Sample records for change technologies recommendations

  1. DTU climate change technologies. Recommendations on accelerated development and deployment of climate change technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Halsnaes, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, System Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Nielsen, Niels Axel; Moeller, J.S.; Hansen, Jakob Fritz; Froekjaer Strand, I. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))


    During 2009, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has held a number of international workshops for climate change. Participants came from industry, research institutions and government. The workshops focused on sustainable energy systems and climate change adaptation. The summary of conclusions and recommendations from the workshops constitutes a comprehensive set of technology tracks and recommended actions towards accelerated development and deployment of technology within these two key areas. The workshop process has led to three main conclusions. A. Radical changes are needed to develop sustainable energy systems. B. Tools and processes that climate-proof societal planning and management are needed in order to adapt to climate change. C. Partnerships concerning innovation and deployment (research, development and deployment) are required to meet time constraints.

  2. Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Vuorikari, Riina; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob


    Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Vuorikari, R., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2011). Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning. In P. B. Kantor, F. Ricci, L. Rokach, & B. Shapira (Eds.), Recommender Systems Handbook (pp. 387-415). Berlin: Springer.

  3. Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga


    Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., & Santos, C. S. (Eds.) (2010). Recommender System in Technology Enhanced Learning. Elsevier Procedia Computer Science: Volume 1, Issue 2. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL). September, 29-30,

  4. Lifestyle Changes Recommended for PTSD Patients (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Lifestyle Changes Recommended for PTSD Patients Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Lifestyle Changes Recommended for PTSD Patients People with PTSD need to take active steps ...

  5. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian


    Biometric technology is based on the use of information linked to individuals. Hence, privacy and security in biometric applications becomes a concern and the need to assess such applications thoroughly becomes equally important. Guidelines for application of biometric technology must ensure...... a positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here:

  7. Technology for Educational Change (United States)

    Mitchell, P. David


    Five fundamental manifestations of technology for educational change are examined with particular reference to Canadian activities. These foci are: psychotechnology, information and communications technology, organizational technology, cybernetic systems technology and educational planning. Each is vitally concerned with the optimal organization…

  8. Entrepreneur and Technological Change


    Myung-Joong Kwon; Jong-gul Lee


    The literature on technological change has grown in the last two decades and has made a number of significant theoretical advances, but the role of the entrepreneur in technological change has been relatively ignored. In this paper we attempted to fill this gap and explored the role of the entrepreneur in generating technological change. We constructed an empirical model to analyze the role of the entrepreneur in technological change in the context of deciding the undertaking of the innovatio...

  9. Technology for Changing Feelings (United States)

    Picard, Rosalind

    Feelings change and technology usually ignores such changes, despite that technology often is credited with causing the changed feelings, especially frustration, irritation, annoyance, or (sometimes) interest and delight. This talk will demonstrate technology we've built to recognize and respond to emotion and discuss some ways it can help people better change their own emotions if they want to do so. I will attempt to demo some of the new technologies live, and discuss their beneficial uses (e.g. helping people with anxiety, stress or health-behavior change). I will also mention some worrisome uses and solicit ideas for how to minimize or prevent abusive uses.

  10. Recommender systems for technology enhanced learning research trends and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien


    Presents cutting edge research from leading experts in the growing field of Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSys TEL) International contributions are included to demonstrate the merging of various efforts and communities Topics include: Linked Data and the Social Web as Facilitators for TEL Recommender Systems in Research and Practice, Personalised Learning-Plan Recommendations in Game-Based Learning and Recommendations from Heterogeneous Sources in a Technology Enhanced Learning Ecosystem

  11. Technology and Global Change (United States)

    Grübler, Arnulf


    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  12. Evaluating Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: A Quantitative Survey (United States)

    Erdt, Mojisola; Fernandez, Alejandro; Rensing, Christoph


    The increasing number of publications on recommender systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) evidence a growing interest in their development and deployment. In order to support learning, recommender systems for TEL need to consider specific requirements, which differ from the requirements for recommender systems in other domains like…

  13. Adoption of recommended agricultural technologies of Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the adoption of selected agricultural technologies of Anambra State Agricultural Development programme by small scale farmers in Anambra State. Data were collected from purposively sampled 120 farmers in the state using structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using percentages and ...

  14. Buoy Technology Survey Recommendations for Development (United States)


    Maritime Buoyage System MTS Marine Technology Society NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command NBS New Buoy Systems NKK Nippon Kogi Kogyo (Japan...8.7 LED LIGHTS RATIONALE The Japanese (Nippon Kogi Kogyo Co., Ltd.) are developing an LED (Light Emitting Diode) light for use on floating aids that...buoys. APPROACH Study the Paint Spraying and Radio Transmission Systems developed by Japan’s "Nippon Kogi Kogyo Co." and "Ryokuseisha Corp

  15. Technology, recommendation and design: on being a 'paternalistic' philosopher. (United States)

    Wong, Pak-Hang


    Philosophers have talked to each other about moral issues concerning technology, but few of them have talked about issues of technology and the good life, and even fewer have talked about technology and the good life with the public in the form of recommendation. In effect, recommendations for various technologies are often left to technologists and gurus. Given the potential benefits of informing the public on their impacts on the good life, however, this is a curious state of affairs. In the present paper, I will examine why philosophers are seemingly reluctant to offer recommendations to the public. While there are many reasons for philosophers to refrain from offering recommendations, I shall focus on a specific normative reason. More specifically, it appears that, according to a particular definition, offering recommendations can be viewed as paternalistic, and therefore is prima facie wrong to do so. I will provide an argument to show that the worry about paternalism is unfounded, because a form of paternalism engendered by technology is inevitable. Given the inevitability of paternalism, I note that philosophers should accept the duty to offer recommendations to the public. I will then briefly turn to design ethics, which has reconceptualised the role of philosophers and, in my mind, fitted well with the inevitability of paternalism. Finally, I shall argue that design ethics has to be supplemented by the practice of recommendation if it is to sustain its objective.

  16. Liberty and Security in a Changing World: Report and Recommendations of The President’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies (United States)


    ECDSA. Both NSA and the academic cryptography community have thoroughly analyzed the DSA (FIPS 186). SHA-1 – The Secure Hash Algorithm Variant 1...FIPS 180-1 NSA designed the SHA-1 algorithm as a correction to the SHA-0 algorithm, a longer (160-bit) variant of the MD5 algorithm designed by Ron...analyzed the SHA-1 (FIPS 180). For many years NIST and NSA have recommended that people stop using SHA-1 and start using the SHA- 2 hash algorithms

  17. Evolution of Space Station EMU PLSS technology recommendations (United States)

    Wilde, Richard C.


    Viewgraphs on extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) portable life support system (PLSS) technology recommendations are presented. Topics covered include: oxygen supply storage; oxygen supply regulators; carbon dioxide control; prime movers; crew comfort; heat rejection; power sources; controls; display devices; and sensor technology.

  18. DTU Climate Change Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During 2008 and 2009, DTU held a workshop series focusing on assessment of and adaption to climate changes as well as on mitigation of green house gasses. In the workshops, a total of 1500 scientists, government officials and business leaders have outlined scenarios for technology development...

  19. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeb, Jennifer L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Nicholas A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huckabay, Heath A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  20. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.


    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  1. ICT Learning Technologies for Disabled People: Recommendations for Good Practice. (United States)

    Hersh, Marion


    The use of ICT in education is becoming increasingly important and has potential advantages to disabled learners if the technologies are appropriately designed, including for accessibility and usability, and used. This paper presents the first sets of recommendations for learning technologies for disabled people aimed at disabled learners, teachers, developers and educational institutions respectively. They were developed as part of the work of the Enable Network for ICT Learning for Disabled People and involved input from both experts and end-users. The concise format facilitates production in a variety of formats and languages for accessibility and wide distribution. The paper discusses the recommendations and their relationship to existing guidelines.

  2. From recommendation to action: psychosocial factors influencing physician intention to use Health Technology Assessment (HTA recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Emília


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of recommendations based upon health technology assessment (HTA represents a challenge for both HTA agencies and healthcare policy-makers. Using a psychosocial theoretical framework, this study aimed at exploring the factors affecting physician intention to adopt HTA recommendations. The selected recommendations were prioritisation systems for patients on waiting lists for two surgical procedures: hip and knee replacement and cataract surgery. Methods Determinants of physician intention to use HTA recommendations for patient prioritisation were assessed by a questionnaire based upon the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour. A total of 96 physicians from two medical specialties (ophthalmology and orthopaedic surgery responded to the questionnaire (response rate 44.2%. A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to assess differences between medical specialties on the set of theoretical variables. Given the main effect difference between specialties, two regression models were tested separately to assess the psychosocial determinants of physician intention to use HTA recommendations for the prioritisation of patients on waiting lists for surgical procedures. Results Factors influencing physician intention to use HTA recommendations differ between groups of specialists. Intention to use the prioritisation system for patients on waiting lists for cataract surgery among ophthalmologists was related to attitude towards the behaviour, social norms, as well as personal normative beliefs. Intention to use HTA recommendations for patient prioritisation for hip and knee replacement among orthopaedic surgeons was explained by: perception of conditions that facilitated the realisation of the behaviour, personal normative beliefs, and habit of using HTA recommendations in clinical work. Conclusion This study offers a model to assess factors influencing the intention to adopt recommendations from health

  3. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital


    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  4. Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: Research Trends & Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Drachsler, Hendrik; Santos, Olga


    As an area, Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test socio-technical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of individuals and organizations. Information retrieval is a pivotal activity in TEL and the deployment of recommender systems has attracted

  5. Lending Officers' Decisions to Recommend Innovative Agricultural Technology. (United States)

    McIntosh, Wm. Alex; Zey-Ferrell, Mary


    Path analysis examines an analytical model of decision making by lending officers of 211 Texas banks when recommending agricultural technology to farmer-clients. Model analyzes effects of loan officers' ascribed/achieved personal characteristics and perceptions of organizational constraints during three stages of decision process: using…

  6. A Transitive Recommendation System for Information Technology Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ali


    Full Text Available Social networks have become a new trend for research among computer scientist around the world. Social network had an impact on users' way of life. One of social network usages is recommendation systems. The need of recommendation systems is arising when users try to know best choice for them in many items types (books, experts, locations, technologies...etc. The problem is that a single person can't try all alternatives in all possibles life goals to compare. Thus, a person has to use his friends' expertise to select better option in any item category. This process is the main idea of “Recommendation Systems”. Recommendation systems usually depend on users-to-items ratings in a network (graph. Two main challenges for recommendation systems are accuracy of recommendation and computation size. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a suggested technique for transitive recommendation system based on users' collaborative ratings, and also to balance loading of computation. All this has to be applied on a special type of social network. Our work studied the transitivity usage in connections to get a relation (path as a recommendation for nodes not directly connected. The target social network has eight types of nodes. So, there are techniques that are not suitable to this complex type of network. Those we can present a new support for recommending items of several types to users with several types. We believe that this functionality hasn't been fully provided elsewhere. We have suggested using single source shortest path algorithm combined with Map Reduce technique, and mathematically deduced that we have a speeding up of algorithm by 10% approximately. Our testing results shows an accuracy of 89% and false rejection of 99% compared to traditional algorithms with less configuration parameters and more steady count of recommendations.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sihvo, Sinikka; Ikonen, Tuija; Mäkelä, Marjukka


    Objectives: The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods Program (MUMM) started 10 years ago as a joint venture of the Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) and the twenty hospital districts in Finland. The aim is to offer information on the effectiveness, safety, organizational......-form web-based surveys to hospitals. Results: The recommendations were noticed and considered relevant. In overall assessment they received a mean rating of 8.4 (range: 4 to 10). Two thirds of the respondents thought MUMM recommendations were useful for practice, but only a third had actually used them...

  8. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir


    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  9. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Recommended Development Path (United States)

    Koenke, Edmund J.; Williams, Larry; Calafa, Caesar


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project in cooperation with the Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC) contracted with the System Resources Corporation (SRC) for the evaluation of the existing environment and the identification of user and service provider needs in the Gulf of Mexico low-altitude Offshore Sector. The results of this contractor activity are reported in the Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Engineering Needs Assessment. A recommended system design and transition strategy was then developed to satisfy the identified needs within the constraints of the environment. This work, also performed under contract to NASA, is the subject of this report.

  10. 33 CFR 148.722 - Should the construction plan incorporate best available technology and recommended industry... (United States)


    ... incorporate best available technology and recommended industry practices? 148.722 Section 148.722 Navigation... plan incorporate best available technology and recommended industry practices? Each applicant must... industry practices as directed in § 148.730. ...

