning employee support will be seen as the single biggest contributor to driving business performances. In summary, to win hearts and minds you must understand the needs of your audience, the intent of your communication activity, adopt a suitable style and match your deeds to your words

  20. Changing an Award-Winning System--For Better or for Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Anja Lindkvist V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the latest structural changes in the Danish vocational education and training system (VET), a system so far characterised by a principle of alternating between practical training and theoretical instruction. Structural changes can be described as a shift of paradigm, which might be seen as a regression compared to the Danish…

  1. Continuous improvement: A win-win process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategies used within PanCanadian Petroleum Limited's production division to successfully introduce the continuous improvement (CI) process are discussed. Continuous improvement is an operating philosophy and management style which allows all employees to participate in and improve the way an organization performs its day-to-day business. In the CI work environment the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling, to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem-solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing win-win situation for both PanCanadian and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants, and enjoying their work in a team environment. The company is benefiting through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to the many innovative ideas introduced by employees. 4 refs

  2. The Relationship between Teachers' and Principals' Decision-Making Power: Is It a Win-Win Situation or a Zero-Sum Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Xia, Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    Is the power relationship between public school teachers and principals a win-win situation or a zero-sum game? By applying hierarchical linear modeling to the 1999-2000 nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey data, we found that both the win-win and zero-sum-game theories had empirical evidence. The decision-making areas…

  3. Examining land use change and cooking fuel-use in Uganda: implications and potential win-win scenarios for policy and carbon financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nicole; Semmens, Darius; Hawbaker, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Uganda is one of the world's most biodiverse countries, yet also one of the poorest. Human dependence on natural resources, especially from forests, is most pronounced in developing countries such as Uganda, where many people live in poverty and rely on fuel wood for cooking. These demands often compete with conservation efforts aimed at protecting forests and biodiversity. An understanding of trends in forest condition and local community use of forests is necessary to explore the implications of changing environmental conditions on the sustainability of Uganda's forests and forest-related socioeconomic activities. A human-environment framework is applied to this research by comparing environmental layers derived from remotely sensed imagery with socioeconomic data acquired from household surveys. Statistical modeling was used to explain the relationship between household characteristics (e.g., fuel use) and environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover change) and to quantify the role of spatial arrangement or pattern in understanding human-environment relationships (e.g., access and distance). The findings show that distance from protected forests is related to changes in household fuel type. For example, increases in charcoal as the primary cooking fuel is observed in households a closer distance to protected forests. This change is likely due to access to forest resources. The results of this study could inform policies aimed at protecting forests as well as protecting the interests of people in proximity to protected forests.

  4. Win-win imageries in a soap bubble world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    , ranging from New Public Management, over corporate culture, to project work. Each of these trends claims to transcend paradoxes by making contradictory extremes enhance each other rather than hamper each other. This is partly made possible by an increasing immateriality of both money and labor, I argue......This article explores the imagery and notions of personhood underlying the willingness to undertake extreme work among creative knowledge workers. The core argument is that extreme work is informed by pervasive win-win fantasies which can be recognized in a number of current organizational trends...

  5. Public engagement with energy system change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public acceptability represents a major challenge for delivery of energy policy, in the UK and internationally. This article sets out three arguments about public engagement with energy transitions derived from research into public perspectives of whole energy system change. It argues for the need to consider values that underlay preferences, the importance of understanding problem and solution framing, and the significance of considering views on process as well as outcomes. Overall, insights are offered into how to better approach public engagement with energy system change.

  6. WIN Belarus report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    national WIN: WIN Belarus was established in December 1998 and at present has 17 members. Highlights of the last year and trends in Belarus: There are some problems with the natural gas supply in Belarus from Russia. Energy policy directed to use the local fuel resources and energy saving, but these resources can not provide for Belarus energy demand. Therefore made a decision of NPP construction. At present the NPP site is selected. WIN activities: Collection and analysis of articles in newspapers and journals on energy problems in Belarus and construction of nuclear power plant in our republic. Publication and distribution of newsletters on nuclear problems for public information and authorities, which are available for the press too. We took part in debates with environmental and other opponents on the ecological, economical and safety problems of nuclear technology. We published articles about nuclear energy (safety problems, environment and climate). Female communication: Collaboration with women organizations in Belarus (Women Alliance, Women group in physics and others). Future plans and goals for WIN: Participation in several international conferences and seminars. Publication and distribution of newsletters on nuclear problems for public information and authorities, which are available for the press too. Collection and analysis of articles in newspapers and journals on energy problems in Belarus and construction of nuclear power plant in our republic. Publication articles in newspapers and 'Industrial Safety' journal about using nuclear technology and radiation and power problems. Investigation problems of radioactive waste handling. Preparation trainings for journalists and public organizations on radiation problems, nuclear power and on un-traditional renewed sources of energy. We shall continue debates with opponents on the ecological, economical and safety problems of NPP. Collaboration with women and ecological organizations in Belarus (Women's Alliance

  7. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture. PMID:19910709

  8. The Methods Behind PH WINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers--a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10,000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12,000 local and regional health department staff responses. PMID:26422490

  9. Quantifying the changing role of past publications

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Katalin; Farkas, Illes J.; Pollner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our current societies increasingly rely on electronic repositories of collective knowledge. An archetype of these databases is the Web of Science (WoS) that stores scientific publications. In contrast to several other forms of knowledge -- e.g., Wikipedia articles -- a scientific paper does not change after its "birth". Nonetheless, from the moment a paper is published it exists within the evolving web of other papers, thus, its actual meaning to the reader changes. To track how scientific id...

  10. Major 20th century changes of carbonaceous aerosol components (EC, WinOC, DOC, HULIS, carboxylic acids, and cellulose) derived from Alpine ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Schock, M.; Cerqueira, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Afonso, J.; Pio, C.; GelencséR, A.; Dombrowski-Etchevers, I.

    2007-12-01

    An extended array of carbonaceous species including elemental carbon (EC), water insoluble organic carbon (WinOC) as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and single organic compounds like carboxylic acids, levoglucosan, and cellulose was investigated for the first time in Alpine snow deposits. These investigations were done on selected discrete ice cores sections extracted from Mount Rosa and Mount Blanc glaciers covering the 20th century and extending back to previous centuries. Here we focus on major changes in summer ice layers. Among carbonaceous components, EC reveals an outstanding increase with a sharp summer increase after World War II. This result is discussed against available past EC emission inventories in Europe which are thought to be mainly driven by emissions from road transport and residential sector. The long-term trend of organic carbon (OC) aerosol preserved in ice, WinOC as well as water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), was successfully reconstructed using the suitable array of organic compounds we investigated in this study. It is shown that the level of OC preserved in ice has increased by a factor of 2 after 1950 likely as a result of the enhancement of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere over the last decades producing more secondary organic atmospheric aerosol from biogenic gaseous precursors.

  11. WIN Global. 1977/98 Activities at a First Glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIN is a worldwide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and applications of radiation. The goal of WIN is to contribute to objectively inform the public on nuclear and radiation. WIN's principal objective is to emphasis and support the role that women can and do have in addressing the general public's concerns about nuclear energy and the application of radiation and nuclear technology. WIN is doing this through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. Members of WIN all have one thing in common: they want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matters. Membership status as ao April 21, 1998 was 605 members from 39 countries. During the year 7 new countries have joined to WIN ant two national WIN groups have been formed. Purpose of this paper is to present, to the Spanish Nuclear Society members, the WIN Global activities all over the world for the period 1997/98. The information included herein comes from different sources and WIN members and is, of course, a quick look over those activities. Win Spain activities for the period will be presented in a different paper of this Annual Meeting. (Author) 2 refs

  12. Engaging the public on climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Alice

    2016-03-01

    As a Jefferson Science Fellow from August 2014-August 2015, Alice Bean worked with the Office of Religion and Global Affairs at the U.S. Department of State on climate change and environmental issues. The Office of Religion and Global Affairs works to implement the National Strategy on Religious Leader and Faith Community Engagement which includes building partnerships on environmental issues. With the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties meeting 21 in December, 2015 in Paris, there were and continue to be great opportunities for physicists to interact with policy makers and the general public. As an experimental particle physicist, much was learned about climate change science, how the public views scientists, how science can influence policy, but most especially how to communicate about science.

  13. The changing global context of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments. PMID:10981904

  14. Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymaris, K. K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.; Schwarz Ballard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. In anticipation of the 2010 campaign, Project BudBurst has developed and released innovative and exciting projects with a special focus in the field of phenology and climate change. The collaborations between Project BudBurst and other organizations are producing unique campaigns for engaging the public in environmental research. The special project foci include on-the-spot and in-the-field data reporting via mobile phones, an emphasis on urban tree phenology data, as well as monitoring of native gardens across the US National Wildlife Refuge System. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and the new special projects, and share results from 2007-2009. Project BudBurst is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Chicago Botanic Garden, and the University of Montana.

  15. Shaping the Public Dialogue on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    In order to broaden the public dialogue about climate change, climate scientists need to leverage the potential of informal science education and recent advances in social and cognitive science. In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, etc.) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Extensive research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change and trust these institutions as reliable sources. Given that we spend less than 5% of our lifetime in a classroom, and only a fraction of that is focused on science, informal science venues will continue to play a critical role in shaping public understanding of environmental issues in the years ahead. Public understanding of climate change continues to lag far behind the scientific consensus not merely because the public lacks information, but because there is in fact too much complex and contradictory information available. Fortunately, we can now (1) build on careful empirical cognitive and social science research to understand what people already value, believe, and understand; and then (2) design and test strategies for translating complex science so that people can examine evidence, make well-informed inferences, and embrace science-based solutions. The New England Aquarium is leading a national effort to enable informal science education institutions to effectively communicate the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine ecosystems. This NSF-funded partnership, the National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), involves the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. We believe that skilled interpreters can serve as "communication strategists" by

  16. INCIDENCE OF LEGISLATIVE CHANGES ON THE ROMANIAN PUBLIC DEBT SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Emilian Constantin Miricescu; Emilia Mioara Campeanu

    2008-01-01

    Long-term public debt sustainability can be achieved by particular public debt management measures. The changes occurred in the Romanian legislation have performed in this field both to the reduction of public debt ratio and on the public debt interests, also on the diversification of the financial instruments, the maturities and the currencies of the public debt. The aim of this study is to present the legislative changes and their incidence on public debt sustainability using the Romanian c...

  17. Quantifying the changing role of past publications

    CERN Document Server

    Orosz, Katalin; Pollner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our current societies increasingly rely on electronic repositories of collective knowledge. An archetype of these databases is the Web of Science (WoS) that stores scientific publications. In contrast to several other forms of knowledge -- e.g., Wikipedia articles -- a scientific paper does not change after its "birth". Nonetheless, from the moment a paper is published it exists within the evolving web of other papers, thus, its actual meaning to the reader changes. To track how scientific ideas (represented by groups of scientific papers) appear and evolve, we apply a novel combination of algorithms explicitly allowing for papers to change their groups. We (i) identify the overlapping clusters of the undirected yearly co-citation networks of the WoS (1975-2008) and (ii) match these yearly clusters (groups) to form group timelines. After visualizing the longest lived groups of the entire data set we assign topic labels to the groups. We find that in the entire Web of Science multidisciplinarity is clearly ove...

  18. Social acceptability of climate change policies; will energy efficiency always fail to win its case through the consultation process? Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Which segments of society 'win' as a result of climate change policies? Actors generally support the principle of reduced emissions through decarbonising fuels, and many are convinced that reducing overall energy consumption is an essential strategy to prevent further damaging climate change. However, proposed strategies for ensuring that sufficient action is taken to reduce emissions suffer from complexity, uncertainty and dissent, especially from vested interests. The policy maker has to choose between many options, and many conflicting consultation responses, to select the most politically feasible and socially acceptable pathway. An FP6 funded project into Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for climate change is developing an innovative tool to support policy choice based on a mix of methods, using case studies to test the outputs. Resources include stakeholder deliberation on criteria necessary to evaluate pathway options. The first stage maps energy actors' perspectives of climate change, identifying key issues for socially acceptable policies for the 2012 - 2050 period that would either limit climate change to only 2 deg C increase, or provide a 'soft landing' to a world 5 degrees above present.This paper describes this mapping exercise and indicates the issues of most debate, on which rest the criteria for social acceptability. It describes how deliberative methods can involve stakeholders more effectively in policy formation, contrasts the roles of deliberation and consultation, and discusses the engagement of powerful vested interests with this approach. While there are considerable overlaps in perspectives of different actors, leading to specific points of contention, importantly, decisions on selection and engagement of stakeholders with the process become critical if the criteria for policy decisions are to be accepted by society

  19. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  20. Win-win strategies in directing low-carbon resilient development path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section explores big win-win strategies in directing low carbon resilient development path. There are lots of “leapfrog” development possibilities in developing countries, which go directly from a status of under-development through to efficient and environmentally benign lifestyle. To achieve low carbon resilient paths, not only technology development but also institutional and behavioral changes are required. Science-policy nexus is also discussed.

  1. CHANGES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia DRAGOMIR STEFANESCU

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses the determining role that the management of public administration has in the modern society. It also discusses the concepts, traits, functions and principles of the management of public administration. Finally, assessments are made with regard to the conception and practice of the management of public administration in Romania. The study has implications in the organizational sector of the public administration institutions and in the process of the specialists’ training in...

  2. Public Health Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Polivka, Barbara J.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Mac Crawford, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Climate change affects human health, and health departments are urged to act to reduce the severity of these impacts. Yet little is known about the perspective of public health nurses—the largest component of the public health workforce—regarding their roles in addressing health impacts of climate change. Objectives: We determined the knowledge and attitudes of public health nurses concerning climate change and the role of public health nursing in divisions of health departments i...

  3. Successful Undergraduate Research: Creating Win-Win-Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, A. J.; Rhodes, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate involvement in research has the potential to advance science, enhance education, strengthen the research community, and raise general awareness of the importance and impact of scientific understanding. Rather than being competing objectives, these goals are synergistic. Effective research experiences are those that create win-win-win situations: benefits to the student, benefits to the project, and benefits to the scientific community. When structured appropriately, undergraduate research fits into a learner-centered paradigm that puts emphasis on student learning, rather than instructor teaching. Under such a paradigm the student and professor learn together, constructing knowledge by integrating information with critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, and use this knowledge to address issues in real-life contexts. Creating such a learning environment requires that the professor be vested in the outcome of the research, that the student take a meta-cognitive approach to the project and work at a level appropriate to her abilities, and that the student understand how her contribution fits into the project and the larger field. All of these factors lead to greater independence, confidence, and productivity on the part of the student. By providing undergraduates with these experiences, we introduce not only future scientists but also non-scientists to the excitement of discovery and the value of scientific research. Currently, we involve undergraduates in our research on the hydrology and geochemistry of a tropical montane cloud forest in Monteverde, Costa Rica. At the start of each student's involvement, we provide her with the big picture: our project goals, the relevant social issues, and the importance of watershed research. Each student then articulates her own educational and project objectives. Together, we choose tasks that match her skills and interests with our scholarly work. Specific activities range from literature review to

  4. What Matters Now How to Win in a World of Relentless Change, Ferocious Competition, and Unstoppable Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamel, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This is not a book about one thing. It's not a 250-page dissertation on leadership, teams or motivation. Instead, it's an agenda for building organizations that can flourish in a world of diminished hopes, relentless change and ferocious competition. This is not a book about doing better. It's not a manual for people who want to tinker at the margins. Instead, it's an impassioned plea to reinvent management as we know it-to rethink the fundamental assumptions we have about capitalism, organizational life, and the meaning of work. Leaders today confront a world where the unprecedented is the no

  5. How to win friends and influence people

    CERN Document Server

    Carnegie, Dale

    2010-01-01

    For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!

  6. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  7. Public Inaccuracy in Meta-perceptions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, J.; Fraser, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public perceptions of climate change and meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientist's perceptions of climate change were assessed to benchmark the National Network for Climate Change Interpretation's impacts. Meta-perceptions are important to examine because they can have implications for willingness to take action to address climate change. For instance, recent research suggests a tendency to misperceive that there is disagreement among climate scientists is predictive of lack of support for climate change policies. Underestimating public concern about climate change could also be problematic: it could lead individuals to withdraw from personal efforts to reduce impact and engage others in discussions about climate change. Presented results will demonstrate that respondents in a national survey underestimated the percent of the public who were very concerned, concerned or cautious about climate change and overestimated the extent others were disengaged, doubted, or non-believers. They underestimated the percent of the public who likely believed that humans caused climate change and overestimate the percent that believed climate change was not happening nor human induced. Finally, they underestimated the percent of the public that believed climate change threatened ocean health. The results also explore sources of misperceptions. First, correlates with TV viewing habits suggest that inaccuracy is a result of too little attention to network news, with one exception: Greater attention to FOX among doubters reduced accuracy. Second, adding to other evidence that basic cognitive heuristics (such as availability heuristic) influence perceptions of climate change, we show that that false consensus effects account for meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientists beliefs. The false consensus effect, in combination with underestimating concern among the public, results in those most concerned about climate change and those who believe it to be human

  8. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  9. Change Management in public sector: A case study of gas distribution firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shirvani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers different approaches for establishment of change management in governmental agencies. The proposed model of this paper uses Kotter’s 8-step method in an empirical investigation for a gas distribution firm located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The results of this study reveal that the organization was successful to create sense of urgency, form a powerful coalition, create a vision for change, communicate the vision, create short-term wins and build on the change. However, the organization was not successful on removing obstacles and changes in corporate culture. In addition, the sixth step, create short -term wins, receives the highest rate of success while removing the obstacles maintains the minimum rate of success. Finally, the survey demonstrates that gender and educational background do not have any impact on change management but age, job experience as well as job position influences change management, significantly.

  10. Publication Bias in Measuring Anthropogenic Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Reckova, Dominika; Irsova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    We present a meta-regression analysis of the relation between the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and changes in global temperature. The relation is captured by “climate sensitivity”, which measures the response to a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations compared to pre-industrial levels. Estimates of climate sensitivity play a crucial role in evaluating the impacts of climate change and constitute one of the most important inputs into the computation of the social cost ...

  11. Change Management in public sector: A case study of gas distribution firm

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Shirvani; Mashallah Valikhani Dehaghani; Seyed Hassan Mossavi

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers different approaches for establishment of change management in governmental agencies. The proposed model of this paper uses Kotter’s 8-step method in an empirical investigation for a gas distribution firm located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The results of this study reveal that the organization was successful to create sense of urgency, form a powerful coalition, create a vision for change, communicate the vision, create short-term wins and build on the change. However,...

  12. VT Professor Wins National Public Administration Award -- This marks the 2nd year in a row the award has been given to a Virginia Tech professor

    OpenAIRE

    Newbill, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Charles Goodsell, professor emeritus in the Center for Public Administration & Policy (CPAP), will be awarded the American Society for Public Administration's Dwight Waldo Award for 2003 at the society's 64th national conference in Washington, D.C. in March. Goodsell will receive this distinction for outstanding lifetime contributions to the literature of public administration. He will also be featured in a future issue of ASPA's "Public Administration Review".

  13. What makes for prize-winning television?

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Sara; HANRETTY, Chris; Hargreaves-Heap, Shaun; Street, John

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of success in four international television awards festivals between 1994 and 2012. We find that countries with larger markets and greater expenditure on public broadcasting tend to win more awards, but that the degree of concentration in the market for television and rates of penetration of pay-per-view television are unrelated to success. These findings are consistent with general industrial organisation literature on quality and market size, and with media p...

  14. Rising stakeholder expectations and the changing role of public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossberndt, D. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The role of public relations is changing along with growing public awareness of stakeholder's ability to intervene in the development of energy projects. Public relations and community consultation departments must work closely together to ensure that consistent messages are being delivered to the public. This presentation explained how to develop a successful public relations strategy ranging from environmental risk assessment to community consultation. It also discussed the degree to which effective and ongoing communication with stakeholders prevents opposition and negative media coverage.

  15. PUBLIC PRIVATE COLLABORATION ON CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    How can local governments influence companies to reduce their climate change impacts? This overall problem is examined in this PhD thesis. The PhD thesis is based on the experiences of seven Danish municipalities participating in the EU Life+ project, Carbon 20. Analyses are made of the...... companies to implement energy savings • Options for municipal environmental officers to address climate change and energy as part of the direct environmental regulation of companies • Cooperation between municipalities and energy utilities on providing free of charge energy screenings • The municipalities......’ activities to combine local business support with the climate and environmental agenda under the concept of green growth • The learning and competences of the municipal officers. The insights from these five analyses are combined into the sixth analysis as an assessment of the competencies needed to assist...

  16. Improving public health by tackling climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Across the world, climate change is now responsible for substantial mortality and morbidity, through direct effects on health and also by threatening the determinants of health. This commentary argues that adaptation policies to enhance resilience to adverse climate events are important, but must be coupled with determined action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The prize is synergy: many such policies, for example concerning food, travel and community engagement, can simultaneously improv...

  17. Public health impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H D; Dhimal, B; Dhimal, M; Bhusal, C L

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is a global issue in this century which has challenged the survival of living creatures affecting the life supporting systems of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Scientists have reached in a consensus that climate change is happening. The anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming and therefore climate change. Climate change may directly or indirectly affect human health through a range of pathways related to temperature and precipitation. The aim of this article is to share knowledge on how climate change can affect public health in Nepal based on scientific evidence from global studies and experience gained locally. In this review attempt has been made to critically analyze the scientific studies as well as policy documents of Nepalese Government and shed light on public health impact of climate change in the context of Nepal. Detailed scientific study is recommended to discern impact of climate change on public health problems in Nepal. PMID:22929718

  18. When winning is everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepak; Ku, Gillian; Murnighan, J Keith

    2008-05-01

    In the heat of competition, executives can easily become obsessed with beating their rivals. This adrenaline-fueled emotional state, which the authors call competitive arousal, often leads to bad decisions. Managers can minimize the potential for competitive arousal and the harm it can inflict by avoiding certain types of interaction and targeting the causes of a win-at-all-costs approach to decision making. Through an examination of companies such as Boston Scientific and Paramount, and through research on auctions, the authors identified three principal drivers of competitive arousal: intense rivalry, especially in the form of one-on-one competitions; time pressure, found in auctions and other bidding situations, for example; and being in the spotlight--that is, working in the presence of an audience. Individually, these factors can seriously impair managerial decision making; together, their consequences can be dire, as evidenced by many high-profile business disasters. It's not possible to avoid destructive competitions and bidding wars completely. But managers can help prevent competitive arousal by anticipating potentially harmful competitive dynamics and then restructuring the deal-making process. They can also stop irrational competitive behavior from escalating by addressing the causes of competitive arousal. When rivalry is intense, for instance, managers can limit the roles of those who feel it most. They can reduce time pressure by extending or eliminating arbitrary deadlines. And they can deflect the spotlight by spreading the responsibility for critical competitive decisions among team members. Decision makers will be most successful when they focus on winning contests in which they have a real advantage--and take a step back from those in which winning exacts too high a cost. PMID:18543810

  19. Expressing determination: From ENS programme 'Women and nuclear energy' to WIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIN is an international association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application and willing to devote time to public information. It is established as non-profit making. WIN'S working language is English. WIN aims to contribute to objectively informing the public, especially women, on nuclear energy and radiation, in particular by: meeting regularly to exchange ideas and experiences between countries' WIN information groups, establishing country WIN groups in nuclear countries as widely as practical, supporting each other across borders, working out shared information techniques and information materials for international use. WIN is open to female nuclear and radiation professionals and academics as well as communications specialists, from all over the world, pledged to adhere to the goals of this Charter. The first WINFO Quarterly Newsletter of Women in Nuclear has been published

  20. Win Market by Brand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhende

    2002-01-01

    Brand is symbol of product quality and strength of enterprise. As a typical culture in market economy, it has great influences in everyday life. Famous brands attract purchasing, which prospers enterprise. After China' s entry to WTO, Chinese economy has turned into a new page.As the world manufacturing base, China is to win international market with its own brands. Chunsheng Refractory Ltd., which specialized in quality silica bricks, has grown in size and strength. And our experiences proved how important the brand is for an enterprise.

  1. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change. PMID:20150801

  2. Public preferences for climate change policies: Exploratory evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hanemann; Xavier Labandeira; María L. Loureiro

    2010-01-01

    There is a body of evidence showing public attitudes towards climate change in various countries around the world. In this study, we employ a phone survey in order to assess attitudes towards climate change in Spain and preferences for a green electricity program that reduces CO2 emissions while making electricity more expensive. Results are similar to those obtained in other studies elsewhere, and complement them by showing a strong public support for implementing the green electricity progr...

  3. The changing nature of urban public places in Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashrur Rahman Mishu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, public places have been asserted as one of the key components of urban life for their physical, social, political, symbolic and environmental roles. However, the nature and quality of public places in recent years have raised the question how far these places remain ‘public’ in true sense. The study systematically explores how the public places of Dhaka have transformed throughout the history in different time periods. It attempts to assess the ‘publicness’ of the existing public places focusing on the changing nature of these places and the tensions arise from different perspectives. The research is descriptive and employs a case study approach. Osmany Uddan, a park situated in the prime location in the city center and the Hatirjheel, a recently developed lakeside area, have been considered as two cases. The findings from the case studies reveal that although these places are public considering the ownership, their quality and characteristics as public place are diminishing day by day. Limited physical and social accessibility have narrowed the group of users who can use the public place for a variety of purposes. Another major phenomenon which can be attributed to the changing nature of public place is the growing private interest. In this backdrop, it needs planning and design considerations to make public place more inclusive to diverse groups of people as such these places can perform multiple functions in balance.

  4. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

  5. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Braks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  6. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokan, Nikola; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping-generations model to study the growth-maximizing level of public debt under conditions of demograhic change. It is shown that the optimal debt level depends on a positive marginal productivity of public capital. In general, it also depends on the demographic par...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  7. Country Report WIN Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP, nuclear power up-rate for existing NPPs, NPP license renewal related studies, development of D and D technology, development of fuel cells and solar and wind power generation systems, and development and commercialization of radiopharmaceuticals. Among major nuclear regulatory activities during the past year include: establishment of a nuclear knowledge management web site, completion of review for power up-rate for Kuosheng NPP, oversight of the installation of automatic scram systems at NPPs during strong earthquakes, advancement of the electronically oriented radiation protection control operations, strengthening of safety controls of high-risk radiation sources, development of a mammography quality control program, and review and conditional approval of the preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) of the construction license application for the spent nuclear fuel dry storage facility at the Chinshan NPP. C - WIN Taiwan: Founded in 1994, WIN Taiwan now has 110 national members and 33 global members. 2007-2008 Activities and Achievements: 15. WIN Global Annual Meeting held (21-27 April 2007, Bali, Indonesia); Science Excursions at TPC's Northern Visitors Center and at radwaste volume reduction center (12 July 2007); WIN-Taiwan and ANS Taiwan Joint Annual Meeting at the National Tsing Hua University's newly re-established Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science (9 August 2007); workshop on 'understanding radiation and radioactive waste' (28 September 2007), Fall Seminar (7 December 2007), Steering and Advisory Committee Meetings (1 June and 1 November 2006, 11 January and 18 March, 2008)

  8. Educational partnerships - a win win endeavor!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is largely concerned with the New Brunswick teacher placement project. Groups of teachers have visited Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station, where they have learned more about nuclear energy, and have helped to improve public affairs material and exhibits aimed at school children

  9. Does the weather influence public opinion about climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; McDaniel, J.

    2010-12-01

    Public opinion in North America about the science of anthropogenic climate change and the motivation for policy action has been variable over the past twenty years. The trends in public opinion over time have been attributed the general lack of pressing public concern about climate change to a range of political, economic and psychological factors. One driving force behind the variability in polling data from year to year may be the weather itself. The difference between what we “expect” - the climate - and what we “get” - the weather - can be a major source of confusion and obfuscation in the public discourse about climate change. For example, reaction to moderate global temperatures in 2007 and 2008 may have helped prompt the spread of a “global cooling” meme in the public and the news media. At the same time, a decrease in the belief in the science of climate change and the need for action has been noted in opinion polls. This study analyzes the relationship between public opinion about climate change and the weather in the U.S. since the mid-1980s using historical polling data from several major organizations (e.g. Gallup, Pew, Harris Interactive, ABC News), historical monthly air temperature (NCDC) and a survey of opinion articles from major U.S. newspapers (Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Houston Chronicle, USA Today). Seasonal and annual monthly temperature anomalies for the northeastern U.S and the continental U.S are compared with available national opinion data for three general categories of questions: i) Is the climate warming?, ii) Is the observed warming due to human activity?, and iii) Are you concerned about climate change? The variability in temperature and public opinion over time is also compared with the variability in the fraction of opinion articles in the newspapers (n ~ 7000) which express general agreement or disagreement with IPCC Summary for Policymakers consensus statements on climate change (“most of

  10. Changing Definitions of the History of Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Dorothy

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the transformation from earlier to contemporary historiographical interpretations of the development of public health systems in relation to the construction of political states. It reviews the changing foci of histories of epidemic and chronic diseases and argues that this work has been central to expanding the conceptual basis for public health history as the ‘history of collective actions in relation to the health of populations’. The article subsequently argues that,...

  11. LEADERSHIP STYLES AND MANAGED CHANGE IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN UGANDA

    OpenAIRE

    Tusime, Immaculate; Musasizi, Yunia; Nalweyiso, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between leadership styles and managed change in Public Universities in Uganda. A cross sectional design and a quantitative approach was adopted for this study. The study used a population census since the study population was small, hence the population comprised of public universities in Uganda which are 5 in total. The data was tested for reliability, analysed using SPSS and results presented based on the study objectives. Results r...

  12. Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX): A Public-Private Partnership for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.; Lee, T. J.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, computing and knowledge collaborative that houses satellite, climate and ancillary data where a community of researchers can come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform with access to large supercomputing resources. As a part of broadening the community beyond NASA-funded researchers, NASA through an agreement with Amazon Inc. made available to the public a large collection of Climate and Earth Sciences satellite data. The data, available through the Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX) platform hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud, consists of large amounts of global land surface imaging, vegetation conditions, climate observations and climate projections. In addition to the data, users of OpenNEX platform can also watch lectures from leading experts, learn basic access and use of the available data sets. In order to advance White House initiatives such as Open Data, Big Data and Climate Data and the Climate Action Plan, NASA over the past six months conducted the OpenNEX Challenge. The two-part challenge was designed to engage the public in creating innovative ways to use NASA data and address climate change impacts on economic growth, health and livelihood. Our intention was that the challenges allow citizen scientists to realize the value of NASA data assets and offers NASA new ideas on how to share and use that data. The first "ideation" challenge, closed on July 31st attracted over 450 participants consisting of climate scientists, hobbyists, citizen scientists, IT experts and App developers. Winning ideas from the first challenge will be incorporated into the second "builder" challenge currently targeted to launch mid-August and close by mid-November. The winner(s) will be formally announced at AGU in December of 2014. We will share our experiences and lessons learned over the past year from OpenNEX, a public-private partnership for

  13. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Jaclyn A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%, severe weather (68% and poor air-quality (57%. Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into

  14. Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  15. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change

  16. Leadership in academic and public libraries a time of change

    CERN Document Server

    Düren, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In a time when libraries have to face constant change, this book provides examples and advises on how to lead when change is needed (for example, when quality management is implemented or when libraries have to merge or to relocate). Engaging with how constant change affects leadership in libraries and how leaders in libraries act in times of change, this book is aimed at practitioners and students of Library and Information Science (LIS) alike, and is based on both theory and expert interviews from leaders in academic and public libraries that are in the midst, or are now coming out of a proc

  17. QIN Dahe wins IMO prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Prof.QIN Dahe,a glaciologist and climatologist from the CAS Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research,has been elected to win the prestigious Prize of the International Meteorology Organization (IMO) in 2008.

  18. Public Perception of Climate Change in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odafivwotu Ohwo

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the public perception of climate change in Yenagoa. The sample survey method was adopted, which involved the administration of 360 questionnaires to randomly selected households. The results showed that 43.33% of respondents lack adequate knowledge of climate change. Further interview revealed that 55.3% of the respondents are unaware that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major greenhouse gas, contributing about 55% to global warming. It was revealed that responde...

  19. Social Marketing, Stages of Change, and Public Health Smoking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…

  20. In the winning mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Vries

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994. In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this stage, people base their decisions on conscious gut feelings (Wagar and Dixon, 2006. Based on empirical evidence for the relation between mood and cognitive processing-styles, we expected and consistently found that, compared to a negative mood state, reported and induced positive mood states increased this early tendency towards advantageous decks. Our results provide support for the idea that a positive mood causes stronger reliance on affective signals in decision-making than a negative mood.

  1. Climate change sentiment on Twitter: An unsolicited public opinion poll

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Emily M; Mitchell, Lewis; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news. In this research, we analyze tweets containing the word "climate" collected between September 2008 and July 2014. We determine how collective sentiment varies in response to climate change news, events, and natural disasters. Words uncovered by our analysis suggest that responses to climate change news are predominately from climate change activists rather than climate change deniers, indicating that Twitter is a valuable resource for the spread of climate change awareness.

  2. Leadership in Change - The Danish Public School Reform Anno 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Nyboe, Camilla; Thune Andersen, Amalie; Sneberg, Ann Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This project deals with the process of implementing the Danish public school reform of 2014. We can see in the media, that there are clear differences in the manner in which the individual school leaders are approaching this change of their organisation and the focus of this project is thus to establish and investigate how the styles of leadership between the schools differ even though they operate under the same public school structure. This is done by looking at three different school in di...