  11. Recommendations for health information technology implementation in rural hospitals. (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Han; Gramopadhye, Anand K


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate violations against work standards associated with using a new health information technology (HIT) system. Relevant recommendations for implementing HIT in rural hospitals are provided and discussed to achieve meaningful use. Design/methodology/approach - An observational study is conducted to map medication administration process while using a HIT system in a rural hospital. Follow-up focus groups are held to determine and verify potential adverse factors related to using the HIT system while passing drugs to patients. Findings - A detailed task analysis demonstrated several violations, such as only relying on the barcode scanning system to match up with patient and drugs could potentially result in the medical staff forgetting to provide drug information verbally before administering drugs. There was also a lack of regulated and clear work procedure in using the new HIT system. In addition, the computer system controls and displays could not be adjusted so as to satisfy the users' expectations. Nurses prepared medications and documentation in an environment that was prone to interruptions. Originality/value - Recommendations for implementing a HIT system in rural healthcare facilities can be categorized into five areas: people, tasks, tools, environment, and organization. Detailed remedial measures are provided for achieving continuous process improvements at resource-limited healthcare facilities in rural areas.

  12. Environmental Policy and Technological Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Adam B. [Department of Economics, Brandeis University and National Bureau of Economic Research, Waltham, MA (United States); Newell, Richard G. [Resources for the Future, Washington DC (United States); Stavins, Robert N. [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University and Resources for the Future, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The relationship between technological change and environmental policy has received increasing attention from scholars and policy makers alike over the past ten years. This is partly because the environmental impacts of social activity are significantly affected by technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological developments. Our central purpose in this article is to provide environmental economists with a useful guide to research on technological change and the analytical tools that can be used to explore further the interaction between technology and the environment. In Part 1 of the article, we provide an overview of analytical frameworks for investigating the economics of technological change, highlighting key issues for the researcher. In Part 2, we turn our attention to theoretical analysis of the effects of environmental policy on technological change, and in Part 3, we focus on issues related to the empirical analysis of technology innovation and diffusion. Finally, we conclude in Part 4 with some additional suggestions for research.

  13. Evidence, politics, and technological change. (United States)

    Gelijns, Annetine C; Brown, Lawrence D; Magnell, Corey; Ronchi, Elettra; Moskowitz, Alan J


    In few fields of public policy are the use and cost of services so powerfully driven by technological change as they are in medicine. To manage technology, policy-makers have expanded their investment in evaluative research. This paper addresses three underexamined challenges in using evidence: those inherent in the dynamics of technological change itself; those inherent in the analytical enterprise; and the ways in which political factors shape the translation of evidence into policy decisions. The design of institutional arrangements and processes that seek to blend evidence with politics merit closer attention, and existing cross-national arrangements deserve careful study.

  14. ICFA announces launch of technology recommendation process for future linear collider

    CERN Multimedia


    The International Committee for Future Accelerators has announced the membership and chair of the 12-person International Technology Recommendation Panel. The ITRP, with four members each from Europe, North America and Asia, is charged with recommending which of two leading accelerating technologies will form the best choice for a future international linear collider (1 page).

  15. Changing Technology and Work: Northern Telecom. CAW Technology Project. (United States)

    Robertson, David; Wareham, Jeff

    A project to examine the implications of technological change at Northern Telecom consisted of two major components: a technological survey and case study research. A questionnaire that contained more than 90 questions on technological change was distributed through local union technology committee meetings in Brampton, London, Belleville, and…

  16. Theoretic models for recommendation and implementation of assistive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Jesus Alves


    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest international researches seek to understand the factors affecting the successful use of assistive technology devices through studies regarding the assessments systematizing; abandonment of devices; or theoric models that consider the aspects of those devices implementation. In Brazil the researches are focused on developing new technologies and there are still not sufficient studies related to the successful use of devices and ways of assistive technology implementation. Objective: To identify conceptual models used for indication and implementation of assistive technology devices. Method: Literature review. The survey was conducted in six databases: CINAHAL, Eric, GALE, LILACS, MEDLINE e PsycInfo. A critical analysis described by Grant and Booth was used. Results: There are no records of a Brazilian survey and among 29 selected articles, 17 conceptual models used in the area of AT were found; of these, 14 were specific to AT. The results showed that the new conceptual models of TA are under development and the conceptual model “Matching Person and Technology – MPT” was the most mentioned. Conclusion: We can observe that the practices related to TA area in international context shows a correlation with conceptual models, thus, we hope this study might have the capacity to contribute for the propagation of this precepts at national level

  17. Evaluation of Recommender Systems for Technology-Enhanced Learning: Challenges and Possible Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandy, Heleau; Drachsler, Hendrik; Gillet, Dennis


    Heleou, S., Drachsler, H., & Gillet, D. (2009). Evaluation of Recommender Systems for Technology-Enhanced Learning: Challenges and Possible Solutions. 1st workshop on Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning at the Alpine Rendez-Vous. November, 30-December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Patenkirchen,

  18. How Recommender Systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning depend on Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Manouselis, Nikos


    Drachsler, H., & Manouselis, N. (2009). How Recommender Systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning depend on Context. Presentation given at the 1st workshop on Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning at the Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30 - December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Patenkirchen,

  19. Guideline recommendations and antimicrobial resistance: the need for a change. (United States)

    Elias, Christelle; Moja, Lorenzo; Mertz, Dominik; Loeb, Mark; Forte, Gilles; Magrini, Nicola


    Antimicrobial resistance has become a global burden for which inappropriate antimicrobial use is an important contributing factor. Any decisions on the selection of antibiotics use should consider their effects on antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which antibiotic prescribing guidelines have considered resistance patterns when making recommendations for five highly prevalent infectious syndromes. We used Medline searches complemented with extensive use of Web engine to identify guidelines on empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infections, acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis and pharyngitis. We collected data on microbiology and resistance patterns and identified discrete pattern categories. We assessed the extent to which recommendations considered resistance, in addition to efficacy and safety, when recommending antibiotics. We identified 135 guidelines, which reported a total of 251 recommendations. Most (103/135, 79%) were from developed countries. Community-acquired pneumonia was the syndrome mostly represented (51, 39%). In only 16 (6.4%) recommendations, selection of empirical antibiotic was discussed in relation to resistance and specific microbiological data. In a further 69 (27.5%) recommendations, references were made in relation to resistance, but the attempt was inconsistent. Across syndromes, 12 patterns of resistance with implications on recommendations were observed. 50% to 75% of recommendations did not attempt to set recommendation in the context of these patterns. There is consistent evidence that guidelines on empirical antibiotic use did not routinely consider resistance in their recommendations. Decision-makers should analyse and report the extent of local resistance patterns to allow better decision-making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  20. Technology-enabled assessment of health professions education: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Zubair; Boulet, John R; Cook, David A


    The uptake of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in health professions education can have far-reaching consequences on assessment. The medical education community still needs to develop a deeper understanding of how technology can underpin and extend assessment practices....... This article was developed by the 2010 Ottawa Conference Consensus Group on technology-enabled assessment to guide practitioners and researchers working in this area. This article highlights the changing nature of ICTs in assessment, the importance of aligning technology-enabled assessment with local context...... and needs, the need for better evidence to support use of technologies in health profession education assessment, and a number of challenges, particularly validity threats, that need to be addressed while incorporating technology in assessment. Our recommendations are intended for all practitioners across...

  1. Technology and Online Education: Models for Change (United States)

    Cook, Catherine W.; Sonnenberg, Christian


    This paper contends that technology changes advance online education. A number of mobile computing and transformative technologies will be examined and incorporated into a descriptive study. The object of the study will be to design innovative mobile awareness models seeking to understand technology changes for mobile devices and how they can be…

  2. Resistance to Technological Change in Academia (United States)

    Moerschell, Linda


    Initiating changes in technology, promoting utilization, and managing resistance by faculty may be among the most pressing challenges for academic leadership. Change that involves new technology is an ideal example of the systemic nature of organizational change because it includes infrastructure, expert knowledge, training, long-term vision,…

  3. Technological change as social proces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew


    The article distinguishes between different meanings that technology has as well as the different 'roles' that technologies play in society. udfoldes tre forståelser af teknologisk forandring. Der sigtes på at fremstille forskellige meningsdannelser, som i sit samspil konstituerer et samfunds...

  4. Technological Change: Helping Workers Adjust. (United States)

    Mowery, David C.


    Discusses some of the problems in employment shifts and unemployment caused by new technologies in offices and factories. Addresses the Job Training Partnership Act (Title III) which was established as the primary assistance vehicle for displaced workers. Calls for workers to receive sufficient time to adjust to technologies. (TW)

  5. Changing Paradigms: From Schooling to Schools as Adaptive Recommendation Systems (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Kristine; Christiansen, Rene B.; Gynther, Karsten


    The paper explores a shift in education from educational systems requiring student adaptation to educational recommendation systems adapting to students' individual needs. The paper discusses the concept of adaptation as addressed in educational research and draws on the system theory of Heinz von Foerster to shed light on how the educational…

  6. Issues and Considerations regarding Sharable Data Sets for Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Bogers, Toine; Vuorikari, Riina


    This paper raises the issue of missing standardised data sets for recommender systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) that can be used as benchmarks to compare different recommendation approaches. It discusses how suitable data sets could be created according to some initial suggestions...... elaboration of a representation and exchange format for sharable TEL data sets is carried out. The paper concludes with future research needs....

  7. Recommendations for the Conduct and Reporting of Modeling and Simulation Studies in Health Technology Assessment. (United States)

    Dahabreh, Issa J; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Balk, Ethan M; Wong, John B


    Models and simulations are valuable tools for addressing the uncertainty, tradeoffs, and heterogeneous preferences that complicate research questions in health technology assessment. This article presents recommendations for the conduct and reporting of modeling and simulation studies based on a systematic review of published recommendation statements, a survey of Web sites of international health technology assessment organizations, and input from experts and other stakeholders. The recommendations apply to mathematical models that represent structural relationships among model components and integrate information from multiple sources; they address model identification, estimation, verification, and validation, as well as the conduct of sensitivity, stability, and uncertainty analyses. They are organized into model conceptualization and structure, data, model assessment and consistency, and interpreting and reporting results. They should contribute to increased use and better conduct and reporting of modeling and simulation studies in health technology assessment.

  8. Ethical perspectives on recommending digital technology for patients with mental illness. (United States)

    Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Monteith, Scott; Bauer, Rita; Whybrow, Peter C; Geddes, John


    The digital revolution in medicine not only offers exciting new directions for the treatment of mental illness, but also presents challenges to patient privacy and security. Changes in medicine are part of the complex digital economy based on creating value from analysis of behavioral data acquired by the tracking of daily digital activities. Without an understanding of the digital economy, recommending the use of technology to patients with mental illness can inadvertently lead to harm. Behavioral data are sold in the secondary data market, combined with other data from many sources, and used in algorithms that automatically classify people. These classifications are used in commerce and government, may be discriminatory, and result in non-medical harm to patients with mental illness. There is also potential for medical harm related to poor quality online information, self-diagnosis and self-treatment, passive monitoring, and the use of unvalidated smartphone apps. The goal of this paper is to increase awareness and foster discussion of the new ethical issues. To maximize the potential of technology to help patients with mental illness, physicians need education about the digital economy, and patients need help understanding the appropriate use and limitations of online websites and smartphone apps.

  9. Changing Paradigms: From Schooling to Schools as Adaptive Recommendation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Gynther, Karsten; Petersen, Anne Kristine


    The paper explores a shift in education from educational systems requiring student adaptation to educational recommendation systems adapting to students’ individual needs. The paper discusses the concept of adaptation as addressed in educational research and draws on the system theory of Heinz vo...... by presenting a case, which is methodologically inspired by Design-Based Research, in the form of a special type of adaptive MOOC, the so-called adaptive SPOC (Small Private Online Course)....

  10. The Changing Nature of Educational Technology Programs (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael


    The many changes in educational technologies have been well documented in both the professional and popular literature. What is less well documented is the changing nature of programs that prepare individuals for careers in the broad multi-disciplinary field of educational technology. This article is a first attempt to look at how educational…

  11. Technology innovation and management in the US Bureau of the Census: Discussion and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Edwards, R.; Goeltz, R.; Hake, K.