  3. Ethics and public perception of climate change: exploring the Christian voices in the US public debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.; Petersen, A.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change raises many questions with strong moral and ethical dimensions that are important to address in climate-policy formation and international negotiations. Particularly in the United States, the public discussion of these dimensions is strongly influenced by religious groups and leaders.

  4. Win at Work! The Everybody Wins Approach to Conflict Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Proven techniques for resolving workplace conflicts. After years of seeing clients struggling and their businesses suffering with destructive conflicts, Diane Katz developed The Working Circle, a step-by-step process that helps everyone in business resolve conflict in a non-confrontational, creative, collaborative way. Win at Work! provides you with a no-nonsense guide based on real-life examples of people at pivotal points in their careers. Filled with practical wisdom, it reveals how you can move around the roadblocks that, if left unattanded, can stop you in your tracks. Win at Work! also h

  5. Changing images of professionalism: the case of public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, J R; O'Reilly, C A; Parlette, G N

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 89 public health nurses in a California county explored factors that might account for the growing support of unions and subsequent militancy among nurses. As predicted, changes in the backgrounds of public health nurses have occurred over time: 1) older nurses are more likely to have graduated from a diploma program and to have parents of lower educational and occupational attainment than younger nurses; 2) older nurses are more likely to view nursing as a calling and less likely to desire representation in collective bargaining by the union or to believe striking professional; 3) older nurses and those from lower social class backgrounds were less likely to belong to the union and less likely to participate in a county-wide strike. Because age and parental background factors are independently related to our indicators of militancy--union membership and participation in a strike--the results are interpreted as a change in nurses' images of professionalism. PMID:420355

  6. Climate Change Sentiment on Twitter: An Unsolicited Public Opinion Poll

    OpenAIRE

    Cody, Emily M.; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events a...

  7. The Distribution of Climate Change Public Opinion in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Mildenberger, M; Howe, P.; Lachapelle, E; Stokes, L.; Marlon, J.; Gravelle, T

    2016-01-01

    While climate scientists have developed high resolution data sets on the distribution of climate risks, we still lack comparable data on the local distribution of public climate change opinions. This paper provides the first effort to estimate local climate and energy opinion variability outside the United States. Using a multi-level regression and post-stratification (MRP) approach, we estimate opinion in federal electoral districts and provinces. We demonstrate that a majority of the Canadi...

  8. Reframing climate change as a public health issue: an exploratory study of public reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is taking a toll on human health, and some leaders in the public health community have urged their colleagues to give voice to its health implications. Previous research has shown that Americans are only dimly aware of the health implications of climate change, yet the literature on issue framing suggests that providing a novel frame - such as human health - may be potentially useful in enhancing public engagement. We conducted an exploratory study in the United States of people's reactions to a public health-framed short essay on climate change. Methods U.S. adult respondents (n = 70, stratified by six previously identified audience segments, read the essay and were asked to highlight in green or pink any portions of the essay they found "especially clear and helpful" or alternatively "especially confusing or unhelpful." Two dependent measures were created: a composite sentence-specific score based on reactions to all 18 sentences in the essay; and respondents' general reactions to the essay that were coded for valence (positive, neutral, or negative. We tested the hypothesis that five of the six audience segments would respond positively to the essay on both dependent measures. Results There was clear evidence that two of the five segments responded positively to the public health essay, and mixed evidence that two other responded positively. There was limited evidence that the fifth segment responded positively. Post-hoc analysis showed that five of the six segments responded more positively to information about the health benefits associated with mitigation-related policy actions than to information about the health risks of climate change. Conclusions Presentations about climate change that encourage people to consider its human health relevance appear likely to provide many Americans with a useful and engaging new frame of reference. Information about the potential health benefits of specific mitigation

  9. Public Views on Climate Change. European and USA Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If uncontrolled, human influences on the climate system may generate changes that will endanger various aspects of life on Earth. The precise implications of the scientific claims about climate change, and the extent to which they pose dangers to various populations, are becoming intensely debated at many levels in relation to policy. How 'danger' is interpreted will ultimately affect which actions are taken. In this paper, we examine how climate change is conceptualised by publics in Europe and in the USA. Although there is widespread concern about climate change, it is of secondary importance in comparison to other issues in people's daily lives. Most individuals relate to climate change through personal experience, knowledge, the balance of benefits and costs, and trust in other societal actors. We analyse these factors through findings from various surveys and studies, which highlight both the distinctiveness and some shared perspectives at a generalised level. We reflect upon these in relation to trust and responsibility for climate change action, and risk communication, supporting the call for discourses about climate change to also be situated in people's locality, as a means of increasing its saliency

  10. Tectonics wins AAP Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGU's newest journal, Tectonics, won the 1983 award for excellence in journal design and production given by the Association of American Publishers, Inc. (AAP), in the eighth annual professional and scholarly publishing awards competition. Edited by John F. Dewey, the bimonthly journal is a joint publication of AGU and the European Geophysical Society. Paul E. Tapponnier is the European editor and B.C. Burchfiel is the North American editor. The journal is now in its third year of publication.

  11. Climate Change Sentiment on Twitter: An Unsolicited Public Opinion Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Emily M; Reagan, Andrew J; Mitchell, Lewis; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news. In this research, we analyze tweets containing the word "climate" collected between September 2008 and July 2014. Through use of a previously developed sentiment measurement tool called the Hedonometer, we determine how collective sentiment varies in response to climate change news, events, and natural disasters. We find that natural disasters, climate bills, and oil-drilling can contribute to a decrease in happiness while climate rallies, a book release, and a green ideas contest can contribute to an increase in happiness. Words uncovered by our analysis suggest that responses to climate change news are predominately from climate change activists rather than climate change deniers, indicating that Twitter is a valuable resource for the spread of climate change awareness. PMID:26291877

  12. Climate Change Sentiment on Twitter: An Unsolicited Public Opinion Poll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Emily M.; Reagan, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Lewis; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news. In this research, we analyze tweets containing the word “climate” collected between September 2008 and July 2014. Through use of a previously developed sentiment measurement tool called the Hedonometer, we determine how collective sentiment varies in response to climate change news, events, and natural disasters. We find that natural disasters, climate bills, and oil-drilling can contribute to a decrease in happiness while climate rallies, a book release, and a green ideas contest can contribute to an increase in happiness. Words uncovered by our analysis suggest that responses to climate change news are predominately from climate change activists rather than climate change deniers, indicating that Twitter is a valuable resource for the spread of climate change awareness. PMID:26291877

  13. IRA Award-Winning Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes award-winning research produced by Andrew M.Hess, Sirkka-Liisa Rauramo, Richard L. Allington, Donna E. Alvermann and David A. Hayes, Lesley M. Morrow and Carol S. Weinstein, Taffy E. Raphael and Bonnie B. Armbruster, Nancy Nelson Spivey, and Courtney B. Cazden. (FL)

  14. Do quantum strategies always win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Namit; Benjamin, Colin

    2015-11-01

    In a seminal paper, Meyer (Phys Rev Lett 82:1052, 1999) described the advantages of quantum game theory by looking at the classical penny flip game. A player using a quantum strategy can win against a classical player almost 100 % of the time. Here we make a slight modification to the quantum game, with the two players sharing an entangled state to begin with. We then analyze two different scenarios: First in which quantum player makes unitary transformations to his qubit, while the classical player uses a pure strategy of either flipping or not flipping the state of his qubit. In this case, the quantum player always wins against the classical player. In the second scenario, we have the quantum player making similar unitary transformations, while the classical player makes use of a mixed strategy wherein he either flips or not with some probability " p." We show that in the second scenario, 100 % win record of a quantum player is drastically reduced and for a particular probability " p" the classical player can even win against the quantum player. This is of possible relevance to the field of quantum computation as we show that in this quantum game of preserving versus destroying entanglement a particular classical algorithm can beat the quantum algorithm.

  15. Tips for Writing Winning Resumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Andrew V.

    2004-01-01

    With double-digit unemployment rates facing teenage job seekers, adolescents need all the help they can get in securing employment. One step in the job seeking process is the development of resumes that will win employment interviews. Whether they are looking for an after-school job, a summer job, or their first "real" job, this article provides…

  16. Trusting in the change of New Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit

    2016-01-01

    public management (NPM) trusting has changed based on concepts of making actors “accountable” and processes “transparent” through management models based on documentation and evaluation. These management models emphasize detailed process interventions and regulation. Service delivering became...... transactional and trusting was based on managerialism. However, these models show limitations in order to solve the complex and often cross-disciplinary problems of contemporary welfare production dealing with broader, societal, transnational and even global challenges. A new regime seems to emerge based on...

  17. Small wins matter in advocacy movements: giving voice to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the various players are delineated in a story of a contested illness and patient advocacy, played out within the corridors of federal power. It is suggested that the mistreatment and negative attitudes that health care providers and others have towards those with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is possibly due to the social construction of this illness as being a "Yuppie flu" disease. Institutional factors are identified that created these norms and attributions, as well as the multiple stakeholders and constituent groups invested in exerting pressure on policy makers to effect systemic change. This article also provides examples of how the field of Community Psychology, which is fundamentally committed to/based on listening to and giving voice to patients, is broadly relevant to patient activism communities. This approach focused, over time, on epidemiological studies, the name, the case definition, and ultimately the change in CFS leadership at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Keys to this "small wins" approach were coalition building, use of "oppositional experts" (professionals in the scientific community who support patient advocacy goals) to challenge federal research, and taking advantage of developing events/shifts in power. Ultimately, this approach can result in significant scientific and policy gains, and changes in medical and public perception of an illness. PMID:21858612

  18. Climate change: the next challenge for public mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, François; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health of the 21st century, with consequences that mental health professionals are also likely to face. While physical health impacts have been increasingly emphasized in literature and practice, recent scholarly literature indicates that climate change and related weather events and environmental changes can profoundly impact psychological well-being and mental health through both direct and indirect pathways, particularly among those with pre-existing vulnerabilities or those living in ecologically sensitive areas. Although knowledge is still limited about the connections between climate change and mental health, evidence is indicating that impacts may be felt at both the individual and community levels, with mental health outcomes ranging from psychological distress, depression and anxiety, to increased addictions and suicide rates. Drawing on examples from diverse geographical areas, this article highlights some climate-sensitive impacts that may be encountered by mental health professionals. We then suggest potential avenues for public mental health in light of current and projected changes, in order to stimulate thought, debate, and action. PMID:25137107

  19. Chang Sei Kim's Activities on Public Health in Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Yunjae

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After graduating from Severance Medical College in 1916, Chang Sei Kim went to Shanghai to work as a missionary in a adventist hospital. The establishment of the Korean Provisional Government led him to participate in the independence movement. Educating nurses to assist the forthcoming war for independence, he seemed to realize the fact that the health of Koreans would be a key factor for achieving independence. He left for the U.S. to conduct comprehensive research on medicine. Chang Sei Kim was the first Korean to receive a Ph. D. degree of Public Health, graduating from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1925. He then gained an opportunity to work for Korea as a professor at Severance Medical College. His objective was the 'Reconstruction of the Korean People In Terms of Physical Constitution.' He pointed out that Koreans' weak state of health was a major reason for Korea's colonization. To gain independence, he emphasized that the Korean people should receive education on public health in order to improve the primitive conditions of sanitation. There is little doubt that Chang Sei Kim's ideas developed Heungsadan's views on medicine in terms of its stress on cultivation of ability, especially considering the fact that he was a member of the organization. As a member of the colonized who could not participate in the developing official policy, Chang Sei Kim was not able to implement his ideas fully, because an individual or a private organization could not carry out policy on public health as large a scale as the government did. Never giving up his hopes for Korean independence, he rejected requests to assume official posts in the Government-General. That was why he was particularly interested in the Self-Governing Movement in 1920s Korea. If the movement had attained its goal, he might have worked for the enhancement of sanitary environment as a director of Sanitary Department. His application for funding to establish

  20. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  1. Climate Change Action Fund: public education and outreach. Change: think climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated booklet provides a glimpse of the many creative approaches being adopted by educators, community groups, industry associations and governments at all levels to inform Canadians about the causes and effects of climate change. It also provides suggestions about how each individual person can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through residential energy efficiency, by participating in ride-share programs, by planting trees and a myriad of other community action projects and public awareness campaigns. The booklet describes educational resources and training available to teachers, science presentations, climate change workshops, public awareness initiatives, community action on climate change, and sector-specific actions underway in the field of transportation and in improving energy efficiency in residential and large buildings. Descriptive summaries of the activities of organizations involved in climate change advocacy and promotion, and a list of contacts for individual projects also form part of the volume

  2. Italian protesters win concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  3. Winning a prudence audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greatest hazard that a utility faces from owning a nuclear power plant is not radiation--it is regulation. Retrospective prudence audits have been used by public utility commissions (PUCs) as a basis to disallow recovery of billions of dollars of nuclear plant construction costs. These disallowances have caused severe financial damage to many utilities. Although a final decision on rates has not been made, the Arizona Corporation Commission's (ACC's) auditor recently completed its examination of the construction costs of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). The auditor reported that PVNGS was prudently designed and constructed. It concluded that ∼1% of the project (approximately $60.2 million out of the plant's overall $5.9 billion cost) was unreasonably expended. The auditor also found that the project management team had actually saved ratepayers over $300 million through exceptional management actions. This is a resounding endorsement of the work of the staff and management of Arizona Public Service (APS), Bechtel, Combustion Engineering, the AFL-CIO, and the hundreds of suppliers and contractors that participated in the construction of PVNGS. It is also a much different result from that of other recent prudence audits. The history, strategy, planning, and conduct of the audit overcame the biases that had produced proposals for large disallowances on other good plants. This paper describes the efforts taken that promoted fair and balanced audit findings (although APS does not endorse all of the audit findings)

  4. Does a win bonus help to increase profit or wins in professional team sports?

    OpenAIRE

    Késenne, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In a sports league, team owners can expect to increase player performance, and the team’s winning percentage or profits, by providing a win bonus on top of the players’ fixed salary level. In some clubs, the guaranteed player salary is relatively low and the premium, in case of a winning game, relatively high, whereas in other clubs, hardly any win bonus is paid. In this theoretical paper, we investigate what the impact of a win bonus is on the winning percentage, the competitive balance, the...

  5. Climate Change and Local Public Health in the United States: Preparedness, Programs and Perceptions of Local Public Health Department Directors

    OpenAIRE

    Maibach, Edward W.; Chadwick, Amy; McBride, Dennis; Chuk, Michelle; Ebi, Kristie L; Balbus, John

    2008-01-01

    While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health depart...

  6. Global warming calls for changes in public climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an environmental management problem, the greenhouse issue will require fundamentally different approaches if the US is to do its part to limit global warming. Preventive measures must be used to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and reforestation and vegetative processes must help capture future carbon-dioxide emissions. In turn, these approaches will require changes in environmental and institutional management. There must be a close integration of energy and environmental policy with coordinated efforts among environmental agencies, energy agencies, and public service commissions to promote and evaluate energy conservation and energy efficiency. A creative policy mix of regulation, economic incentives, and penalties will be required, with specific policies targeted towards specific segments of the economy. Finally, energy R and D priorities must be broadened to promote utilization of existing and new energy-conservation and alternate-energy technologies that have not reached their market potential due to economic, institutional, and behavioral barriers

  7. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system configuration control board (SCCB) operating procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the operating procedure for the System Configuration Control Board (SCCB) performed in support of the Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system. This board will consist of representatives from Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company Babcock and Wilcox Protec, Inc.; and Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. In accordance with agreements for the joint use of the Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company calorimeters located in the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nondestructive Assay Laboratory, concurrence regarding changes to the WinCal system will be obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Further, changes to the WinCal software will be communicated to Los Alamos National Laboratory

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Gould; Linda Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals a...

  9. Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Government developed its phase-out scenario in 1998, at a time in which the public debate about nuclear energy in Germany had waned and the anti-nuclear movement among the population had clearly lost much of its support. Since the beginning of the 90s, the proportion of Germans referring to themselves as 'opponents of nuclear power' has gone down from almost 19 to only just 12%. This decrease has been particularly strong among younger people. While in 1990 29 were still opposed to nuclear power, in 1999 this figure was only 17 %. Within the age group of 30-44 year-olds, 26 were against nuclear power in 1990; today, it is only 16 %. As for Germans aged 45+, the number of nuclear-power opponents decreased within this period by around 6 to a mere 8%. The issue of the 'use of nuclear power', which used to be ideologically charged and discussed with great passion in Germany for a long time, has cooled down. There exist quite different views about the further use of nuclear technology, and what the public wants especially in view of the planned phase-out is a prudent energy policy, based on a careful analysis of the consequences. One of the major points of the current opinion poll on the topic: 'Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?', is being carried out by the Institut fur Demoskopie Alensbach on behalf of the Informationskreis Kernenergie. Apart from this first major point, this poll is to find out which general course an energy policy should ideally take according to public opinion, along which lines such an energy policy should orientate itself, what is the place value of the principle of having an energy mix, and how much importance is attributed to sustainability. Another focus lies on probing the knowledge of those polled in order to check to what extent the population assesses correctly the quantitative importance of nuclear power and alternative energies and how well it is informed about the potentials of different forms

  10. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations. Learning that they won, the team was enthusiastic: "We are very pleased to hear this fantastic news and are looking forward to the trip!" Another winner was Marta Kotarba, with her teacher Grzegorz Sęk, from the school IV Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Tadeusza Kościuszki, Poland. Her prize is a trip to the Hispano-German Astronomical Observatory of Calar Alto in Almeria, Spain, kindly donated by the Spanish Council for Scientific Research. Marta's project "Galaxy Zoo and I" tells how she joined the website "Galaxy Zoo" to study galaxies and help astronomical researchers understand the structure of the Universe. Galaxy Zoo volunteers classify galaxies into different types, such as spiral or elliptical - a task much more easily done by humans than computers. Marta explains that the project "is like an adventure to me. Galaxy Zoo gives me abilities to enlarge my knowledge about the Universe and to gain new skills." Her winning entry also shows how anyone can get involved in the world of real astronomical research, simply by using the Internet. A third winner, of a trip to Königsleiten Observatory in Austria, is Andreia Nascimento with her teacher Leonor Cabral, from Escola Secundária da Cidadela in Portugal. Her project, on "Hunting for Open Star Clusters" near young stars, used data from the robotic Faulkes Telescope in Hawaii, which is used for research-based science education. "Catch a Star" also includes an artwork competition, for which students created artwork with an astronomical theme. This competition, through which students can get involved with astronomy even outside of science classes, has become increasingly popular, with over one thousand entries this year from around the world. Not only were prizes awarded by public votes in a web gallery, but special prizes were awarded by Garry Harwood, a Fellow and life member of the International Association of Astronomy Artists. Harwood said: "It

  11. 47 CFR 51.325 - Notice of network changes: Public notice requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of network changes: Public notice... § 51.325 Notice of network changes: Public notice requirement. (a) An incumbent local exchange carrier (“LEC”) must provide public notice regarding any network change that: (1) Will affect a...

  12. Argumentation Key to Communicating Climate Change to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Argumentation plays an important role in how we communicate climate change science to the public and is a key component integrated throughout the Next Generation Science Standards. A scientific argument can be described as a disagreement between explanations with data being used to justify each position. Argumentation is social process where two or more individuals construct and critique arguments (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Nussbaum, 1997). Sampson, Grooms, and Walker's (2011) developed a framework for understanding the components of a scientific argument. The three components start with a claim (a conjecture, conclusion, explanation, or an answer to a research question). This claim must fit the evidence (observations that show trends over time, relationships between variables or difference between groups). The evidence must be justified with reasoning (explains how the evidence supports the explanation and whey it should count as support). In a scientific argument, or debate, the controversy focuses on how data were collected, what data can or should be included, and what inferences can be made based on a set of evidence. Toulmin's model (1969) also includes rebutting or presenting an alternative explanation supported by counter evidence and reasoning of why the alternative is not the appropriate explanation for the question of the problem. The process of scientific argumentation should involve the construction and critique of scientific arguments, one that involves the consideration of alternative hypotheses (Lawson, 2003). Scientific literacy depends as much on the ability to refute and recognize poor scientific arguments as much as it does on the ability to present an effective argument based on good scientific data (Osborne, 2010). Argument is, therefore, a core feature of science. When students learn to construct a sound scientific argument, they demonstrate critical thinking and a mastery of the science being taught. To present a convincing argument in support of

  13. Climatic changes and flooding durations in relation with public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, A.; Roumieux, C.; Trouillet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic Changes, and more generaly Global Changes, play a major role in environmental modifications in relation with public health. Modifications of temperatures, precipitations... influence ecological habitats. These habitats can be adapted for some animals species, responsable of certain pandemics. Mosquitoes and birds represent for certain pandemics the essential elements of virus transmission. Abundance of mosquitoes and birds species, is heavily conditioned by flooded areas extent and specific habitats and their variations. The study we carried, has been done in South of France. We show present status of ecological habitats and flooded durations and future previsions. We reach environment impact for certain virus like West Nile virus. This virus affects bird, horse and sometimes man. Presence of the virus is conditioned by different factors, primarily including vector distribution (mosquitoes). We show how it's possible to localise favorable areas for the virus and to predict its future expansion areas. We present maps of the possibilities for future concerning previsions of bioclimatic steps variations. Thanks to the latest remote sensing and spatial analysis techniques. Our maps may be used as precious tools to help decision makers when faced with mosquito related problems.

  14. Discussion of "Win-Win concession period determination methodology" by Xueqing Zhang

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M; Chau, KW; Shen, QP

    2011-01-01

    'Win-win concession period determination methodology' By: Zhang, Xueqing. Journal of Construction Engineering & Management, Jun2009, Vol. 135 Issue 6, p550-558, 9 p; DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000012; (AN 39786304)

  15. Central effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on respiratory and cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetised rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pfitzer, Torsten; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Szabo, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim was to study the central respiratory effects of cannabinoids (CB). To this end, the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 was injected into the cisterna magna of urethane-anaesthetised rats and changes in respiratory parameters were observed. The secondary aim was to observe the centrally elicited cardiovascular actions of WIN55212-2. Involvement of opioid mechanisms in the central effects of WIN55212-2 was also studied.Intracisternal (i.c.) application of WIN55212-2 (1, 3, ...

  16. Public Sector Reforms: Changing Contours on an NPM Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hyndman, Noel;Liguori, Mariannunziata

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that, over the last decades, public-sector accounting has moved from Public Administration (PA) to New Public Management (NPM) ideas, and more recently, towards a New Public Governance (NPG) approach. These systems are presented as mutually exclusive and competing. Through an extensive document analysis, this paper explores whether convincing movement towards NPG ideas can be identified at the level of political debate and to what extent the ideas embedded within PA, ...

  17. Change Management And Performance Of Public Secondary Schools In Siaya Sub County

    OpenAIRE

    Okiiya Andrew Sande; Kisiangani Benson Walela; Oparanya Wamukoya

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current focus on change management practices in the Public sector has been significantly induced by new public management paradigm shift that places heavy emphasis on managing for results. This is an emerging issue particularly in public secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to relate public secondary schools with the practice of generally established change management best practices. The specific objectives of the study were to establish change management practices ad...

  18. Public Communication Model for Practical Countermeasure on Climate Change Risk: On the Subject of Establishing Public Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SeongKyung

    2010-09-15

    Risk problems occurred by climate change distinguishes itself from other problems in its nature and influence. It is reasonable for ordinary citizens are unable to realize the climate change problems, and great gap exists between potential disaster and perception of the public as a result. These problems must be solved via democratic procedures and processes. Raising probability concerning governance of climate change risks is possible by balance and harmony of political will, apposite policy, and public supports by participation. This research proposes for establishment of realistic public sphere which is a precondition for countermeasure.

  19. Extent and correlates of change in anthropometric and fitness outcomes among participants in a corporate team-based weight loss challenge in Singapore: lose to win 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Kathryn; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Chan, Mei Fen; Amin, Handy; Khoo, Gary; Choo, Lin; Chew, Ling; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala

    2015-03-01

    The authors describe a national corporate team-based weight loss intervention targeting groups of overweight/obese employees and assess its effectiveness. A 12-week weight loss program comprising nutrition education and physical activity sessions, enhanced by a nationwide media campaign, was organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board. A total of 285 participants, forming 72 teams (1 per workplace), had their anthropometric (weight, body mass index [BMI], and body fat percentage) and fitness (fitness index score based on UKK 2-km walk test) measurements taken pre-intervention and post-intervention. Average decreases, from baseline to end of intervention, in weight, BMI, and body fat percentage were 3.58 kg, 1.32 kg/m(2), and 2.14%, respectively. The fitness index score increased by 34.1 units. Greater participation in physical activity and nutrition education sessions was associated with more beneficial anthropometric and fitness changes. The intervention was well received and effective in producing short-term weight loss. Further research needs to be done to ascertain its long-term effectiveness and generalizability. PMID:22887805

  20. Public meetings: important changes to prepare the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    The summer holidays are over. And like every year around this time the Staff Association comes to meet you in your Departments to inform you about the topics currently being discussed at CERN. We count very much on the exchange of views and opinions between you and us that takes place during these meetings. Once again in 2011 there are a wide range of topics to be discussed. We shall also explain you why we need to see a maximum number of motivated candidates stand at the forthcoming elections for the Staff Council in November 2011. For all these reasons we invite all of you to attend our public meetings. Overview of the topics to be discussed New rules for our health insurance as of 1st January 2012 General aspects (general rules, ceilings, bonus) Replacement of annual deductible by three reimbursement rates Benefit changes (hospitalisation, optics) New benefits (UAT/UAP, refractive surgery, prevention) Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2011 : le...

  1. Public meetings: important changes to prepare the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    The summer holidays are over. And like every year around this time the Staff Association comes to meet you in your Departments to inform you about the topics currently being discussed at CERN. We count very much on the exchange of views and opinions between you and us that takes place during these meetings. Once again in 2011 there are a wide range of topics to be discussed. We shall also explain you why we need to see a maximum number of motivated candidates stand at the forthcoming elections for the Staff Council in November 2011. For all these reasons we invite all of you to attend our public meetings. Overview of the topics to be discussed New rules for our health insurance as of 1st January 2012 General aspects (general rules, ceilings, bonus) Replacement of annual deductible by three reimbursement rates Benefit changes (hospitalisation, optics) New benefits (UAT/UAP, refractive surgery, prevention) Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2011 : l...

  2. Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying: A Win-Win Spectrum Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective spectrum sharing architecture is proposed to enable the legacy noncognitive secondary system to coexist with the primary system. Specifically, we suggest to install a few intermediate nodes, namely, the cognitive relays, to conduct the spectrum sensing and coordinate the spectrum access. To achieve the goal of win-win between primary and secondary systems, the cognitive relay may act as a cooperator for both of them, and an Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying (OCR scheme is specially devised. In this scheme, the cognitive relay opportunistically switches among three different working modes, that is, Relay for Primary Link (RPL, Relay for Secondary Link (RSL, or Relay for Neither of the Links (RNL, respectively, based on the channel-dependent observation of both systems. In addition, the transmit power for cognitive relay and secondary transmitter in each mode are optimally determined by maximizing the transmission rate of secondary system while keeping or even reducing the outage probability of primary system. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed spectrum sharing scheme.

  3. 5 CFR 1632.8 - Changes with respect to publicly announced meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes with respect to publicly announced meetings. 1632.8 Section 1632.8 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.8 Changes with respect to publicly...

  4. 78 FR 65980 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation... have produced draft Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans (``Implementation Plans'') that... health and the environment. As EPA articulated in its draft Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plan,...

  5. Will Electronic Procurement Change the Public Sector's Purchasing Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Helena; Brege, Staffan; Brehmer, Per-Olof

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the findings from the KNUT project (Electronic Procurement ofTelecommunications Services for the Swedish Public Sector). The project creates a service to make the whole public procurement process electronically from analysis of needs, through development of request for proposal (RfP), contract administration and feed back, as well as a model for public procurement of telecommunications services outgoing from end-users’ and organisational needs. The study includes a detai...

  6. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  7. Changing public space. The recent redevelopment of Dutch city squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melik, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Public spaces in Dutch city centres are increasingly subject to facelifts. The car parking that dominated city squares until the 1980s has been removed and replaced by modern street furniture, city stages, and an abundance of sidewalk caf鳮 At the same time, public spaces are more controlled by camer

  8. Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement : an organisational change perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grandia (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFor the execution of policies, as well as for its own operations, governments procure goods and services, ranging from paper and pencils to fighter planes, cleaning services and public road works. In the European Union public procurement represents 16% of the gross domestic product.

  9. Indonesia : Public Spending in a Time of Change

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study identifies strategic priorities for restoring sound public finances, emphasizing the need to maintain fiscal sustainability, under a constrained budget, and the need to improve the processes for making budgetary allocations, and budget implementation, towards greater fiscal transparency. It reviews Indonesia's public spending during the crisis, and the unavoidable build-up of fis...

  10. Women in Higher Education Public Relations: An Inkling of Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver-Lariscy, Ruth Ann; And Others

    A national survey of 371 public relations officers in four-year colleges and universities examined environmental constraints, style of research, and certain personal characteristics to determine if they differentiate between female and male practitioners. First, with regard to constraints, it was found that female public relations officers were…

  11. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  12. The Way We Were (and Are): Changes in Public Finance and Its Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Harvey S.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of a contemporary public finance textbook with one written in the 1940s indicates the following major changes in the field: microeconomic theory is now the framework for analyzing positive and normative issues; research is dominated by econometrics; and topical coverage has changed along with changes in public policy. (JOW)

  13. Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement: an organisational change perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Grandia, Jolien

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFor the execution of policies, as well as for its own operations, governments procure goods and services, ranging from paper and pencils to fighter planes, cleaning services and public road works. In the European Union public procurement represents 16% of the gross domestic product. The Dutch national government alone annually spends 10 billion euro on procurement. Governments are increasingly using their authority as a large buyer in the market to compel private organisations...

  14. Changing the Face of Leadership and Administration in Public Service

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Virginia Tech Center for Public Administration and Policy (CPAP) Roundtable Series for Leadership and Administration is to bring together the leading scholars, practitioners, students, and others for a stimulating conversation focusing on the exchange of ideas that will advance the knowledge and understanding of leadership in public administration through the sharing of research and experiences. For this particular session, Dr. Colleen Woodard moderated a discussion betw...

  15. Winning Faces Vary By Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    Not just the content of a communication but also the source of the communication shapes its persuasiveness. Recent research in political communication suggests that important source cues are nonverbal and relate to the physical traits of the source such that attractive- and competent-looking sour......Not just the content of a communication but also the source of the communication shapes its persuasiveness. Recent research in political communication suggests that important source cues are nonverbal and relate to the physical traits of the source such that attractive- and competent...... conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election and...

  16. CHANGE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGE TO TRANSFORM IT IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. K. Ravichandran; R. Raja Piramuthu

    2012-01-01

    ERP implementation, commonly involve a complete change in business process and operation. Hence, responsiveness to internal customers is critical for an organization to avoid the difficulties associated with this change. To overcome complex organizational problem of workers resistance to ERP implementation, change management methods suggested an integrated, process-oriented knowledge formulation, strategy implementation, to manage the change introduced by IT is to identify and evaluate the at...

  17. Asymmetric warfare and the will to win

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world. To win an asymmetric war, the individual and then the masses must be motivated to fight and, ultimately, the will to win must be cultivated and sustained for victory. Religion is a highly effective motivat or for both the individual and the masses. This motiva...

  18. Can a near win kindle motivation? The impact of nearly winning on motivation for unrelated rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Monica; Kim, JeeHye Christine

    2015-06-01

    Common intuition and research suggest that winning is more motivating than losing. However, we propose that just failing to obtain a reward (i.e., nearly winning it) in one task leads to broader, positive motivational effects on subsequent unrelated tasks relative to clearly losing or actually obtaining the reward. We manipulated a near-win experience using a game app in Experiments 1 through 3 and a lottery in Experiment 4. Our findings showed that nearly winning in one task subsequently led participants to walk faster to get to a chocolate bar (Experiment 1), salivate more for money (Experiment 2), and increase their effort to earn money in a card-sorting task (Experiment 3). A field study (Experiment 4) demonstrated that nearly winning led people to subsequently spend more money on desirable consumer products. Finally, our findings showed that when the activated motivational state was dampened in an intervening task, the nearly-winning effect was attenuated. PMID:25940671

  19. The Changing Nature of Governance in the Public Research University: Untangling the Web of Faculty Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudt, Angela Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Public research universities continue to be challenged on a number of fronts--declining state revenues, increasing enrollment, calls for accountability and transparency from the public, and increasing scrutiny by governing boards. In addition, the composition of faculty at public research universities is changing. Understanding the impact that…

  20. Changes in public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2014), s. 631-653. ISSN 1554-8597 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0510 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : public opinion * international terrorism * Middle East and North Africa Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  1. Improvement of information on the nuclear energy health effects, the aim of win Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International organisation WIN Global and national organisation WIN Slovakia which as a section of Slovak Nuclear Society, offer unique opportunities for the improvement of radiation risk communication. WIN Global was established in 1993 and currently has about 600 members in 39 countries. WIN Slovakia was established in the end of 1997 and has 20 members. WIN Slovakia is the association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and application of radiation and willing to devote time to public information. Members of WIN Slovakia all have one thing in common: They want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matter. The members of WIN Slovakia would like and plane to make presentations, discuss and give information material on subjects as: energy and sustainable development; radiation, radioactivity, and health effects; medical applications, radiation protection; nuclear energy, uranium mining; nuclear power plants and their safety; radioactive waste; nuclear and environment; natural radiation, radon. In 1996-1997 a comparative risk perception study was carried out in Slovak Republic. Real data were collected through the administration of a questionnaires distributed among a group of 14-17 years old children (N1 = 308) and teenagers (N2 = 150). The list of 44 items covered a wide range of risks and hazards, including risks from technology (nuclear power plants, water-dams etc.) pollution (air-, water-, soil, waste management) nature (floods, fire, etc.), life style (smoking, drugs, alcohol abuse) and society (crime, conflicts, war, terror etc.). The questionnaire contains the questions about the sources of risk information. The topic of the study was the self assessment of the knowledge on particular risks too. The results were summarised

  2. Adaptation of public space to climatic change. Municipalities starting with climate adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change will impact the urban environment. This publication helps communities in determining the risks and opportunities in adapting public space to climate change. A roadmap shows what can be decided and how a municipality can start to work on climate adaptation. Eleven inspiring examples are included.

  3. Lion and Man -- Can Both Win?

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobás, B; Walters, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with continuous-time pursuit and evasion games. Typically, we have a lion and a man in a metric space: they have the same speed, and the lion wishes to catch the man while the man tries to evade capture. We are interested in questions of the following form: is it the case that exactly one of the man and the lion has a winning strategy? As we shall see, in a compact metric space at least one of the players has a winning strategy. We show that, perhaps surprisingly, there are examples in which both players have winning strategies. We also construct a metric space in which, for the game with two lions versus one man, neither player has a winning strategy. We prove various other (positive and negative) related results, and pose some open problems.

  4. The Viability of a Culture Change Agenda in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Dianne Lewis; Paul Connors

    2004-01-01

    Most of the original drivers of change in the public sector in Australia have been political and external to individual departments. In Queensland change was spurred by the Savage Report (Public Sector Review Committee 1987), where the implementation of the report's recommendations moved the public sector towards a more business-like and commercial approach to operating. This paper uses the case of the Department of Main Roads in Queensland, Australia, as an example of the viability of a cult...

  5. CHANGE MANAGEMENT THROUGH ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PUBLIC SECTOR ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDINE KEARNEY; Hisrich, Robert D.; FRANK W. ROCHE

    2010-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship has been of interest to academics, business leaders and government officials over the past four decades, particularly in terms of enhancing organizational performance. Although the understanding of corporate entrepreneurship continues to develop, the research usually focuses on private sector business activity. The research to date has not provided a consensus on the nature of public sector corporate entrepreneurship. Even though in recent years the topic has appear...

  6. Who will win the Nobel Prize?

    OpenAIRE

    Terence tai-leung Chong; Cally Choi; Benjamin Everard

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies the determinants of the Nobel Prize Award. The analysis is analogous in spirit to Hamermesh and Schmidt (Econometrica, 2003) on the election of Econometric Society fellows. It is found that the number of citations, age and nationality have significant impacts on the odds of winning the Nobel. We provide the first statistical evidence that John Bates Clark medalists and individuals affiliated with the University of Chicago have a higher chance of winning the Prize.

  7. Campus-Corporate Partners: A Win-Win Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Todd

    With an investment of time and a willingness to explore exchanges of resources, Rutgers University (New Jersey), and the corporation, Johnson & Johnson, developed a partnership between the corporate public relations department and the university program in public relations. The relationship began in 1982 when Rutgers founded its Public Relations…

  8. The Study of Destructive Effects of Exposure to WIN 55212-2, an Agonist of Cannabinoid Receptor, during Pregnancy on CNS Function of Rats’ Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shabani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cannabinoid consumption including hashish and WIN55212-2 during pregnancy has destructive affect on the development of fetus and the performance of CNS. Method: WIN treated group received daily 0.5 or 1mg/kg WIN suspended in 1% tween 80 saline (s.c. at a volume of 1 ml/kg from days 5 to 20 of pregnancy. Third, fifth and seventh weeks after birth, the effects of maternal WIN consumption on infants body weight, mortality, histological changes, motor performance and memory function were assessed. Results: Prenatal WIN consumption associated with atrophy of cerebellum cortex in granular and Purkinje cells layers. WIN treatment of pregnant rats produced a significant decrease in the rearing frequency of the offspring, but significantly increased the grooming frequency at 22, 36 and 50 days of age. During the acquisition trials, approach latencies were not significantly different between all groups of rats (50 days old.When the trial was repeated 24 hours and seven days later (retention trial, the avoidance latencies of the WIN-exposed group were significantly shorter than those of control and sham animals. The mortality percent was increased significantly and litter size was decreased significantly in WIN (1mg/kg treated rats compared to the control, sham and WIN (0/5 mg/kg treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to WIN, cannabinoid agonist, induces possibly a long-term alteration on histological, motor performance and learning and memory parameters.

  9. Responsible Climate Change Adaptation : Exploring, analysing and evaluating public and private responsibilities for urban adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mees, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Cities are vulnerable to climate change. To deal with climate change, city governments and private actors such as businesses and citizens need to adapt to its effects, such as sea level rise, storm surges, intense rainfall and heatwaves. However, adaptation planning and action is often hampered when the relevant public and private actors have only vague and ambiguous responsibilities. Some exploration on the issue of public and private responsibilities has been undertaken in the literature, b...

  10. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  11. A public ideation of shape-changing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sturdee, Miriam; Hardy, John; Dunn, Nick; Alexander, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The shape-changing concept where objects reconfigure their physical geometry has the potential to transform our interactions with computing devices, displays and everyday artifacts. Their dynamic physicality capitalizes on our inherent tactile sense and facilitates object re-appropriation. Research both within and outside HCI continues to develop a diverse range of technological solutions and materials to enable shape-change. However, as an early-stage enabling technology, the community has y...

  12. Chang Sei Kim's Activities on Public Health in Colonial Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park Yunjae

    2006-01-01

    After graduating from Severance Medical College in 1916, Chang Sei Kim went to Shanghai to work as a missionary in a adventist hospital. The establishment of the Korean Provisional Government led him to participate in the independence movement. Educating nurses to assist the forthcoming war for independence, he seemed to realize the fact that the health of Koreans would be a key factor for achieving independence. He left for the U.S. to conduct comprehensive research on medicine. Chang Sei Ki...

  13. More than a message: framing public health advocacy to change corporate practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Wallack, Lawrence; Woodruff, Katie

    2005-06-01

    Framing battles in public health illustrate the tension in our society between individual freedom and collective responsibility. This article describes how two frames, market justice and social justice, first articulated in a public health context by Dan Beauchamp, influence public dialogue on the health consequences of corporate practices. The authors argue that public health advocates must articulate the social justice values motivating the changes they seek in specific policy battles that will be debated in the context of news coverage. The authors conclude with lessons for health education practitioners who need to frame public health issues in contentious and controversial policy contexts. Specific lessons include the importance of understanding the existing values and beliefs motivating the public health change being sought, the benefits of articulating core messages that correspond to shared values, and the necessity of developing media skills to compete effectively with adversaries in public debate. PMID:15851542

  14. How to win NIMBY syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of the paper is the role of public information and education program with an aim to gain public acceptance in radioactive waste management specially site-selection process in Croatia. (author)

  15. A Win-Win-Win Proposition -- Academia and Industry Working Together for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, J.

    2011-12-01

    geoscience, to include having applied real problem solving via a robust field camp experience. In addition, we look for the maturity and ability to conduct independent research, to integrate broad suites of data, and to work as a team. We look for the ability to communicate results. We do not look for a focus on petroleum. We have many decades of experience in how to best develop that particular discipline quickly, to meet current and future business conditions. There are recurring themes that facilitate successful transition from Academia to a practicing industry geoscientist. These themes include giving students a good grounding in STEM, not just geology; one-on-one mentoring; sharing our passion for the science by sharing our research; and sharing the entire breadth of career opportunities. Similar best practices have been identified to encourage under-represented minority students and women to study STEM. Perhaps this is a suite of habits we should be practicing more broadly. This suite of habits takes extra time, extra effort, and extra money. But if geoscience mentors in Academia, Industry, and professional societies work together, we will be able to create a win for Academia, a win for Industry, and a win for students. (1) Gonzales and Keane, 2011, "Status of the Geoscience Workforce -- 2011," AGI, p. 123.

  16. AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) seeks comments on proposed accounting changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titera, W R

    1995-08-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants has exposed for public comment a revised version of its accounting and auditing guide--Audits of Providers of Health Care Services. The guide covers accounting, auditing, and financial reporting in healthcare organizations and is being revised primarily to address the changing healthcare environment and changes mandated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. This article provides an overview of some of the more significant proposed changes. The comment period ends August 14, 1995. PMID:10144176

  17. Climate change and local public health in the United States: preparedness, programs and perceptions of local public health department directors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    Full Text Available While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department--and other key stakeholders in their community--had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department, their state health department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the necessary expertise to help them create an effective mitigation or adaptation plan for their jurisdiction; and most respondents felt that their health department needed additional funding, staff and staff training to respond effectively to climate change. These data make clear that climate change adaptation and prevention are not currently major activities at most health departments, and that most, if not all, local health departments will require assistance in making this transition. We conclude by making the case that, through their

  18. Climate change and local public health in the United States: preparedness, programs and perceptions of local public health department directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Chadwick, Amy; McBride, Dennis; Chuk, Michelle; Ebi, Kristie L; Balbus, John

    2008-01-01

    While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department--and other key stakeholders in their community--had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department, their state health department, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the necessary expertise to help them create an effective mitigation or adaptation plan for their jurisdiction; and most respondents felt that their health department needed additional funding, staff and staff training to respond effectively to climate change. These data make clear that climate change adaptation and prevention are not currently major activities at most health departments, and that most, if not all, local health departments will require assistance in making this transition. We conclude by making the case that, through their words and actions

  19. The effects of win-win conditions on revenue-sharing contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies revenue-sharing contracts in distribution chains in the presence of win-win conditions. Revenue-sharing contracts are a mechanism to coordinate the firms in a distribution chain. Under these contracts the retailer shares its revenue with the supplier in exchange for a lower wholes

  20. 26 CFR 1.50B-1 - Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., beneficiary of an estate or trust, or a shareholder of an electing small business corporation, by such partnership, estate, trust, or electing small business corporation) under a work incentive (WIN) program... employee. (c) Trade or business expenses. The term “WIN expenses” includes only salaries and wages...

  1. Challenging the win-win discourse on conservation and development: analyzing support for marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Chaigneau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation designations such as protected areas are increasing in numbers around the world, yet it is widely reported that many are failing to reach their objectives. They are frequently promoted as opportunities for win-win outcomes that can both protect biodiversity and lead to economic benefits for affected communities. This win-win view characterizes the dominant discourse surrounding many protected areas. Although this discourse and the arguments derived from it may lead to initial acceptance of conservation interventions, this study shows how it does not necessarily result in compliance and positive attitudes toward specific protected areas. Consequently, the discourse has important implications not just for making the case for protected area implementation, but also for the likelihood of protected areas reaching their objectives. We explain how the win-win discourse influences support for marine protected areas (MPAs and, ultimately, their success. Using data from focus groups, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews at three MPA sites in the Philippines, we identified three reasons why the win-win discourse can negatively influence prolonged support for MPAs: dashed expectations, inequity, and temptation. Through an understanding of these issues, it becomes possible to suggest improvements that can be made pre-MPA implementation that can lead to prolonged support of MPAs. A focus on less tangible and economic MPA benefits, aligning MPA goals with cultural and social values, and higher levels of transparency when describing MPA outcomes are all ways in which prolonged support of MPAs can be bolstered.

  2. Public Perception of Climate Change and the New Climate Dice

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    "Climate dice", describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons relative to climatology, have become progressively "loaded" in the past 30 years, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3{\\sigma}) warmer than climatology. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface in the period of climatology, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming, because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change.

  3. Public Perception of Climate Change and the New Climate Dice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    "Climate dice", describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 years, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3 sigma) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming, because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change.

  4. Alternative Australian climate change plans: The public's views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has come to the forefront of Australian politics and there is now an active on-going policy debate about how to best reach a commonly agreed long term goal. This paper looks at five major dimensions of this debate and constructs policy options based on them. A discrete choice experiment approach was used with a representative sample from a major internet panel provider. Survey respondents made choices between pairs of policy options with different characteristics. They favored policies starting in 2010 rather than 2012, and spending 20% of revenue raised on energy-related R and D. They were almost evenly split on whether the plan should initially exempt the transport sector and two competing approaches that redistribute revenue from the plan, and, they opposed plans giving special treatment to energy-intensive sectors of the economy. A number of other policy relevant questions related to understanding Australian views and knowledge related to climate change also were asked.

  5. Alternative Australian climate change plans. The public's views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has come to the forefront of Australian politics and there is now an active on-going policy debate about how to best reach a commonly agreed long term goal. This paper looks at five major dimensions of this debate and constructs policy options based on them. A discrete choice experiment approach was used with a representative sample from a major internet panel provider. Survey respondents made choices between pairs of policy options with different characteristics. They favored policies starting in 2010 rather than 2012, and spending 20% of revenue raised on energy-related R and D. They were almost evenly split on whether the plan should initially exempt the transport sector and two competing approaches that redistribute revenue from the plan, and, they opposed plans giving special treatment to energy-intensive sectors of the economy. A number of other policy relevant questions related to understanding Australian views and knowledge related to climate change also were asked. (author)

  6. Board Composition Changes After an Initial Public Offering

    OpenAIRE

    William Dimovski; Robert Brookes

    2004-01-01

    This paper follows Luoma and Goodstein (1999) who find increased stakeholder representation on the boards of U.S. companies. This study describes the changes in board composition by director type (stakeholder or shareholder) and by gender (male or female) of large Australian companies after listing. We find a substantial increase in the number of directors holding shares in the firms in which they hold their directorships and that essentially directors putting their own capital at risk is an ...

  7. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...

  8. Change Management And Performance Of Public Secondary Schools In Siaya Sub County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okiiya Andrew Sande

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current focus on change management practices in the Public sector has been significantly induced by new public management paradigm shift that places heavy emphasis on managing for results. This is an emerging issue particularly in public secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to relate public secondary schools with the practice of generally established change management best practices. The specific objectives of the study were to establish change management practices adopted by Public Secondary Schools in Siaya Sub County. The study population consisted of all the 38 Public Secondary Schools in Siaya Sub County which necessitated the adoption of a descriptive cross-sectional survey design and the school managers were to respond to questionnaire items designed to address aspects of best change management practices. The researcher wanted to find out the extent to which the schools practiced these virtues. The school managers stated that they moderately practiced aspects of planning committed leadership workforce alignment stakeholder involvement and had defined governance structures in their institutions. However the extents were varying from one school to the next. Multiple regressions were run using the change management practices dimensions established against performance dimensions of student enrolment participation in co-curricular activities KCSE achievement financial management and provision of teaching and learning resources and development of school infrastructure. The study found out that change management practices adopted by the institutions significantly influenced performance. The study recommends that there is need to break from status quo and bureaucratic inefficiency associated with public institutions and be ready to implement comprehensive change management practices to maximize on resource utilization our public educational institutions. The study would contribute towards broadening the knowledge base of

  9. The public perception of climate change in Taiwan and its paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to explore the risk perceptions of climate change in Taiwan. It probes into the public's views toward governments' risk communication regarding climate change, citizens' participation in decision-making, and their trust in the capacity of governments toward risk governance, as well as their attitude towards corporate social responsibility. For analysis, we developed ten types of perceptions under three dimensions: namely the severity of climate change (Type 1), the development of sustainable society (Types 2, 3, 4 and 5), and the risk governance and communication (Types 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) to discuss whether the Taiwanese public's perception of climate change was prepared for a socially reflective paradigm shift. Regarding the three dimensions in the questionnaire design, although this study individually measured the public's risk perception, there was a high correlation between the variance analysis results among the three dimensions. This could systematically explain the potential change of the governance paradigm in Taiwanese society concerning structural transformation. - Highlights: • The public had critical view on the policy decision-making of climate change. • There is low public trust in the government's capacity to resist climate change. • The public requested more risk communication, transparency and participation. • The pursuit of an alternative sustainable economic society is highly expected. • People supported renewable energy by higher prices for carbon reduction

  10. Transports and climate change: framework for public action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes an analysis of instruments to be implemented within the frame of a 'transports and climate change' sector-based plan. This analysis is based on a modelling of this sector, and includes some of the instruments proposed in the Stern report. After a presentation of this analysis framework, the author comments the issue of articulating technological policies and those aiming at the modification of behaviours through the setting of an appropriate price-signal. This aspect is further studied by taking a pre-existing substantial fuel taxing into account. Then the issue of articulation with transport policy is examined for the assessment of infrastructures which would be alternative to roads

  11. 77 FR 71788 - Notice of Change to the Publication of Natural Gas Wellhead Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Information Administration Notice of Change to the Publication of Natural Gas Wellhead Prices AGENCY: U.S... of series in the publication of natural gas wellhead prices and request for comments. SUMMARY: EIA is..., production, demand, technology, and related economic statistics. This information is used to assess...

  12. 76 FR 10050 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring... of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the management operations indicator of the... process for the PHAS management operations indicator. The purpose of the management operations...

  13. Toastmaster's Inspired Pedagogical Changes: From a Speech Class into a Public Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Action research is used to view pedagogical changes, first in a speech class and then in a public relations course over a five-year period. The course instructor gained experience as a member of a Toastmasters International club and used Toastmasters-like activities, to revise content in the courses. Ultimately, students in the public relations…

  14. 12 CFR 261b.9 - Changes with respect to publicly announced meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes with respect to publicly announced meeting. 261b.9 Section 261b.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF... respect to publicly announced meeting. The subject matter of a meeting or the determination to open...

  15. Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals: Publication Manual Change Sheet 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This second change sheet for its publication manual states the American Psychologist Association's policy on sexist language in its journals offers some general principles for journal authors to consider, and suggests some ways to avoid sexist language. (Author)

  16. From Chat in Public to Networked Publics. Childrens Online Communication and Changing Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vebjørg Tingstad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of my study of children’s online chat with a discussion of later research.The study draws on observation of Norwegian chat rooms and interviews with children and adolescents from 1999 to 2000. A decade ago, the Internet represented a new phenomenon and web chat was typically a many-to-many form of communication. Fundamentally, children who communicated in online communities ten years ago were, as today, co-producers of mediated communities within the framework of contemporary technology – and the surrounding social context. The article questions whether the networked publics today display a broader range of their identities and as such receive responses that are individualised in more detail than ten years ago.

  17. Match statistics related to winning in the group stage of 2014 Brazil FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Gomez, Miguel-Ángel; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Identifying match statistics that strongly contribute to winning in football matches is a very important step towards a more predictive and prescriptive performance analysis. The current study aimed to determine relationships between 24 match statistics and the match outcome (win, loss and draw) in all games and close games of the group stage of FIFA World Cup (2014, Brazil) by employing the generalised linear model. The cumulative logistic regression was run in the model taking the value of each match statistic as independent variable to predict the logarithm of the odds of winning. Relationships were assessed as effects of a two-standard-deviation increase in the value of each variable on the change in the probability of a team winning a match. Non-clinical magnitude-based inferences were employed and were evaluated by using the smallest worthwhile change. Results showed that for all the games, nine match statistics had clearly positive effects on the probability of winning (Shot, Shot on Target, Shot from Counter Attack, Shot from Inside Area, Ball Possession, Short Pass, Average Pass Streak, Aerial Advantage and Tackle), four had clearly negative effects (Shot Blocked, Cross, Dribble and Red Card), other 12 statistics had either trivial or unclear effects. While for the close games, the effects of Aerial Advantage and Yellow Card turned to trivial and clearly negative, respectively. Information from the tactical modelling can provide a more thorough and objective match understanding to coaches and performance analysts for evaluating post-match performances and for scouting upcoming oppositions. PMID:25793661

  18. Winning a competition predicts dishonest behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners. PMID:26831083

  19. Climate Change Disaster Management: Mitigation and Adaptation in a Public Goods Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Reviva Hasson; Åsa Löfgren; Martine Visser

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the collective action problem as it relates to climate change and develops two models that capture the mitigation/adaptation trade-off. The first model presents climate change as a certain disaster, while the second models climate change as a stochastic event. A one-shot public goods experiment with students reveals a relatively low rate of mitigation for both models. The effect of vulnerability towards climate change is also examined by varying the magnitude of the disast...

  20. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  1. Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  2. FTW (For the Win / Fuck the World)

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Francis; Minkin, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    Participation in the group exhibition curated by Bernice Donszelmann, Tim Renshaw and Mary McLean. Exhibited the work FTW (For the Win / Fuck the World) made in collaboration with Louisa Minkin. Here we use the format of the triumphal procession to pose questions around the twinned states of glory and nihilism. FTW! (For The Win / Fuck The World) is a banner that combines a letter to a generic addressee alongside a selection of internet memes, rage comic figures and images of disaster and cel...

  3. The Role of the Media in the Construction of Public Belief and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Happer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The media play a central role in informing the public about what happens in the world, particularly in those areas in which audiences do not possess direct knowledge or experience. This article examines the impact the media has in the construction of public belief and attitudes and its relationship to social change. Drawing on findings from a range of empirical studies, we look at the impact of media coverage in areas such as disability, climate change and economic development. Findings across these areas show the way in which the media shape public debate in terms of setting agendas and focusing public interest on particular subjects. For example, in our work on disability we showed the relationship between negative media coverage of people on disability benefit and a hardening of attitudes towards them. Further, we found that the media also severely limit the information with which audiences understand these issues and that alternative solutions to political problems are effectively removed from public debate. We found other evidence of the way in which media coverage can operate to limit understanding of possibilities of social change. In our study of news reporting of climate change, we traced the way that the media have constructed uncertainty around the issue and how this has led to disengagement in relation to possible changes in personal behaviours. Finally, we discuss the implications for communications and policy and how both the traditional and new media might help in the development of better informed public debate.

  4. Organizational Transformation in Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan in the Quest of Change Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shafique Butt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to see the organizational transformations in public sector organizations and to observe which factors have great influence in transforming public sector organizations of Pakistan. In a world of growing customer opportunities and declining income, many organizations are finding ways to do more with less by consolidating and putting together departments, functions, business processes, IT infrastructure and entire organizations. Can public sector organizations revolutionize? Organizational Transformation comes about when a company reorganizes itself or practices a sudden change in culture. The objective of this study is to portray the key characteristics which are normally considered for organizational transformation in public sector organizations of Pakistan. Research questionnaire was developed and distributed to public sector organizations in Pakistan. Data analysis was done through SPSS. The results were astonishing and all variables have positive impact on organizational transformation in public sector of Pakistan.

  5. A Case Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Change and Change Implementation at a Rural Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Jennifer Beckum

    2010-01-01

    With demands for producing results in education, the problem for many teachers is accepting and implementing mandated changes. This study sought to determine the relationship between high school teachers' perceptions of change and change implementation at a rural high school in a southeastern US state. This study was based on planned behavior…

  6. Evaluation of Public Health Professionals' Capacity to Implement Environmental Changes Supportive of Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Leigh A.; Olson, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based interventions to promote healthy weights by making environmental and policy changes in communities may be an important strategy in reversing the obesity epidemic. However, challenges faced by local public health professionals in facilitating effective environmental and policy change need to be better understood and addressed. To…

  7. Public Presentations of Professional Change in Academic Research Library Strategic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Academic librarianship is a profession in the midst of change. Embedded within multiple social spheres, academic librarians are adapting to changes in higher education, the sociotechnical environment of information, and the system of professions. This research investigates the ways in which academic librarians publicly present the ways in which…

  8. Winning the sustainable development debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    on a vast scale Access to energy - and in particular, electricity - will be critical if the world is to achieve these human goals. Access to clean electricity - and on a vast scale - will be necessary if the world is to meet the twin challenges of human need and environmental security. Anti-nuclear forces, which have held sway in the Kyoto process thus far, argue that nuclear energy is a dying technology and assert passionately that it has no place in tomorrow's sustainable development agenda. These ideologically driven arguments ignore underlying realities both as to what is feasible and what is actually occurring. Today, nuclear power plants are operational in countries comprising 64% of the world's population, and new power reactors are in the planning or construction stage in countries representing no less than 50% of the world's population. Among the latter are the world's two largest developing countries, China and India, which alone represent 40% of humankind and about half the developing world. With active nuclear reactor construction under way as we speak, these leading nations have already made nuclear power a part of their sustainable development strategies for the 21st century. Winning the sustainable development debate - This presentation will share information materials about sustainable development. It will describe the work of the World Nuclear Association Sustainable Development Strategy Group, its preparations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and how participants to PIME can get involved. (author)

  9. Labor Supply Effects of Winning a Lottery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; Suetens, Sigrid; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how winning a substantial lottery prize affects labor supply. Analyzing data from Dutch State Lottery winners, we find that earnings are affected but not employment. Lottery prize winners reduce their hours of work but they are not very likely to withdraw from the labor force

  10. Deisgn of Win32-based EPICS IOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and implementation of Win32-based EPICS IOC are discussed in this paper. Some approaches for integrating EPICS IOC and Microsoft technologies are proposed. Some high performance oscilloscopes are developed as EPICS IOCs and work well with the whole EPICS control system. (authors)

  11. The "One Belt and One Road" is an Important Mutually Beneficial and Win-win Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long; Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    The"One Belt and One Road"strategic conception carries the dream of development and prosperity of countries concerned,and gives the ancient Silk Road a brand new content of the time.In September and October 2013,President Xi Jinping proposed building the"New Silk Road Economic Belt"(One Belt)and the"Twenty-first Century Maritime Silk Road"(One Road)strategic conception respectively,emphasizing a mutual-beneficial and win-win

  12. Winning or not winning : the influence on coach-athlete relationships and goal achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Rui Trocado; Gomes, António Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the relation between sports success and athletes’ perception of coaches’ leadership, athletes’ satisfaction with coaches’ leadership, coach-athlete compatibility, and goal achievement. Sixty-six athletes who qualified for the final Division I play-offs of a professional volleyball championship were grouped into winning (n = 21) and non-winning teams (n = 45). Leadership styles, satisfaction with leadership, coach-athlete compatibility, and goal achievement were evaluated. ...

  13. The Way We Were (and Are): Changes in Public Finance and Its Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Harvey S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses a comparison of a contemporary Public Finance textbook with one written in the 1940s as a vehicle for assessing the changes in the field since the beginning of the National Tax Journal 50 years ago. The comparison indicates that there have been major changes in the field. From a methodological point of view, the most important change is the embrace of microeconomic theory as the framework for analyzing both positive and normative issues. In addition, the incorporation of econo...

  14. [Evolution of the climate change concept and its impact in the public health of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zavaleta, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The term "climate change" is not a new concept but its impact on public health is under constant review. We know that climate has already changed and will continue to change for centuries with the rise in average global temperature, and the associated rise in sea level. This fact makes mitigation efforts relevant only in the very long term and for generations of humans whose parents have not yet been born. When we talk about public health in the context of climate change, we are talking about adaptation. In the present, countries that are currently the most affected by climate change are precisely countries like Peru, without a significant carbon footprint at the global level but that are highly sensitive to the effects of climate. Without reliable climate projections, the health impact of climate change can be uncertain and complicated. Nevertheless, at the local level, every district can identify its vulnerabilities and define priorities to protect the health of its population. There are, and it can also be developed, environmental health indicators that can help monitor how well we are adapting and how prepared we are for changes in the climate. Adaptation to climate change implies improving living conditions, enhancing epidemiological surveillance systems and extending access to healthcare. The fight against the effects of climate change in public health is a fight against poverty and inequality, and that is nothing new in Peru. PMID:27384632

  15. A win-win monetary policy in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Oleg; Kitov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The Lucas critique has exposed the problem of the trade-off between changes in monetary policy and structural breaks in economic time series. The search for and characterisation of such breaks has been a major econometric task ever since. We have developed an integral technique similar to CUSUM using an empirical model quantitatively linking the rate of inflation and unemployment to the change in the level of labour force in Canada. Inherently, our model belongs to the class of Phillips curve...

  16. Distortionary Taxes and Public Investment in a Model of Endogenous Investment Specific Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bishnu, Monisankar; Ghate, Chetan; Gopalakrishnan, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    We construct a model of endogenous investment specific techological change in which the stock of public capital influences the real price of capital goods. We show that the growth and welfare maximizing tax rates coincide in the planned economy. When factor income taxes finance public investment infintely many tax-subsidy combinations can decentralize the planner's allocations. The optimal capital income tax can be positive in this environment. We then augment the model to incorporate adminis...

  17. Coping Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya in Response to Environmental Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Francis M. Mathooko; Martin Ogutu

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in...

  18. Portion size me: plate-size induced consumption norms and win-win solutions for reducing food intake and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert

    2013-12-01

    Research on the self-serving of food has empirically ignored the role that visual consumption norms play in determining how much food we serve on different sized dinnerware. We contend that dinnerware provides a visual anchor of an appropriate fill-level, which in turn, serves as a consumption norm (Study 1). The trouble with these dinnerware-suggested consumption norms is that they vary directly with dinnerware size--Study 2 shows Chinese buffet diners with large plates served 52% more, ate 45% more, and wasted 135% more food than those with smaller plates. Moreover, education does not appear effective in reducing such biases. Even a 60-min, interactive, multimedia warning on the dangers of using large plates had seemingly no impact on 209 health conference attendees, who subsequently served nearly twice as much food when given a large buffet plate 2 hr later (Study 3). These findings suggest that people may have a visual plate-fill level--perhaps 70% full--that they anchor on when determining the appropriate consumption norm and serving themselves. Study 4 suggests that the Delboeuf illusion offers an explanation why people do not fully adjust away from this fill-level anchor and continue to be biased across a large range of dishware sizes. These findings have surprisingly wide-ranging win-win implications for the welfare of consumers as well as for food service managers, restaurateurs, packaged goods managers, and public policy officials. PMID:24341317

  19. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country--even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level. Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation investments rely heavily on public funding and hence on public support. Our results suggest that cross-country coordination of conservation efforts under climate change will be challenging in terms of achieving an appropriate balance between cost-effectiveness in adaptation and the concerns of a general public who seem mostly worried about protecting currently-native species.

  20. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  1. Climate Change, Environmental NGOs and Public Awareness in the Netherlands. Perceptions and Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate change issue has been widely studied. To add to this literature, this paper focuses on the role of environmental non-governmental organisations in the Netherlands in raising public awareness. Besides, their role in relation to the Dutch government's climate policies is researched as well. The findings of this research indicate that, with respect to the climate change issue, environmental NGOs in the Netherlands may not always be active and systematic, as it is generally perceived, in raising public awareness and putting pressure on the Dutch government for implementing the targeted measures at the national level

  2. A study of changing information needs of contemporary public library users in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Guihua; CHEN; Xueqiao

    2009-01-01

    Public libraries should be vigilant and responsive to the ever changing information needs of their clientele functioning in a society undergoing through rapid change due to technological innovations.China is currently experiencing a social and technological transformation of great magnitude in terms of metamorphosing itself from a traditional society to one that is driven by information technologies.Our research study,taking this proposition into account,did a questionnaire survey on 954 library information users at five major public libraries.This research study has discovered that the information needs of public library users today reflect some of the peculiar characteristics of their society in changing times which is driven largely by the rapid development and application of new information technologies.It shows that there is a newly added demand emphasis on certain categories of library resources and services by the Chinese reading public.Our research findings have identified such needs basically in the following five functional areas of public libraries,namely,1)Increased demands for economic resources,2)rising expectations for more effective and efficient library services,3)a convenient location and an amicable environment congenial to learning,4)a suitable place for engaging in intellectual dialogues and in socialization,and 5)a few other technological amenities and information technology-based digital resources and facilities in addition to a rich repository of library materials in print format.Finally,our paper concludes its discussion with a few observation remarks about the changing trend of public libraries’visions,missions and operations vis-à-vis a contextual background of the ever heightened public expectations for getting quality information services in a timely manner in order for them to function effectively in an information-oriented society such as that of ours today.

  3. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies. PMID:23073211

  4. Ensuring the effective management of change within a public school / Karen Jooste

    OpenAIRE

    Jooste, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study is on the management of change in a public school, namely Hoerskool Secunda in the town of Secunda, Mpumalanga. Teaching staff as well as management team members are confronted with many changes in performing their duties on an everyday basis. It is therefore, very important that a school and its staff members are prepared and informed about changes that need to be implemented in the near future. At this stage, changes are managed well with regard to the time and mo...

  5. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, PMID:26593935

  6. Public engagement in climate change - Disjunctions, tensions and blind spots in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is much talk about engaging the public in climate change mitigation and adaptation in the UK and elsewhere. Governments rush to demand greater engagement of the public in tackling climate change and delivering sustainable futures. The importance that public engagement has gained as part of the UK climate agenda begs the questions of what is actually behind this call and what are the implications. This paper analyses the rationale for public engagement as enshrined in major policy documents. This rationale is clearly instrumental in that citizens are expected to engage by adopting the 'right attitude', by performing prescribed behaviours, and by consenting to proposed measures. Using recent cases of climate change mitigation and adaptation practice the paper discusses the implications of such an approach to public engagement. The paper concludes that until the manifold disjunctions between climate related policy agendas and their rationales for engagement are explicitly addressed citizen engagement will be serving incumbent interests rather than contributing to socially sustainable and democratic decision-making

  7. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; Nick Hanley; Jon Fjeldså; Carsten Rahbek; Niels Strange; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmar...