    This report contains a set of recommendations prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Bureau of the Census pertaining to technology innovation and management. Technology has the potential to benefit the Bureau's data collection, capture, processing, and analysis activities. The entire Bureau was represented from Decennial Census to Economic Programs and various levels of Bureau management and numerous experts in technology. Throughout the Bureau, workstations, minicomputers, and microcomputers have found their place along side the Bureau's mainframes. The Bureau's new computer file structure called the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing data base (TIGER) represents a major innovation in geographic information systems and impressive progress has been made with Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Other innovations, such as SPRING, which aims to provide Bureau demographic analysts with the capability of interactive data analysis on minicomputers, are in the initial stages of development. Recommendations fall into five independent, but mutually beneficial categories. (1) The ADP Steering Committee be disbanded and replaced with The Technology Forum. (2) Establishment of a Technology Review Committee (TRC), to be composed of technology experts from outside the Bureau. (3) Designate technological gurus. These individuals will be the Bureau's experts in new and innovative technologies. (4) Adopt a technology innovation process. (5) Establish an Advanced Technology Studies Staff (ATSS) to promote technology transfer, obtain funding for technological innovation, manage innovation projects unable to find a home in other divisions, evaluate innovations that cut across Bureau organizational boundaries, and provide input into Bureau technology analyses. (JF)

  12. Updates Technologies of Media Change (United States)

    Comer, Joshua


    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  13. Technologies for climate change adaptation. Agriculture sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. (ed.) (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Clements, R.; Quezada, A.; Torres, J. (Practical Action Latin America, Lima (Peru)); Haggar, J. (Univ. of Greenwich, London (United Kingdom))


    This guidebook presents a selection of technologies for climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector. A set of 22 adaptation technologies are showcased. These are based primarily on the principles of agroecology, but also include scientific technologies of climate and biological sciences complemented by important sociological and institutional capacity building processes that are required for climate change to function. The technologies cover: 1) Planning for climate change and variability. 2) Sustainable water use and management. 3) Soil management. 4) Sustainable crop management. 5) Sustainable livestock management. 6) Sustainable farming systems. 7) Capacity building and stakeholder organisation. Technologies that tend to homogenise the natural environment and agricultural production have low possibilities of success in environmental stress conditions that are likely to result from climate change. On the other hand, technologies that allow for, and promote diversity are more likely to provide a strategy which strengthens agricultural production in the face of uncertain future climate change scenarios. The 22 technologies showcased in this guidebook have been selected because they facilitate the conservation and restoration of diversity while also providing opportunities for increasing agricultural productivity. Many of these technologies are not new to agricultural production practices, but they are implemented based on the assessment of current and possible future impacts of climate change in a particular location. agroecology is an approach that encompasses concepts of sustainable production and biodiversity promotion and therefore provides a useful framework for identifying and selecting appropriate adaptation technologies for the agriculture sector. The guidebook provides a systematic analysis of the most relevant information available on climate change adaptation technologies in the agriculture sector. It has been compiled based on a literature

  14. Facilitative Social Change Leadership Theory: 10 Recommendations toward Effective Leadership (United States)

    Watt, Willis M.


    In the fast pace of the 21st century there is a demand for effective leaders capable of handling the internal and external changes occurring in our organizations. This paper seeks to inform the reader because change is natural; it is constant; it is inevitable. But, what constitutes effective leadership is the question. The main purpose of this…

  15. Revisiting Teacher Adoption of Technology: Research Implications and Recommendations for Successful Full Technology Integration (United States)

    Buckenmeyer, Janet


    Most teachers are still failing to fully integrate technologies in their classrooms to improve student achievement. If certain conditions exist, however, they are more likely to accept and use appropriate technologies in significant instructional ways. Relevant professional development and continuous access to needed resources are two significant…

  16. Evidence generation from healthcare databases: recommendations for managing change. (United States)

    Bourke, Alison; Bate, Andrew; Sauer, Brian C; Brown, Jeffrey S; Hall, Gillian C


    There is an increasing reliance on databases of healthcare records for pharmacoepidemiology and other medical research, and such resources are often accessed over a long period of time so it is vital to consider the impact of changes in data, access methodology and the environment. The authors discuss change in communication and management, and provide a checklist of issues to consider for both database providers and users. The scope of the paper is database research, and changes are considered in relation to the three main components of database research: the data content itself, how it is accessed, and the support and tools needed to use the database. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies. (United States)

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás


    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  18. Transforming Leadership in the FBI: A Recommendation for Strategic Change (United States)


    newly created FBI National Security Branch, she was reported to have observed, “At the FBI, there’s agents, and there’s furniture .”34 Today’s FBI...stay in-place due to personal situations, such as the care of elderly parents, health related issues, balancing of the career of a spouse, or other...Agents are much less adept or comfortable facing abstract problems requiring dramatic exponential change. They don’t always recognize the implications

  19. Patent Protection, Technological Change and Wage Inequality


    Shiyuan Pan; Heng-fu Zou; Tailong Li


    We develop a directed-technological-change model to address the issue of the optimal patent system and investigate how the optimal patent system influences the direction of technological change and the inequality of wage, where patents are categorized as skill- and labor-complementary. The major results are: (i) Finite patent breadth maximizes the social welfare level; (ii) Optimal patent breadth increases with the amount of skilled (unskilled) workers; (iii) Optimal patent protection is skil...

  20. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change


    Klasen, Stephan; Nestmann, Thorsten


    In a model on population and endogenous technological change, Kremer combines a short-run Malthusian scenario where income determines the population that can be sustained, with the Boserupian insight that greater population spurs technological change and can therefore lift a country out of its Malthusian trap. We show that a more realistic version of the model, which combines population and population density, allows deeper insights into these processes. The incorporation of population densit...

  1. Recommended Changes to Interval Management to Achieve Operational Implementation (United States)

    Baxley, Brian; Swieringa, Kurt; Roper, Roy; Hubbs, Clay; Goess, Paul; Shay, Richard


    A 19-day flight test of an Interval Management (IM) avionics prototype was conducted in Washington State using three aircraft to precisely achieve and maintain a spacing interval behind the preceding aircraft. NASA contracted with Boeing, Honeywell, and United Airlines to build this prototype, and then worked closely with them, the FAA, and other industry partners to test this prototype in flight. Four different IM operation types were investigated during this test in the en route, arrival, and final approach phases of flight. Many of the IM operations met or exceeded the design goals established prior to the test. However, there were issues discovered throughout the flight test, including the rate and magnitude of IM commanded speed changes and the difference between expected and actual aircraft deceleration rates.

  2. Changing Knowledge, Changing Technology: Implications for Teacher Education Futures (United States)

    Burden, Kevin; Aubusson, Peter; Brindley, Sue; Schuck, Sandy


    Recent research in teacher education futures has identified two themes that require further study: the changing nature of knowledge and the changing capabilities of technologies. This article examines the intersection of these two themes and their implications for teacher education. The research employed futures methodologies based on scenario…

  3. The Ethics of Virtual Reality Technology: Social Hazards and Public Policy Recommendations. (United States)

    Spiegel, James S


    This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Finally, there are other moral and social risks associated with the way VR blurs the distinction between the real and illusory. These concerns regarding VR naturally raise questions about public policy. The article makes several recommendations for legal regulations of VR that together address each of the above concerns. It is argued that these regulations would not seriously threaten personal liberty but rather would protect and enhance the autonomy of VR consumers.

  4. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world – the Roskilde recommendations. (United States)

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common curre...

  5. Information technology and global change science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, F.P.


    The goal of this paper is to identify and briefly describe major existing and near term information technologies that cold have a positive impact on the topics being discussed at this conference by helping to manage the data of global change science and helping global change scientists conduct their research. Desktop computer systems have changed dramatically during the past seven years. Faster data processing can be expected in the future through full development of traditional serial computer architectures. Some other proven information technologies may be currently underutilized by global change scientists. Relational database management systems and good organization of data through the use of thoughtful database design would enable the scientific community to better share and maintain quality research data. Custodians of the data should use rigorous data administration to ensure integrity and long term value of the data resource. Still other emerging information technologies that involve the use of artificial intelligence, parallel computer architectures, and new sensors for data collection will be in relatively common use in the near term and should become part of the global science community's technical toolkit. Consideration should also be given to the establishment of Information Analysis Centers to facilitate effective organization and management of interdisciplinary data and the prototype testing and use of advanced information technology to facilitate rapid and cost-effective integration of these tools into global change science. 8 refs.

  6. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Millions at Risk from Parry et al., 2001 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Climate Change · Is the global warming in the 20th century due to the increase in radiation emitted by the sun? Frohlich C, Lean J. 1998; ...

  7. Networking Technologies and the Rate of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mitchell


    Full Text Available Network technology is changing rapidly and those adept at ICT analysis need resolve rate of change issues. Developments in networking now are in the direction of heuristic intelligence. Since about 1980, networking techniques have encouraged combining bits of information with imagination cognitively to improve ideas about reality. ICT enterprise projects utilize networking to sustain requisite imagination. Assumptions and misassuptions of project builders are rationally comprehended as networking sustains creative processes. The monopolization of valuable network techniques influences in the direction of esoteric networking. Data presents that substantial knowledge and networking is now occurring globally. As a netaphor, networking

  8. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Agriculture Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, Subash; Hongmin, Dong

    in the areas of crops, livestock, emissions, and economics, and we are grateful for their efforts in producing this cross disciplinary work. This publication is part of a technical guidebook series produced by the UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC) as part of the Technology......This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts...... Needs Assessment (TNA) project ( that is assisting developing countries in identifying and analysing the priority technology needs for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The TNA process involves different stakeholders in a consultative process, enabling all stakeholders...

  9. Climate change scenarios and technology transfer protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, Socrates; Turton, Hal [Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, CH-5232 (Switzerland)


    We apply a specific version of MERGE-ETL, an integrated assessment model, to study global climate policies supported by Technology Transfer Protocols (TTPs). We model a specific formulation of such a TTP where donor countries finance via carbon tax revenues, the diffusion of carbon-free technologies in developing countries (DCs) and quantify its benefits. Industrialized countries profit from increased technology exports, global diffusion of advanced technology (leading to additional technology learning and cost reductions) and reduced climate damages through the likelihood of greater global participation in a new international agreement. DCs experience increased welfare from access to subsidized technology, and profit from the reduction of damages related to climate change and expected secondary benefits of carbon abatement (such as reduced local and regional air pollution). The analysis identifies potential candidate technologies that could be supported under a TTP, and the impact of a TTP on economic development (including the flow of transfer subsidies) and global emissions. Although a TTP may encourage additional participation, such a proposal is only likely to be successful if an increased willingness to pay to avoid climate damages is accepted, first by the present and future generations of the industrialized world and later on, when sufficient economic growth is accumulated, by today's developing countries. (author)

  10. Technological Change and Uneven Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petralia, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369408071


    Broadly speaking, this dissertation studied how technological change operates to determine the fortune of places. Thus linking the global urgency to understand the current level of disparities in terms of wealth and income with the idea that these disparities are, to a large extent, determined by

  11. The Skill Premium, Technological Change and Appropriability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Smulders, J.A.


    In the US the skill premium and the non-production/production wage differential increased strongly from the late 1970s onwards.Skill-biased technological change is now generally seen as the dominant explanation, which calls for theories to explain the bias.This paper shows that the increased supply

  12. Technological Change, Globalization, and the Community College (United States)

    Romano, Richard M.; Dellow, Donald A.


    In early nineteenth-century England, workers now known as Luddites roamed the countryside destroying machinery that they saw as creating unemployment and upsetting their traditional way of life. They believed that the growing mechanization of production, what people would now call technological change, and the expanding volume of trade ushered in…

  13. Technological Change During the Energy Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Smulders, Sjak A.


    The energy transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources has important consequences for technological change and resource extraction. We examine these consequences by incorporating a non-renewable resource and an alternative energy source in a market economy model of endogenous growth

  14. Technological Change during the Energy Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Smulders, J.A.


    The energy transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources has important consequences for technological change and resource extraction. We examine these consequences by incorporating a non-renewable resource and an alternative energy source in a market economy model of endogenous growth

  15. International Regulations and Recommendations for Utility Data for Health Technology Assessment. (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Azzabi Zouraq, Ismail; Chevrou-Severac, Helene; van Hout, Ben


    Recommendations and guidelines for the collection, generation, source and usage of utility data for health technology assessment (HTA) vary across different countries, with no international consensus. Many international agencies generate their own guidelines providing details on their preferred methods for HTA submissions, and there is variability in both what they recommend and the clarity and amount of detail provided in their guidelines. This article provides an overview of international regulations and recommendations for utility data in HTA for a selection of key HTA countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain (Catalonia), Sweden and the UK (England/Wales and Scotland). International guidelines are typically clear and detailed for the selection of countries assessed regarding the source description of health states (e.g. generic preference-based measure) and who should provide preference weights for these health states (e.g. general population for own country). Many guidelines specify the use of off-the-shelf generic preference-based measures, and some further specify a measure, such as EQ-5D. However, international guidelines are either unclear or lack detailed guidance regarding the collection (e.g. patients report own health), source (e.g. clinical trial) and usage (e.g. adjusting for comorbidities) of utility values. It is argued that there is a need for transparent and detailed international guidelines on utility data recommendations to provide decision makers with the best possible evidence. Where this is not possible it is recommended that best practice should be used to inform the collection, source and usage of utility values in HTA.

  16. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthendu Bagchi


    Full Text Available Current paper has the purpose to analyze the statement by Drucker (1985 that rapid changes in today’s society, technology, and economy in general are simultaneously a great threat to public-service institutions and even greater opportunity. The statement by Drucker will be analyzed  particularly with context of post offices that what are they going through these days or have gone through. Finally, some recommendations will be made for USPS based on the findings of the analysis..

  18. A novel tool to predict youth who will show recommended usage of diabetes technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neylon, Orla M.; Skinner, Timothy C.; O'Connell, Michele A.


    Controversy exists regarding which individuals will benefit most from commencement of diabetes technologies such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS), such as 'real-time' sensor-augmented pumping (SAP). Because higher usage correlates...... with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) achieved, we aimed to predict future usage of technologies using a questionnaire-based tool. Subjects: The tool was distributed to two groups of youth with type 1 diabetes; group A (n=50; mean age 12±2.5yr) which subsequently commenced 'real-time' CGMS and group B (n=47; mean age 13......±3yr) which commenced CSII utilisation. Methods: For the CGMS group, recommended usage was ≥5days (70%) per week [≥70%=high usage (HU); sugars per day to the pump and LU as sugars per day...

  19. An assessment of space reactor technology needs and recommendations for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, A.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiley, R.L. [Consultant, Columbia, MD (United States)


    In order to provide a strategy for space reactor technology development, the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has authorized a brief review of potential national needs that may be addressed by space reactor systems. a systematic approach was used to explore needs at several levels that are increasingly specific. Level 0 -- general trends and issues; Level 1 -- generic space capabilities to address trends; Level 2 -- requirements to support capabilities; Level 3 -- system types capable of meeting requirements; Level 4 --generic reactor system types; and Level 5 -- specific baseline systems. Using these findings, a strategy was developed to support important space reactor technologies within a limited budget. A preliminary evaluation identified key technical issues and provide a prioritized set of candidate research projects. The evaluation of issues and the recommended research projects are presented in a companion paper.

  20. Federalism and technological change in blood products. (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Zachary


    Recent research has shown how federalism affects health care finance, health care reform, and health policy innovation. The purpose of this article is to extend this research program to study the linkages between federalism and technological change. It does so using comparative case studies spanning five countries to examine innovation and diffusion of two blood technologies-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA blood tests) and heat treatment-in response to the threat to the blood supply posed by HIV during the 1980s. Prior research has produced three contradictory models of the federalism-innovation relationship. This article attempts to resolve these contradictions, posits new hypotheses, and highlights sources of omitted variable bias that have important implications for understanding technological change. The case studies show that overall decentralization, rather than federalism alone, aids technological progress by allowing its supporters to "venue shop" around political resistance. Decentralization also makes the state less vulnerable to capture by status-quo interest groups. Moreover, political decentralization may have a positive effect on technological diffusion, but a far weaker effect on innovation. Thus, prior research that conflates these two effects should be revisited.

  1. Behavioral intervention technologies: evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health. (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael


    A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. This study on the findings of the technical expert panel. Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes. Social media such as online support groups have produced disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received little work in mental health. Research focused on understanding reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. Improvements in the collection, storage, analysis and visualization of big data will be required. New theoretical models and evaluation strategies will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Life cycle assessment of thermal waste-to-energy technologies: review and recommendations. (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio


    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent descriptions of all these aspects, in many cases preventing an evaluation of the validity of results, and limiting applicability of data and results in other contexts. The review clearly suggests that the quality of LCA studies of WtE technologies and systems including energy recovery can be significantly improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Essays in energy, environment and technological change (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  4. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga


    Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., & Santos, O. C. (Eds.) (2012). Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2012). Published by CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2012, Vol. 896.

  5. Learning, Deployment and R and D-induced Technological Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wene, Clas-Otto


    To celebrate its 50th anniversary, ECN gathered a group of 30 high-level energy experts to discuss climate change mitigation strategies and their implications for energy technology development. This summary reports the main findings of the international scientific symposium. It also gives an account of the principal lessons learned, and formulates recommendations for energy innovation policy-making in the European Union. In this presentation the focus is on two questions on R and D choices and deployment strategies: Balance Government R and D and Deployment?; and Efficient Deployment Strategies? The reflections are based on experience curves: Relations between R and D and Deployment made for the purpose to bring new, clean technologies to the markets; Useful concepts and distinctions to address the two questions.

  6. Recommendations for strengthening the infrared technology component of any condition monitoring program (United States)

    Nicholas, Jack R., Jr.; Young, R. K.


    This presentation provides insights of a long term 'champion' of many condition monitoring technologies and a Level III infra red thermographer. The co-authors present recommendations based on their observations of infra red and other components of predictive, condition monitoring programs in manufacturing, utility and government defense and energy activities. As predictive maintenance service providers, trainers, informal observers and formal auditors of such programs, the co-authors provide a unique perspective that can be useful to practitioners, managers and customers of advanced programs. Each has over 30 years experience in the field of machinery operation, maintenance, and support the origins of which can be traced to and through the demanding requirements of the U.S. Navy nuclear submarine forces. They have over 10 years each of experience with programs in many different countries on 3 continents. Recommendations are provided on the following: (1) Leadership and Management Support (For survival); (2) Life Cycle View (For establishment of a firm and stable foundation for a program); (3) Training and Orientation (For thermographers as well as operators, managers and others); (4) Analyst Flexibility (To innovate, explore and develop their understanding of machinery condition); (5) Reports and Program Justification (For program visibility and continued expansion); (6) Commitment to Continuous Improvement of Capability and Productivity (Through application of updated hardware and software); (7) Mutual Support by Analysts (By those inside and outside of the immediate organization); (8) Use of Multiple Technologies and System Experts to Help Define Problems (Through the use of correlation analysis of data from up to 15 technologies. An example correlation analysis table for AC and DC motors is provided.); (9) Root Cause Analysis (Allows a shift from reactive to proactive stance for a program); (10) Master Equipment Identification and Technology Application (To

  7. Changes in ITC Security Education due to Changing Technology


    Anttila, Juhani; Kajava, Jorma; Miettinen, Juha E.


    To understand the genuine needs of information security education, we must first analyze the present situation including organizational needs, business and societal environments and the technology used as well as the changes that are taking place. Particular attention should be paid to the conditions of the new economy, e.g., e-business and e-commerce. Security education is currently strongly related to technical solutions in hardware, software and various kinds of protocols and relies heavil...

  8. Danish and German students’ reflections and recommendations to changes in their science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rask; Ahrenkiel, Linda; Michelsen, Claus

    a seminar was held in Sankelmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. 29 upper secondary students from 4 schools (2 Danish and 2 German) attended the seminar in order to prepare some recommendations to take home to their own school. The students were asked to describe their current situation in science education......We here present a case study on students’ reflections and recommendations on their everyday science education. These recommendations come from a minority group seldom heard in science education, namely those students who are already engaged in science and science education. In November 2010......, their imagined situation in science education and some proposals for getting them from their current situation to their imagined situation. As researchers we were focused not only on what, the students wanted to change and how they wanted to do it. We also focused on their motives for changing their current...

  9. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world—The Roskilde recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, Henriette; Adamsen, Peter B.; Backhaus, Thomas; Banga, Gary T.; Bruce, Peter K.H.; Burton, G. Allen; Butts, Michael J.; Boegh, Eva; Clague, John J.; Dinh, Khuong V,; Doorn, N.; Gunnarsson, Jonas S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Hazlerigg, Charles; Hunka, agnieszka; Jensen, John; Lin, Yan; Loureiro, Susana; Miraglia, Simona; Munns, Wayne; Nadim, Farrokh; Palmqvist, Annemete; Rämö, Robert A.; Seaby, Lauren; syberg, kristian; Tangaa, Stine; Thit, amalie; Windfeld, Ronja; Zalewski, Maciej; Chapman, Peter M.


    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services)

  10. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Müller, Jörg; Marshall, Paul


    in establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD and their families, MOBERO significantly improved children’s independence and reduced parents......’ frustration levels. Additionally, use of MOBERO was associated with a 16.5% reduction in core ADHD symptoms and an 8.3% improvement in the child’s sleep habits, both measured by standardized questionnaires. Our study highlights the potential of assistive technologies to change the everyday practices...

  11. Preparing for the changing role of instructional technologies in medical education. (United States)

    Robin, Bernard R; McNeil, Sara G; Cook, David A; Agarwal, Kathryn L; Singhal, Geeta R


    As part of an international faculty development conference in February 2010, a working group of medical educators and physicians discussed the changing role of instructional technologies and made recommendations for supporting faculty in using these technologies in medical education. The resulting discussion highlighted ways technology is transforming the entire process of medical education and identified several converging trends that have implications for how medical educators might prepare for the next decade. These trends include the explosion of new information; all information, including both health knowledge and medical records, becoming digital; a new generation of learners; the emergence of new instructional technologies; and the accelerating rate of change, especially related to technology. The working group developed five recommendations that academic health leaders and policy makers may use as a starting point for dealing with the instructional technology challenges facing medical education over the next decade. These recommendations are (1) using technology to provide/support experiences for learners that are not otherwise possible-not as a replacement for, but as a supplement to, face-to-face experiences, (2) focusing on fundamental principles of teaching and learning rather than learning specific technologies in isolation, (3) allocating a variety of resources to support the appropriate use of instructional technologies, (4) supporting faculty members as they adopt new technologies, and (5) providing funding and leadership to enhance electronic infrastructure to facilitate sharing of resources and instructional ideas. © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

  12. The changing frontiers of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelson, P.H.


    The 20th century has often been called the American century. However, the US has lost or is losing supremacy in other important fields, and additional strong competitors are emerging in East Asia. Changes in US science and technology are impacting industry, government, and academia. This article discusses some of the global developments that are affecting these sectors now and describe some of the changed circumstances at the fontiers of science. Also included are some actions that might help in coping with some of the problems that this country will face. Topics include evolution of Industrial R&D; diminished leadership in energy, including nuclear energy; merchandise trade deficit; expansion of r&d elsewhere; r&D opportunities; problems at research universities; federal support of research. 9 refs.

  13. Institutions, Technological Change and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corderí Novoa


    Full Text Available Theories of economic growth try to explain variations in per capita income across countries by differences in capital accumulation and productivity. However, many scholars consider that integrating institutions into economic theory and economic history is an essential step in improving explanations of why some societies are richer than others. This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in technological change (productivity, hence in economic growth. First, I give a definition of institutions and how they influence economic performance, from a New Institutional Economics point of view. Then, I introduce the theoretical framework based on the economics of ideas and endogenous growth models. Finally, I argue that R&D expenditures -a proxy for technological change- will vary across countries depending on some measures of institutional quality. In the end, this paper finds that stronger institutions (measured by an aggregate of institutional quality encourage greater R&D expenditures. At a disaggregate level, the rule of law is positively correlated and the regulatory burden is negatively correlated with R&D expenditures. Human capital level (measured by the tertiary and primary school enrolment rates has also a significant positive impact in R&D expenditures.

  14. Structural modelling of economic growth: Technological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg


    Full Text Available Neoclassical and Keynesian theories of economic growth assume the use of Cobb-Douglas modified functions and other aggregate econometric approaches to growth dynamics modelling. In that case explanations of economic growth are based on the logic of the used mathematical ratios often including the ideas about aggregated values change and factors change a priori. The idea of assessment of factor productivity is the fundamental one among modern theories of economic growth. Nevertheless, structural parameters of economic system, institutions and technological changes are practically not considered within known approaches, though the latter is reflected in the changing parameters of production function. At the same time, on the one hand, the ratio of structural elements determines the future value of the total productivity of the factors and, on the other hand, strongly influences the rate of economic growth and its mode of innovative dynamics. To put structural parameters of economic system into growth models with the possibility of assessment of such modes under conditions of interaction of new and old combinations is an essential step in the development of the theory of economic growth/development. It allows forming stimulation policy of economic growth proceeding from the structural ratios and relations recognized for this economic system. It is most convenient in such models to use logistic functions demonstrating the resource change for old and new combination within the economic system. The result of economy development depends on starting conditions, and on institutional parameters of velocity change of resource borrowing in favour of a new combination and creation of its own resource. Model registration of the resource is carried out through the idea of investments into new and old combinations.