  8. The public debate on psychotropic medication and changes in attitudes 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Matschinger, Herbert; Carta, Mauro G; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Schomerus, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Over the last 25 years, the appraisal of psychotropic drugs within the scientific community and their representation in the media has changed considerably. The initial optimism in the wake of the introduction of second-generation drugs has increasingly made room for a more critical evaluation of alleged advantages of these drugs. The question arises as to what extent this is reflected in similar changes in the public's attitudes towards psychiatric medication. Three representative population surveys on attitudes towards psychotropic medication were carried out in Germany in 1990 (N = 3075), 2001 (N = 2610) and 2011 (N = 1223), using the same sampling procedure, interview mode and instrument for assessing attitudes. In order to disentangle time-related effects, an age-period-cohort analysis was performed. Over the time period of 21 years, the German public's evaluation of psychotropic medication has become markedly more favourable. This change was mostly due to a period effect, i.e. concurrent influences of the social environment people are exposed to. Changes were much more pronounced in the 1990s, while over the following decade only a small, although statistically significant, increase in the favourable appraisal of medication was found. Age and birth cohort had only a minor effect on public attitudes. Our findings suggest that changes in the evaluation of the effects of psychotropic drugs within the psychiatric community and their representation in the media also affect public opinion. Given the ongoing debate about side effects and efficacy of psychiatric medication, future changes of public opinion can be expected. PMID:26615405

  9. 78 FR 48185 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Public Meeting Date Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Public Meeting Date Change AGENCY: Bureau of.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will... will be announced online at www.blm.gov/or/rac/steens-rac-minutes.php prior to September 20, 2013....

  10. Woman's Changing Place: A Look at Sexism. Public Affairs Pamphlet Number 509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nancy

    This Public Affairs Pamphlet reviews how early childhood conditioning, education, religion, sports, business and finance, and mass media limit women's development and opportunities and, further, how women are working to effect change in their own lives and in society. The following are briefly discussed: (1) efforts being made by child care…

  11. Tracing public values change: a historical study of civil service job advertisements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Rutgers; T. Beck Jørgensen

    2014-01-01

    Long term changes in public values are not easily detected. One important reason is the limited availability of reliable empirical data. Job advertisements allow us to go back in history for some decades and job ads may present us with the values that are supposed to guide civil servant behavior. Th

  12. WinXP和FreeBSD的IPSec通信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晖

    2007-01-01

    如今,网络通信的数据安全成为一个重要的课题.各种针对TCP/IP通信的安全协议不断涌现.其中,IPSec协议是保证基于IP通信的重要数据安全的有力手段.具体地描述了实现WinXP和FreeBSD间IPSec通信的具体方法.

  13. On Auctions with Withdrawable Winning Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Michael H. Rothkopf

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers sealed bidding in which bidders may submit two or more bids and after the bids are opened may, perhaps at a cost, withdraw bids that are more aggressive than would be necessary to win. Such withdrawal strategies are sometimes followed, but currently are surreptitious. However, legitimization of them would create potentially useful market mechanisms of potential interest to government agencies. These market mechanisms are also of theoretical interest since they are interme...

  14. 78 FR 14321 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Public Housing Reform; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... rent, community service and self-sufficiency in public housing; and admission preferences and... programs. These changes cover choice of rent, community service and self-sufficiency in public housing;...

  15. Prepare for X-Win32 - the new X11 server software for Windows computers

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    Starnet X-Win32 will replace Exceed as the X11 Server software on Windows computers by February 2012. X11 Server software allows a Windows user to have a graphical user interface on a remote Linux server. This change, initially motivated by a significant change of license conditions for Exceed, brings an easier integration of Windows and Linux logon mechanisms. At the same time, X-Win32 addresses the common use cases while providing a more intuitive configuration interface. CERN Predefined Connections will be available as before. They offer an easy way of starting applications on LXPLUS using PuTTY or starting the KDE, GNOME or ICE window managers. Since X-Win32 is better integrated with SSH and CERN Kerberos compared to Exceed, it is much simpler to set up secure access to Linux services. The decision to choose X-Win32 as the new X11 software resulted from an evaluation that involved various user communities and support teams. More information, including the documented use cases, is available at https://...

  16. 78 FR 9387 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan... Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plans in response to the President's October 2009 Executive Order (E.O... of EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan has been posted to a public docket and is available on...

  17. China-US Trade Relations:Win-Win Picture Distorted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若谷

    2008-01-01

    At present China-U.S.trade relations are in a state of confusion.Although both countries have gained tremendous benefits from the bilateral trade relationship,some Americans have intentionally distorted some basic facts regarding China-U.S.trade relations. Based on an analysis of some official and nonofficial research reports published in the United States,this article holds that the China-U.S.trade imbalance is the symptom of a bigger issue stemming from the contradiction between the United States as the world’s sole superpower and China as an emerging power.Economic globalisation came about due to the needs of western developed countries represented by the United States to boost economic development.Only by seizing the opportunities of economic globalisation, has China gained strong economic growth. Such a development is changing the world political,economic,military and cultural landscape that have been shaped since the post-cold-war era,and has to some extent raised doubt or suspicion on the part of the United States and its western allies.This is a manifestation of how unprepared some people in the United States and other western countries are in the face of China’s rapid development and rising status.So,their immediate reaction has been to seek protection for themselves,and try their utmost to prevent China’s rapid growth from impacting on the international framework and their vested interests.

  18. Prizes and Productivity- How Winning the Fields Medal Affects Scientific Output

    OpenAIRE

    Borjas, George J.; Kirk B. Doran

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge generation is key to economic growth, and scientific prizes are designed to encourage it. But how does winning a prestigious prize affect future output? We compare the productivity of Fields medalists (winners of the top mathematics prize) to that of similarly brilliant contenders. The two groups have similar publication rates until the award year, after which the winners' productivity declines. The medalists begin to "play the field," studying unfamiliar topics at the expense of wr...

  19. Economic Crises and the Changing Influence of the Irish Congress of Trade Unions on Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, John

    2010-01-01

    This chapter examines the dramatic changes in the Irish Congress of Trade Unions’ (ICTU) influence over public policy during the latter half of the twentieth century. The chapter focuses upon the impact economic crises have had on the ICTU’s role in policy-making. The chapter concentrates, in particular, upon four periods, the late 1950s, 1970, the early 1980s and 1987, when the ICTU found its influence over public policy radically transformed. By the late 1950s the trade union movement was i...

  20. Win-win opportunities & environmental regulation: Testing of porter hypothesis for Indian manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Murthy; Surender Kumar

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of environmental regulation relating to water pollution by the Indian industry on the productive efficiency of firms. The panel data of 92 water- polluting firms for the three years 1996-97, 1997-98, and 1998-99 are used to test the Porter hypothesis of having win-win opportunities for the firms subjected to the regulation. The main empirical result is that the technical efficiency of firms increases with the intensity of environmental regulation and the water co...

  1. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  2. Public Diplomacy and Soft Power

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Soft power is the ability to affect others to obtain the outcomes one wants through attraction rather than coercion or payment. A country's soft power rests on its resources of culture, values, and policies. A smart power strategy combines hard and soft power resources. Public diplomacy has a long history as a means of promoting a country's soft power and was essential in winning the cold war. The current struggle against transnational terrorism is a struggle to win hearts and minds, and the ...

  3. Climate change and health: new challenges for epidemiology and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change contributes to a rapid and deep modification of the environment. In the same time, other factors such as population increase, ageing or urbanization increase the vulnerability to various environmental and health risks. Chains of complex interactions are impacting populations' health and well-being. Developing prevention measures is an asset to reduce the health impacts of present climate change (through adaptation measures) and to limit the intensity of future impacts (through mitigation measures). Mitigation will result in major changes in several sectors, for instance housing, transports or agriculture. Taking into account the potential health impacts is important to avoid choices impairing human health, and to maximize health co-benefits. In this paper we propose a reflection on how present and future climate change in France challenges epidemiology and public health in the next few years. While many questions remain unanswered, there is a consensus on the importance of the links between climate change and human health, that can be summarized into three points: 1) climate change already impacts human health, 2) adaptation and mitigation are needed to reduce those impacts, 3) adaptation and mitigation can rely on immediate measures that would be beneficial for health and for climate. An integrated and interdisciplinary approach is essential to tackle the complexity of the issue, of its implications for public health, for research, surveillance and intervention. (authors)

  4. Changing Market-Values? Tensions of Public Management Discourses - A Case From the Danish Daycare Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2016-01-01

    indicate a changing marketization associated with collaboration and trust, yet also competition. In practice it becomes necessary to acknowledge and handle co-existing, yet contradicting management discourses, and not mistake their opposing values as necessarily distinct, but rather as entangled in......This paper addresses studies of New Public Governance (NPG) as a post-New Public Management (NPM) tendency. Although NPG is considered a contrast to NPM and its market-incentives, it argues that the practices emerging in tensions of NPM and NPG discourses indicate not a clear-cut shift away from...... Danish daycare sector, it investigates local collaborative governance initiatives that develop new quality-management methods. The study elucidates how NPM and NPG discourses collide in local practices of public sector management within daycare. It shows that tensions between such value-laden practices...

  5. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author)

  6. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  7. Knowledge as a driver of public perceptions about climate change reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Visschers, Vivianne H. M.; Siegrist, Michael; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    It is intuitive to assume that concern about climate change should be preceded by knowledge about its effects. However, recent research suggests that knowledge about climate change has only a limited effect on shaping concern about climate change. Our view is that this counterintuitive finding is a function of how knowledge is typically measured in studies about climate change. We find that if it is measured in a domain-specific and multidimensional way, knowledge is indeed an important driver of concern about climate change--even when we control for human values. Likewise, different dimensions of knowledge play different roles in shaping concern about climate change. To illustrate these findings, we present the results from a survey deployed across six culturally and politically diverse countries. Higher levels of knowledge about the causes of climate change were related to a heightened concern. However, higher levels of knowledge about the physical characteristics of climate change had either a negative or no significant effect on concern. Efforts aimed at improving public knowledge about climate change are therefore not the lost cause that some researchers claim they may be.

  8. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirson Leslea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM. However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. Methods This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27 with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. Results The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services, fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. Conclusion With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  9. Changes in Public and Private Sector Pay Structures in Two Emerging Market Economies during the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Nikolic; Ivica Rubil; Iva Tomic

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates public-private sector wage differentials in two emerging market economies - Croatia and Serbia - between 2008 and 2011 in order to understand changes in the gap resulting from austerity measures undertaken by each sector. The paper focuses on counterfactual decompositions of the wage gap at the mean and at selected quantiles along the wage distribution, performed using an extension to the Oaxaca-Blinder method based on Recentered Influence Function (RIF) regressions and r...

  10. Readiness of ethics review systems for a changing public health landscape in the WHO African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a...

  11. Open access to scientific publications - an analysis of the barriers to change

    OpenAIRE

    Professor Bo-Christer Björk

    2004-01-01

    One of the effects of the Internet is that the dissemination of scientific publications in a few years has migrated to electronic formats. The basic business practices between libraries and publishers for selling and buying the content have, however, not changed much. Scientists have in protest against the high subscription prices of mainstream publishers started Open Access (OA) journals and e-print repositories, which distribute scientific information freely. Despite widespread agreement am...

  12. Open Access to Scientific Publications – An Analysis of the Barriers to Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2004-01-01

    One of the effects of the Internet is that the dissemination of scientific publications in a few years has migrated to electronic formats. The basic business practices between libraries and publishers for selling and buying the content, however, have not changed much. In protest against the high subscription prices of mainstream publishers, scientists have started Open Access (OA) journals and e-print repositories, which distribute scientific information freely. Despite widespread agreement a...

  13. 'Reduce Resistance' An Antibiotic stewardship program to change prescribing practices in a Public Dental Service

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, Rosarii

    2015-01-01

    This program implemented an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) to change prescribing practices in one Public Dental Service with the aim of reducing the number of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and ensuring that those antibiotics which are prescribed adhere to best practice guidelines. There is vast scientific evidence that antibiotic resistance is promoted through excessive use of antibiotics and that Dental Surgeons are contributing significantly to this issue due to their inappropr...

  14. Using technology for bed management in public hospitals - A strategic analysis and change management plan

    OpenAIRE

    Brayan, Daniel Joseph

    2005-01-01

    As healthcare organisations in New South Wales, Australia, are facing the increased demands of an aging population, new approaches to improving access to services are being sought. This project explores the potential of applying information technology to the management of beds in a large Sydney public hospital. More specifically, this project addresses the cultural and organizational aspects of hospital environments and factors them into a change management plan for implementing bed managemen...

  15. Estimating welfare changes from efficient pricing in public bus transit in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deb, Kaushik; Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Three different and feasible pricing strategies for public bus transport in India are developed in a partial equilibrium framework with the objective of improving economic efficiency and ensuring revenue adequacy, namely average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, and two-part tariffs. These are assessed not only in terms of gains in economic efficiency, but also in changes in travel demand and consumer surplus. The estimated partial equilibrium price is higher in all three pricing reg...

  16. Public opinion and change in language. On the history of the atomic energy discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The representation of the atomic energy controversy as a linguistic and social process of development reveals the discrepancy between linguistic consciousness and the actual change in language which proves to be the unintentional result of manifold influences and intentions. A vivid, exciting description is given of political language culture in the Federal Republic of Germany. The role of technical languages in the public controversy is discussed, and numerous errors committed by scientific language criticism are disclosed. (orig.)

  17. Barriers to Curricular Change in General Education Mathematics at a Large Public Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study looked for barriers to curricular change in general education mathematics at a large public university (LPU) in the Western United States. The literature showed that a number of national organizations dealing in math education have recommended alternatives to the traditional algebra-intensive curriculum. LPU still relies predominantly on traditional College Algebra as its quantitative literacy (QL) course. With such an algebra-heavy emphasis, students may be missing mor...

  18. The changing face of public education: the process of "revisioning" elementary teacher preparation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah; Warner, Margaret; Padilla, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Three years ago the elementary education department at Clemson University recognized the need for curricular change in the way we prepare teachers. The current program was not reflective of the changing demographics of multilingual and multicultural students in the public/ private school population. The challenge from the university provost was to create an enhanced elementary curriculum that would be unique in training students to meet these new demands. The purpose of this article is to share the revisioning process that led to redesigning the teacher preparation program. Promoting positive conversations about the richness of viewing diversity through a new lens will provide deeper insights into these issues. PMID:25306841

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Hashim, Zailina; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses how climate undergo changes and the effect of climate change on air quality as well as public health. It also covers the inter relationship between climate and air quality. The air quality discussed here are in relation to the 5 criteria pollutants; ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Urban air pollution is the main concern due to higher anthropogenic activities in urban areas. The implications on health are also discussed. Mitigating measures are presented with the final conclusion. PMID:26141092

  20. Communicating for change: media and agency in the networked public sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at anyone who is interested in the role of media as an influence on power and policy. It especially about the role of news journalism, NGOs and other activists who use communication for change. It looks at the context for those actors and their actions. It asks how much the Internet and social networks are changing advocacy. It takes an ethical and political rather than technological or theoretical approach. It ask whether the ‘public sphere’ needs to be redefined. If that...

  1. Public Opinion on Global Climate Change in Developed Countries: Five Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Durfee, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Developed countries are more likely to be high emitters of green-house gases, and it is important that these countries are aware of the issue of global climate change and possible human contributions to that problem. Given their status as developed countries, one would think that public opinion on the sources of global climate change would be similar across nations, but this is not true. There is a lack of consensus among countries about the effects of human activity on global temperature var...

  2. Public Health-Related Impacts of Climate Change inCalifornia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, D.M.; Motallebi, N.; Kleeman, M.; Cayan, D.; Hayhoe,K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Miller, N.L.; Jin, J.; VanCuren, R.A.

    2005-12-01

    In June 2005 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger issued Executive Order S-3-05 that set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for California, and directed the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency to report to the governor and the State legislature by January 2006 and biannually thereafter on the impacts to California of global warming, including impacts to water supply, public health, agriculture, the coastline, and forestry, and to prepare and report on mitigation and adaptation plans to combat these impacts. This report is a part of the report to the governor and legislature, and focuses on public health impacts that have been associated with climate change. Considerable evidence suggests that average ambient temperature is increasing worldwide, that temperatures will continue to increase into the future, and that global warming will result in changes to many aspects of climate, including temperature, humidity, and precipitation (McMichael and Githeko, 2001). It is expected that California will experience changes in both temperature and precipitation under current trends. Many of the changes in climate projected for California could have ramifications for public health (McMichael and Githeko, 2001), and this document summarizes the impacts judged most likely to occur in California, based on a review of available peer-reviewed scientific literature and new modeling and statistical analyses. The impacts identified as most significant to public health in California include mortality and morbidity related to temperature, air pollution, vector and water-borne diseases, and wildfires. There is considerable complexity underlying the health of a population with many contributing factors including biological, ecological, social, political, and geographical. In addition, the relationship between climate change and changes in public health is difficult to predict for the most part, although more detailed information is available on temperature

  3. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  4. Human Health Impacts of and Public Health Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Weather and climate are among the factors that determine the geographic range and incidence of several major causes of ill health, including undernutrition, diarrheal diseases and other conditions due to unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation, and malaria. The Human Health chapter in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, and that projected climate change will increase the risks of climate-sensitive health outcomes, particularly in lower-income populations, predominantly within tropical/subtropical countries. Those at greatest risk include the urban poor, older adults, children, traditional societies, subsistence farmers, and coastal populations, particularly in low income countries. The cause-and-effect chain from climate change to changing patterns of health determinants and outcomes is complex and includes socioeconomic, institutional, and other factors. The severity of future impacts will be determined by changes in climate as well as by concurrent changes in nonclimatic factors and by the adaptation measures implemented to reduce negative impacts. Public health has a long history of effectively intervening to reduce risks to the health of individuals and communities. Lessons learned from more than 150 years of research and intervention can provide insights to guide the design and implementation of effective and efficient interventions to reduce the current and projected impacts of climate variability and change.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  6. 78 FR 47004 - Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park... to change the dates of the seasonal closure of public land in the Bald Ridge Area that was published in the Federal Register on Thursday, August 5, 1999 (64 FR 42711). The previous closure was in...

  7. Assessing perceived health risks of climate change : Canadian public opinion 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed a survey conducted to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of Canadians in relation to climatic change. A total of 1600 telephone surveys were conducted with a broad range of age groups. The study showed that climate change is considered by many Canadians to pose a significant threat at both local and global levels. Evidence of climate change has been noted in many communities. However, relatively few Canadians understand how climate change may impact human health. While many Canadians associated climatic change with air pollution hazards and ozone depletion, most Canadians were not aware of the potential negative health impacts related to changes in disease vectors, extreme weather events, and coastal flooding. The strongest awareness and concern about health impacts were expressed by Canadians concerned about global warming. Individuals with chronic health conditions were more likely to be attuned to the potential health impacts of climatic change. Seniors viewed climate change as a longer term problem. Only 10 per cent of Canadians viewed global warming as a major health risk. Sixty-nine per cent of Canadians believed that global warming was happening, while 63 per cent attributed climate change to human activity. Nearly half of all respondents believed that an extreme weather disaster would affect their community during the course of their lifetime. The report suggested that marketing or communications campaigns should build public awareness of the health risks associated with direct or proximal environmental risks. Information about health risks should be specific, and communications should be tailored to age cohorts. Television and print media should be used to build awareness of the health risks of climate change. Provincial concerns related to climatic change were also outlined. tabs., figs

  8. Assessing perceived health risks of climate change : Canadian public opinion 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    This paper discussed a survey conducted to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of Canadians in relation to climatic change. A total of 1600 telephone surveys were conducted with a broad range of age groups. The study showed that climate change is considered by many Canadians to pose a significant threat at both local and global levels. Evidence of climate change has been noted in many communities. However, relatively few Canadians understand how climate change may impact human health. While many Canadians associated climatic change with air pollution hazards and ozone depletion, most Canadians were not aware of the potential negative health impacts related to changes in disease vectors, extreme weather events, and coastal flooding. The strongest awareness and concern about health impacts were expressed by Canadians concerned about global warming. Individuals with chronic health conditions were more likely to be attuned to the potential health impacts of climatic change. Seniors viewed climate change as a longer term problem. Only 10 per cent of Canadians viewed global warming as a major health risk. Sixty-nine per cent of Canadians believed that global warming was happening, while 63 per cent attributed climate change to human activity. Nearly half of all respondents believed that an extreme weather disaster would affect their community during the course of their lifetime. The report suggested that marketing or communications campaigns should build public awareness of the health risks associated with direct or proximal environmental risks. Information about health risks should be specific, and communications should be tailored to age cohorts. Television and print media should be used to build awareness of the health risks of climate change. Provincial concerns related to climatic change were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  9. Changes to indoor air quality as a result of relocating families from slums to public housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Soledad; Ruiz, Pablo; Koifman, Rosalina

    2013-05-01

    One largely unstudied benefit of relocating families from slums to public housing is the potential improvement in indoor air quality (IAQ). We compared families that moved from slums to public housing with those that remained living in slums in Santiago, Chile in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as main indicator of change. A cross-sectional study of 98 relocated families and 71 still living in slums was carried out, obtaining indoor and outdoor samples by a Personal Environmental Monitor. Home characteristics, including indoor air pollution sources were collected through questionnaires. Multivariate regression models included the intervention (public housing or slum), indoor pollution sources, outdoor PM2.5 and family characteristics as predictors. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher in slums (77.8 μg m-3 [SD = 35.7 μg m-3]) than in public housing (55.7 μg m-3 [SD = 34.6 μg m-3], p indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were significant only in the slum houses. The multivariate analysis showed that housing intervention significantly decreased indoor PM2.5 (10.4 μg m-3) after adjusting by the other predictors. Outdoor PM2.5 was the main predictor of indoor PM2.5. Other significant factors were water heating fuels and indoor smoking. Having infants 1-23 months was associated with a lowering of indoor PM2.5. Our results suggest that a public housing program that moves families from slums to public housing improves indoor air quality directly and also indirectly through air pollution sources.

  10. The durability of public goods changes the dynamics and nature of social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam P Brown

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underpins basic models of the evolution of cooperation, mutualism and altruism: The benefits (or pay-offs of cooperation and defection are defined by the current frequency or distribution of cooperators. In social dilemmas involving durable public goods (group resources that can persist in the environment-ubiquitous from microbes to humans this assumption is violated. Here, we examine the consequences of relaxing this assumption, allowing pay-offs to depend on both current and past numbers of cooperators. We explicitly trace the dynamic of a public good created by cooperators, and define pay-offs in terms of the current public good. By raising the importance of cooperative history in determining the current fate of cooperators, durable public goods cause novel dynamics (e.g., transient increases in cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemmas, oscillations in Snowdrift Games, or shifts in invasion thresholds in Stag-hunt Games, while changes in durability can transform one game into another, by moving invasion thresholds for cooperation or conditions for coexistence with defectors. This enlarged view challenges our understanding of social cheats. For instance, groups of cooperators can do worse than groups of defectors, if they inherit fewer public goods, while a rise in defectors no longer entails a loss of social benefits, at least not in the present moment (as highlighted by concerns over environmental lags. Wherever durable public goods have yet to reach a steady state (for instance due to external perturbations, the history of cooperation will define the ongoing dynamics of cooperators.

  11. Winning in sequential Parrondo games by players with short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K. W.; Ma, H. F.; Wu, D.; Lui, G. C.; Szeto, K. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The original Parrondo game, denoted as AB3, contains two independent games: A and B. The winning or losing of games A and B is defined by the change of one unit of capital. Game A is a losing game if played continuously, with winning probability p=0.5-ε , where ε =0.003 . Game B is also losing and has two coins: a good coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{g}}=0.75-ε is used if the player’s capital is not divisible by 3, otherwise a bad coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{b}}=0.1-ε is used. The Parrondo paradox refers to the situation where the mixture of games A and B in a sequence leads to winning in the long run. The paradox can be resolved using Markov chain analysis. We extend this setting of the Parrondo game to involve players with one-step memory. The player can win by switching his choice of A or B game in a Parrondo game sequence. If the player knows the identity of the game he plays and the state of his capital, then the player can win maximally. On the other hand, if the player does not know the nature of the game, then he is playing a (C, D) game, where either (C  =  A, D  =  B), or (C  =  B, D  =  A). For a player with one-step memory playing the AB3 game, he can achieve the highest expected gain with switching probability equal to 3/4 in the (C, D) game sequence. This result has been found first numerically and then proven analytically. Generalization to an AB mod(M) Parrondo game for other integers M has been made for the general domain of parameters {{p}\\text{b}}\\text{A}}capital is even, or the initial game is B and the initial capital is odd. There is still a possibility of the Parrondo effect for the other two cases when M is even: the initial game is A and the initial capital is odd, or the initial game is B and the initial capital is even. These observations from numerical experiments can be understood as the factorization of the Markov chains into two distinct cycles. Discussion of these effects

  12. Setting Win Limits: An Alternative Approach to "Responsible Gambling"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas M; Litvin, Stephen W; Sobel, Russell S; St-Pierre, Renée A

    2015-09-01

    Social scientists, governments, and the casino industry have all emphasized the need for casino patrons to "gamble responsibly." Strategies for responsible gambling include self-imposed time limits and loss limits on gambling. Such strategies help prevent people from losing more than they can afford and may help prevent excessive gambling behavior. Yet, loss limits also make it more likely that casino patrons leave when they are losing. Oddly, the literature makes no mention of "win limits" as a potential approach to responsible gambling. A win limit would be similar to a loss limit, except the gambler would leave the casino upon reaching a pre-set level of winnings. We anticipate that a self-imposed win limit will reduce the gambler's average loss and, by default, also reduce the casino's profit. We test the effect of a self-imposed win limit by running slot machine simulations in which the treatment group of players has self-imposed and self-enforced win and loss limits, while the control group has a self-imposed loss limit or no limit. We find that the results conform to our expectations: the win limit results in improved player performance and reduced casino profits. Additional research is needed, however, to determine whether win limits could be a useful component of a responsible gambling strategy. PMID:24567070

  13. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  14. Does Reality Matter? Social and Science Bases of Public Beliefs about Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Schaeffer, K. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Hamilton, L.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of public perceptions about trends in Arctic sea ice find that over two-thirds are aware of the multi-decade decrease. This awareness differs sharply across ideological and educational subgroups, however. It does not appear to shift in response to scientific and media discussion following a September with unusually low (2012) or somewhat higher (2013) sea ice extent. Other perceptions about Arctic change, such as impacts on mid-latitude weather, follow similar patterns with sharp ideological difference and limited response to external events, including science reports. On the other hand, public accuracy on basic factual questions that do not by themselves imply directional change (such as location of the North Pole) may be very low, and among some subgroups accurate knowledge shows an oddly negative correlation with self-confidence about understanding of climate change. These results from 13 surveys over 2011-2015 suggest that biased assimilation filters the acceptance of information about Arctic change, with implications for science communication.

  15. The Public Health Impacts of Climate Change in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrovski, Vladimir; Spasenovska, Margarita; Menne, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Projected climatic changes for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia for the period 2025–2100 will be most intense in the warmest period of the year with more frequent and more intense heat-waves, droughts and flood events compared with the period 1961–1990. The country has examined their vulnerabilities to climate change and many public health impacts have been projected. A variety of qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used in the assessment: literature reviews, interviews, focus groups, time series and regression analysis, damage and adaptation cost estimation, and scenario-based assessment. Policies and interventions to minimize the risks and development of long-term adaptation strategies have been explored. The generation of a robust evidence base and the development of stakeholder engagement have been used to support the development of an adaptation strategy and to promote adaptive capacity by improving the resilience of public health systems to climate change. Climate change adaptation has been established as a priority within existing national policy instruments. The lessons learnt from the process are applicable to countries considering how best to improve adaptive capacity and resilience of health systems to climate variability and its associated impacts. PMID:24905243

  16. Mid-term evaluation of the Climate Change Action Fund : Public education and outreach (PEO) Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 1998, the Government of Canada established the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) to assist Canada in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CCAF managed a budget of 150 million dollars over three years, and the Public Education and Outreach (PEO) Block was allocated 30 million dollars of that total for its operations. Its mandate was to increase public awareness and understanding on the topic of climate change, as well as providing the required information to effect reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and adapt to climate change. An evaluation into this program was conducted, and it covered the period September 2000 to January 20, 2001. To date, 152 projects have been approved, which represents an investment of approximately 17.5 million dollars. Approximately 6 million dollars have been spent on the awareness component, while government communication activities used approximately 3.1 million dollars. Staff and project management fees in support of the program account for the remaining funds. This report addressed the performance to date in meeting the objectives, and also included recommendations for improved effectiveness. PEO files and records, a report entitled Interim review of the Climate Change Action Fund PEO Program, interviews with Departmental representatives, and interviews with external stakeholder groups formed the basis for the findings and recommendations. It was determined that future direction represents the most critical issue facing the PEO block. 1 tab

  17. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  18. NASS/CDS delta-V estimates: the influence of enhancements to the WinSmash crash reconstruction code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Carolyn E; Gabler, Hampton C

    2009-10-01

    The change in velocity (delta-V) crash severity metric in the NASS/CDS (National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System) is computed using the WinSmash crash reconstruction code. Beginning in 2008, NASS/CDS investigators have started to use an enhanced version of WinSmash, WinSmash 2008, which features a comprehensive vehicle specific library for over 5000 vehicle make-model-year combinations and updated categorical stiffness values. The use of WinSmash 2008 is expected to greatly improve delta-V estimates. However, there is concern that this may result in a step change in the NASS/CDS delta-V estimates, making it difficult to compare NASS/CDS 2008 with earlier years. A total of 1,808 collisions were recomputed using data from NASS/CDS 2007. The new version of WinSmash shows improved accuracy, but still underpredicts delta-V. The use of WinSmash 2008 increased the delta-V by 7.9% or 1.9 kph on average. The changes in delta-V were not evenly distributed. Delta-V increases were larger for side impacts (8.3%) than for back impacts (5.3%). The calculation type had little effect on the delta-V changes. For vehicles, pickup trucks showed a small increase (3.3%) and utility vehicles increased the most (9.6%). This jump in delta-V may prevent the data from NASS/CDS 2008 and later from being readily aggregated with previous years. PMID:20184836

  19. The Ethics of Belief, Cognition, and Climate Change Pseudoskepticism: Implications for Public Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcello, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between knowledge, belief, and ethics is an inaugural theme in philosophy; more recently, under the title "ethics of belief" philosophers have worked to develop the appropriate methodology for studying the nexus of epistemology, ethics, and psychology. The title "ethics of belief" comes from a 19th-century paper written by British philosopher and mathematician W.K. Clifford. Clifford argues that we are morally responsible for our beliefs because (a) each belief that we form creates the cognitive circumstances for related beliefs to follow, and (b) we inevitably influence each other through those beliefs. This study argues that recent cognitive research supports Cliffordian insights regarding patterns of belief formation and social influence. From the confirmation offered by such research, it follows that informational accuracy holds serious ethical significance in public discourse. Although scientific and epistemological matters are not always thought to be linked to normative morality, this study builds on Clifford's initial insights to show their linkage is fundamental to inquiry itself. In turn, Clifford's ethical and epistemic outline can inform a framework grounded in "public reason" under which seemingly opposed science communication strategies (e.g., "information deficit" and "cultural cognition" models) are philosophically united. With public discourse on climate change as the key example, empirically informed and grounded strategies for science communication in the public sphere are considered. PMID:26799170

  20. CHANGES PRODUCED BY PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED IN THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FROM ARGES COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina VOICU-OLTEANU; Iuliana TALMACIU

    2014-01-01

    In a social and economic environment characterized by change, Romania's public administration must integrate and implement the administrative values characteristic to the European space: transparency, predictability, responsibility, adaptability and efficiency. These ones must be found in the administrative institutions and processes on all levels. This research is aimed to establish what change in public administration represents, to quantify the main directions of action in the change proce...

  1. CHANGES PRODUCED BY PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED IN THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FROM ARGES COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana TALMACIU

    2014-01-01

    In a social and economic environment characterized by change, Romania's public administration must integrate and implement the administrative values characteristic to the European space: transparency, predictability, responsibility, adaptability and efficiency. These ones must be found in the administrative institutions and processes on all levels. This research is aimed to establish what change in public administration represents, to quantify the main directions of action in the change proc...