  15. The Skills, Competences, and Attitude toward Information and Communications Technology Recommender System: an online support program for teachers with personalized recommendations (United States)

    Revilla Muñoz, Olga; Alpiste Penalba, Francisco; Fernández Sánchez, Joaquín


    Teachers deal with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) every day and they often have to solve problems by themselves. To help them in coping with this issue, an online support program has been created, where teachers can pose their problems on ICT and they can receive solutions from other teachers. A Recommender System has been defined and implemented into the support program to suggest to each teacher the most suitable solution based on her Skills, Competences, and Attitude toward ICT (SCAT-ICT). The support program has initially been populated with 70 problems from 86 teachers. 30 teachers grouped these problems into six categories with the card-sorting technique. Real solutions to these problems have been proposed by 25 trained teachers. Finally, 17 teachers evaluated the usability of the support program and the Recommender System, where results showed a high score on the standardized System Usability Scale.

  16. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions


    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel


    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systema...

  17. Evolutionary Theorising on Technological Change and Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Reschke; P. Mulder (Peter); R. Kemp (René)


    textabstractThis paper examines the significance of evolutionary theorising on technological change for (technology) policies aiming to move society into a more ecologically sustainable direction. It is argued that fundamental changes in production processes and consumption patterns underpinned by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievhen Kulyk


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of conceptual changes in future technology teachers’ cultural training. It is revealed that future technology teachers’ cultural training should be based on the educational system of their professional training. The analysis of existing philosophical systems of forming the ideological bases for modern education showed that none of them is able to resolve the basic contradictions of the teaching process. That is why philosophical principles (interaction, substantial unity and synergy and their interconnection can be the methodological basis for educational activities. This enables us to identify the main contradiction of future technology teachers training. Analysis of the fundamental works of modern philosophers of science (T. Kun, I. Lakatos, V. Tumilin et al. showed that the only methodological concepts (pure observation are not enough to solve many scientific problems. The prerequisite is a trained person participating in the process. It is shown that the professional pedagogical training the future labor training teachers’ educational practice should be based on a set of methodological approaches that simultaneously act both situationally in its unity, interaction, and independently as well. Therefore, integration of methodological approaches (comparative and active, one of the problem activity and person activity, integrative and others allows to detect signs of different elements of professional pedagogical training of future labor training teachers. This leads to the emergence of new knowledge and formation of the skills according to the teachers’ new professional qualities. It is shown that the need for cultural reorientation of future technology teachers’ training system in Ukraine causes the global socio-cultural process, a process of transition from traditional authoritarian society (scientism-technocratic to the modern dynamic society, the so-called "information" one – on the

  19. Hepatitis B vaccination practices in hospital newborn nurseries before and after changes in vaccination recommendations. (United States)

    Clark, S J; Cabana, M D; Malik, T; Yusuf, H; Freed, G L


    Routine use of hepatitis B vaccine for low-risk newborns was suspended on July 7, 1999, because of concern about the potential risk of thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative. Reinstatement of the birth dose was recommended when a thimerosal-free vaccine became available. To explore changes in hepatitis B vaccination practices for newborns related to the revised recommendations for low-risk infants (in this study, the terms newborn and infant are used interchangeably). A telephone survey of a random sample of 1000 US hospitals. Nurse managers, nursery directors, and staff nurses of the newborn nurseries. Nursery vaccination practices before and after July 7, 1999, and the availability and use of thimerosal-free vaccine. Interviews were conducted with 773 (87%) of 886 eligible hospitals. Before July 7, 1999, 78% of the hospitals reported vaccination practices that were consistent with recommendations at that time, although only 47% vaccinated all low-risk infants at birth. After July 7, 1999, almost all hospitals discontinued vaccination of low-risk infants, in accordance with the recommendation change; however, there was a 6-fold increase in the number of hospitals that were not vaccinating all high-risk infants. After the introduction of thimerosal-free vaccine, only 39% of the hospitals reported vaccinating all low-risk infants. Most hospital nurseries altered their newborn hepatitis B vaccination practices consistent with changes in national recommendations. However, unintended consequences included the failure of some hospitals to continue vaccinating all high-risk infants and the delay in reintroducing vaccination for low-risk newborns after the introduction of a thimerosal-free vaccine. Assessments of the appropriateness of this country's response to the threat of thimerosal in vaccines should consider these findings.

  20. U.S. Climate Change Technology Program: Strategic Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... climate change research and development activities. Under this new structure, climate change science and climate-related technology research programs are integrated to an extent not seen previously...

  1. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world — The Roskilde recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Adamsen, Peter B.; Backhaus, Thomas


    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services......) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk...

  2. Hepatitis C Testing Increased Among Baby Boomers Following The 2012 Change To CDC Testing Recommendations. (United States)

    Barocas, Joshua A; Wang, Jianing; White, Laura F; Tasillo, Abriana; Salomon, Joshua A; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Linas, Benjamin P


    In 2012 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended routine testing for hepatitis C for people born in the period 1945-65. Until now, the recommendation's impact on hepatitis C screening rates in the United States has not been fully understood. We used an interrupted time series with comparison group design to analyze hepatitis C screening rates in the period 2010-14 among 2.8 million commercially insured adults in the MarketScan database. Hepatitis C screening rates increased yearly between 2010 and 2014, from 1.65 to 2.59 per 100 person-years. A 49 percent increase in screening rates among people born during 1945-65 followed the release of the recommendation, but no such increase was observed among adults born after 1965. The effect among the target population was sustained, and by twenty-four months after the recommendation's release, screening rates had increased 106 percent. We conclude that the hepatitis C testing policy change resulted in significantly increased testing among the target population and may have decreased the magnitude of the hepatitis C epidemic.

  3. Micronutrients in HIV/AIDS: is there evidence to change the WHO 2003 recommendations? (United States)

    Forrester, Janet E; Sztam, Kevin A


    To establish whether there is new evidence to inform changes to WHO 2003 recommendations for micronutrient intake in persons with HIV/AIDS, we conducted a narrative review of the literature published from 2003 to 2010. Although the review focused on new randomized controlled trials of multiple micronutrients in HIV-infected adults, including pregnant and lactating women, we also considered randomized trials of single micronutrients. The review found that there are few published randomized controlled trials of micronutrients in HIV-infected persons and that most trials used high-dose multiple micronutrient supplementation. The trials were heterogeneous with respect to the composition and dose of micronutrients used and the target population studied. Despite this heterogeneity, 5 of 6 trials that used high-dose multiple micronutrients showed benefits in terms of either improved CD4 cell counts or survival. However, many of these trials were small and of short duration, and therefore the long-term risks and benefits of high-dose multiple micronutrients are not established. The current WHO recommendation for an intake of micronutrients at Recommended Dietary Allowance amounts continues to be a reasonable target for persons with clinically stable HIV infection. In light of new data that show adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A, the current recommendation for a single high dose of vitamin A in HIV-infected women within 6 wk of delivery should be reviewed.

  4. Micronutrients in HIV/AIDS: is there evidence to change the WHO 2003 recommendations?1234 (United States)

    Forrester, Janet E; Sztam, Kevin A


    To establish whether there is new evidence to inform changes to WHO 2003 recommendations for micronutrient intake in persons with HIV/AIDS, we conducted a narrative review of the literature published from 2003 to 2010. Although the review focused on new randomized controlled trials of multiple micronutrients in HIV-infected adults, including pregnant and lactating women, we also considered randomized trials of single micronutrients. The review found that there are few published randomized controlled trials of micronutrients in HIV-infected persons and that most trials used high-dose multiple micronutrient supplementation. The trials were heterogeneous with respect to the composition and dose of micronutrients used and the target population studied. Despite this heterogeneity, 5 of 6 trials that used high-dose multiple micronutrients showed benefits in terms of either improved CD4 cell counts or survival. However, many of these trials were small and of short duration, and therefore the long-term risks and benefits of high-dose multiple micronutrients are not established. The current WHO recommendation for an intake of micronutrients at Recommended Dietary Allowance amounts continues to be a reasonable target for persons with clinically stable HIV infection. In light of new data that show adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A, the current recommendation for a single high dose of vitamin A in HIV-infected women within 6 wk of delivery should be reviewed. PMID:22089440

  5. APA Summit on Medical Student Education Task Force on Informatics and Technology: Steps to Enhance the Use of Technology in Education through Faculty Development, Funding and Change Management (United States)

    Hilty, Donald M.; Benjamin, Sheldon; Briscoe, Gregory; Hales, Deborah J.; Boland, Robert J.; Luo, John S.; Chan, Carlyle H.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Karlinsky, Harry; Gordon, Daniel B.; Yellowlees, Peter M.; Yager, Joel


    Objective: This article provides an overview of how trainees, faculty, and institutions use technology for acquiring knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing modern medicine. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical education, technology, and change, and identify the key themes and make recommendations for implementing…

  6. Summary and recommendations of the OARSI FDA osteoarthritis Assessment of Structural Change Working Group (United States)

    Conaghan, P.G.; Hunter, D.J.; Maillefert, J.F.; Reichmann, W.M.; Losina, E.


    summary Objective The Osteoarthritis Research Society International initiated a number of working groups to address a call from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on updating draft guidance on conduct of osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials. The development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) remains challenging. The Assessment of Structural Change (ASC) Working Group aimed to provide a state-of-the-art critical update on imaging tools for OA clinical trials. Methods The Group focussed on the performance metrics of conventional radiographs (CR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performing systematic literature reviews for these modalities. After acquiring these reviews, summary and research recommendations were developed through a consensus process. Results For CR, there is some evidence for construct and predictive validity, with good evidence for reliability and responsiveness of metric measurement of joint space width (JSW). Trials off at least 1 and probably 2 years duration will be required. Although there is much less evidence for hip JSW, it may provide greater responsiveness than knee JSW. For MRI cartilage morphometry in knee OA, there is some evidence for construct and predictive validity, with good evidence for reliability and responsiveness. The responsiveness of semi-quantitative MRI assessment of cartilage morphology, bone marrow lesions and synovitis was also good in knee OA. Conclusions Radiographic JSW is still a recommended option for trials of structure modification, with the understanding that the construct represents a number of pathologies and trial duration may be long. MRI is now recommended for clinical trials in terms of cartilage morphology assessment. It is important to study all the joint tissues of the OA joint and the literature is growing on MRI quantification (and its responsiveness) of non-cartilage features. The research recommendations provided will focus researchers on important issues such as

  7. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.


    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  8. Imaginary Worlds: The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA Recommendations for Health Economic Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Langley


    Full Text Available The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA guidelines for health economic evaluations represent a consolidated view of non-binding recommendations for assessments of the relative effectiveness of pharmaceuticals or other health technologies. EUnetHTA views itself as the scientific and technological backbone of the development of health technology assessment in the European Union and among its member states and other partners. Unfortunately, the standards for health technology assessment proposed by EUnetHTA do not meet the standards of normal science. They do not support credible claims for the clinical and comparative cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals. In rejecting the standards of normal science the guidelines put to one side the opportunity not only to re-assess and replicate clinical and cost-effectiveness claims but to provide meaningful feedback on claims assessment to health care decision makers. The purpose of this review is to make the case that, in failing to support standards for experimentation, EUnetHTA is advocating its partners support the creation of modeled or simulated imaginary or false worlds. While EUnetHTA is not alone in recommending the construction of imaginary worlds to support formulary decisions, there is still the opportunity to revisit these recommendations and decide whether or not to encourage a scientifically rigorous approach to health technology assessments - to abandon a commitment to intelligent design in favor of natural selection.  Conflict of Interest None   Type: Commentary  

  9. Marketing, Technology, and Medicine: Recommendations on How to Incorporate Psychological Principles into New Technologies to Promote Healthy Behaviors. (United States)

    Smith-Dektor, Asha H; Young, Sean D


    Although technologies have provided new forms of entertainment and improved our work efficiency, they have also reduced our need to engage in healthy physical activities. We believe that the psychological principles that make sedentary entertainment technologies (such as television and video games) engaging can be incorporated into new technologies to make new technologies both engaging and promote healthy behaviors. This short report aims to 1) describe how technology has traditionally reduced motivation to engage in health behaviors, 2) discuss key elements that may make sedentary technology (in this case, television) engaging, and 3) provide examples of how these same elements can be incorporated into new technologies to increase engagement and promote health behaviors.

  10. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology


    Uddin, Mahatab


    Technology and policy play a twofold role in international environmental laws. Stronger environmental policies encourage new green technologies and likewise, better technologies make it easier to regulate. “Technology transfer” refers to the transfer from one party, an association or institution that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technolog...

  11. My-Bookstore: Using Information Technology to Support Children's Classroom Reading and Book Recommendation (United States)

    Chien, Tzu-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Ku, Yu-Min; Chan, Tak-Wai


    This paper describes a learning system, named My-Bookstore, where students buy (make records of) books (paper books) which they have read, and then sell (recommend) the books they like to others. This system is designed to encourage elementary students' classroom reading and book recommendation. The long-term influence of the My-Bookstore system…

  12. Changes in early-onset group B beta hemolytic streptococcus disease with changing recommendations for prophylaxis. (United States)

    Uy, Imelda P; D'Angio, Carl T; Menegus, Marilyn; Guillet, Ronnie


    To determine the incidence of early-onset group B beta hemolytic streptococcal (EOGBS) infection and the association between changes in the incidence and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). A retrospective population survey of infants with GBS at < 7 days of age with a nested case-control study of non-GBS infants over the same time period, January 1985 to December 1998. The incidence of GBS and maternal antibiotic treatment during labor was analyzed as a function of time period: prior to publication of guidelines for prevention of EOGBS (1985-1992), following AAP/ACOG guidelines (1993-1995), and following CDC consensus guidelines (1996-1998). Fifty-six cases of EOGBS infection occurred among 53,088 live births. The incidence declined from 1.5/1000 before any guidelines to 0.67/1000 after AAP/ACOG guidelines (p = 0.004), and continued to decline after the CDC consensus statement (0.28/1000) (p = 0.38). IAP remained stable (33% of at risk mothers) until after introduction of the CDC consensus guidelines (59%, p = 0.02). IAP did not fully explain the decline in EOGBS incidence in our center.

  13. Multi-state Beef Reproduction Task Force provides science-based recommendations for the application of reproductive technologies. (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Funston, R N; Hall, J B; Kesler, D J; Lamb, G C; Lauderdale, J W; Patterson, D J; Perry, G A; Strohbehn, D R


    Since its formation, the Beef Reproduction Task Force (BRTF) has worked to enhance productivity and profitability of US beef herds by integrating research and extension efforts with the intent of more effectively transferring the use of reproductive technologies to the field. A key early step was to coordinate efforts in identifying effective breeding management protocols for beef cattle and to clarify their associated acronyms. A short list of recommended protocols and their acronyms for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in beef cattle was developed based on results from peer-reviewed, published research and a comprehensive review of data collected from the field. The list of recommended protocols was developed by the BRTF in cooperation with veterinarians and cattle AI industries. These protocols and their acronyms are presented uniformly in all of the major AI sire directories and are available online at Protocol updates are made annually to incorporate the most recent research findings related to estrous cycle control in beef cattle. The Estrus Synchronization Planner, a software program developed in cooperation with the Iowa Beef Center, now reflects these same recommendations. Beginning in 2002, the BRTF hosted and presented 11 educational workshops to more than 1,900 attendees in key cow-calf states. These Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle workshops targeted beef producers, AI industry personnel, veterinarians, allied industry representatives, and academicians. A national media sponsor provided online coverage of the last 3 workshops at A postmeeting evaluation, developed to assess application of information from 2 recent workshops, was returned by 55% of those contacted (n = 150). Attendees averaged 16 (± 13.4 SD) yr of AI experience, and 80% of respondents represented more than 100 cows. Respondents were asked to estimate the value of AI-sired calves compared with natural

  14. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning


    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...... to facilitate technology change processes that lead to improved working conditions. The research based project described here has developed a special homepage that explains how this might be achieved. The homepage is targeted at working life professionals. The homepage presents theoretical explanations...... perspective in relation to technology change and working life....

  15. Information Technology and Changes of Management


    Černetič, Metod; Dečman Dobrnjić, Olga


    Multimedia systems of communication enable general application of new technologies which set up a challenge for the preparing of new methods in forming learning and teaching processes. Educational process is becoming a process of information and communication, however multimedia systems of communication enable general application of new technologies . In the text below we are going to talk about information systems as component part of organizational processes, about information technology eq...

  16. A Sightseeing Spot Recommendation System That Takes into Account the Change in Circumstances of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Mizutani


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to design, develop, operate and evaluate a sightseeing spot recommendation system for urban sightseeing spots in order to support individual, as well as group sightseeing activities while taking into consideration the user’s needs, which can change according to the circumstances (each user’s important conditions and sightseeing unit. The system was developed by integrating Web-GIS (Geographic Information Systems, the pairing system, the evaluation system, as well as the recommendation system into a single system, and it was also connected with external SNS (Social Networking Services: Twitter and Facebook. Additionally, the system was operated for four weeks in the central part of Yokohama City in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and the total number of users was 52. Based on the results of the web questionnaire survey, the usefulness of the system when sightseeing was high, and the recommendation function of sightseeing spots, which is an original function, has received mainly good ratings. From the results of the access analysis of users’ log data, it is evident that the system has been used by different types of devices, just as it was designed for, and that the system has been used according to the purpose of the present study, which is to support the sightseeing activities of users.

  17. Relating Health Technology Assessment recommendations and reimbursement decisions in Poland in years 2012-2014, a retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr


    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of public advisory bodies (the Transparency Council and the President of AOTMiT, the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System) involved in the process on final reimbursement decisions performed by the Ministry of Health. We have analysed all statements of the Transparency Council as well as the President of the AOTMiT recommendations and final reimbursement decisions in Poland for the period of three years: 2012 till 2014. For each recommendation we collected data on decisions as well as potential additional requirements regarding the reimbursement; data was presented for the whole analysed period and separately for each year, to assess the general tendencies in the reimbursement decision-making in Poland. We collected all data accessible at February 2015. The kappa measurement of agreement was used to assess the compliance between statements, recommendations and reimbursement decisions. We collected data on 238 drugs evaluated by the Agency. The compliance between the Transparency Council and the President of the AOTMiT was 95% and remained constant in the analysed period. The agreement between the President of the AOTMiT recommendations and final reimbursement decisions was only fairly represented by a kappa coefficient of 0.23 and decreased in the subsequent years. We observed an increasing proportion of positive-conditional recommendations, with the introduction of a risk sharing scheme being the most common condition of a reimbursement recommendation. We observed that final reimbursement decisions did not reflect statements and recommendations issued by the advisory boards. Positive recommendations issued by the AOTMiT did not guarantee positive reimbursement status, and negative recommendations in some cases did not result in the lack of reimbursement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enterprise Information Technology Organizational Flexibility: Managing Uncertainty and Change (United States)

    Patten, Karen Prast


    Chief Information Officers (CIOs) lead enterprise information technology organizations (EITOs) in today's dynamic competitive business environment. CIOs deal with external and internal environmental changes, changing internal customer needs, and rapidly changing technology. New models for the organization include flexibility and suggest that CIOs…

  19. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  20. Evidence-Based Technology Design and Commercialisation: Recommendations Derived from Research in Education and Autism (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue


    The proliferation of mobile technologies and apps raises questions for researchers in the field of educational technology. Many apps are marketed as having impact on learning or therapeutic outcome in populations with additional support needs. This paper briefly outlines three possible academic responses to the rise of therapeutic technologies for…

  1. How Computer Technology Expands Educational Options: A Rationale, Recommendations, and a Pamphlet for Administrators. (United States)

    Kelch, Panette Evers; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical rationale on how computer technology, particularly the Internet, expands educational options for administrators and teachers. A review of the literature includes a brief history of computer technology and its growing use, and a discussion of computer technology for distance learning, for…

  2. Endogenous skilled-biased technological change and matching unemployment


    Stadler, Manfred; Wapler, Rüdiger


    This paper presents a general-equilibrium model of endogenous skilled-biased technological change and matching unemployment in a disaggregated economy. We simultaneously endogenise both the direction and pace of technological change as well as the unemployment rates. We show that an increase in the supply of high-skilled labour can explain skilled-biased technological change, a reduction in high-skilled unemployment and a rise in the high-skilled wage differential. In accordance with convinci...

  3. Food recommendations, tradition and change in a Flemish cookbook: Ons Kookboek, 1920-2000. (United States)

    Segers, Yves


    The first edition of Ons Kookboek (Our Cookbook), also known as 'the culinary bible of Flanders', was published in 1927 by the Belgian Women Farmers' Union. By 2000, an estimated 2.3 million copies had been sold. This exceptionally successful and long-running series of cookbooks represents a unique source of the history of Flemish cuisine and food culture. The aim of this article is to analyse how the food recommendations in Ons Kookboek changed during the past decades, parallel with the shrinking importance of the Belgian agricultural sector. Initially, the main goal of the editors was to overcome and to alter the monotonous nature of the rural menu through the giving of information about healthy, simple and inexpensive cooking, in which own produce occupied a central place. From the mid 1960s onwards, with the growing purchasing power and internationalisation of cooking, the content changed. Ons Kookboek was no longer only a basic cookbook with strictly didactic advice. The reader was given greater freedom and was encouraged to choose from a large culinary range, which resulted in contradictory recommendations. But notwithstanding all innovations, the link with the farming sector remained as the attitude towards a vegetarian or low-meat diet clearly demonstrates.

  4. 2014 Hypertension Guideline: Recommendation for a Change in Goal Systolic Blood Pressure (United States)

    Handler, Joel


    The 2014 Kaiser Permanente Care Management Institute National Hypertension Guideline was developed to assist primary care physicians and other health care professionals in the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated hypertension in adult men and nonpregnant women aged 18 years and older. The new guideline reflects general acceptance, with minor modifications, of the “Evidence-Based Guideline” report by the panel members appointed to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 8th Joint National Committee. A major practice change is the recommendation for goal systolic blood pressure less than 150 mmHg in patients aged 60 years and older who are treated for hypertension in the absence of diabetes or chronic kidney disease. This article describes the reasons for, evidence for, and consequences of the change, and is followed by the National Guidelines handout. PMID:26057683

  5. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli


    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  6. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System (United States)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  7. Digital Technologies and a Changing Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena

    Digital technologies are profoundly disturbing not only news delivery, but also the whole organization of news work. The relationship between digital technologies and news has been investigated especially in media and journalism studies. Scholars in these fields have followed the introduction...... of digital technologies into news work (Ursell, 2001; Pavlik, 2000, 2013; Saltzis and Dickinson, 2008; Meikle and Redden, 2011, Plesner 2010), and dealt with a range of organizational consequences of this development. In studies of news organizations, it has been pointed out that the question of digital...... technology appropriation is not just important for technical or economic reasons, but because it affects organizational structures, work practices and representations (Boczkowski, 2004). For instance, reporters and editors must manage market pressures and time pressures in new ways (Klinenberg, 2005) due...

  8. Technology As an Agent of Change in Teacher Practice. (United States)

    Girod, Mark; Cavanaugh, Shane


    Discussion of educational technology as an agent of change in teacher practice focuses on three areas: changes in epistemology; changes in psychology as applied to learning; and social and relational change, including alterations in learning contexts. Considers changes in the teacher role in each area. (LRW)

  9. How is new technology changing job design?


    Gibbs, Michael


    The information technology revolution has had dramatic effects on jobs and the labor market. Many routine and manual tasks have been automated, replacing workers. By contrast, new technologies complement non-routine, cognitive, and social tasks, making work in such tasks more productive. These effects have polarized labor markets: While low-skill jobs have stagnated, there are fewer and lower paid jobs for middle-skill workers, and higher pay for high-skill workers, increasing wage inequality...

  10. Recommendations on a Test Infrastructure for Evaluation of Touchscreen Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Users


    Smaradottir, Berglind; Håland, Jarle; Martinez, Santiago; Somdal, Åsmund Rodvig; Fensli, Rune Werner


    Published version of a paper from the 13th Scandinavian Conference on Health Informatics, Tromsø Mobile technologies’ touchscreen allows the use of choreography of gestures to interact with the user interface. Relevant aspects in mobile technology design become crucial when targeting users with disabilities. For instance, when assistive technology is designed to support speech interaction between visually impaired users and a system, accessibility and ease-of-use of such technology should...