  2. Performance Indicators Related to Points Scoring and Winning in International Rugby Sevens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Dean G.; Hopkins, Will G.; Pyne, David B.; Anson, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team’s points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key points Successful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball. Selected performance indicators may be used

  3. Why sustainable population growth is a key to climate change and public health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, Peter; Stoneham, Melissa

    2011-12-01

    Australia's population could reach 42 million by 2050. This rapid population growth, if unabated, will have significant social, public health and environmental implications. On the one hand, it is a major driver of climate change and environmental degradation; on the other it is likely to be a major contributor to growing social and health issues including a decline in quality of life for many residents. Disadvantaged and vulnerable groups will be most affected. The environmental, social and health-related issues include: pressure on the limited arable land in Australia; increased volumes of industrial and domestic waste; inadequate essential services; traffic congestion; lack of affordable housing; declining mental health; increased obesity problems; and inadequate aged care services. Many of these factors are related to the aggravation of climate change and health inequities. It is critical that the Australian Government develops a sustainable population plan with stabilisation of population growth as an option. The plan needs to ensure adequate hospitals and healthcare services, education facilities, road infrastructure, sustainable transport options, water quality and quantity, utilities and other amenities that are already severely overburdened in Australian cities. There is a need for a guarantee that affordable housing will be available and priority be given to training young people and Indigenous people for employment. This paper presents evidence to support the need for the stabilisation of population growth as one of the most significant measures to control climate change as well as to improve public health equity. PMID:22518917

  4. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy. PMID:12597516

  5. Evaluation of the Accuracy of NASS/CDS Delta-V Estimates from the Enhanced WinSmash Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Carolyn E; Gabler, Hampton C

    2010-01-01

    The National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) uses the WinSmash program to reconstruct changes in vehicle velocity for real world crashes. Vehicle change in velocity, or delta-V, is a measure of crash severity and a predictor of injury risk. Earlier studies have demonstrated that WinSmash 2.42 underestimated the delta-V by 23% on average with the use of categorical stiffness values for vehicles identified as a source of error. An enhanced version of WinSmash, WinSmash 2008, was developed to employ vehicle specific stiffness values whenever possible. A total of 478 General Motors vehicles equipped with event data recorders (EDRs) and involved in real-world crashes were collected from years 2000 - 2008 of the NASS/CDS database and the delta-V was computed using the enhanced WinSmash. All vehicles were involved in frontal impacts. The enhanced reconstruction algorithm reduced the underestimation of delta-V from 23% to 13% on average for all vehicles. Delta-V estimates for cars only were greatly improved but still understated by 16% on average. Less than 5% error in delta-V was observed for pickup trucks and utility vehicles. The amount of structural overlap for the vehicle and investigator confidence in the reconstruction continued to have an effect on accuracy. No difference in average delta-V was observed when using either updated categorical stiffness values or vehicle specific stiffness values. The changes in WinSmash delta-Vs have important policy implications for NHTSA as the NASS/CDS delta-Vs are the basis for traffic and safety regulations as well as the speeds for vehicular crash testing and costs/benefits analyses. PMID:21050607

  6. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Thrusfield, M.; Ortega, C; Blas, de, I.; Noordhuizen, J.P.; Frankena, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent changes in veterinary medicine have required quantitative epidemiological techniques for designing field surveys, identifying risk factors for multifactorial diseases, and assessing diagnostic tests. Several relevant techniques are brought together in the package of veterinary epidemiological computer software, WIN EPISCOPE 2.0, described in this paper. It is based on Microsoft Windows and includes modules for the design and analysis of field surveys, control campaigns and observationa...

  7. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: → We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. → Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. → British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. → Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. → Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  8. Scientific visualization of glacier changes for public communication: the example of Findelengletscher, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastner, Philipp; Jörg, Philipp Claudio; Huss, Matthias; Zemp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The melting of glaciers and ice caps has been recognized as one of the best natural indicators for global climate change. In Switzerland, the early onset of both glacier research and detailed mapping of the country resulted in a wealth of historical material documenting glacier changes over the past 160 years. Fife years ago, the Universities of Zurich and Fribourg, along with the Swiss energy utility Axpo, launched the Glacier Laserscanning Experiment Obervallis (GLAXPO). In this project three laserscanning flights were performed on Findelengletscher in order to create high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM). These DEM provide a precise mapping of the glacier surface topography and serve as reference surface for the co-registration of past DEMs computed from digitized historical maps. In addition to that distributed numerical glacier models were run with ensembles of climate change scenarios in order to calculate glacier changes over the 21st century. The present work makes use of this great data pool for a scientifically correct visualization of 3-dimensional changes of Findelengletscher from AD 1850 to 2100 for public communication. We therefore collected ten different historical maps with the earliest dating from 1862 (plane survey sheet of the Dufour map). The pre-processing included georeferencing and digitalization of contour lines for the creation of different historical DEMs. Afterwards all historical DEMs were co-registered to one of the latest high resolution laserscanning DEM (from 2005). In between years with available DEMs, surface changes were interpolated linearly to create a sequence for the computer animation. For future developments, modeled glacier elevation changes where added/subtracted from the latest DEM (from 2010). Finally, two animations, showing glacier changes from 1850-2010 and 2010-2100, were composed and rendered in the animation program Visual Nature Studio 3. In cooperation with professional booth and model builders, these

  9. Win-CC Control Extension Development: Pressure-Enthalpy Win-CC Panel

    CERN Document Server

    Gaona, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews in detail the development and implementation of a Win-CC Control Extension for both Windows and Linux Platforms. The Control Extension consists in a Win-CC panel linked by dynamic libraries (*.dll or *.so) to the NIST Thermodynamics properties library. This linking permits to handle in real time different thermodynamic properties of a wide range of refrigerants. The Win-CC panel uses this information to produce a Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram of any required refrigeration cycle. In general, the p-H diagram enhance the understanding of the refrigeration cycle and facilitate the control and supervision of the system. Ideally, this control extension will be part of several Cooling Projects at CERN such as ATLAS IBL and CMS TIF. The development of this tool required several weeks of programming in C++ in both Linux and Windows platforms. At the end, the tool was constructed successfully and tested in both operating systems. The following sections go deeper into the develop, operation, and impleme...

  10. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  11. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  12. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  13. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  14. Wisconsin Partnerships to Educate and Engage Public Audiences on Climate Change Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S.; Rowley, P.; Crowley Conn, K.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity and scale of climate change-related challenges requires more than one strategy to share meaningful information with public audiences. This presentation will discuss a few initiatives to engage the public originating from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. First, a local partnership between the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) and the Aldo Leopold Nature Center (ALNC), an informal learning center with a new climate change "classroom" which recently acquired a Science on a Sphere (SOS) exhibit. Second, an informal education project funded by the NOAA Office of Education coordinated by CIMSS in partnership with the national SOS Network with the goal of helping museum docents share meaningful interpretation of real-time weather and climate data. CIMSS staff has been conducting weather and climate discussions on a Magic Planet display for several years. This "mini-SOS" is powered by a solar panel on the roof, modeling the essential Sun-Earth connection and the first principle of climate literacy. However, the convenient proximity of CIMSS and ALNC provides a perfect opportunity to test "SOS-scale" talking points posted on a weekly docent blog to the benefit of the entire SOS Network. Two other Wisconsin projects of note include the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts, a partnership between the University and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and a pilot project between CIMSS and NOAA's National Weather Service to engage storm spotters in climate mitigation and stewardship. Ideally, the synergistic benefits and lessons learned from these collaborations can inform similar efforts in order to galvanize meaningful responses to climate change.

  15. Catalyzing sustainable social change through public communication, radio for development, and participatory monitoring and evaluation : collective review

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Levi Zeleza

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews three recent books by four authors (two single, one joint) from Australia and Africa. The three books are related in that they all discuss the need to acknowledge the role of dialogic communication and popular participation as catalysts for sustainable social development in the developing world. Specifically, "Public Relations, Activism and Social Change" proposes that public relations (PR) needs to transform itself into public communication (PC), where people are made to...

  16. Collective Review: Catalyzing Sustainable Social Change through Public Communication, Radio for Development, and Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Levi Zeleza

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews three recent books by four authors (two single, one joint) from Australia and Africa. The three books are related in that they all discuss the need to acknowledge the role of dialogic communication and popular participation as catalysts for sustainable social development in the developing world. Specifically, "Public Relations, Activism and Social Change" proposes that public relations (PR) needs to transform itself into public communication (PC), where people are made to...

  17. Winning Strategies in Multimove Chess (i,j)

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Emily Rita; Dubbs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We propose a class of chess variants, Multimove Chess (i,j), in which White gets i moves per turn and Black gets j moves per turn. One side is said to win when it takes the opponent's king. All other rules of chess apply. We prove that if (i,j) is not (1,1) or (2,2), and if $i \\geq \\min(j,4)$, then White always has a winning strategy, and otherwise Black always has a winning strategy.

  18. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  19. Developing public awareness for climate change: Support from international research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, F.J.; Clements, W.E.

    1998-12-31

    Developing regional and local public awareness and interest in global climate change has been mandated as an important step for increasing the ability for setting policy and managing the response to climate change. Research programs frequently have resources that could help reach regional or national goals for increasing the capacity for responding to climate change. To obtain these resources and target recipients appropriately, research investigators need clear statements of national and regional strategies or priorities as a guide. One such program, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has a requirement to develop local or regional education enrichment programs at their observational sites in the central US, the tropical western Pacific (TWP), and on the north slope of alaska. ARM's scientific goals will result in a flow of technical data and as well as technical expertise that can assist with regional needs to increase the technical resources needed to address climate change issues. Details of the ARM education program in the Pacific will be presented.

  20. Climate change: The challenges for public health preparedness and response- An Indian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Rajan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremes weather changes surpassing their usual statistical ranges and tumbling records in India could be an early warning bell of global warming. Extreme weather events like the recent record setting in western Indian city of Mumbai or all time high fatalities due to the heat wave in southern Indian states or increasing vulnerability of easten Indian states to flood could all be a manifestation of climate change in the Asian subcontinent. While the skeptics may be inclined to dismiss these events as simple local aberrations, when viewed in an epidemiological paradigm in terms of person, time and space couple with frequency, intensity and fatalities, it could well be an early manifestation of climate change. Global warming poses serious challenge to the health sector and hence warrants emergency health preparedness and response. Climate-sensitive diseases are among the largest global killers, hence major brunt of global climate change in terms of adverse health impact will be mostly borne by poor and developing countries in Asia, given the levels of poverty, nutional levels and poor public health infrastructure.

  1. Changing care and prevention needs for global public health: in pursuit of a comprehensive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Mendoza, Walter

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of changing care and prevention needs in the framework of global public health should not be just a technical exercise of 'standard' demographic and epidemiological analysis; rather, it should also involve a reflection on the conditions of the production of such knowledge. In this article, we start by outlining some key dimensions of change in demographic and epidemiological patterns as well as their drivers; second, we address in more depth the question of whether current scientific practice is generating all the questions needed to improve global health in the coming years, and define potentially effective strategies for positive change. Significant demographic changes (i.e., reductions in earlier mortality and fertility; ageing and urbanisation) are leading to the emergence of chronic diseases in the Global South, as well, although patterns are very diverse, and early mortality and disability will still remain high for a few decades in certain areas. Such inequality in health patterns seems to parallel globalisation processes, and results from the effects of social and structural determinants. To better understand those relationships, we must improve our thinking about causality as well as our standard views of what constitutes 'good evidence'. PMID:22329765

  2. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.

    2007-09-27

    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. 42 CFR 447.205 - Public notice of changes in Statewide methods and standards for setting payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Payment Methods: General Provisions § 447.205 Public notice of changes in Statewide methods and standards for setting payment rates. (a) When notice is required. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of... standards for setting payment rates. 447.205 Section 447.205 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  4. Book review: the two degrees dangerous limit for climate change: public understanding and decision making by Christopher Shaw

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In The Two Degrees Dangerous Limit for Climate Change: Public Understanding and Decision Making, Christopher Shaw explores environmental policymaking by focusing on the public circulation of 2°C as the widely cited maximum figure by which temperatures can be allowed to rise. Derek Wall praises the book for combining natural science and social science to offer a well-researched and provocative interrogation of policy claims made about climate change.

  5. Application of WinSRFR4 program to zigzag corrugated furrow irrigation in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán Cañas, José; Moreno Perez, Maria Fatima; Garcia Moreno, Francisco Javier; Chipana, Rene

    2013-04-01

    Program WinSRFR4, developed by the Agricultural Research Service-U.S. Department of Agriculture, is used to perform surface irrigation evaluations, to establish appropriate irrigation parameters to get better irrigation efficiencies, to execute irrigation simulations and so to set several alternatives to the design of an irrigation. This paper aims to adapt WinSRFR4 program to zigzag corrugated furrow irrigation performed in the Andean regions of Bolivia. These irrigations are quite peculiar as they are carried out in areas with steep slope and with very low flow rates to avoid the risk of erosion. Besides of this, the flow rates are quite variable during the irrigation application. The greater length of the furrows is drawn on contours performing small jumps between consecutive contours. Available data are taken for seven irrigations for different periods of lettuce crop growth. First, a model that fits irrigations executed has been searched. For this, we have conducted a series of tests with the program WinSRFR4, being necessary to carry some simplifications given the peculiarity of this type of irrigation. The procedure consisted in determining the advance curves during irrigation. Later, the parameters of the Kostiakov - Lewis equation have been calculated by the method of Walker and Elliot. Although the furrow longitudinal profile was available, a mean slope was used at the time of establishing the model. WinSRFR provides a model of analyzed irrigation with a coefficient of determination ranged from R2 = 0.3520 to R2 = 0.9095. Finally, the errors obtained in the mass balances are between 2% and 14%. The model showed that application efficiencies ranged between 9% and 35%, rather poor, while runoff coefficients varied between 47% and 91%. Not too much importance is given to the fact that runoff occurs because runoff water is used in plots located at a lower level Irrigation simulations have been carried out using WinSRFR by changing the operation variables

  6. Changing Expectations of College: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This installment reporting on the 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of American's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools focuses on American's views of the value of a high school and a college education and the affordability of college. It is the first year the poll included enough respondents to be able to break out sentiments of specific demographic…

  7. Public Administration as an academic disicpline: Trends and changes in the COCOPS academic survey of European Public Administration scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); D.S.D. Curry; S. Gadellaa (Stefanie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report summarises the finding from the COCOPS academic survey, a survey of public administration academics in European countries fielded in 2013. Respondents were asked to reflect on the state of the discipline and general trends within the discipline and in practi

  8. Doctoral student wins national award for dissertation

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    Stephanie P. Newbold, a graduate of Virginia Tech's public administration and policy doctoral program in the Center for Public Administration and Policy, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, won an honorable mention from the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration for her dissertation, "All but Forgotten: Thomas Jefferson's Contribution to the Development of Public Administration in the United States."

  9. Planetarium Shows: Public Outreach and Changing the Approach to Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.

    2009-05-01

    We are successfully using the planetarium experience as a method of increasing the public's knowledge of science for the last few years. The results with pre and post testing have shown that there is an increased level of science knowledge. With this level of achievement it was plausible that the next step would be introducing it into the classroom, particularly at an open admissions university with a multi-racial and ethnic population and in the non-majors science courses. Creating an atmosphere of excitement and interest in science within this group of students is difficult, particularly with those students who have minimal exposure to science and have little or no interest in the subject. They have preconceived ideas that the subject is boring, difficult and has no relation to their future career paths. Coupled with this apathy, not only in students but in segments of the public, there is an increasing need to educate all groups on environmental issues and the need to promote science and science research. Traditional teaching methods are not effective, and based on the outreach levels of success, we are introducing planetarium shows that are not only entertaining but include scientific concepts Most colleges and universities do not have a fixed planetarium, but a portable planetarium can serve the same purpose. The planetarium does not replace the traditional classroom and laboratory experience, but augments it. The shows, including the freeware Stellarium, can be incorporated into college and university classes from the physical to the biological sciences. For example, the show Titanic includes information on the effects of solar maximums and minimums on climate and changes in the last 100 years on ship building. Another show, Ice Worlds, includes information on polar geology and biology but also explains its importance as a terrestrial analogue for interpreting the remote sensing information obtained with robotic missions to the icy worlds in our outer solar

  10. Safety profile of WinRho anti-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, F; Ruiz, R; Price, H; Griffiths, A; Malinoski, F; Woloski, M

    1998-01-01

    WinRho anti-D is manufactured with multiple processes to minimize the risk of transmitting blood-borne diseases such as viruses. These safety features include donor selection, plasma testing, solvent-detergent viral inactivation, and nanofiltration. To date, there has not been any case of viral transmission in association with use of WinRho anti-D. Adverse drug reactions are infrequent and generally mild; the most common are headache, fever, and chills. Some degree of hemolysis is inevitable due to the mechanism of action of WinRho anti-D, but this is predictable and transient. A few cases of intravascular hemolysis have been reported; hypersensitivity reactions are very rare. WinRho anti-D has been shown in both clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance to be safe and effective in the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and in the prevention of Rh isoimmunization. PMID:9523744

  11. Leaders in high temperature superconductivity commercialization win superconductor industry award

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider curretn leads project head Amalia Ballarino named superconductor industry person of the year 2006. Former high temperature superconductivity program manager at the US Department of energy James Daley wins lifetime achievement award. (1,5 page)

  12. College of Engineering robotics students win awards around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Students from the Virginia Tech College of Engineering's Robotics and Mechanics Laboratory have traveled the United States and abroad this summer, winning a number of honors for robotics research and development.

  13. BMC Ecology Image Competition 2016: the winning images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundza, Julia; Palmer, Matthew; Settele, Josef; Jacobus, Luke M; Hughes, David P; Mazzi, Dominique; Blanchet, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 BMC Ecology Image Competition marked another celebration of the astounding biodiversity, natural beauty, and biological interactions documented by talented ecologists worldwide. For our fourth annual competition, we welcomed guest judge Dr. Matthew Palmer of Columbia University, who chose the winning image from over 140 entries. In this editorial, we highlight the award winning images along with a selection of highly commended honorable mentions. PMID:27503341

  14. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incenti...

  15. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sousa

    Full Text Available Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  16. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession. PMID:27148879

  17. Open access to scientific publications - an analysis of the barriers to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Bo-Christer Björk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of the Internet is that the dissemination of scientific publications in a few years has migrated to electronic formats. The basic business practices between libraries and publishers for selling and buying the content have, however, not changed much. Scientists have in protest against the high subscription prices of mainstream publishers started Open Access (OA journals and e-print repositories, which distribute scientific information freely. Despite widespread agreement among academics that OA would be the optimal distribution mode for publicly financed research results, OA channels still constitute only a marginal phenomenon in the global scholarly communication system. This paper discusses, in view of the experiences of the last ten years, the many barriers hindering a rapid proliferation of Open Access. The discussion is structured according to the main OA channels; peer-reviewed journals for primary publishing, subject-specific and institutional repositories for secondary parallel publishing. It also discusses the types of barriers, which can be classified as: legal framework, IT-infrastructure, business models, indexing services and standards, academic reward system, marketing and critical mass.

  18. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The “Ponds with Life” environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students’ knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession. PMID:27148879

  19. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  20. Public Administration as an academic disicpline: Trends and changes in the COCOPS academic survey of European Public Administration scholars

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven; Curry, D.S.D.; Gadellaa, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report summarises the finding from the COCOPS academic survey, a survey of public administration academics in European countries fielded in 2013. Respondents were asked to reflect on the state of the discipline and general trends within the discipline and in practice. This includes topics such as academic publishing and the reputation of journals, disciplinary affiliations, time use, research funding and emerging research topics. The paper first outlines the ...

  1. Climate Change is Likely to Worsen the Public Health Threat of Diarrheal Disease in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vance

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease is an important health challenge, accounting for the majority of childhood deaths globally. Climate change is expected to increase the global burden of diarrheal disease but little is known regarding climate drivers, particularly in Africa. Using health data from Botswana spanning a 30-year period (1974–2003, we evaluated monthly reports of diarrheal disease among patients presenting to Botswana health facilities and compared this to climatic variables. Diarrheal case incidence presents with a bimodal cyclical pattern with peaks in March (ANOVA p < 0.001 and October (ANOVA p < 0.001 in the wet and dry season, respectively. There is a strong positive autocorrelation (p < 0.001 in the number of reported diarrhea cases at the one-month lag level. Climatic variables (rainfall, minimum temperature, and vapor pressure predicted seasonal diarrheal with a one-month lag in variables (p < 0.001. Diarrheal case incidence was highest in the dry season after accounting for other variables, exhibiting on average a 20% increase over the yearly mean (p < 0.001. Our analysis suggests that forecasted climate change increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation may increase dry season diarrheal disease incidence with hot, dry conditions starting earlier and lasting longer. Diarrheal disease incidence in the wet season is likely to decline. Our results identify significant health-climate interactions, highlighting the need for an escalated public health focus on controlling diarrheal disease in Botswana. Study findings have application to other arid countries in Africa where diarrheal disease is a persistent public health problem.

  2. On Winning Conditions of High Borel Complexity in Pushdown Games

    CERN Document Server

    Finkel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Some decidable winning conditions of arbitrarily high finite Borel complexity for games on finite graphs or on pushdown graphs have been recently presented by O. Serre in [ Games with Winning Conditions of High Borel Complexity, in the Proceedings of the International Conference ICALP 2004, LNCS, Volume 3142, p. 1150-1162 ]. We answer in this paper several questions which were raised by Serre in the above cited paper. We first show that, for every positive integer n, the class C_n(A), which arises in the definition of decidable winning conditions, is included in the class of non-ambiguous context free omega languages, and that it is neither closed under union nor under intersection. We prove also that there exists pushdown games, equipped with such decidable winning conditions, where the winning sets are not deterministic context free languages, giving examples of winning sets which are non-deterministic non-ambiguous context free languages, inherently ambiguous context free languages, or even non context fre...

  3. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  4. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    theory and practice. Along with its usage in graduate and postgraduate education, "Climate" is used as a framework for a developed basic information course on climate change for common public. In this course basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are described for non-specialists. The course will also include links to relevant information resources on topical issues of Earth Sciences and a number of case studies, which are carried out for a selected region to consolidate the received knowledge.

  5. A model for establishing a win-win relationship between a wood pellets manufacturer and its customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the possibility of establishing a win-win relationship between a wood pellets manufacturer and its customers when the manufacturer possesses a power plant fueled by biomass and buys wood material from forest companies. Two prerequisites must be fulfilled for this relationship. First, the price of wood pellets should be lower than the fuel currently used by potential wood pellets customers and, second, the price of wood material as a raw material for producing the wood pellets should not jeopardize the profitability of the operations of the wood pellets manufacturer, who also produces electricity from biomass and sells it to the state at the feed-in tariff price. A mathematical model has been developed for each prerequisite and applied to several examples. The results demonstrate that a win-win relation can be established in Croatia and most of the Member States of the EU. (author)

  6. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the

  7. The "Win-Win" Strategy for Sustainable Development : A Case Study of Recycling System in European Countries <論説>

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Yoshifumi

    1999-01-01

    According to static mindset, any regulation for ecological preservation means an unavoidable cost imposed on private economic activities, and promotes only a "end-of-pipe" type of technology. However, regulations devised from the view point of evolutionary mindset can reconcile economic development with ecological sustainability by encouraging an ecologically benign technology on micro level. However, the "win-win" strategy may result in "wrong-wrong" strategies, unless the private initiative...

  8. CERN repeats last year's running win

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CERN first team successfully defended the title won last year in the 20th annual Cross Inter-Entreprises held at Collex-Bossy on Saturday 7 October. 101 teams of four runners representing firms from all over the Geneva area finished the 6.2 km race, through forest and over fields. In spite of two members of last year’s winning team being absent through injury this time, the first team was still 38 seconds faster than in 1999. The second and third CERN teams also excelled with places in the first 15 teams. In this race the teams start at one-minute intervals and the time of each team is that of its third runner to finish, so they try to run in a group of three or four all the way. The full results of all teams can be found at: http://www.Club-association.ch/CHP Placings of the CERN teams 1st 21:53 Cornelis, Ecarnot, Ehmele, Nisbet 6th 22:50 Cornet, Eklund, Rick, Ruiz Llamas 13th 24:24 Dunkel, Guillot, Montejo Raez, Zamiatin 35th 28:22 Cameron, Galbraith, Revol, Scalisi

  9. Win a lift to the future!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Group is organising a competition offering people at CERN the chance to submit their ideas and win a ticket to the Lift10 Conference, which will be held in Geneva from 5 to7 May.   Lift is a community of technology "pioneers", created in 2006. It now involves more than 4,000 people from over 60 countries, who meet regularly in Europe and in Asia to explore the social implications of new technologies and the major shifts ahead. CERN is one of the academic partners of the next Lift conference, whose theme is "Connected people”. For this occasion, 10 free tickets to the conference will be awarded to the "CERNois" who come up with the best answers to the question: “How would you contribute to Lift10?” Those taking part in the competition can choose from among the following categories: - run workshop(s); - cover the conference on a blog; - coordinate a discussion during the breaks; - organize a lift@home ...

  10. Climatic changes, bioclimatic stages and flooding durations in relation with public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, A.; Roumieux, C.; Trouillet, A.

    2009-12-01

    Climatic Changes, and more generaly Global Changes, play a major role in environmental modifications related to public health. Modifications of temperatures, precipitations... influence ecological habitats. These habitats can be adapted for some animals species, responsable for predestinate pandemics. Mosquitoes and birds represent for certain pandemics the essential elements of virus transmission. Abundance of mosquitoes and birds species, is heavily conditioned to favorable ecological habitats, flooded areas extent and their variations. The study we carried, has been done in South of France. We show present status of ecological habitats and flooded durations in relation with actual climat. We have refine mediterranean spatial knowledge in mediterranean basin with actual data. We show evolution of climat and consequences for bioclimatic stages, using world clim data and IPCC scenarii. We reach environment impact for certain virus like West Nile virus. This virus affects birds, horses and hands up to men (e.g.West Nile virus appeared in 1999 in USA, between 1999 and 2007 : 27 000 human cases including 1 050 deaths). Presence of the virus is conditioned by different factors, primarily including vector distribution (mosquitoes). We show how it’s possible to localise favorable areas for the virus and to predict its future expansion areas. We present maps of the possibilities for future concerning previsions of bioclimatic steps variations. Thanks to the latest remote sensing and spatial analysis techniques. Our maps may be used as precious tools to help decision makers when faced with mosquito related problems.

  11. State and provincial governments to lead by example : survey of public sector climate change activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Climate Change Action Plan was adopted in August 2001 at the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP). The action plan recognizes the need for government to lead by example in areas of energy efficiency and clean energy technologies. This survey is the first attempt at gathering information on climate change activities in the public sector across 11 jurisdictions of the Northeast. It reports on 45 activities that have been initiated by government departments to either reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or to address the issue of adaptation and carbon sinks. The main objective to reduce energy consumption in buildings is being met through improved management systems, use of new technologies such as alternative fuels and low-emissions vehicles, and financial incentives. This report presents an outline for reducing GHG emissions from government activities by 25 per cent by 2012. The survey identifies areas where more work is needed in measuring impacts and progress. refs., tabs., figs

  12. The Worldviews Network: Digital Planetariums for Engaging Public Audiences in Global Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R. J.; Koontz, K.; Yu, K.; Gardiner, N.; Connolly, R.; Mcconville, D.

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing the capabilities of digital planetariums, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, the California Academy of Sciences, NOVA/WGBH, The Elumenati, and affiliates of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration formed the Worldviews Network. The network's mission is to place Earth in its cosmic context to encourage participants to explore connections between social & ecological issues in their backyards. Worldviews launched with informal science institution partners: the American Museum of Natural History, the Perot Museum of Nature & Science, the Journey Museum, the Bell Museum of Natural History, the University of Michigan Natural History Museum, and the National Environmental Modeling & Analysis Center. Worldviews uses immersive visualization technology to engage public audiences on issues of global environmental change at a bioregional level. An immersive planetarium show and dialogue deepens public engagement and awareness of complex human-natural system interactions. People have altered the global climate system. Our communities are increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events. Land use decisions that people make every day put both human lives and biodiversity at risk through direct and indirect effects. The Worldviews programs demonstrate the complex linkages between Earth's physical and biological systems and their relationship to human health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources, and energy. We have focused on critical thresholds, such as freshwater use, biodiversity loss, land use change, and anthropogenic changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. We have been guided by environmental literacy principles to help our audiences understand that humans drive current trends in coupled human-natural systems--and that humans could choose to play an important role in reversing these trends. Museum and planetarium staff members join the Worldviews Network team and external advisers to produce programs that span cosmic, global, and

  13. Public perception of climate change and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 James O Bamidele,2 Olusola O Odu,2, Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,3 Olugbenga L Abodurin,3 Wasiu O Adebimpe,1 Edward A Oladele,4 Adeleye A Adeomi,3 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Ebenezer O Ojofeitimi31Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Faculty of Clinical Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria; 4SIDHAS Project, Family Health International, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Climate change (CC has received extensive media attention recently, and it is currently on the international public health agenda. A study of knowledge and attitudes to climate change, most especially from rural Nigerian communities, is important for developing adaptation strategies. This is a study of public perceptions of CC and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria.Methods: This was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study of 1,019 rural respondents using a multistage sampling method. The research instrument used was a pretested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. χ2, Cramér's V, and Kendall's τ-c statistics were employed in addition to fitting the data to a logistic regression model to explore associations found significant on bivariate analysis.Results: Mean age of respondents was 36.9 (±12.4 years. About 911 (89.4% of respondents opined that there has been a change in climate in the last 10 years. Supernatural reasons were prominent among respondent-reported causes of CC. Identified risky behavior contributing to CC included smoking (10.7%, bush burning (33.4%, and tree felling (41.0%. Poor knowledge of causes but good knowledge of effects of CC were found in this study. About two-thirds of

  14. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined. To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  15. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  16. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC). The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication) the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank). Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined. To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon. PMID:21917189

  17. Adapting to Climate Change on Western Public Lands: Addressing the Ecological Effects of Domestic, Wild, and Feral Ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Donahue, Debra L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Karr, James R.; O'Brien, Mary H.; Fleischner, Thomas L.; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production—the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands—can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.

  18. Adapting to climate change on Western public lands: addressing the ecological effects of domestic, wild, and feral ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, Robert L; Donahue, Debra L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Rhodes, Jonathan J; Karr, James R; O'Brien, Mary H; Fleischner, Thomas L; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production-the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands-can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates. PMID:23151970

  19. Public perceptions of climate change and energy futures before and after the Fukushima accident: A comparison between Britain and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threats posed by climate change call for strong action from the international community to limit carbon emissions. Before the Fukushima accident that followed the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, both Britain and Japan were considering an ambitious expansion of nuclear power as part of their strategy to reduce carbon emissions. However, the accident may have thrown nuclear power as a publicly accep’ energy technology into doubt. This study uses several nationally representative surveys from before and after the Fukushima accident to examine how it may have changed public perceptions of climate change and energy futures in Britain and Japan. The study found that already before the accident the Japanese public were less supportive of nuclear power than the British. While British attitudes have remained remarkably stable over time, the Japanese public appear to have completely lost trust in nuclear safety and regulation, and have become less acceptive of nuclear power even if it would contribute to climate change mitigation or energy security. In Japan the public are now less likely to think that any specific energy source will contribute to a reliable and secure supply of energy. The implications for energy policy are discussed. - highlights: • We report data from 2005 to 2011 of British and Japanese attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. • The Japanese are less supportive of nuclear power as a solution to climate change than the British. • Public support for and trust in nuclear power has collapsed in Japan after Fukushima. • British public attitudes to nuclear power are remarkably robust in the wake of Fukushima

  20. International cooperation for nuclear science and energy development- A win win perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: International and regional cooperation is fundamental for the safe and effective introduction and expansion of nuclear power programme (NPP). A win-win situation can be harnessed as experienced countries in NPP are able to offer a myriad of benefits to new comer countries as well as countries planning for NPP whilst new comer countries are able to offer education and training opportunities and business opportunities to advanced countries in NPP. Countries with long experience in nuclear power programme (NPP) are able to offer experience, knowledge, advisory as well as sharing of resources and facilities with new comer countries. As skilled and competent personnel in the entire nuclear value-chain are critical to support NPP, this paper will provide an overview of some of the experience and resources of advanced countries in NPP that could be shared with new comer countries, with a focus in the area of education and training, as well as in industrial development. The paper will conclude by offering some recommendations as a way forward for establishing international cooperation in Nuclear Education and Training, as well as for industrial development. (author)

  1. Achieving ecological restoration by working with local people: a Chinese scholar seeks win-win paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao’s story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they can combine them with environmental restoration efforts to produce long-term sustainable solutions. In this paper, we share Cao’s 28 years of experience because we believe that his scientific and practical spirit, and his belief that it is necessary to work directly with the people affected by environmental projects, will inspire other scholars and practitioners to achieve similar successes.

  2. Ombud's Corner: fellows and students – a win-win equation

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    The hundreds of Fellows and students working at CERN bring precious new blood into the Laboratory. At the same time, CERN offers them invaluable work experience that will have a significant impact on their future careers. It is important that we all work together to make this a win-win situation with lasting positive effects for all concerned over the years to come.   Fellows and students are just setting out on a great professional adventure.  Some of them are very young, others are a bit more experienced … and what happens during this early period can have vast consequences on their approach to work and indeed on their overall careers. They all come here with their hard earned skills and a high degree of motivation, ready to make the most out of an internship at CERN. Sometimes, they are called to integrate into well-established units; at other times, they are asked to join complex collaborations. Almost always they have to deal with new information, new cultures, new t...

  3. Determining Water Quality Trends in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Watershed in the Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynett, K.; Azimi-Gaylon, S.; Doidic, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Marsh (Delta) is the largest estuary on the West Coast of the Americas and is a resource of local, State, and national significance. The Delta is simultaneously the most critical component of California's water supply, a primary focus of the state's ecological conservation measures, and a vital resource deeply imperiled by degraded water quality. Delta waterbodies are identified as impaired by salinity, excess nutrients, low dissolved oxygen, pathogens, pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants. Climate change is expected to exacerbate the impacts of existing stressors in the Delta and magnify the challenges of managing this natural resource. A clear understanding of the current state of the watershed is needed to better inform scientists, decision makers, and the public about potential impacts from climate change. The Delta Watershed Initiative Network (Delta WIN) leverages the ecological benefits of healthy watersheds, and enhances, expands and creates opportunities for greater watershed health by coordinating with agencies, established programs, and local organizations. At this critical junction, Delta WIN is coordinating data integration and analysis to develop better understanding of the existing and emerging water quality concerns. As first steps, Delta WIN is integrating existing water quality data, analyzing trends, and monitoring to fill data gaps and to evaluate indicators of climate change impacts. Available data will be used for trend analysis; Delta WIN will continue to monitor where data is incomplete and new questions arise. Understanding how climate change conditions may affect water quality will be used to inform efforts to build resilience and maintain water quality levels which sustain aquatic life and human needs. Assessments of historical and new data will aid in recognition of potential climate change impacts and in initiating implementation of best management practices in collaboration with

  4. The balanced scorecard of public investment in sport: proposal for change

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Barajas Alonso; Patricio Sánchez Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Management tools for evaluating public initiatives – 2. Performance indicators for investment in sport – 3. Proposed indicators for public investment in sport – Conclusion – References

  5. More than a Message: Framing Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Wallack, Lawrence; Woodruff, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Framing battles in public health illustrate the tension in our society between individual freedom and collective responsibility. This article describes how two frames, market justice and social justice, first articulated in a public health context by Dan Beauchamp, influence public dialogue on the health consequences of corporate practices. The…

  6. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical...

  7. Interprofessional staff development: changing attitudes and winning hearts and minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Thorpe, Lucy Nichola; Hammick, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    As more educators are involved in interprofessional education (IPE) it is important to consider how participation affects those who are sceptical about IPE. We report a prospective study in which the attitudes of 13 educators, unfamiliar with IPE, were compared before and after facilitating their first IPE. Their views, obtained as personal stories, were analysed through cognitive dissonance theory. Prior to teaching, all novice educators had concerns about IPE. Post-facilitation all were more positive about the value and meaning of IPE. PMID:20795823

  8. A Scandinavian Public Transport Model? Reform Changes in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza; Næss, Petter;

    2016-01-01

    Scandinavian public transport, especially aspects of how the Scandinavian countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, and Norway) have created governing structures for a cohesive public transport system, is often cited positively in international research. Scandinavia is often treated as a homogeneous unit...... Scandinavian model of public transport. The findings are based on public documents, reform evaluations, and statistics. This is the first paper focusing on Scandinavian public transport systems and their governing models per se, taking into account the considerable reforms of the 2000s. The results provide an...

  9. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  10. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta P. Petkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region’s coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region’s unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region’s ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  11. Marketing graduate student wins national research award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2009-01-01

    Bige Saatcioglu, a doctoral candidate in marketing in the Pamplin College of Business, has won the American Marketing Association's (AMA) marketing and public policy dissertation competition this year.

  12. Come rain or shine? Public expectation on local weather change and differential effects on climate change attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y; Jim, C Y

    2015-11-01

    Tailored messages are instrumental to climate change communication. Information about the global threat can be 'localised' by demonstrating its linkage with local events. This research ascertains the relationship between climate change attitude and perception of local weather, based on a survey involving 800 Hong Kong citizens. Results indicate that concerns about climate change increase with expectations about the likelihood and impacts of local weather change. Climate change believers attend to all three types of adverse weather events, namely, temperature rises, tropical cyclones and prolonged rains. Climate scepticism, however, is not associated with expectation about prolonged rains. Differential spatial orientations are a possible reason. Global climate change is an unprecedented and distant threat, whereas local rain is a more familiar and localised weather event. Global climate change should be articulated in terms that respect local concerns. Localised framing may be particularly effective for engaging individuals holding positive views about climate change science. PMID:24495900

  13. [Changes in public health awareness of traditional Chinese medicine in Shanghai in the late Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mei-hua; Tang, Xiao-juan

    2011-06-01

    Public health awareness existed in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) long ago. In the process of Shanghai's modernization and in competition with Western medicine, TCM in Shanghai has gradually accepted the modern public health awareness, fostering its strengths, circumventing its weaknesses and playing an important role in the local public health service. To study the vicissitude of TCM public health awareness at this time will be helpful to further understand the modern history of TCM and also provide useful reference for further participation of TCM in modern public health enterprise. In this paper, the authors used literature analysis and historical research to analyze the medical practice and writings of representative TCM practitioners, medical groups and journals. The results showed that the public health awareness of TCM in Shanghai has evolved from its traditional pattern to the modern pattern seen today; the traditional pattern was characterized by individual health care and some degree of medical collaboration, whereas the modern pattern is characterized by public health education. This process was propelled forward throughout by intense national spirit. TCM has made significant contributions to the local public health service in Shanghai in the late Qing Dynasty, which promoted the modernization of public health awareness of TCM in the People's Republic of China. The authors also found that one of the ways of modernizing TCM is to diversify the ways of publicizing TCM and make it easily understood, which can shed a new light on promoting the development of TCM. PMID:21669173

  14. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Bouzid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  15. Provincial/territorial public education and outreach hubs on climate change : evaluation of pilot phase : Manitoba public education and outreach hub : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2001, the Manitoba government established the pilot hub for climate change public education and outreach (PEO) in the province. The PEO is hosted by Manitoba Eco-Network, an affiliate of the Canadian Environmental Network located in Winnipeg. The aim of the PEO is to conduct public education as it relates to the environment. In addition, it aims to enhance communications between various member organizations. The main goal of the Manitoba Hub is to build awareness and empower citizens of Manitoba to act in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the individual and community level. An evaluation of the pilot was performed, and the results published in this report. The pilot proved successful, according to stakeholder support for continuing this initiative further. Some of the recommendations to improve on the initiative included: (1) development of a new business plan for the next phase, (2) the Climate Change Connection (CCC) should continue to look for opportunities to expand beyond traditional climate change stake holders, (3) negotiations should continue between the Hub and the Province on its appropriate role with the new Climate Change/Greenhouse Gas Community Challenge, and (4) a greater role in capacity building with local groups and members, such as professional development and training opportunities; the provision of tools for others to perform outreach; and, assistance for groups with funding. The valuable lessons learned throughout the pilot phase were discussed in this document. 3 tabs

  16. Post G20: The Challenge of Change, Implementing Evidence-based Public Order Policing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...... of the possible barriers to implementing evidence-based policing in public order and calls for police academic partnership to overcome these to make ‘change’ an ongoing reality....

  17. Winning at litigation through decision analysis creating and executing winning strategies in any litigation or dispute

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, John

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first in-depth guide to applying the philosophy, theory, and methods of decision analysis to creating and executing winning legal strategies. With explanations that progress from introductory to advanced and practice problems at the end of each chapter, this is a book the reader will want to use and refer to for years to come. Practicing decision analysts, operations research and management science students, attorneys and law students will find this book an invaluable addition to their knowledge and skills. John Celona has over three decades of experience in teaching and applying decision analysis. John lectures in the School of Engineering at Stanford University and is on faculty at The Stanford Center for Professional Development, the American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Sciences, and the Academy of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management.

  18. LenaWin 1.0, user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LenaWin is a program for dispersion and dose calculations, mainly connected to accidents in nuclear facilities. Besides that, it may, however, also be used for other kinds of releases. It is designed to be used both for training purpose, and in real situations. Great care has therefore been taken to ensure a simple and quick handling of the program, also in difficult situations. The program is a true Windows application, and works with version 3.0 and higher of Microsoft Windows. It was developed at the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) during 1991-1992, and is used by the institute in its regular work. LenaWin is part in a larger system to handle accidental situations. An important part of this system is a database and a database handler to manage all kinds of measured data after a release. LenaWin has functions to display data taken from this database on maps

  19. Governance of Banks in an Era of Regulatory Change and Declining Public Confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Minto, Andrea; McCormick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms have become more intrusive for banks than might be thought appropriate for “ordinary corporates”. “Heavier” regulation in this area is justified by the public interest at stake in bank activity and the risk to the public interest if a bank is allowed to fail (and the cost to the public of saving a bank from failure). The public interest (and the interest of all stakeholders) also has implications for the scope of the duty of care of bank directors. Conventional co...

  20. Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It's the modern consumer mind - compete to eat, save to the grave, throw to the wind to win! Never the game that's im portant - it's the beer , the fag. . . and if you're broke it's just the "odds" to turn you on. "Socrates didn't play dice games. He drank a lot. And when he was drunk he would go watch the game and give advice. It was because of bad advice that he was eventually sentenced to death. . . Back then it was more fun. Nobody knew anything about odds. It was just put down your money, you toss the dice, you laugh, you take another drink." - to Cassidy,it's knowing the odds that's put everybody on pot. Rack Cassidy's Winning at Poker and Games of Chance lampoons the illogic logic of modern "instructed" man. It is a disturbingly funny caricature of a nonsensical consumer's mind trying to ratio nalize the game of life, and what comes out is "hash" - not meat and potatoes. The book is high philosophical slapstick comedy ila Charlie Chaplin on paper in today's scene. To Cassidy, consumer thinking has made intellectual nitwits of us. We're always ex plaining in detail about what we don't have the slightest real understanding of, but we go on and on like automats spitting out words and words which in the long run make no sense to our__ selves and much less to the other poor broken down human calculat ing machines - especially when we try to give logic to our il/logical vices and fears.

  1. Advancing Health Equity and Climate Change Solutions in California Through Integration of Public Health in Regional Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Solange M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant public health danger, with a disproportionate impact on low-income and communities of color that threatens to increase health inequities. Many important social determinants of health are at stake in California climate change policy-making and planning, and the distribution of these will further impact health inequities. Not only are these communities the most vulnerable to future health impacts due to the cumulative impacts of unequal environmental exposures a...

  2. Winning the jackpot and depression: Money cannot buy happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisslé, Sonja; Bschor, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Life event research examines the effect of life events on the course of psychiatric diseases, but the published literature considers almost only negative events. We describe the cases of two female patients who had to be hospitalized for depression after lottery winnings of over 1M DM. The 4-year follow-up shows a good outcome in both patients. Case analyses suggest that in both patients, winning was a life event relevant to the development of the depressive episode. Desirable life events might influence the course of a psychiatric illness just as negative events do. (Int J Psych Clin Pract 2002; 6: 183-186). PMID:24945208

  3. A Critical Exploration of Changing Definitions of Public Good in Relation to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between higher education (HE) and public good can be traced to Kant's argument that universities critically held society to account. Mill, Newman and Arnold suggested knowledge itself was a public good. In the twentieth century, economists argued education could drive national technological progress. More recently…

  4. Fearing Loss of Public Confidence, Some Colleges Change Ways They Deal with Their Constituencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stacy E.

    1987-01-01

    Colleges are appointing senior-level people to handle public relations. Concerns about the public's skepticism include: setbacks in Congress, attacks on moneymaking operations, academic quality, dissatisfaction of employers, cynicism about college sports, anxieties about cost, competition for resources, scandals, etc. (MLW)

  5. Authorized manufacturing changes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezér, Balázs; Buzás, Zsuzsanna; Sebeszta, Miklós; Zrubka, Zsombor

    2016-05-01

    Background The quality of biologicals, including biosimilars, is subject to change as a result of manufacturing process modifications following initial authorization. It is important that such product changes have no adverse impact on product efficacy or safety, including immunogenicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the number and types of manufacturing changes for originator mAbs (the reference for the comparability exercise to confirm biosimilarity) according to European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documentation and to ascertain the level of risk these changes might impart. The extensive body of evidence contained in the EPAR documents can help support the EMA during the EC marketing authorization approval process for biosimilars, since it provides a broad base of scientific experience. Research designs and methods For EPAR-listed mAbs, details of all changes listed chronologically in the EPAR were evaluated and described. Based on these descriptions the manufacturing changes can be categorized by risk status (low, moderate or high). Results Entries for 29 mAbs with publicly available EPAR reports were reviewed. These contained details of 404 manufacturing changes authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA): 22 were categorized as high risk, 286 as moderate risk and 96 as low risk manufacturing changes. A limitation of this analysis is that it only summarizes publicly available data from EPAR documents. Conclusions Manufacturing change data indicate that the EMA has significant experience of process changes for originator mAbs, and the impact they may have on the efficacy and safety of biologicals. This experience will be useful in biosimilar product development to ensure adherence to sound scientific principles. Compared with the established manufacturing process for a reference product, the production of biosimilars will usually be different. Consequently, in addition to a comprehensive comparative functional and physicochemical

  6. Republic of Lebanon : Economic and Labor Force Impact of the Change in the Wage Structure of the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Amid uncertain growth prospects and shrinking fiscal space, the government's initial decision to significantly increase public sector employees' salaries is raising significant challenges. While the cost of living increase aims to offset the erosion of real wages over time, the change in the structure of salary scales is not accompanied by a similar structural revision of tasks and efficie...

  7. Changes in Obesity Awareness, Obesity Identification, and Self-Assessment of Health: Results from a Statewide Public Education Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Adam G.; Boyle, Tracy F.; Hill, James O.; Lindley, Corina; Weiss, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of obesity, individuals may be desensitized to weight as a personal health concern. Purpose: To evaluate changes in obesity awareness associated with a statewide public education campaign in Colorado. Methods: Cross-sectional random digit dial telephone surveys (n = 1,107 pre, n = 1101 post) were conducted…

  8. Interactions between MAOA Genotype and Receipt of Public Assistance: Predicting Change in Depressive Symptoms and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Hart, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Response to stress is determined in part by genetically influenced regulation of the monoamine system (MAOA). We examined the interaction of a stressor (receipt of public assistance) and a gene regulating MAOA in the prediction of change in adolescent depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI). Participants were drawn from the National…

  9. Responsible Climate Change Adaptation : Exploring, analysing and evaluating public and private responsibilities for urban adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Cities are vulnerable to climate change. To deal with climate change, city governments and private actors such as businesses and citizens need to adapt to its effects, such as sea level rise, storm surges, intense rainfall and heatwaves. However, adaptation planning and action is often hampered when

  10. Public Colleges Fight Raids on Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    Public colleges and universities are girding themselves to win the war for tenured talent. Some are succeeding. State budget woes and a rocky economy have shaken public colleges and universities. One of the most noticeable shudders has been a pervasive "brain drain," as many state institutions face competition for their best faculty members from…

  11. The burgeoning field of transdisciplinary adaptation research in Quebec (1998–: a climate change-related public health narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Gosselin1–3, Diane Bélanger1,3,4, Véronique Lapaige1,5,6, Yolaine Labbé11Quebec National Public Health Institute, Quebec, 2Laval University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Quebec, 3National Institute of Scientific Research, Water-Earth-Environment Centre, Quebec, 4Research Centre of the Quebec University Hospital Centre, Quebec, 5University of Montreal, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, 6Fernand-Seguin Research Centre, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: This paper presents a public health narrative on Quebec’s new climatic conditions and human health, and describes the transdisciplinary nature of the climate change adaptation research currently being adopted in Quebec, characterized by the three phases of problem identification, problem investigation, and problem transformation. A transdisciplinary approach is essential for dealing with complex ill-defined problems concerning human–environment interactions (for example, climate change, for allowing joint research, collective leadership, complex collaborations, and significant exchanges among scientists, decision makers, and knowledge users. Such an approach is widely supported in theory but has proved to be extremely difficult to implement in practice, and those who attempt it have met with heavy resistance, succeeding when they find the occasional opportunity within institutional or social contexts. In this paper we narrate the ongoing struggle involved in tackling the negative effects of climate change in multi-actor contexts at local and regional levels, a struggle that began in a quiet way in 1998. The paper will describe how public health adaptation research is supporting transdisciplinary action and implementation while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction to tackle a life-world problem (adaptation of the Quebec public health sector to climate change in multi-actors contexts has progressively been

  12. Climate Change Schools Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  13. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) program computer software design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) Program System Design Description contains a discussion of the design details for the WinCal product. Information in this document will assist a developer in maintaining the WinCal system. The content of this document follows the guidance in WHC-CM-3-10, Software Engineering Standards, Standard for Software User Documentation

  14. Abstinence and Relapse Rates Following a College Campus-Based Quit & Win Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; An, Larry; Luo, Xianghua; Scherber, Robyn M.; Berg, Carla J.; Golden, Dave; Ehlinger, Edward P.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To conduct and evaluate Quit & Win contests at 2 2-year college and 2 4-year university campuses. Participants: During Spring semester, 2006, undergraduates (N = 588) interested in quitting smoking signed up for a Quit & Win 30-day cessation contest for a chance to win a lottery prize. Methods: Participants (N = 588) completed a…

  15. The Politics of Neutrality and the Changing Role of Expertise in Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article explores and discusses the ongoing attempt to reinstate an ethos of neutrality in public administration. It focuses on the political benefits and costs of contemporary strategies in public administration for using expertise based on an ethos of neutrality. On the one hand, expertise...... may serve to allow a particular form of value neutrality that curbs abuse of political office, questions received wisdom on the efficacy of policy interventions, and thereby holds the potential to minimize the waste of public resources employed to meet political goals. On the other hand, the use of...

  16. Implementing and translating change in health care and public organizations - what researchers know and what to do about it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    questions professionals often turn their attention toward science in their search for answers.  As a consequence the research of three different communities of researchers doing research related to health care and public organizations are analyzed. It is concluded that each of these communities base their......In Denmark as well in other countries, new innovative ideas are continuously introduced in order to change health care and other public organizations. As a consequence health care and other professionals are often asking themselves how to introduce these ideas effectively. When asking such...... clear conclusions about the nature of and the cause and effect relationships related to organizational change in all of these communities. The difficulties are related to the study of organizational change as being realism and becoming realism and to the status of the knowledge claims that are the...

  17. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ..., Ammunition and Explosives (AA&E), Classified (Secret and Confidential), and Controlled Cryptographic Items. ADDRESSES: Submit comments to Publication and Rules Manager, Strategic Business Directorate, Business..., III, Division Chief, G9, Strategic Business Directorate. BILLING CODE 3710-08-P...

  18. Competition and deregulation in the electric industry. A study of organizational change: The New York State Public Service Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Deborah J. Cordaro

    2000-11-01

    Public organizations are formed in response to societal needs. They collect taxes, educate children, enforce laws and provide protection to the environment, the nation and consumers. One such organization is the New York State Public Service Commission. In 1907, legislation was passed to form the New York State Public Service Commission the first regulatory body of its kind in the United States. Its mission was to provide safe, reliable and reasonably priced electricity. Subsequently, this became the model that was implemented in every state in the nation. The past decade heralds an era of competition and a lessening of regulatory control. The telephone, natural gas and airline industries are in various stages of deregulation, and the electric industry is beginning down this path as well. In an environment such as this, are regulatory organizations necessary, and if they are, how can they organize to meet the new societal requirements? The case of the New York State Public Service Commission at this point in time offers a real time study of a regulatory body immersed in an environment that is calling for competition and an end to big government. Utilizing case studies of industries that have deregulated, or are in the process of deregulating, indicates a future societal need for regulations. This result does not lead to a conclusion that organizational change is unnecessary. This Dissertation will lay out the current organizational structure of the Public Service Commission, give an overview of the environmental signals, describe the mission/core values, and illustrate general political and employee factors that are indigenous to public service. Utilizing both classic and current organizational theory, an evaluation will be made of the Commission's need for change, their ability to change, and obstacles they may encounter.

  19. Winning and short-listed entries from the 2007 Feminist and Woman's Studies Association annual student essay competition

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Yvette; Waters, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of International Women’s Studies showcases the winning and short-listed entries from the 2007 Feminist and Women's Studies Association (FWSA) annual student essay competition. A cornerstone of academic feminism in the UK and Ireland since its inception in 1987, the FWSA is dedicated to the development of feminist research and pedagogy across the disciplines. As feminism broadens and diversifies in response to changing social, political, and cultural circumsta...

  20. The changing organization of innovation in public services.The case of digital library.

    OpenAIRE

    Ada Scupola; Antonello Zanfei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal case study of virtual library development, we highlight three important aspects that characterize the links between governance and innovation in public sector innovation. First, the examined case shows that the organizational complexities have increased in the transition from what could be considered as a spurious New Public Management approach, which incorporates elements of the traditional hierarchical model and elements of market-like competition, towards a “network...

  1. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The “Ponds with Life” environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-o...

  2. Adoption in Korea: A longitudinal (1920-2006) analysis of ideological changes in the public discourse

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis (1920-2006) of “adoption” as an issue represented in the public discourse in Korea, is presented in this master thesis. Newspaper articles referring to adoption were identified in searchable electronic databases. As Korea is a major source of transnational adoption and also has the highest ratio of adoptions per 100.000 births, one would expect adoption to constitute a prominent social issue in the public discourse. Across the seven decades (1920-2006) available to ana...

  3. The public sphere and network democracy: Social movements and political change?

    OpenAIRE

    Iosifidis, P.; Wheeler, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article critically examines the democratic possibilities of technological innovations associated with Web 2.0 tools and in this context it address the first and second ‘waves’ of academic debates concerning the social media and the public sphere in the networked society. It argues that the initial optimism associated with a virtual public sphere has been replaced by doubts about whether this model was appropriate for the development of democratic values. It assesses whether the informatio...

  4. Health Care Spending: Changes in the Perceptions of the Australian Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing demand for services and rising health care costs create pressures within the Australian health care system and result in higher health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs for consumers. Objective To measure changes in consumer views on the quality of the Australian health care system, contributors to rising costs and attitudes towards managing these costs. Methods Two computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in 2006 (533 respondents) and 2015 (1318 respondents) and results compared. Results More respondents in 2015 rated the Australian health care system ‘very adequate’ than in 2006 (22.3% vs 8.3%; Odds Ratio OR 3.2, 99% CI 2.1, 5.1) with fewer ‘concerned’ or ‘fairly concerned’ about the health care costs (69.0% vs 85.7%; OR 0.37, 99% CI 0.25, 0.53). The 2015 respondents were more likely to identify new treatments for cancer (77% vs 65.7%; OR 1.75, 99% CI 1.30, 2.35) and community expectations for access to the latest technologies (73.8% vs 67%; OR 1.39, 99% CI 1.04, 1.86) as contributors to rising health care costs. While more 2015 respondents agreed that patients should pay a greater part of the health care costs, this remained a minority view (37.9% vs 31.7%; OR 1.32, 99% CI 0.99, 1.76). They were less likely to agree that doctors should offer medical treatments regardless of the cost and chance of benefit (63.6% vs 82.9%; OR 0.36, 99% CI 0.25, 0.50). Conclusions Satisfaction with the Australian health care system has increased over time. Consumers recognise the cost pressures and have lower expectations that all services should be provided regardless of their costs and potential benefit. Public consultation on the allocation of health care resources and involvement in health care decision-making remains important. There should be community consultation about the principles and values that should guide resource allocation decisions. PMID:27294518

  5. The Catholic Bishops in the U.S. Public Arena: Changing Prospects under Pope Francis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Wood

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The public profile of the Roman Catholic bishops of the United States results not simply from their own interventions in political life, but from the broad array of actions and actors within “public Catholicism” broadly conceived. This article assesses the contemporary profile of the American bishops from this broad angle, particularly in light of new dynamics under the papacy of Francis I. It does so by documenting public Catholicism’s presence in ecclesial institutions, other public institutions, and lay-centered social movements (particularly faith-based community organizing and via a case study of the healthcare reform debate around the State Children’s Health Insurance Program and the Affordable Care Act. Cultural and institutional factors shaping Catholic public presence are analyzed in three dimensions of social life: institutional leadership; authority dynamics within the Church; and the culture of prayer, spirituality, and worship in parishes. Finally, the conclusion discusses the key dynamics likely to shape the future of public Catholicism in America.

  6. A Changing Policy Toward the British Public Sector and its Impact on Service Delivery (CPP RPS 38/2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonowicz, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s public service in the UK has undergone a long process of far-reaching and complex changes. It has been a high profile issue for politicians, media and citizens (attracting their attention). There are three major sets of principles which constitute the government’s policies toward public service in modern British politics: the post-war settlement underpinned by social economics, the New Right based on a neo-liberal set of values and the New Labour approach which aimed to combin...

  7. Researcher for Virginia Tech program wins Nobel Prize

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2009-01-01

    The first woman to win a Nobel Prize in economics is a researcher for a Virginia Tech-managed international program. Elinor Ostrom has won a share of the 2009 prize based on her work on how community institutions can prevent conflict.

  8. Nobel Prize-winning economist to speak on Oct. 3

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Nobel Prize winning economist Eric Maskin, professor of social science at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, will present "Mechanism Design: How to Implement Social Goals," on Saturday, Oct. 3 at 2 p.m. in Pamplin Hall Room 1045 on the Virginia Tech campus.

  9. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school district,…

  10. Winning Facebook - and the Rest of the World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hansen, Kasper Møller; Schwartz, Sander Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of nine leading candidates’ communication on Facebook during the parliament election campaign in Denmark in fall 2011. It relates their communication to the historical use of social media in Denmark by politicians, to Danish candidate campaign communication in general...... conclude that certain types of content may win Facebook, but the election itself is still largely won through TV....

  11. A SAS Interface for Bayesian Analysis with WinBUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Wang, Lijuan; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian methods are becoming very popular despite some practical difficulties in implementation. To assist in the practical application of Bayesian methods, we show how to implement Bayesian analysis with WinBUGS as part of a standard set of SAS routines. This implementation procedure is first illustrated by fitting a multiple regression model…

  12. Method for the unmanned winning of thin, flat coal strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bratishcheva, L.L.; Kiselev, Ye.I.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyy, Yu.F.

    1981-09-05

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce the coal losses in interchamber pillars through their partial liquidation. The formulated purpose is achieved through the fact that the back fill of the rock into the chamber is accomplished by using one branch of drives and the winning of the coal from the interchamber pillars is done simultaneously using the second branch of the drives.

  13. Economic Education Experiences of Award Winning Alaska Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monica, Ed.

    Award-winning economic education projects devised by Alaska teachers included three elementary (K-6) projects and three second level (7-12) ones. Faith Greenough's students (Chinook Elementary School, Anchorage) compared Tlingit traditional and market economies in Alaska, so economics became an integrated part of elementary instruction. Marie…

  14. The Probability of Winning a Lotto Jackpot Twice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Emeric T., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes lotto games as a source of problems and exercises for classroom activities as well as applications of basic probability concepts in a practical setting which leads to a greater understanding of the remote chance anyone has of winning a lottery game. (KHR)

  15. Blackboard Wins Payment from Competitor in Patent Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A federal jury in Texas awarded Blackboard Inc. $3.1-million last month, saying that a smaller Canadian competitor, Desire2Learn Inc., had infringed Blackboard's patent for a system of delivering course materials online. The case has been closely watched by campus-technology officials, many of whom feared that a Blackboard win could stifle…

  16. Interior design students win two IDEC Student Design Competition awards

    OpenAIRE

    Watson-Bloch, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Interior Design students in the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech won two of the four awards presented in the 2004-2005 Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) Student Design Competition. Winners were selected at the International IDEC Conference in Savannah, Ga. with Virginia Tech Interior Design students winning second place and honorable mention.

  17. The Sport League's Dilemma : Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either t

  18. Effectively Communicating Information about Dynamically Changing Arctic Sea Ice to the Public through the Global Fiducials Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Friesen, B.; Wilson, E.; Noble, S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 15, 2009, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released a report, Scientific Value of Arctic Sea Ice Imagery Derived Products, advocating public release of Arctic images derived from classified data. In the NAS press release that announced the release, report lead Stephanie Pfirman states "To prepare for a possibly ice-free Arctic and its subsequent effects on the environment, economy, and national security, it is critical to have accurate projections of changes over the next several decades." In the same release NAS President Ralph Cicerone states "We hope that these images are the first of many that could help scientists learn how the changing climate could impact the environment and our society." The same day, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced that the requested images had been released and were available to the public on a US Geological Survey Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Library website (http://gfl.usgs.gov). The website was developed by the USGS to provide public access to the images and to support environmental analysis of global climate-related science. In the statement describing the release titled, Information Derived from Classified Materials Will Aid Understanding of Changing Climate, Secretary Salazar states "We need the best data from all places if we are to meet the challenges that rising carbon emissions are creating. This information will be invaluable to scientists, researchers, and the public as we tackle climate change." Initially about 700 Arctic sea ice images were released. Six years later, the number exceeds 1,500. The GFP continues to facilitate the acquisition of new Arctic sea ice imagery from US National Imagery Systems. This example demonstrates how information about dynamically changing Arctic sea ice continues to be effectively communicated to the public by the GFP. In addition to Arctic sea ice imagery, the GFP has publicly released imagery time series of more than 125 other environmentally important

  19. An Exploration of the Relationship between Readiness for Change and Organizational Trust in Turkish Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayim, Merve; Kondakci, Yasar

    2015-01-01

    Readiness for change is one of the constructs that fosters positive behaviours, attitudes and thinking towards new adjustments on the part of employees. As one of the internal context variables, trust acts as a catalyst for supportive behaviours in times of change and uncertainty by reducing change related resistance and stress. Based on this…

  20. Heterogeneous resource allocation can change social hierarchy in public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public Goods Games represent one of the most useful tools to study group interactions between individuals. However, even if they could provide an explanation for the emergence and stability of cooperation in modern societies, they are not able to reproduce some key features observed in social and economical interactions. The typical shape of wealth distribution - known as Pareto Law - and the microscopic organization of wealth production are two of them. Here, we introduce a modification to the classical formulation of Public Goods Games that allows for the emergence of both of these features from first principles. Unlike traditional Public Goods Games on networks, where players contribute equally to all the games in which they participate, we allow individuals to redistribute their contribution according to what they earned in previous rounds. Results from numerical simulations show that not only a Pareto distribution for the payoffs naturally emerges but also that if players don't invest enough in one round...

  1. The changing face of public funding of higher education, with special reference to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre de Villiers; Gert Steyn

    2007-01-01

    Higher education displays characteristics of both private and public goods and there is a trend worldwide to expect individuals to pay more of the costs of their higher education. In South Africa public funding of higher education decreased from 0.86% of GDP in 1986 to only 0.66% in 2006. Due to the decrease in state appropriations, student tuition fees had to be increased to compensate for this loss of income. In the process staff numbers were kept relatively constant, while student numbers ...

  2. Productivity in public welfare services is changing: the standpoint of strategic competence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Seija

    2013-01-01

    In Finland the municipal restructuring project was launched in 2005. Its goal is to create a system that ensures high-quality municipal welfare services for everyone, continuing into the future. The main focus of this research is to examine the tension between strategic competence-based management and productivity in public welfare services. The theoretical basis covers theories regarding strategic competence-based management and productivity. To guarantee services and quality it is important to strengthen the supply of employees, competence, development, leverage, and benefits in public organizations. Leadership has a significant role in strategic competence-based management. PMID:23944166

  3. Winning Horizon 2020 with Open Science

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Donnelly, Martin; Jones, Sarah; Elbaek, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Investing in research towards solutions for Societal Challenges is a key priority of the EU Innovation Union[1], and the EC has placed focus on “Open Innovation, Open Science and Open to the World”[2] as a strategy to make the EU leader in Research & Innovation. Open Science is about removing all barriers to full sphere basic research knowledge and outputs (research data, research code, publications, policy briefs), and thus feeding Open Innovation and the knowledge-based ...

  4. History and geography of ball (public dances) in France : A process changing according to socio-political structures

    OpenAIRE

    Crozat, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    History and geography of ball in France. A changing process according to those of the socio-political structures From 1880 to 1900, French public authorities have try to strengthen the new republican regime. The reinforcement of local council was one of their means. This brought the country people's adhesion to the new regime. These targets had been mainly pursued by taking the significant spatial and community symbolic which was until then in the Church hands. By instituing the 14th of july...

  5. The Diffusion of Global Models of Appropriate Leadership Behavior: Explaining Changing Leadership Priorities of High Ranking Public Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2012-01-01

    The question posed is whether and how public senior managers’ perceptions of what is important inperforming their roles have changed from the beginning of the 1990s to the end of the 2000s.The theoretical approach to the analysis is based on a macro-phenomenological institutionalperspective, which emphasizes the importance of diffusion and translation of global models oflegitimate behavior.The hypothesis is that certain globally legitimated notions of good leadership gradually becamemore wide...

  6. Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

  7. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Service (SNS). ADDRESSES: Submit comments to Publication and Rules Manager, Strategic Business Directorate...) is a new TPS that augments Satellite Monitoring Service (SNS) for Security Risk Category (SRC) I-IV motor shipments travelling via closed-box-van trailers. SNS only allows the Defense...

  8. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  9. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  10. Public-private partnerships. Managing organizational change for acquiring value creative capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immonen, M.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the dissertation is to examine organizational responses of public actors to customer requirements which drive the transformation of value networks and promote public-private partnership in the electricity distribution industry and elderly care sectors. The research bridges the concept of offering to value networks where capabilities can be acquired for novel product concepts. The research contributes to recent literature, re-examining theories on interactions of customer requirements and supply management. A critical realist case study approach is applied to this abductive the research which directs to describe causalities in the analyzed phenomena. The presented evidence is based on three sources, which are in-depth interviews, archival analysis and the Delphi method. Service provision requires awareness on technology and functionalities of offering. Moreover, service provision includes interactions of multiple partners, which suggests the importance of the co-operative orientation of actors. According to the findings, portfolio management has a key role when intelligent solutions are implemented in public service provision because its concepts involve a variety of resources from multiple suppliers. However, emergent networks are not functional if they lack leaders who have access to the customer interface, have power to steer networks and a capability to build offerings. Public procurement policies were recognized to focus on a narrow scope in which price is a key factor in decisions. In the future, the public sector has to implement technology strategies and portfolio management, which mean longterm platform development and commitment to partnerships. On the other hand, the service providers should also be more aware of offerings into which their products will be integrated in the future. This requires making the customer's voice in product development and co-operation in order to increase the interconnectivity of products. (orig.)