  11. Recommendations on a Test Infrastructure for Evaluation of Touchscreen Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Users


    Smaradottir, Berglind; Håland, Jarle; Martinez, Santiago; Somdal, Åsmund Rodvig; Fensli, Rune Werner


    Mobile technologies’ touchscreen allows the use of choreography of gestures to interact with the user interface. Relevant aspects in mobile technology design become crucial when targeting users with disabilities. For instance, when assistive technology is designed to support speech interaction between visually impaired users and a system, accessibility and ease-of-use of such technology should be included in the usability and technical evaluation of their effectiveness. This paper presents th...

  12. Developing and Evaluating Digital Interventions to Promote Behavior Change in Health and Health Care: Recommendations Resulting From an International Workshop (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; West, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Greaves, Felix


    Devices and programs using digital technology to foster or support behavior change (digital interventions) are increasingly ubiquitous, being adopted for use in patient diagnosis and treatment, self-management of chronic diseases, and in primary prevention. They have been heralded as potentially revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors and health care by improving outcomes, reducing costs, and improving the patient experience. However, we are still mainly in the age of promise rather than delivery. Developing and evaluating these digital interventions presents new challenges and new versions of old challenges that require use of improved and perhaps entirely new methods for research and evaluation. This article discusses these challenges and provides recommendations aimed at accelerating the rate of progress in digital behavior intervention research and practice. Areas addressed include intervention development in a rapidly changing technological landscape, promoting user engagement, advancing the underpinning science and theory, evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and addressing issues of regulatory, ethical, and information governance. This article is the result of a two-day international workshop on how to create, evaluate, and implement effective digital interventions in relation to health behaviors. It was held in London in September 2015 and was supported by the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council (MRC), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the Methodology Research Programme (PI Susan Michie), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of the United States (PI Kevin Patrick). Important recommendations to manage the rapid pace of change include considering using emerging techniques from data science, machine learning, and Bayesian approaches and learning from other disciplines including computer science and engineering. With regard to assessing and promoting engagement, a key

  13. Developing and Evaluating Digital Interventions to Promote Behavior Change in Health and Health Care: Recommendations Resulting From an International Workshop. (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Yardley, Lucy; West, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Greaves, Felix


    Devices and programs using digital technology to foster or support behavior change (digital interventions) are increasingly ubiquitous, being adopted for use in patient diagnosis and treatment, self-management of chronic diseases, and in primary prevention. They have been heralded as potentially revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors and health care by improving outcomes, reducing costs, and improving the patient experience. However, we are still mainly in the age of promise rather than delivery. Developing and evaluating these digital interventions presents new challenges and new versions of old challenges that require use of improved and perhaps entirely new methods for research and evaluation. This article discusses these challenges and provides recommendations aimed at accelerating the rate of progress in digital behavior intervention research and practice. Areas addressed include intervention development in a rapidly changing technological landscape, promoting user engagement, advancing the underpinning science and theory, evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and addressing issues of regulatory, ethical, and information governance. This article is the result of a two-day international workshop on how to create, evaluate, and implement effective digital interventions in relation to health behaviors. It was held in London in September 2015 and was supported by the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council (MRC), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the Methodology Research Programme (PI Susan Michie), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of the United States (PI Kevin Patrick). Important recommendations to manage the rapid pace of change include considering using emerging techniques from data science, machine learning, and Bayesian approaches and learning from other disciplines including computer science and engineering. With regard to assessing and promoting engagement, a key

  14. Provisions for Climate Change Technological Capability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acts and initiatives also showed that learning and linkage capabilities by which firms enhance their technological competence were strongly represented. Production, strategic marketing and investment capabilities however, were overtly deficient in the acts and initiatives. It recommended that the existing policies, acts and ...

  15. Assisted migration to address climate change: recommendations for aspen reforestation in western Canada. (United States)

    Gray, Laura K; Gylander, Tim; Mbogga, Michael S; Chen, Pei-Yu; Hamann, Andreas


    Human-aided movement of species populations in large-scale reforestation programs could be a potent and cost-effective climate change adaptation strategy. Such large-scale management interventions, however, tend to entail the risks of unintended consequences, and we propose that three conditions should be met before implementing assisted migration in reforestation programs: (1) evidence of a climate-related adaptational lag, (2) observed biological impacts, and (3) robust model projections to target assisted migration efforts. In a case study of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux.) we use reciprocal transplant experiments to study adaptation of tree populations to local environments. Second, we monitor natural aspen populations using the MODIS enhanced vegetation index as a proxy for forest health and productivity. Last, we report results from bioclimate envelope models that predict suitable habitat for locally adapted genotypes under observed and predicted climate change. The combined results support assisted migration prescriptions and indicate that the risk of inaction likely exceeds the risk associated with changing established management practices. However, uncertainty in model projections also implies that we are restricted to a relatively short 20-year planning horizon for prescribing seed movement in reforestation programs. We believe that this study exemplifies a safe and realistic climate change adaptation strategy based on multiple sources of information and some understanding of the uncertainty associated with recommendations for assisted migration. Ad hoc migration prescriptions without a similar level of supporting information should be avoided in reforestation programs.

  16. Prediction technologies for assessment of climate change impacts (United States)

    Temperatures, precipitation, and weather patterns are changing, in response to increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. With these relatively rapid changes, existing soil erosion prediction technologies that rely upon climate stationarity are potentially becoming less reliable. This is especiall...

  17. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasin, Shikha


    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  18. The Change Book: A Blueprint for Technology Transfer. (United States)

    Addiction Technology Transfer Centers.

    This document was developed by the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) National Network to improve understanding about how valuable effective technology transfer is to the fields of substance abuse treatment and prevention. Technology transfer involves creating a mechanism by which a desired change is accepted, incorporated, and reinforced…

  19. Technology-enabled assessment of health professions education: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Zubair; Boulet, John R; Cook, David A


    . This article was developed by the 2010 Ottawa Conference Consensus Group on technology-enabled assessment to guide practitioners and researchers working in this area. This article highlights the changing nature of ICTs in assessment, the importance of aligning technology-enabled assessment with local context...

  20. Analysis of University Management of Emerging Technologies and Recommendations for Developing Countries (United States)

    Villa Enciso, Eliana María; Picón Jácome, Edgar; Valencia-Arias, Alejandro; Jiménez Hernández, Claudia Nelcy


    University management seeks to achieve the objectives established by higher education's institutions, including their third mission, which corresponds to the transfer of research results into the industry; in this regard, emerging technologies play an important role to solve problems identified in the industry. Emerging technologies are those…


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  2. [Changes in the international recommendations on neonatal stabilisation and resuscitation (2015)]. (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Salguero García, Enrique; Aguayo Maldonado, Josefa; Gómez Robles, Celia; Thió Lluch, Marta; Iriondo Sanz, Martín


    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) recommendations provide a universal guide of measures to support the transition and resuscitation of newborn after their birth. This guide is expected to be adapted by local groups or committees on resuscitation, according to their own circumstances. The objective of this review is to analyse the main changes, to discuss several of the controversies that have appeared since 2010, and contrasting with other national and international organisations, such as European Resuscitation Council (ERC), American Heart Association (AHA), or the Australian-New Zealand Committee on Resuscitation (ANZCOR). Thus, the Neonatal Resuscitation Group of the Spanish Society of Neonatology (GRN-SENeo) aims to give clear answers to many of the questions when different options are available, generating the forthcoming recommendations of our country to support the transition and/or resuscitation of a newborn after birth, safely and effectively. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.


    While the proposed model is a rather simple model of a coupled human–water system, it is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of

  4. A Report on the Navy SBIR Program: Best Practices, Roadblocks and Recommendations for Technology Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bland, Erin; Busch, Dan; Clark, Al


    Over the past few years the Armed Services Committees have shown an increased interest in the DoD doing as much as possible to transition SBIR developed technologies into products or services that support the warfighter...

  5. Advanced energy design and operation technologies research: Recommendations for a US Department of Energy multiyear program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Crawley, D.B.; Hostetler, D.D.; Stratton, R.C.; Addision, M.S.; Deringer, J.J.; Hall, J.D.; Selkowitz, S.E.


    This document describes recommendations for a multiyear plan developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project. The plan is an outgrowth of earlier planning activities conducted for DOE as part of design process research under the Building System Integration Program (BSIP). The proposed research will produce intelligent computer-based design and operation technologies for commercial buildings. In this document, the concept is explained, the need for these new computer-based environments is discussed, the benefits are described, and a plan for developing the AEDOT technologies is presented for the 9-year period beginning FY 1989. 45 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Case Studies: Factors Influencing Divergent HTA Reimbursement Recommendations in Australia, Canada, England, and Scotland. (United States)

    Allen, Nicola; Walker, Stuart R; Liberti, Lawrence; Salek, Sam


    To evaluate the national regulatory, health technology assessment (HTA), and reimbursement pathways for public health care in Australia, Canada, England, and Scotland, to compare initial Canadian national HTA recommendations with the initial decisions of the other HTA agencies, and to identify factors for differing national HTA recommendations between the four HTA agencies. Information from the public domain was used to develop a regulatory process map for each jurisdiction and to compare the HTA agencies' reimbursement recommendations. Medicines that were reviewed by all four agencies and received a negative recommendation from only one agency were selected as case studies. All four countries have a national HTA agency. Their reimbursement recommendations are guided by both clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness, and the necessity for patient input. Their activities, however, vary because of different mandates and their unique political, social, and population needs. All have an implicit or explicit quality-adjusted life-year threshold. The seven divergent case studies demonstrate examples in which new medicine-indication pairs have been rejected because of uncertainties surrounding a range of factors including cost-effectiveness, comparator choice, clinical benefit, safety, trial design, and submission timing. The four HTA agencies selected for inclusion in this study share common factors, including a focus on clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness in their decision-making processes. The differences in recommendations could be considered to be due to an individual agency's approach to risk perception, and the comparator choice used in clinical and cost-effectiveness studies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Real Virtuality: A Code of Ethical ConductRecommendations for Good Scientific Practice and the Consumers of VR-Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMadary


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present a first list of ethical concerns that may arise from research and personal use of virtual reality (VR and related technology, and to offer concrete recommendations for minimizing those risks. Many of the recommendations call for focused research initiatives. In the first part of the article, we discuss the relevant evidence from psychology that motivates our concerns. In section 1.1, we cover some of the main results suggesting that one’s environment can influence one’s psychological states, as well as recent work on inducing illusions of embodiment. Then, in section 1.2, we go on to discuss recent evidence indicating that immersion in VR can have psychological effects that last after leaving the virtual environment. In the second part of the article we turn to the risks and recommendations. We begin, in section 2.1, with the research ethics of VR, covering six main topics: the limits of experimental environments, informed consent, clinical risks, dual-use, online research, and a general point about the limitations of a code of conduct for research. Then, in section 2.2, we turn to the risks of VR for the general public, covering four main topics: long-term immersion, neglect of the social and physical environment, risky content, and privacy. We offer concrete recommendations for each of these ten topics, summarized in Table 1.

  8. Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto


    -studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste...... composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent......Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case...

  9. Digital Technologies and a Changing Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena


    in the newsroom and through documentary research and qualitative interviews with managers, editors, and other professionals. Findings: It is shown that management devices such as the news table and the news concept are central to the reorganization of news work, as they realize managers’ strategies, just like...... they produce new practices and power relationships. It is shown that the devices produce increased collaboration among journalists and interaction between managers and output journalists, that mundane work and power is delegated to technological devices and that news products are increasingly standardized...

  10. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    Technology and policy play a twofold role in international environmental laws. Stronger environmental policies encourage new green technologies and likewise, better technologies make it easier to regulate. “Technology transfer” refers to the transfer from one party, an association or institution...... that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...... of international environmental debates. This thesis addresses, firstly, the possible methods of technology transfer and secondly, how current international environmental laws play its role to facilitate the transfer. Accordingly, I have focused on the concerned provisions of Kyoto Protocol and its subsequent...

  11. Techniques and Recommendations for the Inclusion of Users with Autism in the Design of Assistive Technologies (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy


    The increasing numbers of technology platforms offer opportunities to develop new visual assistive aids for people with autism. However, their involvement in the design of such aids is critical to their short-term uptake and longer term use. Using a three-round Delphi study involving seven Australian psychologists specializing in treating people…

  12. 78 FR 26777 - Technological Advisory Council Recommendation for Improving Receiver Performance (United States)


    ...). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet by accessing the ECFS: http... approach? How should the technological evolution of components and receiver design influence the timeframe and evolution of interference limits? In light of these issues, are there other alternatives, or other...