  11. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  12. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management. PMID:26410091

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in Alberta, Canada: implications for public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wright, Mary-Frances; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2004-06-01

    Climate change has received recent extensive media attention (e.g., Kyoto Protocol) and is currently on the international public health agenda. The purpose of this study was to survey knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in the province of Alberta, Canada. A random sample of 600 Alberta households, using proportional quotas based on the Canada Census of the Alberta population, was surveyed on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. Albertans are highly concerned, particularly about health problems related to the environment and air pollution; yet are only moderately informed about a variety of environmental issues. While the great majority of Albertans appear to be engaged in environmental behaviours at home, fewer consider energy efficiency when purchasing consumer goods. An even smaller percentage makes environmentally conscious transportation decisions. To encourage the population to make recommended environmental behaviours, mass media approaches may do well to target the specific beliefs that were deemed salient (e.g., promote the association between environment issues and health). The public health sector has a major role in working with inter-sectoral groups to address this significant public health issue. PMID:15203453

  14. Estonia in the system of global climate change. Publication 4/1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia is among the countries who signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The FCCC calls on its parties to inventory national sources, to reduction in greenhouse gases and to development of projects responding to climate change. In 1994, an Estonian Country Study Project was initiated within the U.S. Country Studies Program. The Estonian Country Study Project is comprehensive, covering all sectors and directions of activity in Estonia that might impact climate change or be influenced by Global Climate Change. This book contains a collection of papers, covering the aims of the Estonian Country Study Project

  15. Changing Schools: A Look at Student Mobility Trends in Chicago Public Schools Since 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Marisa; Gwynne, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Student mobility has been a long-standing concern to educators and researchers because of the negative impact that changing schools can have on students, teachers, and schools. High levels of student mobility can create a sense of upheaval and constant change at the school level, and schools typically have few established practices in place to…

  16. Winning Horizon2020 with Open Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Elbæk, Mikael Karstensen; Rettberg, Najla;

    2016-01-01

    Open Science (OS) offers researchers tools and workflows for transparency, reproducibility, dissemination and transfer of new knowledge. Ultimately, this can also have an impact on in research evaluation exercises, e.g. Research Excellence Framework (REF), set to demand greater “societal impact......” in future, rather than just research output. OS can also be an effective tool for research managers to transfer knowledge to society, and optimize the use and re-use by unforeseen collaborators. For funders, OS offers a better return on investment (ROI) for public funding, and underpins the EU Digital...

  17. EXCEPTIONAL COLLOQUIUM : Digital scholarship and the changing nature of scientific publication

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Digital media have extended the number of channels that scientists (and other academics) use to communicate and share information. Digital technologies have the potential to make all stages of the research process more visible in the public sphere, and to audiences that have, on occasion, opportunities for interaction and engagement. But digital technologies also are introducing novel demands on researchers, requiring skills and competencies on the part of scientists that are encapsulated by the concept of digital scholarship. In this presentation we explore this developing context via a case study: the publication of emails from the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (also known as ‘climategate’). The findings of three reviews of ‘climategate’ will be discussed in terms of their implications for science communication. This episode may indirectly influence the ways that scientific knowledge is produced and verified, and what information and data are required to be archived for cir...

  18. Changes in the public acceptance of nuclear power among the populace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear power is often hampered due to the lack of public acceptability. The degree of its public acceptance gradually but distinctly decreases with the progress of industrialisation and also with the increase in per-capita income as well as upgrading of social welfare programme. The execution of nuclear power projects is possible when the majority of populace are in support of its development, while it becomes difficult so long as more than a half of the people is reluctant to make use of it. For the convenience sake, the patterns of nuclear acceptability are arbitrarily categorized in six stages from a tranquil state to a hopeless state. In order not to be driven into such helpless stage, some preventive measures are suggested as a recommendation herein. (author)

  19. Does a Warm Spell Influence Public Attitudes about Assisting Farmers in Climate Change Adaptation Policies? Evidence from a Natural Experiment from Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Gi-Eu, Lee; Scott, Loveridge; Julie, Winkler

    2014-01-01

    While policies for responding climate change impacts need the support and cooperation from the public who may be affected by the policies, understanding the general public’s opinion is important and can help form feasible action plans. In this paper we take advantage of a temperature event that took place during primary data collection to explore how this affects public opinion about helping farmers adapt to climate change. We find that the public is surprisingly supportive of government invo...

  20. The Evolution of Public Sector Expenditures: Changing Political Priorities in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS SCHEETZ

    1992-01-01

    This article examines central administration functional expenditures for four Latin American countries over the last twenty years. A detailed review of fiscal accounts was conducted in each country, with greater concern for inter-country consistency in public sector accounting techniques and functional area definitions. The study reveals large errors in military expenditure data published by international sources. Our improved and disaggregated database shows, first, that Defense expenditures...

  1. The changing nature of U.S. card payment fraud: industry and public policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    As credit and debit card payments have become the primary payment instrument in retail transactions, awareness of identity theft and concerns over the safety of payments has increased. Traditional forms of card payment fraud are still an important threat, but fraud resulting from unauthorized access to payment data appears to be rising, and we are only beginning to get a sense of the dimensions of the problem. ; Thus far, the role of public policy has been to encourage the card payment indust...

  2. Budgeting China. Macro-policies and micro-practices in public sector changes

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Zan; Qingmei Xue

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Transformations taking place in China are of crucial importance in the development of the world economy. The international community is turning its attention to China's move towards a market economy and assessing the likely impact on the years ahead. This paper aims to plot the evolution of administrative reforms in China with particular reference to the state (and therefore public sector), because the modernization of the state is an issue that will persist into the future, and bec...

  3. Has the Return on Australian Public Investment in Agricultural Research Changed?

    OpenAIRE

    Binenbaum, Eran; Mullen, John D.; Wang, Chang Tao

    2008-01-01

    We examine whether there has been a decline in the returns from Australian public investment in research on broadacre agriculture. Complementing a forthcoming paper by Mullen, we use alternative specifications for the regression equation, which employs the log of total factor productivity (TFP) as the dependent variable. The rate of return is computed on an annual basis rather than by using multi-year averages. In contrast to Mullen’s earlier preliminary analysis, we have now found some evide...

  4. The value of communication in changing public perception on nuclear technology: an experience with college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays public acceptance is the most frequent keyword used in the Brazilian nuclear scenario with the revival of the nuclear program, in which the construction of more nuclear power plants and a national radioactive waste repository are expected. The acceptance of such activities is tightly linked to a strategic communication plan, the effective tool to be implemented if success is intended. Isolated communication actions are being done in the nuclear area and this paper presents one example of them, describing the experience with college students from two educational institutions, who attended the lecture 'Nuclear technology: prejudice, fundamentals, applications and challenges'. Opinion surveys were done before and after each event, to know the opinions towards nuclear technology. The surveys were based on the choice of three words from about 10 not ordered stimulating keywords and each participant was invited to choose the first three ones that could represent the image he/she had when faced with the theme 'nuclear technology'. The lecture included topics covering positive and negative points of the nuclear technology. The measured results after the lectures shown positive perspective in the first images associated with the nuclear technology, despite focus on accidents was given in the final part of the event. The results show that some effectiveness on the target public was achieved in terms of bringing new perceptions on this technology. It is expected that this article can contribute somehow to the discussion of public acceptance of nuclear technology in Brazil. (author)

  5. The Small Aircraft Transportation System for America: A Case in Public Infrastructure Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, industry stakeholders, and academia, have joined forces to pursue the NASA National General Aviation Roadmap leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). This strategic undertaking has a 25-year goal to bring next-generation technologies and improve travel between remote communities and transportation centers in urban areas by utilizing the nation's 5,400 public-use general aviation airports. To facilitate this initiative, a comprehensive upgrade of public infrastructure must be planned, coordinated, and implemented within the framework of the national air transportation system. The Nebraska NASA EPSCoR Program has proposed to deliver research support in key public infrastructure areas in coordination with the General Aviation Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center. Ultimately, SATS may permit tripling aviation system throughput capacity by tapping the underutilized general aviation facilities to achieve the national goal of doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways for the nation's suburban, rural, and remote communities.

  6. Changing Public Policy Due to Saudi City of Jeddah Flood Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naill M. Momani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discussed the last flood disaster which occurred in Jeddah City-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 25th of November 2009 which caused more than 121 fatalities and billions of dollars in losses in addition to around 20,000 sheltered families which cause a shift in public policy to deal with natural disasters in Saudi Arabia. Approach: We followed the flood disaster events starting from rain fall to the recovery stage. Then, timeline for the event is constructed with the intention to document and draw lessons for quick response in future disasters. Results: Natural causes and human errors and lack of clear public policy to deal with natural disasters were the most contributors to human and monetary losses due to the flood disaster in Jeddah City. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is necessary to have declared public policy for accountability which enable decision makers develop and implement policies and procedures, as well as plans to deal with natural and man-made disasters.

  7. Climate change and public health. Effects and a dialogue with interested people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is becoming warmer and that regional climates are changing. This report summarizes the results of an integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands carried out between July 2000 and July 2001 within the framework of the Dutch National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-2). The project's main aims were: - to provide an overview of scientific insights, expert judgements and stakeholders' perceptions of current and future impacts (positive and negative) of climate change for several economic sectors, human health, and natural systems in the Netherlands, considering various cross-sectoral interactions, - to develop a set of adaptation options for these sectors through a participatory process with the main stakeholders, - to perform an integrated assessment of cross-sectoral interactions of climate change impacts and adaptation options. Climate change impacts and adaptation options have been investigated for several important economic sectors (including agriculture, forestry, fisheries, industry, energy, transport, insurance and recreation and tourism), human health and natural systems (including soils, water and biodiversity issues).The results of this study are based on literature survey, a dialogue with experts and stakeholders. We are convinced that the report represents the most essential and relevant aspects of the impacts and adaptation options for climate change in the Netherlands, given the scenario setting of this study, the state of the art of current scientific knowledge, and today's expert and stakeholders' perceptions of the issues at stake. 3 refs

  8. Special challenges for public health with climate change and aging populations: Waterborne illness - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Takaro, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This video clip comprises the four presentations of Panel Session 4, “Preparing Aging Populations for Climate Change in British Columbia and Beyond” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Tim Takaro "Special challenges for public health with climate change and aging populations: Waterborne illness" - Climate change is causing public health ...

  9. WINNING HEARTS AND MINDS IN THE NAMIBIAN BORDER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieneke Eloff de Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine acknowledged the importance of securing the allegiance and cooperation of the population. This article demonstrates that, in the operational zone, the responsibility of winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian people largely fell to the SADF (South African Defence Force. Although the SADF dedicated considerable resources to this task, these efforts were often at cross-purposes with those of institutions in the political, police and administrative domains. In addition, there was a lack of unity and purpose within the SADF. This article argues that lack of unity between and within the different domains undermined the effort at winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian population, and must at least partly have contributed to SWAPO´s victory in the 1989 elections.

  10. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  11. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick;

    2014-01-01

    preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more...... for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country – even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level....... Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation...

  12. Building Inter-hemispheric Climate and Global Change Education Programs for Students, Teachers, and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Lagrave, M.; Bergman, J.; Carbone, L.; Foster, S.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Russell, R.; Ward, D.

    2007-05-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder Colorado is a leading research institution in the area of global and climate change research worldwide. As a component of NCAR's mission in research, education, and service, NCAR supports numerous programs designed to bring this science to different audiences in order to promote better understanding of climate and global change research as well as its relevance in learning contexts. Our climate and global change education and outreach effort targets several audiences, including online and in-person professional development for middle and high school educators, exhibits, tours, websites, and development of educational resources on climate and global change topics. The design of our program intentionally leverages resources in support of multiple audiences (including Spanish-speakers) in different settings. Beginning in 2006, building on relationships developed through the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign, we began to expand our collaborations with scientists and educators in Latin America, including Mexico and Chile.

  13. Climate change: The challenges for public health preparedness and response- An Indian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Rajan; Deepa T

    2007-01-01

    Extremes weather changes surpassing their usual statistical ranges and tumbling records in India could be an early warning bell of global warming. Extreme weather events like the recent record setting in western Indian city of Mumbai or all time high fatalities due to the heat wave in southern Indian states or increasing vulnerability of easten Indian states to flood could all be a manifestation of climate change in the Asian subcontinent. While the skeptics may be inclined to dismiss these e...

  14. Public service leaders as change agents - for whom?:mediatory responses to leadership development in England

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, M.; O'Reilly, D.; Morris, J; Deem, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how far senior staff in English educational and health service organizations view themselves as leaders who are "change agents" for government-driven reform and independent change agendas. The contribution of external leadership development provision to shaping these self-perceptions is explored. Special attention is paid to national leadership development bodies with different degrees of formal association with government. Whatever this relationship, such provision and ...

  15. Changes in population characteristics and their implication on public health research

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ping; Coles, F. Bruce; O'Campo, Patricia; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Population estimates are generally drawn from one point in time to study disease trends over time; changes in population characteristics over time are usually not assessed and included in the study design. We evaluated whether population characteristics remained static and assessed the degree of population shifts over time. The analysis was based on the New York State 1990 and 2000 census data with adjustments for changes in geographic boundaries. Differences in census tract information were ...

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Public Health in India: Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Kathleen F.; Luber, George; Kotha, S Rani; R. S. Dhaliwal; Kapil, Vikas; Pascual, Mercedes; Brown, Daniel G.; Frumkin, Howard; R.C. Dhiman; Hess, Jeremy; Wilson, Mark L; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Eisenberg, Joseph; Kaur, Tanvir; Rood, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Climate change and associated increases in climate variability will likely further exacerbate global health disparities. More research is needed, particularly in developing countries, to accurately predict the anticipated impacts and inform effective interventions. Objectives Building on the information presented at the 2009 Joint Indo–U.S. Workshop on Climate Change and Health in Goa, India, we reviewed relevant literature and data, addressed gaps in knowledge, and identified prio...

  17. Reconstructing Noah’s ark : Integration of climate change adaptation into Swedish public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Glaas, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Due to expected impacts such as flooding, landslides, and biodiversity loss, climate change adaptation has become recognized as an inevitable part of climate change policy and practice. However, our understanding of how to organize the management of adaptation is lacking, and few concrete measures have yet been implemented. Knowledge gaps exist relating to constraints on and opportunities and facilitating factors for adaptation. This study aims to fill such gaps by analyzing how Swedish clima...

  18. Safety and communication, a winning combination

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    Since 2013, in line with its mission to support CERN’s proactive communication policy in matters of safety, the HSE unit has been following an annual plan for disseminating information on occupational health and safety and environmental protection.   Safety information designed to underline the importance of prevention is published through a variety of channels: Announcements in the CERN Bulletin, Safety bulletins, notably outlining lessons to be learned in the wake of accidents/incidents occuring at CERN, Safety alerts calling for immediate action, sent by e-mail to the services concerned, Prevention campaigns on the CERN site, Poster campaigns in well frequented public areas. Photo: Christoph Balle. Please heed all prevention messages and apply them in your everyday life. Also, we will be pleased to receive any information or suggestions you may have on safety matters. If you have questions about the HSE unit’s communication activities, please send us an e...

  19. Groups win pollution suit against Texaco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Delaware Audubon Society have won a ruling in federal court against Texaco Refining and Marketing, Inc. for continuous pollution of the Delaware River. Texaco was found to have committed hundreds of violations under the Clean Water Act during a 9 year period from 1983 to 1991, and was ordered to pay a $1.68 million penalty. Texaco must also improve its water pollution investigation practices which were deemed inconsistent and less than thorough, relying on supposition rather than thorough investigation. A court order enjoining Texaco from further violations was deemed necessary to vindicate the public interest. Illegal discharges included chlorine, ammonia, and oil and grease, with some violations exceeding legal limits by as much as 2000%

  20. Kyoto or non-Kyoto - people or politics: results of recent public opinion surveys on energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present the results of a survey of an Australian public opinion survey in the area of climate change and energy technologies and compare the results with similar studies conducted in the other major non-Kyoto-adherent party, the United States, as well as to Kyoto-adherent countries including the UK, Japan, Sweden and Spain. We explore some of the differences and similarities in attitudes and understandings. In our survey, Australians place environment, health care and petrol prices as the most important issues facing their country, while in America it is terrorism, health care and the economy and in the UK it is asylum seekers, crime and health care. In many other areas, the differences are considerably smaller and there are some remarkable similarities. Whereas climate change is increasingly cited as the leading environmental issue in most countries surveyed, in Australia, climate change is second to water availability as the top environmental concern. The study examines where climate change and energy technologies fit within these broader national and environmental priorities and identifies the general public's preferred solutions. We find clear support in Australia and the other countries surveyed for renewable energy technologies, particularly solar energy and to a lesser extent wind and biomass energy. We also find considerable disagreement in all countries regarding the future of nuclear power as well as with regard to carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (albeit the latter with much larger uncertainty). The paper also explores the current knowledge levels of the general public in a number of countries about carbon dioxide emissions and how much as individuals, they are prepared to pay to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. We find that, in general, at a more detailed level in terms of both attitudes and understandings of energy and climate issues there is considerable agreement across disparate countries Gudged on their national

  1. Goal! Profit maximization and win maximization in football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcia-del-Barrio; Stefan Szymanski

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the best responses of football clubs to the choices of other clubs in Spanish and English leagues over the period 1994-2004. We find that choices are more closely approximated by win maximization than by profit maximization in both the short term and the long term. We examine club characteristics that might explain variations in choices between Spanish clubs.

  2. Does it pay to win the Stanley Cup?

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Lanoue

    2015-01-01

    Yes, it does indeed pay to win the Stanley Cup (SC). Professional sports offer a unique opportunity to examine the relationship between a player’s salary and their performance. Salary statistics have become widely available and enable individual performance scrutiny in relation to remuneration level. There is an extensive literature explaining which factors in‡uence the players’ salary in the National Hockey League (NHL), using data sets from different seasons and including various performanc...

  3. Winning end users active support to demand side response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Jose [Rede Electrica Nacional, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    While objectives proposed for Smart Grids and Smart metering may seem to be able to win easily end user's supports, a considerable amount of studies on social behavior concerning energy efficiency and sustainability show the gap between the values people would like to fulfill and their real life performance. As TSOs envision here a source of System Ancillary Services, measures to make the source really dependable, so that an adequate market design may really work are pointed out. (orig.)

  4. Optimizing Distribution Problems using WinQSB Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mihai Amariei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we are presenting a problem of distribution using the Network Modeling Module of the WinQSB software, were we have 5 athletes which we must assign the optimal sample, function of the obtained time, so as to obtain the maximum output of the athletes. Also we analyzed the case of an accident of 2 athletes, the coupling of 3 athletes with 5 various athletic events causing the maximum coupling, done using the Hungarian algorithm.

  5. Winning end users active support to demand side response

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, José; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2012-01-01

    While objectives proposed for Smart Grids and Smart metering may seem to be able to win easily end user’s supports, a considerable amount of studies on social behavior concerning energy efficiency and sustainability show the gap between the values people would like to fulfill and their real life performance. As TSOs envision here a source of System Ancillary Services, measures to make the source really dependable, so that an adequate market design may really work are pointed out.

  6. Local socioeconomic changes and public fiscal implications of coal development in Wayne County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, J. E.; Mosena, P. W.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-09-01

    This report attempts to characterize the economic and societal effects likely to accompany increased coal mining in and around Wayne County, West Virginia. The study concludes that population growth and increased demands for public services, with the exceptions of requirements for new roads, water, and sewer services, will be minimal as a result of the two new 2-million-tons-per-year deep mines planned for the area. The study estimates that both the County and the school district will experience positive new fiscal balances; i.e., more incremental annual revenue than additional mine-related annual expenditures. However, the town of Wayne is expected to experience a negative fiscal balance throughout the period of mine production. The study and its findings are each unique in several ways. First, the findings are somewhat unique in that major impacts (rapid population in-migration, shortages in housing and public services, and fiscal imbalances) are not projected to occur. In the heart of the coal mining district of Southern West Virginia similar levels of new mining may well have much different results. In areas, for example, where there are greater shortages of developable land, less adequate public and private infrastructure, and/or fewer available trained workers, the coal-related impacts would be dramatically different than those found for Wayne County. A second unique feature of this study concerns the manner in which it was originated and conducted. This study presents estimates of impacts for Wayne County and its associated jurisdictions which represent the combined knowledge and expertise of all parties involved: the citizens ofWayne County, the County Commission, the Advisory Board, the representatives from the Governor's Office, and the Argonne staff.

  7. E-GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: THE PROMOTION OF TRANSVERSALITY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Salvador

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the connection between the organizational impact of e-Government and the concept of transversality, emphasizing in its definition the components of integration, coordination and interdepartmental communication, as well as the idea to suggest shared goals which are not specific to any area, but common to the organization as a whole. Their implementation in the field of organization, management roles and types of relationships are discussed below in a neo-institutionalist approach. The culture of transversality is posed as a reference for the promotion of e-Government strategies in public administrations.

  8. Health changes in Sri Lanka: benefits of primary health care and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304

  9. Changing Public Policy Due to Saudi City of Jeddah Flood Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Naill M. Momani; Ayman S. Fadil

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study discussed the last flood disaster which occurred in Jeddah City-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 25th of November 2009 which caused more than 121 fatalities and billions of dollars in losses in addition to around 20,000 sheltered families which cause a shift in public policy to deal with natural disasters in Saudi Arabia. Approach: We followed the flood disaster events starting from rain fall to the recovery stage. Then, timeline for the event is constructed with the i...

  10. How change of public transportation usage reveals fear of the SARS virus in a city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear. These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear. About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50-70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays.

  11. Evaluating public policy mechanisms for climate change mitigation in Brazilian buildings sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and marginal abatement cost curves (MACC) to evaluate public policies mechanisms to promote the dissemination of energy efficiency (EE) and on-site renewable energy sources (RES) technologies in Brazilian buildings sector. The objective here is to bring together the advantages of both methods in order to provide more valuable insights to policy makers. The MCA results show that in the case of more integrative policies, which considers, for instance, potential of jobs creation, the mechanisms to foster distributed RES and solar water heaters are better ranked than in MACC analysis, where only cost-effectiveness of each option is evaluated. Other key finding is that: (1) there is a significant cost effective potential that could be reached through alternative mechanisms not implemented yet in the country, such as public procurement regulation and building codes and; (2) minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) could be broader in scope and more stringent and include the use of energy in standby mode and tubular fluorescent lamps. In particular, some important appliances such as large air conditioning devices should have more aggressive MEPS. - Highlights: • We apply a multi-criteria analysis to evaluate EE and RES policies mechanisms. • We apply marginal abatement cost curves to evaluate EE and RES policies mechanisms. • We provide rankings of mechanisms according to their prospective potential impacts. • There is a significant cost effective energy saving potential in Brazilian buildings. • Brazil should improve MEPS and implement other policy mechanisms

  12. Variation of public opinion regarding nuclear energy with the change of nuclear information by the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the secular variation of public opinion with respect to nuclear energy since 1973 was simulated by using an already developed mathematical model with the assumption that the public opinion, regardless of the local resident or of the average Japanese, has been subject almost solely to the quality and quantity of information by the newsmedia. The quality and quantity of nuclear information was assumed here to be measurable by the amount of information with positive or negative contents regarding the promotion of nuclear generation, which is released by the press, television and magazines. From the comparison of the quality and quantity of information by several newspapers, a major difference was found to exist between the information made by the press in the located region of nuclear station and the information by the national press, such that the former has released everyday information of both positive and negative contents for local residents with the amount several times higher than the latter. Model calculation showed that the attitude of local residents to nuclear energy is quite stable in time as compared to that of average Japanese. Such an essential difference of nuclear attitude between the local resident and the average Japanese became clear to originate from the above-cited difference of the characteristics of information between the local and national media. With the use of such model calculation as this, useful knowledge concerning the method of disclosure of nuclear information is expected to obtain. (author)

  13. "I was that close": Investigating Players' Reactions to Losses, Wins, and Near-Misses on Scratch Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madison; Graydon, Candice; Dixon, Mike J

    2016-03-01

    While scratch cards are a popular, accessible, and inexpensive form of gambling, very little is known about how they affect and influence the player. This study sought to understand the physiological and subjective experience of scratch card play, with special emphasis on the effect of near-miss outcomes (i.e. uncovering two out of three "grand prize" symbols needed to win said prize), which are remarkably prevalent in scratch card games. Thirty-eight undergraduate students from the University of Waterloo each played two custom scratch card games and experienced three types of outcomes (losses, wins and near-misses) while their skin conductance levels (SCLs) and post-reinforcement pauses were recorded. Each participant also rated each outcome in terms of its subjective level of arousal, valence, and frustration. Our results indicate that players interpreted near-misses as negatively valenced, highly arousing, frustrating losses, and were faster to move onto the next game following this type of outcome than following winning outcomes. Additionally, near-miss outcomes were associated with the largest amount of change in SCLs as the outcome was revealed. This work has implications for the problem gambling literature as it provides evidence of the frustration hypothesis of near-misses in scratch cards, and is the first study to examine the physiological and psychological experiences of scratch card players. PMID:25862018

  14. Public health and climate change. The example of extreme weather events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change may be considered as a key factor for environmental change, exposure to health risks and pathogens, consequently impairing the state of health among populations. Health surveillance Systems can be used 1) to trigger early warning Systems, 2) to create databases which improve scientific knowledge about the health impacts of climate change, 3) to identify and prioritize needs for intervention and adaptation measures, and 4) to evaluate these measures. InVS proposed a method to identify possible health risks and to assess the needs for strengthened health surveillance Systems, taking into account environment, individual and social behaviors, demography and health state. Extreme climate events are illustrated here. These events have short, medium and long term impacts that could be reduced through efficient prevention. To better understand these impacts and orientate prevention, interdisciplinary studies will be needed. (authors)

  15. In vivo labeling of cocaine receptors with 3H-(-) cocaine, 3H-WIN 35,065-2 and 3H-WIN 35,428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    11C-(-)cocaine (-COC) has recently been employed to image -COC binding sites in vivo using PET. Two analogs of -COC, WIN 35,065-2 (WIN-2) and WIN 35,428 (CFT), have been shown in vitro to exhibit higher affinity for the -COC receptor than -COC. The present study evaluates 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT as in vivo receptor labels in mice with a view towards the use of these compounds as PET ligands for -COC receptors in the living human brain. 3H-labeled -COC, WIN-2 and CFT were injected i.v. into mice and their specific binding in the CNS determined. Peak striatal/cerebellar (S/C) ratios were reached at 5 minutes post injection with -COC (1.56), at 45 minutes with 3H-WIN-2 (3.30) and 60 minutes with 3H-CFT (4.0). The specificity of in vivo binding of 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT was tested by pre-injection of various drugs. Binding of 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT was dose-dependently blocked by cold WIN-2 and CFT, and by dopamine uptake site inhibitors (mazindol, GBR 12,909, nomifensine), but not by (+)COC, paroxetine and desipramine. The data indicate that 3H-WIN-2 and 3H-CFT exhibit improved in vivo binding (higher S/C ratios, longer retention time at the -COC receptor/dopamine transporter) compared to -COC and support their testing in PET studies

  16. The lived experience of climate change knowledge, science and public action

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dina

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the idea that daily lived experiences of climate change are a crucial missing link in our knowledge that contrasts with scientific understandings of this global problem. It argues that both kinds of knowledge are limiting: the sciences by their disciplines and lived experiences by the boundaries of everyday lives.  Therefore each group needs to engage the other in order to enrich and expand understanding of climate change and what to do about it. Complemented by a rich collection of examples and case studies, this book proposes a novel way of generating and analysing knowl

  17. Climatevoices.org -- Engaging an Array of U.S. Public Audiences in the Science of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.

    2014-12-01

    A significant number of U.S. citizens have real concerns that actions to curb climate change threaten prosperity and basic freedoms and present an affront to their own values. Others are so worried that climate change will destroy Earth's environment and any prospects for their descendants that they are either frantic to find solutions, or too discouraged to act. To attempt to reach these disparate audiences with critical scientific information from reports such as the IPCC and NCA, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and the United Nations Foundation initiated the Scientist Citizen Initiative, and launched Climate Voices - Science Speakers Network (climatevoices.org) in April of this year. This presentation will address the trials and errors of establishing such a network, engaging scientists across the country, and creating public demand for such a resource. The major focus will be lessons still being learned about reaching diverse local audiences; gauging and implementing the varied approach necessary to engage such audiences; and enabling scientists to initiate public conversations involving fellow citizens in discussion of climate change observations, impacts, and solutions. How can partners be identified and involved that deliver mixed audiences ranging from the Six Americas' "alarmed and concerned" to the "doubtful and dismissive?" [Yale Project on Climate Communication] How can synthesis report results be made compelling and relevant to such audiences? How can such an effort be implemented across the entire country? How can its accomplishments and failures be assessed and evaluated? This presentation will provide answers in progress to these questions.

  18. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: → Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. → Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. → Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. → Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. → The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  19. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue 164

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  20. Change in Language Policy in Malaysia: The Reality of Implementation in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Saran Kaur

    2006-01-01

    In Malaysia, a sudden change in language policy, from Bahasa Melayu to English, has been instituted for the disciplines of science and technology at varying levels of the educational system. For this paper, it will be the domain of higher education that will be focused on. In 2005, the students who had their pre-university courses in English would…

  1. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  2. 77 FR 52110 - Agency Response to Public Comments of Safety Measurement System Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... the HM BASIC. This one year time period will allow the Agency to further study and refine the BASIC... carriers and law enforcement on March 27, 2012, and will remain available until the SMS changes become... January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit...

  3. Distributed Leadership in Organizational Change Processes: A Qualitative Study in Public Hospital Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette; Jonasson, Charlotte; Ovesen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes that the emergence and boundaries of distributed leadership (DL) are developed in a dynamic interplay with planned as well as emergent organizational change. The empirical findings are based on a qualitative, longitudinal case study with interviews conducted at two different...

  4. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  5. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  6. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  7. Public buildings: what will change in the regulation; ERP: ce qui va changer dans la reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchin, Th.

    2000-09-01

    The new French official texts about the safety regulations of electrical installations and lighting systems in public buildings will be published soon. This technical supplement to the August-September 2000 issue of J3E summarizes the main modifications given to the previous texts concerning the fire resistance of materials, conductors and cables, and of electrotechnical equipments, and the conformability of lighting systems (ambient and emergency lighting). Specific rules are detailed for each type of building: conference, show and meeting rooms, shops and commercial centers, restaurants and cafeterias, hotels and guest houses, dancing and game halls, schools and recreational centers, libraries, exhibition halls, medical centers, big tops and tents etc.. (J.S.)

  8. The Public Administration Accounting in the Light Public Finance Managements Reform and Changes of the New Accounting Directive of the European Parliament and the European Council

    OpenAIRE

    Košovská Iveta; Váryová Ivana; Ferenczi Vaňová Alexandra; Krajčírová Renáta

    2014-01-01

    The role of public administration accounting is to secure a database of relevant information essential for the management of public finances and need for presenting of operations results of our country within the European Union (EU). The accounting of public administration entities should provide a true and fair view on the assets and liabilities, as well as the financial situation and the use of public appropriations. After the entry of the Slovak Republic (SR) to the European Union (EU) the...

  9. Alcohol policy enforcement and changes in student drinking rates in a statewide public college system: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Sion K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.

  10. The Diffusion of Global Models of Appropriate Leadership Behavior: Explaining Changing Leadership Priorities of High Ranking Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    The question posed is whether and how public senior managers’ perceptions of what is important in performing their roles have changed from the beginning of the 1990s to the end of the 2000s. The theoretical approach to the analysis is based on a macro-phenomenological institutional perspective...... models of good leadership. Municipal senior managers orient themselves more towards leadership priorities that are recommended in the international literature on leadership. They have generally become more oriented towards production, development of relations, innovation and attention to the external...

  11. Changes in publication statistics when electronic submission was introduced in an international applied science journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J. Swatland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a refereed journal in the food and agriculture sector, papers were tracked over a five-year period during the introduction of electronic submissions. Papers originated in the Americas and Pacific region and were processed in Canada. Acceptance times for revised papers were reduced (P < 0.001 to 59% of the original, from 156.5 ± 69.1 days to 92.8 ± 57.5 days. But the start of electronic submission coincided with a change in the geographical origin of papers, with papers from Anglophone countries changing from a 61% majority to a 42% minority. It is possible that submissions from non-Anglophone sources were facilitated, thus creating challenges to the traditional Anglophone reviewer population.

  12. Family dissolution and public policies in Germany: Social provisions and institutional changes since the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Wörz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Germany has long been faced with low birth rates and a pronounced aging of society. Recently divorces and single parenthood have been on the rise. Family policies and regulations dealing with family break-up are thus confronted with new and greater challenges. After describing important changes in household and family composition in more detail, this paper outlines the regulation of the consequences of family break up in relation to alimony and child support. The main part of the paper focuse...

  13. A paradigm analysis of ecological sustainability: The emerging polycentric climate change publics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminiau, Job B.

    Climate change poses significant complications to the development model employed by modern societies. Using paradigm analysis, the dissertation explains why, after 21 years, policy failure haunts the field: a key impediment is the unquestioned assumption that policy must adhere to an economic optimality principle. This results in policy models which fail to uphold sustainability, justice, and equality due to an emphasis on economic growth, technology, and technical and bureaucratic expertise. Unable to build consensus among low- and high-carbon economies, and searching for what one economist has called an oxymoron -- "sustainable growth" (Daly, 1997) -- the policy process has foundered with its only international convention (the Kyoto Protocol) having lost relevance. In the midst of this policy failure, the dissertation offers and defends the premise that alternative strategies have emerged which signal the prospect of a paradigm shift to ecological sustainability -- a paradigm in which social change takes places through commons-based management and community authorship in the form of network governance and where sustainability serves as governor of growth -- something unavailable in an optimality-guided world. Especially, a strategy of polycentricity is discussed in detail in order to elucidate the potential for a paradigm shift. This discussion is followed by an evaluation of two innovative concepts -- the Sustainable Energy Utility and the Solar City -- that might fit the polycentricity strategy and bring forth transformative change. The dissertation finds considerable potential rests in these two concepts and argues the critical importance of further development of innovative approaches to implement the ecological sustainability paradigm.

  14. Changes in Public Commons as a Consequence of Urbanization: The Agara Lake in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, R.; Nagendra, H.

    2011-05-01

    The city of Bangalore in southern India is rapidly expanding, resulting in major transformations in land use, wetland management, and the distribution of green spaces. This paper examines how transformations in land use and governance consequent to urbanization can change people's perceptions of and interactions with an urban ecological commons, using the case study of the Agara lake in the south Indian city of Bangalore. In less than four decades, the landscape surrounding the lake has altered from a fundamentally agricultural area, dependent on the lake for irrigation and drinking water, to a densely urbanized area where the lake is used predominantly for recreation. A change in governance from community management to state management has sidelined the fishers, fodder collectors and agricultural users who traditionally maintained this lake. The governmental agencies that are supposed to maintain the lake are unable to do so due to a complex governance structure, with overlapping jurisdictions, compounded by an ongoing litigation. Over the past decades, the lake has largely transitioned into an urban green space primarily used for recreation and nature watching. This case study provides us with a broader understanding of how changes in governance consequent to urbanization and city expansion can impact interactions between people and ecological commons in a rapidly growing Indian city.

  15. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa. PMID:26383053

  16. Public Communication of Technical Issues in Today's Changing Visual Language - 12436

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication regarding the management of radioactive materials is a well-established challenge. Residents and consumers have suspected for years that companies and governments place short-term economic concerns ahead of health and safety. This skepticism is compounded with increased attention to safety issues at nuclear power plants everywhere after Fukushima. Nonetheless, today's environment presents unexpected opportunities to transform public fear into teachable moments that bring knowledge and facts to discussions on nuclear energy. In the weeks following Japan's crisis, the lack of reliable information on radiation levels saw citizens taking to the streets with dosimeters and Geiger counters in crowd-sourced radiation monitoring efforts. Efforts, based mainly online, represent a growing set of examples of how internet and cell-phone technology are being put to use in emergency situations. The maps, graphs and tables created to meet public interest also exemplify some of the psychological priorities of audiences and present learning tools that can improve future education efforts in non-emergency situations. Industry outreach efforts often consist of technical details and quantitative data that are difficult for lay audiences to interpret. The intense attention to nuclear energy issues since last March has produced a wide array of visual samples. Citizen monitors, news organizations, government agencies and others have displayed quantitative information in innovative ways. Their efforts offer new perspective on what charts, maps and info graphics do - or need to do - to illustrate requirements, record assessments and promote understanding of nuclear-waste issues. Surveying the best examples, nuclear communicators can improve their offerings of easy-to-use, evidence-based visuals to inform stakeholders. Familiar to most communications professionals in the nuclear industry, risk communication is a science-based approach with over three decades of research

  17. Public Communication of Technical Issues in Today's Changing Visual Language - 12436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Laura [Potomac Communications Group (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Communication regarding the management of radioactive materials is a well-established challenge. Residents and consumers have suspected for years that companies and governments place short-term economic concerns ahead of health and safety. This skepticism is compounded with increased attention to safety issues at nuclear power plants everywhere after Fukushima. Nonetheless, today's environment presents unexpected opportunities to transform public fear into teachable moments that bring knowledge and facts to discussions on nuclear energy. In the weeks following Japan's crisis, the lack of reliable information on radiation levels saw citizens taking to the streets with dosimeters and Geiger counters in crowd-sourced radiation monitoring efforts. Efforts, based mainly online, represent a growing set of examples of how internet and cell-phone technology are being put to use in emergency situations. The maps, graphs and tables created to meet public interest also exemplify some of the psychological priorities of audiences and present learning tools that can improve future education efforts in non-emergency situations. Industry outreach efforts often consist of technical details and quantitative data that are difficult for lay audiences to interpret. The intense attention to nuclear energy issues since last March has produced a wide array of visual samples. Citizen monitors, news organizations, government agencies and others have displayed quantitative information in innovative ways. Their efforts offer new perspective on what charts, maps and info graphics do - or need to do - to illustrate requirements, record assessments and promote understanding of nuclear-waste issues. Surveying the best examples, nuclear communicators can improve their offerings of easy-to-use, evidence-based visuals to inform stakeholders. Familiar to most communications professionals in the nuclear industry, risk communication is a science-based approach with over three decades of

  18. Imagineering the U.S. Public Debt: How Changing Perceptions of the Debt altered the Mechanics of Treasury Debt Management in the 1860s and 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that changes in how the Treasury managed the public debt stemmed from changes in perceptions of Government debt. To make this argument, the paper looks at two big shifts in how the public debt was handled. One change was the Government’s printing of its own securities through the Bureau of Engraving and Printing founded in the 1860s. This development reflected a democratization of the public debt in which it was the Government’s task to make sure “the people” profited fro...

  19. Resolving Negotiations Impasses in Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G., Ed.

    This publication is intended to help school management personnel become more familiar with the nature of and the means for resolving negotiations impasses. Aspects of mediation and arbitration are discussed, and basic negotiating techniques that help school boards win arbitration cases are presented. Also provided are a sample arbitration case…

  20. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26224041

  1. Exporting climate change and environmental degradation. How Dutch public money is used to finance the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this report Dutch public money is being used to support oil production in developing countries through Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as the World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as Atradius (the Dutch Export Credit Agency) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). The Dutch government contributes to MDBs in two ways: through financial contributions using public money and by voting on the boards of the banks. This report demonstrates the need for far greater parliamentary oversight over the Dutch role in MDBs to keep the use of Dutch public money in line with Dutch government policy. Three case studies illustrate that recent oil projects financed and supported by MDBs and other Dutch government departments are failing the poor and undermining national and international targets on development and climate change: the Cameroon Pipeline in West Africa; the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline system in the South Caucasus and the Sakhalin-II Oil and Gas Project in far eastern Russia.

  2. Exporting climate change and environmental degradation. How Dutch public money is used to finance the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.; Stockman, L.; Muttitt, G.; Horta, K.; Kochladze, M.; Lisitsyn, D.; Barannikova, N.

    2005-06-15

    According to this report Dutch public money is being used to support oil production in developing countries through Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as the World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as Atradius (the Dutch Export Credit Agency) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). The Dutch government contributes to MDBs in two ways: through financial contributions using public money and by voting on the boards of the banks. This report demonstrates the need for far greater parliamentary oversight over the Dutch role in MDBs to keep the use of Dutch public money in line with Dutch government policy. Three case studies illustrate that recent oil projects financed and supported by MDBs and other Dutch government departments are failing the poor and undermining national and international targets on development and climate change: the Cameroon Pipeline in West Africa; the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline system in the South Caucasus and the Sakhalin-II Oil and Gas Project in far eastern Russia.

  3. Paediatric liver transplantation for children treated at public health facilities in South Africa: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, S G; Britz, R; Botha, J; Loveland, J

    2014-11-01

    Paediatric liver transplantation (PLT) is the only therapeutic option for many children with end-stage chronic liver disease or irreversible fulminant hepatic failure, and is routinely considered as a therapy by paediatric gastroenterologists and surgeons working in developed countries. In South Africa (SA), a PLT programme has been available at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town since November 1991, and another has rapidly developed at the Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre in Johannesburg over the past decade. However, for most children with progressive chronic liver disease who are reliant on the services provided at state facilities in SA, PLT is not an option because of a lack of resources in a mismanaged public health system. This article briefly outlines the services offered at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital--which is typical of state facilities in SA--and proposes that resources be allocated to establish an innovative, nationally funded centre that would enable greater numbers of children access to a PLT programme. PMID:26038799

  4. Changes in Legal Aspects of Public Education about Drugs and Their Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Requirements for education on proper use of drugs were included in the junior high school educational guideline in 2012 incorporating pharmaceutical education in the obligatory school curriculum. This move is closely related to the country's new OTC drug marketing system. The amendment of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 2013 highlighted the public's own role in "promoting proper use of drugs and other related products and making greater efforts to acquire knowledge and improve understanding of their effective and safe use". Furthermore, the Law to Amend the PAL and Pharmacists Law enforced in 2014 allowed all OTC drugs to be sold online under appropriate rules. Deregulation of online sale of OTC drugs is expected further to promote self-medication for minor illnesses and require stricter measures to ensure people's safety through their proper use. These legal amendments in recent years have made people's education about proper use of drugs one of the top priorities Japan should pursue at state level. Since 2000, the author has been offering education on drugs to early primary school children as part of their healthcare education program. In the future, dedicated education on drugs will be necessary for people of all ages including not only school children but also their guardians and elderly citizens as well. PMID:27374964

  5. An explicit classical strategy for winning a {{CHSH}}_{q} game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoluska, Matej; Plesch, Martin

    2016-02-01

    A CHSH q game is a generalization of the standard two player CHSH game, with q different input and output options. In contrast to the binary game, the best classical and quantum winning strategies are not known exactly. In this paper we provide a constructive classical strategy for winning a CHSH q game, with q being a prime. Our construction achieves a winning probability better than \\frac{1}{22}{q}-\\frac{2{3}}, which is in contrast with the previously known constructive strategies achieving only the winning probability of O({q}-1).

  6. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

  7. Nuclear power in Australia: A comparative analysis of public opinion regarding climate change and the Fukushima disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nation-wide survey was conducted in 2010 to investigate the Australian public's attitudes to nuclear power in relation to climate change and in comparison to other energy alternatives. The survey showed a majority of respondents (42%) willing to accept nuclear power if it would help tackle climate change. Following the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Complex in Japan, an event triggered by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, it was expected that support for nuclear power in Australia would change. In light of this, a follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Indeed, the post-Fukushima results show a majority of respondents (40%) were not willing to accept nuclear power as an option to help tackle climate change, despite the fact that most Australians still believed nuclear power to offer a cleaner, more efficient option than coal, which currently dominates the domestic production of energy. Expanding the use of renewable energy sources (71%) remains the most popular option, followed by energy-efficient technologies (58%) and behavioural change (54%). Opposition to nuclear power will continue to be an obstacle against its future development even when posed as a viable solution to climate change. - Highlights: • Australia-wide survey assessed opinions of nuclear power in 2010 and 2012. • Study examined attitudes in relation to climate change and Fukushima disaster. • Australians believe nuclear power offers a cleaner, more efficient option to coal. • Australians are against nuclear power due to safety concerns and distrust. • Reluctant acceptance of nuclear power is a fragile attitudinal state easily swayed

  8. EFFECT OF OPERATION CONDITIONS ON CHANGE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krivoshapov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of analytical determination of the efficiency of the entire vehicle and individual units are stated. The dependences of change of the efficiency depending on the speed and load modes of vehicle operation are specified. The mathematical model takes into account the real characteristics of the road and transport machines operating conditions. The results of calculation of the indicator and the mechanical efficiency of the engine, transmission and the wheel efficiency, total efficiency of the car, depending on the category of roads, weight and the speed of the machine on example of GAZ-3307 truck are presented.

  9. Sciencetogo.Org: Using Humor to Engage a Public Audience with the Serious Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Rabkin, D.; Wilson, R.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators, scientists, and communication experts from multiple universities as well as a Science museum will report on the impact of ScienceToGo.org, which is an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) exhibit targeting adults riding a major subway system. The campaign's goal is to design, implement, and study the efficacy of an OHMM model for free choice science learning about our changing climate. Subway riders represent a diverse and captive audience with most of them spending an average of one hour a day in the subway system. Through the use of specially designed OHMM such as train placards, platform posters, and virtual resources the campaign engages a potential audience of 500,000 riders/day with opportunities to learn climate change science informally. The primary goal of the ScienceToGo.org campaign is to engage, entertain, and educate the adult subway riding community in major U.S. city about climate change as a real, relevant, and solvable local challenge. A naturalistic quasi-experimental inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design with half of the subway system exposed to the project signage (experimental group) and the other half not being exposed to the project signage (control group). To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, analytic data associated with website, social media, web app, focus groups, and observations. This campaign is an example of how an individual's daily routine may be enhanced with an informal science learning opportunity. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The campaign makes deliberate use of humor and fun to engage a public and diverse audience with the serious issue of climate change. The research that will be presented will reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy when communicating science to a diverse

  10. Energy and climate change: the main analyses of Regards sur la Terre. An annual publication on sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2006, the French Development Agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales) launched an annual publication on sustainable development in a global perspective, Regards sur la Terre, published by Les Presses de Sciences Po (Paris). Regards sur la Terre includes an analysis of the most important international events of the last twelve months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic section, which in the first edition focused on energy and climate change. This booklet presents the overall introduction of the 2007 publication and the introduction of its thematic section, as well as a selection of the main chapters dealing with the theme of energy and climate change. Contents: Awakening and crisis of confidence; Reorienting our Societies; Energy in the world: Challenges and prospects; Challenges and constraints for energy supply: The coal hard facts; Satisfying energy growth in emerging countries; Diversifying power generation in China; From Rio to Marrakech: Development in climate negotiations; An international coordination regime come what may; The perspective of developing countries; An American 'point of view'

  11. Risk perceptions and public debates on climate change: a conceptualisation based on the theory of a functionally-differentiated society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rhomberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass media and its mechanisms of production and selection play a crucial role in the definition of climate change risks. Different form of logic in the political, scientific and media systems are vital aspects in the public debate on this issue. A theoretical analysis of these aspects needs a framework in terms of social theory: Luhmann’s concept of a functionally-differentiated society and the mechanisms of structural couplings could help to understand the relations and interplay of these systems in the climate-debate. Based on this framework and various empirical studies, this paper suggests: different logics lead to different climate-definitions in science, politics and mass media. Climate change became interesting, but not until it was located in the political decision-making process. Climate issues become publicly interesting, when they are clear, contentious and can be linked to Elite-Persons. In contrast to scientific communication, news media make great efforts to be clear and definite in their communications.

  12. Climate change and its impact on public health – A review of the global environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ambu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a product of human actions.The extreme events such as flash floods, droughts,heat waves, earthquakes, volcano eruptions andtsunamis seen in the world today are the result ofindiscriminate human intrusion into the environment.Vulnerable countries and populations are the mostaffected by these climatic events. This places a burdenon the resources of these countries. The Kyoto Protocolis a milestone in environmental management and theimpetus created by it must be maintained by carryingout the much needed research into appropriatemitigating measures that will alleviate the climatechange impact globally. A paradigm shift is needed inaddressing the associated risks on human health to assesssocioeconomic determinants and the related impactson disease burden. Some wealthy nations emphasizeeconomic benefits and downplay sustainability goals,health and equality. However the rising cost of energyis beginning to influence their outlook towards thisissue. The implications on economics, human healthand wellbeing are implicit. In order to strike a balancebetween disadvantaged and privileged nations, manyinternational agencies are spearheading various researchagenda to improve adaptation programmes on effectsof changing climatic conditions on health. Malaysiatoo has such programmes initiated under its 5-yeardevelopment plans.

  13. The Public Policy Process for Health Service Institutional Change in Iran: Theory and conceptual Framework of the Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bohloli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Parsons (1995 states that ‘Policy analysis is an approach to public policy that aims to integrate and contextualize models and research from those disciplines which have a problem and policy orientation’. Theories about policy making are concerned with process as well as outcomes and numerous groups are concerned about the policy process, including policy-makers, donors and international organizations as well as policy analysts. In health, research needs to be broadened to examine not only policy content, but also the process by which policy is formulated and implemented. The purpose of this research is to clarify the policy process, particularly policy formulation for organizational change in Iranian health institutions and to review the role of stakeholders, including health sector unions and professional organizations over the period 1980 to 2000.. This research analyzes the political mechanisms for making and controlling health institutional policy in Iran and illustrates how Iran’s power centre, affiliated with its public culture, was able to endorse a health policy or exercise a veto over health policy in both government and private contexts, and then how it gradually lost its hegemony as the politically reformed state became more firmly established. The research is also intended to provide an overview of existing theory of public policy formulation and to adapt and develop such theory in order to provide the means by which the impacts of policies for institutional change of Iranian health sector can be understood. This research is planned as a qualitative study, employing both documentary analysis and in–depth interviews.

  14. Scientists and Public: Is the Information Flow Direction Starting to Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Doce, D.; Bee, E. J.; Bell, P. D.; Marchant, A. P.; Reay, S.; Richardson, S. L.; Shelley, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Over half of the population of the UK own a smartphone, and about the same number of people uses social media such as Twitter. For the British Geological Survey (BGS) this means millions of potential reporters of real-time events and in-the-field data capturers, creating a new source of scientific information that could help to better understand and predict natural processes. BGS first started collecting citizen data, using crowd-sourcing, through websites and smartphone apps focused on gathering geological related information (e.g. mySoil and myVolcano). These tools ask volunteers to follow a guided form where they can upload data related to geology and geological events; including location, description, measurements, photos, videos, or even instructions on sending physical samples. This information is used to augment existing data collections. Social media provides a different channel for gathering useful scientific information from the public. BGS is starting to explore this route with the release of GeoSocial-Aurora , a web mapping tool that searches for tweets related to aurora sightings and locates them as markers on a map. Users are actively encouraged to contribute by sending tweets about aurora sightings in a specific format, which contains the #BGSaurora hashtag, the location of the sighting, and any comments or pictures. The tool harvests these tweets through the Twitter REST API and places them on the map, enabling the user to generate clusters and heatmaps. GeoSocial-Aurora provides scientists with a potential tool for gathering useful data for scientific analysis. It collects actual aurora sighting locations, enabling users to check where the aurora is taking place in real time. This may, in time, help scientists to improve future predictions of when and where auroras are visible.

  15. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted

  16. The earnings game. Everyone plays, nobody wins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, H

    2001-06-01

    Quarterly earnings numbers dominate the decisions of executives, analysts, investors, and auditors. Yet for all the attention paid to these numbers, they're not much use in predicting a company's future performance and cash flows. Even economists are unanimous in their view that these numbers say next to nothing about a company's prospects beyond the next quarter. Nonetheless, meetings analysts' expectations that earnings will rise in a smooth, steady, unbroken line has become, at many corporations, a game whose imperatives override even the imperative to deliver the highest possible return to shareholders. The fetishistic attention paid to this almost meaningless indicator might be cause for amusement, except for one thing: the earnings game does real harm. It distorts corporate decision making. It reduces securities analysis and investing to a guessing contest. It compromises the integrity of corporate audits. Ultimately, it undermines the capital markets. As market participants increasingly come to view the quarterly number as a sort of collective fiction, offered and received in a spirit of mutual cynicism, they lose faith in the numbers affected by quarterly earnings--including stock prices themselves. And no market can survive long if its participants see no connection between prices and the intrinsic value of the goods on offer. In this article, HBR senior editor Harris Collingwood takes an in-depth look at these effects, examining the intricacies of the earnings game and why companies believe they have no choice but to play it. Until more corporate executives change their practices, he explains, the earning game will never lack for players. PMID:11408978

  17. How to change organisational culture: Action research in a South African public sector primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. Aim: To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Setting: Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA and had 6 months of coaching. Results: Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Conclusion: Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group.

  18. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics. Thi...... ban. This change in attitude can support implementation of future legislation on smoking and may lead to positive changes in smoking norms....

  19. PUBLIC SECTOR ASSET MANAGEMENT PLANNING TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE DRIVEN NATURAL DISASTERS - A STUDY OF UK DISASTER AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    C.M.J. Warren

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the current climate change predictions and the likely consequences for European building assets. It addresses the role of Public Sector Asset Managers with particular emphasis on UK practice. It highlights the need for asset managers to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change and prepare for extreme weather events and other associated natural disasters.The paper is based on a literature review of current climate data and best practice public sector asset management...

  20. Wellbore inertial navigation system (WINS) software development and test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, R. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The structure and operation of the real-time software developed for the Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) application are described. The procedure and results of a field test held in a 7000-ft well in the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Calibration and instrumentation error compensation are outlined, as are design improvement areas requiring further test and development. Notes on Kalman filtering and complete program listings of the real-time software are included in the Appendices. Reference is made to a companion document which describes the downhole instrumentation package.

  1. Raising Public Awareness: The Role of the Household Sector in Mitigating Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shis-Ping

    2015-10-01

    In addition to greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial, transportation and commercial sectors, emissions from the household sector also contribute to global warming. By examining residents of Taiwan (N = 236), this study aims to reveal the factors that influence households' intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The assessment in this study is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and perceived benefit or cost (BOC) is introduced as an independent variable in the proposed efficiency action toward climate change (ECC) model. According to structural equation modeling, most of the indicators presented a good fit to the corresponding ECC model constructs. The analysis indicated that BOC is a good complementary variable to the TPB, as the ECC model explained 61.9% of the variation in intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances, which was higher than that explained by the TPB (58.4%). This result indicates that the ECC model is superior to the TPB. Thus, the strategy of promoting energy-efficient appliances in the household sector should emphasize global warming and include the concept of BOC. PMID:26492262

  2. Raising Public Awareness: The Role of the Household Sector in Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shis-Ping Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial, transportation and commercial sectors, emissions from the household sector also contribute to global warming. By examining residents of Taiwan (N = 236, this study aims to reveal the factors that influence households’ intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The assessment in this study is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB, and perceived benefit or cost (BOC is introduced as an independent variable in the proposed efficiency action toward climate change (ECC model. According to structural equation modeling, most of the indicators presented a good fit to the corresponding ECC model constructs. The analysis indicated that BOC is a good complementary variable to the TPB, as the ECC model explained 61.9% of the variation in intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances, which was higher than that explained by the TPB (58.4%. This result indicates that the ECC model is superior to the TPB. Thus, the strategy of promoting energy-efficient appliances in the household sector should emphasize global warming and include the concept of BOC.

  3. In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacy Sachs

    2010-01-01

    In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentIn Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development

  4. The Public Administration Accounting in the Light Public Finance Managements Reform and Changes of the New Accounting Directive of the European Parliament and the European Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košovská Iveta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of public administration accounting is to secure a database of relevant information essential for the management of public finances and need for presenting of operations results of our country within the European Union (EU. The accounting of public administration entities should provide a true and fair view on the assets and liabilities, as well as the financial situation and the use of public appropriations. After the entry of the Slovak Republic (SR to the European Union (EU the International Public Sector Accounting Standards began to be applied in our legislation. They provide a uniform basis for the data consolidation as well as more efficient information for the economic decisions of individual users

  5. The Influence of Issue Management Upon Public Relationships in a Changing Environment: How John Charles Mc. Quaid, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin (1940-72) Managed the Issue of the Second Vatican Council from 1959 to 1972 and the Extent, if any, to which this Influenced Change in the Public Relationships Between Archbishop, Diocesan Priests and Laity

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Francis Xavier, (Thesis)

    2006-01-01

    This research examines the influence of issue management upon public relationships in a changing environment. The example chosen is the management of the Second Vatican Council, from 1959 to 1972 by the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin and the public relationships are those between archbishop, diocesan priests and laity. Public relations theories on issue management, publics and relationship management are applied to a religious context, one where relationships may be distorted by the re...

  6. Climate changes and their effects in the public health: use of poisson regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bodini Alonso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the daily number of hospitalizations in São Paulo City, Brazil, in the period of January 01, 2002 to December 31, 2005. This data set relates to pneumonia, coronary ischemic diseases, diabetes and chronic diseases in different age categories. In order to verify the effect of climate changes the following covariates are considered: atmosphere pressure, air humidity, temperature, year season and also a covariate related to the week day when the hospitalization occurred. The possible effects of the assumed covariates in the number of hospitalization are studied using a Poisson regression model in the presence or not of a random effect which captures the possible correlation among the hospitalization accounting for the different age categories in the same day and the extra-Poisson variability for the longitudinal data. The inferences of interest are obtained using the Bayesian paradigm and MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.Neste artigo, analisamos os dados relativos aos números diários de hospitalizações na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil no período de 01/01/2002 a 31/12/2005 devido a pneumonia, doenças isquêmicas, diabetes e doenças crônicas e de acordo com a faixa etária. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de mudanças climáticas são consideradas algumas covariáveis climáticas os índices diários de pressão atmosférica, umidade do ar, temperatura e estação do ano, e uma covariável relacionada ao dia da semana da ocorrência de hospitalização. Para verificar os efeitos das covariáveis nas respostas dadas pelo numero de hospitalizações, consideramos um modelo de regressão de Poisson na presença ou não de um efeito aleatório que captura a possível correlação entre as contagens para as faixas etárias de um mesmo dia e a variabilidade extra-poisson para os dados longitudinais. As inferências de interesse são obtidas usando o paradigma bayesiano e métodos de simulação MCMC (Monte Carlo

  7. Climate changes, environment and infection: facts, scenarios and growing awareness from the public health community within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Christos; Dekas, Konstantinos; Charvalos, Ekatherina

    2011-12-01

    increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation and malnutrition due to alterations in agricultural products. Different kind of incidents in Europe with extreme weather events demonstrated effects on public health. The recent outbreak of the insect-borne Chikungunya virus in Italy in 2007 is an example of the kind of new health threat that the EU must be vigilant to confront. In addition, health effects of flooding, have been related to an excess cases of leptospirosis and campylobacter enteritis. Such examples have been demonstrated reported after flooding in the Czech Republic. Similarly, an increase of cryptosporidiosis in the United Kingdom has been related to flooding. Changing vector distributions associated with tickborne encephalitis and malaria have also been demonstrated in EU. A recently reported case of malaria in Italy in June 2008, suspected to be indigenously acquired, has shown how easily malaria could be reintroduced into several countries in the region. Another case of malaria in Greece in May 2010 affecting a young man living in a forestry region was claimed at KEELPNO-the Greek Center for disease control. Would this latest case be considered closely related to the one from Italy? If yes, then Public Health Services should elaborate plans to affront possible tickborne diseases. Heat waves are important causes of mortality on mortality are important. The deaths seen in France in 2003 from a heat wave are projected to be repeated, as heat waves become more severe. However, heat waves impacts on the transmission and severity of infectious diseases have not been elucidated. Finally scientific challenges include the elucudation of climate changes and extreme weather condition impact on infection transmission and outcome, human immune system changes and infection response, outbreak scenarios, animal and plant health and public health preparedness. European action plans to affront climate changes related health and infection problems are developed by the EU

  8. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  9. Teach for America and Teacher Ed: Heads They Win, Tails We Lose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaree, David

    2010-01-01

    Teach for America (TFA) is a marvel at marketing, offering elite college students a win-win option: by becoming corps members, they can do good and do well at the same time. Teacher education (TE) programs are in a hopeless position in trying to compete with TFA for prospective students. They cannot provide students with the opportunity to do…

  10. 26 CFR 1.6011-3 - Requirement of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings. 1.6011-3 Section 1.6011-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings. (a) General rule. Except as provided...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(q)-1 - Extension of withholding to certain gambling winnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... winnings. 31.3402(q)-1 Section 31.3402(q)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(q)-1 Extension of withholding... 3402(q)(1) and this section shall not apply (i) with respect to a payment of winnings which is made...

  12. The Orphan among Us: An Examination of Orphans in Newbery Award Winning Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattix, April A.

    2012-01-01

    Orphan stories in children's literature are rich and complex, and they have historically permeated the pages of children's books. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of orphans as protagonists in children's award-winning literature through content analysis. This study utilizes all the Newbery Award winning books…

  13. EVALUATION OF THE LOADING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EPA WINS PM 2.5 SEPARATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The loading characteristics of the USEPA WINS (Well Impactor Ninety Six) PM2.5 separator was an important design consideration during the separator's development. In recognition that all inertial separators eventually overload, the loading surface of the WINS was designed to be...

  14. Using Win-Win Strategies to Implement Health in All Policies: A Cross-Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, Agnes; Renahy, Emilie; O’Campo, Patricia; MUNTANER, CARLES; Freiler, Alix; Shankardass, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of increasing research into intersections of public policy and health, little evidence shows how policy processes impact the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiatives. Our research sought to understand how and why strategies for engaging partners from diverse policy sectors in the implementation of HiAP succeed or fail in order to uncover the underlying social mechanisms contributing to sustainable implementation of HiAP. Methods In this explanatory multi...

  15. Which early works are cited most frequently in climate change research literature? A bibliometric approach based on Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Werner; Thor, Andreas; Bornmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric analysis focuses on the general history of climate change research and, more specifically, on the discovery of the greenhouse effect. First, the Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS) is applied to a large publication set on climate change of 222,060 papers published between 1980 and 2014. The references cited therein were extracted and analyzed with regard to publications, which appeared prior to 1971 and are cited most frequently. Second, a new method for establishing a more subject-specific publication set for applying RPYS (based on the co-citations of a marker reference) is proposed (RPYS-CO). The RPYS of the climate change literature focuses on the history of climate change research in total: Which are the early works that are still alive in recent climate change related publications (in the form of most frequently cited references) and thus are most important for the evolution of this broad research field? We identified 25 highly-cited publications over all disciplines, which ...

  16. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  17. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Adianto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To perform in silico experimentation conveniently with this genomics data, biologists need tools to process and compare datasets routinely and explore the obtained results interactively. The complexity of such experimentation requires these tools to be based on an e-Science approach, hence generic, modular, and reusable. A virtual laboratory environment with workflows, workflow management systems, and Grid computation are therefore essential. Findings Here we apply an e-Science approach to develop SigWin-detector, a workflow-based tool that can detect significantly enriched windows of (genomic features in a (DNA sequence in a fast and reproducible way. For proof-of-principle, we utilize a biological use case to detect regions of increased and decreased gene expression (RIDGEs and anti-RIDGEs in human transcriptome maps. We improved the original method for RIDGE detection by replacing the costly step of estimation by random sampling with a faster analytical formula for computing the distribution of the null hypothesis being tested and by developing a new algorithm for computing moving medians. SigWin-detector was developed using the WS-VLAM workflow management system and consists of several reusable modules that are linked together in a basic workflow. The configuration of this basic workflow can be adapted to satisfy the requirements of the specific in silico experiment. Conclusion As we show with the results from analyses in the biological use case on RIDGEs, SigWin-detector is an efficient and reusable Grid-based tool for discovering windows enriched for features of a particular type in any sequence of values. Thus, SigWin-detector provides the

  18. Climate Change and the Emergence of New Organizational Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Wittneben, B.B.F.; Okereke, C; Banerjee, S. B.; Levy, D L

    2012-01-01

    There is general agreement across the world that human-made climate change is a serious global problem, although there are still some sceptics who challenge this view. Research in organization studies on the topic is relatively new. Much of this research, however, is instrumental and managerialist in its focus on 'win-win' opportunities for business or its treatment of climate change as just another corporate social responsibility (CSR) exercise. In this paper, we suggest that climate change ...

  19. Covering Risks in the Public Administration – an In-Depth Analysis of the Regulatory Changes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cocosatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing in a trans-disciplinary manner the institutional and functional changesof the public administration under crisis. The current analysis looks in depth of the financial, economic, and,more importantly, social crisis in relation to the reforms imposed by both the internal and externalstakeholders. The decision-makers have not taken into account the risk factors, triggering legislativeincoherence and instability due to the challenging and approval as non-constitutional of many such normativeacts by the Romanian Constitutional Court. The research objectives search to clear up the measures’coherence in the context of a declining public budget and a negative growth period, when the shrunk publicfunds need to be properly allocated. Therefore, the answer that our research is looking for should pertain tothe following concern: can the government’s actions be considered solutions to the problems raised by thecurrent context? The answers shall aim at both restoring the legal and economic balance, as defined in theworking hypothesis. The lax fiscal policy of the expenditures brings about an involuntary fiscal contraction inthe event of an economic downturn (Rosen and Gayer, 2010, as it was the case in Romania. Those lack ofprudence shall be addressed in our analysis, with specific reference to the already established literatureexplanations involving the decision-makers trust in the „good days shall be around forever”, which triggers abelief that the expenditures’ expansion can be permanent. Regarding the paper methodology, this study isproceeding via bibliographical research, so that the reasoning behind the paper is clearly underlined as thisresearch is actually triggered by the radical changes made by both legislatures and practitioners as a responseto crisis. Further, the manuscript makes use of direct observation and legislative analysis and extensivedocumentary research of national tax policy and statistics relevant

  20. The changing landscape of public health in sub-Saharan Africa: Control and prevention of communicable diseases needs rethinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard E.G. Mboera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, communicable diseases (CDs are the leading public health problems and major causes of morbidity and mortality. CDs result in significant individual suffering, disrupting daily life, threatening livelihoods and causing one-third of the years lost to illness or death worldwide. This paper aims to analyse the current strategies in the control and prevention of CDs in sub-Saharan Africa and proposes an ecohealth approach in relation to current changing epidemiological profiles. Whilst in recent years the burden of HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria have helped to mobilise large amounts of funding and expertise to help address them, many CDs, particularly those affecting the poor, have been neglected. People living in rural areas are also likely to be politically marginalised and living in degraded environments. They often lack assets, knowledge and opportunities to gain access to health care or protect themselves from infections. New diseases are also emerging at unprecedented rates and require attention. Many CDs are rooted in environmental and livelihood conditions and mediated by social and individual determinants. It is now increasingly recognised that a much broader, coordinated and multi-sectoral ecohealth approach is required to address CDs in sub-Saharan Africa. An ecohealth approach has been shown to be more robust in public health interventions than the traditional medical approach. The approach helps to generate an understanding of ecosystem factors that influence the emergence and spread of both old and new diseases, considers temporal and spatial dimensions of disease infection and allows systems thinking. In conclusion, establishing intersectoral and multisectoral linkages is important to facilitate joint efforts to address CDs at the national, district and community levels.