  13. Technologies for climate change mitigation - transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R.; Newman, P. (Curtin Univ. Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)); Dhar, S. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark))


    The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries and localities - transport that better serves people's needs and enhances their lives while at the same time producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. This is a new challenge, as previously improving transport generally led to increased greenhouse gases. The challenge now is to provide transport that: 1) is cheaper, more extensive and better quality 2) reduces pollution, congestion, traffic accidents and other threats to health and wellbeing 3) is accessible to all 4) supports economic development 5) reduces greenhouse emissions overall. This can be achieved if: 1) mass transit, walking and cycling are supported and encouraged, and integrated in a way that allows seamless multimodal travel, including networks of taxis, auto-rickshaws and small buses. 2) the mass transit services - including trains, buses and light-rail - are frequent, extensive, attractive, comfortable, affordable and faster than alternatives, with features like integrated ticketing and real time information accessible through mobile phones and other sources 3) private vehicle use and air travel are discouraged through pricing and other demand management measures, and through the availability of better alternative modes 4) there is support for the adoption of cleaner, lower carbon fuels and technologies and better maintenance practices for all transport modes, including private vehicles, water transport, auto-rickshaws and freight vehicles 5) the overall need for travel is reduced through the development of denser localities with more mixed land use and better access to mass transit (which reduces overall travel in ways that will be explained) 6) travel space is better managed to give higher priority to more sustainable transport modes, to promote safety, and to prevent traffic from adversely affecting residents and businesses. As you address these

  14. Technology for Climate Change Adaptation in Nepal Himalaya: Policy, Practices and Perspective (United States)

    Gautam, K.; Panthi, J., Sr.


    The recent scientific findings and the periodic reports corroborated by IPCC has disclosed the climate change is unequivocal and the Himalayan region is one of the hardest hit by the change and variability in climatic system due to its sensitive ecosystem, low resilience capacity and geographical extremes. Nepal, which lies in the central Himalayan region, has developed its strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change by developing national, regional and local plan of actions which are being implemented and some of them have already been proven. Nepal, as a party to the UNFCCC, has accomplished technology need assessment that identifies the need for new technology, equipment, knowledge and skills for reducing vulnerability to climate change. The plan has recommended an enabling framework for the diffusion of the prioritized technologies and the actions necessary to reduce or remove policy finance and technology related barriers. This paper aims to analyze the technological penetration in national level policy instruments such as NAPA, LAPA, Climate Change Policy and how those technologies have been used in actual field during the implementation of LAPA activities in western Nepal taking two administrative districts, one from low land and another from highland, as a pilot study.




  16. Technology & environment : some possible damaging effects of technological change in advanced and opulent societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccia, M.


    An interesting problem is the analysis of effects of the predominant impact of technological change on the health of societies. This study considers technological change as the human activity that generates a huge impact on societies and causes environmental disorders affecting the health of

  17. Addressing Climate Change and the Role of Technological Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Axon


    Full Text Available As far as sustainability is concerned, the role of technology has always been contested. With regard to environmental degradation, technology is either perceived to be part of the problem or part of the solution. To combat the complex issues of the present time, technological solutions are expected to play a key role towards mitigating and adapting to the negative impacts of climate change. The paper also discusses the role of the 2009 Copenhagen Conference towards addressing climate change. Although the Copenhagen Accord is not a legally binding agreement, it is seen as a necessary first step towards a protocol that will effectively address the issue of climate change.

  18. Information and Communication Technologies in Behavioral Health: A Literature Review with Recommendations for the Air Force


    Breslau, Joshua; Engel, Charles C.


    The dramatic evolution in information and communication technologies (ICTs) online and on smartphones has led to rapid innovations in behavioral health care. To assist the U.S. Air Force in developing a strategy for use of ICTs, the authors reviewed the scientific literature on their use to prevent and treat behavioral health conditions, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol misuse. There is currently little scientific evidence supporting additional investment i...

  19. Characteristics and modalities of changes in Human Technology Relationship models


    ADELE, Sonia; Brangier, Eric


    Technology adoption research has distinguished several models of human-technology relationships such as resistance or rejection, acceptance (Davis, 1985) and technosymbiosis (Licklider, 1960; Brangier & Hammes, 2006, 2007, 2011), the latter considers human-technology relationships through the ideas of co-evolution, capabilities extension and mutual dependence. This paper aims to show that those models are not stable over time; people change their model or transform it. With questionnaires com...

  20. Consuming untreated water in four southwestern Alaska Native communities: reasons revealed and recommendations for change. (United States)

    Ritter, Troy L; Lopez, Ellen D S; Goldberger, Rachel; Dobson, Jennifer; Hickel, Korie; Smith, Jeffrey; Johnson, Rhonda M; Bersamin, Andrea


    In this article, the authors provide the first in-depth account of why some Alaska Native people drink untreated water when treated water is available. Their qualitative research was conducted in four Alaska Native village communities that have treated water available from a centralized distribution point. Most respondents (n = 172; 82%) reported that some of their household's drinking water came from an untreated source. Motives for drinking untreated water emerged from analysis of open-ended questions about drinking water practice and could be categorized into six themes: chemicals, taste, health, access, tradition, and cost. Importantly, some residents reported consuming untreated water because they both liked untreated water and disliked treated water. As such, interventions to increase safe water consumption should address this dichotomy by providing education about the benefits of treated water alongside the risks involved with drinking untreated water. Based on the findings, the authors provide specific recommendations for developing behavior change interventions that address influences at multiple social-ecological levels.

  1. Internationalizing the Business Curriculum: Technology and Social Change. (United States)

    Seabrook, Roberta

    In 1986 the Technology and Social Change Program and the College of Business at Iowa State University joined forces to develop a new graduate course that focused on the role of the multinational corporation in technology transfer to the lesser developed countries. The course was team taught by faculty from different disciplines and colleges, and…

  2. Multigenerational organisations: a challenge for technology and social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Lockett, Martin


    This paper analyses demographic and organisational trends associated with an ageing workforce and introduces the articles in the special issue of Technological Forecasting and Social Change on Ageing2Agility: Multi-stakeholder Technological Forecasting for the Multi-generational Challenges in the

  3. Effects of technological change in regional labor markets in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez


    Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.

  4. Recommendations for oversight of nanobiotechnology: dynamic oversight for complex and convergent technology (United States)

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Wolf, Susan M.; Paradise, Jordan; Kuzma, Jennifer; Hall, Ralph; Kokkoli, Efrosini; Fatehi, Leili


    Federal oversight of nanobiotechnology in the U.S. has been fragmented and incremental. The prevailing approach has been to use existing laws and other administrative mechanisms for oversight. However, this "stay-the-course" approach will be inadequate for such a complex and convergent technology and may indeed undermine its promise. The technology demands a new, more dynamic approach to oversight. The authors are proposing a new oversight framework with three essential features: (a) the oversight trajectory needs to be able to move dynamically between "soft" and "hard" approaches as information and nano-products evolve; (b) it needs to integrate inputs from all stakeholders, with strong public engagement in decision-making to assure adequate analysis and transparency; and (c) it should include an overarching coordinating entity to assure strong inter-agency coordination and communication that can meet the challenge posed by the convergent nature of nanobiotechnology. The proposed framework arises from a detailed case analysis of several key oversight regimes relevant to nanobiotechnology and is informed by inputs from experts in academia, industry, NGOs, and government.

  5. The changing epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and New data: the implications for New recommendations for Japanese encephalitis vaccine. (United States)

    Connor, Bradley; Bunn, William B


    The epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis and risk to the traveler has changed and continues to evolve. The spread of Japanese Encephalitis virus into new environments, changes in agricultural practice and animal vectors, climate change, peri-urban growth, changes in international travel to Asia, personal risk factors, mosquito vector free transmission, interactions with other flaviviruses and better information on infections without encephalitis and other factors make Japanese Encephalitis an underappreciated risk. There has also been a change in the incidence of Japanese Encephalitis cases that questions the current travel duration and geographic based recommendations. A safe, effective vaccine (Ixiaro) that may be administered in a short course regimen is now available in the United States without the risks of the previous vaccine. However, the vaccine is significantly underutilized. These changes in the epidemiology and new data on the risks of the Japanese Encephalitis virus require a review of the practice guidelines and expert recommendations that do not reflect the current state of knowledge.

  6. Environmental policies to enhance technological change in the electricity sector (United States)

    Sunol Del Rio, Eric

    International agreements on climate change mitigation set quantitative carbon emission reduction targets in a country for a given year with respect to a given base year. A central question is then on what time do the new clean and costly technologies need to start functioning to comply with the agreed targets, and under what incentive does the market implement them. The planner's economic problem is to design an incentive that makes the new clean technology less costly than the vintage polluting facility, at the precise time in order to comply with the agreements at minimum cost. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on efficient allocation of pollution, discussing its validity to explain induced technological change. It then presents a simple model of technological change showing that market power determes the optimal adoption time of a new technology. Chapter 2 analyzes the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change under different paths of technological progress. Furthermore, the paper examines the influence of market conditions. It shows that emission charges do reduce the firm's optimal adoption time when investment cost paths for the new technology are convex. On the contrary, emission charges may delay the optimal the switching time of a technology when the investment cost path is concave. Chapter 3 explores the results of Chapter 2 in an agent-based model. Simulations of firms adjusting their output a la Cournot show that the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change is highly dependant on the number of firms in the market. Moreover, the shape of the technological progress curve is determinant: the effects of carbon charges are not linear on carbon price, and become more uncertain the more concave the investment cost path is. These results show that policies aiming at internalizing pollution costs enhance technological change at very different rates, depending on the actual market conditions in the industry and

  7. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas D.


    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  8. Health technology assessments as a mechanism for increased value for money: recommendations to the Global Fund. (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; McQueston, Kate; Glassman, Amanda; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Myint, Chaw Yin


    The Global Fund is experiencing increased pressure to optimize results and improve its impact per dollar spent. It is also in transition from a provider of emergency funding, to a long-term, sustainable financing mechanism. This paper assesses the efficacy of current Global Fund investment and examines how health technology assessments (HTAs) can be used to provide guidance on the relative priority of health interventions currently subsidized by the Global Fund. In addition, this paper identifies areas where the application of HTAs can exert the greatest impact and proposes ways in which this tool could be incorporated, as a routine component, into application, decision, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation processes. Finally, it addresses the challenges facing the Global Fund in realizing the full potential of HTAs.

  9. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Vance, E.F. [Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States)


    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  10. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the arctic (VACCA): Implementing recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides recommendations for how Norway's government could move forward with the results from the Arctic Council supported VACCA project, suggesting how concrete activities may be implemented and applied to policy and practice. Based on the results of interviews with Arctic peoples and people involved in Arctic work, combined with desk studies of relevant literature, four Arctic contexts are defined within the dividing lines coastal/non-coastal and urban/non-urban. This report provides up to five concrete recommendations within each context, recommendations for cross-contextual action, and specific projects for further research and action.(auth)

  11. The issue: Innovation, information technology and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This position paper by the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC) outlines the information technology community's position vis-a-vis the Federal Government's 'Climate Change Plan for Canada'. In general, the ITAC is in favour of the Government's plan, however, it asserts that the Plan falls short by not acknowledging the significant contributions that present and emerging information and communications technologies can make to the achievements of Canadian climate change goals. In this regard the paper draws attention to, and explains the significance of the actual and potential contributions made to climate change efforts by teleconferencing, video-conferencing, telecommuting, electronic commerce, and smart buildings technologies. 4 refs.

  12. Changing Academic Teaching with Web 2.0 Technologies (United States)

    Newland, Barbara; Byles, Linda


    Academic teaching can change with the use of Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, as these enable a different pedagogical approach through collaborative learning and the social construction of knowledge. Student expectations of their university learning experience have changed as they expect e-learning to be part of the learning…

  13. Technological changes in shea butter production in Ghana: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated technological changes in shea butter production in the Yendi District of Ghana and how processing could further be improved. A qualitative research and analysis of six communities and 36 shea butter processors in the Yendi District indicated that shea butter processors have changed from roasting ...

  14. Review, Analyses and Recommendations Related to Modern International Use of Nuclear Space Technologies with Focus on United States and Russia (United States)

    Smith, T.

    The current Administration under President Barack Obama has given NASA a new directive in manned spaceflight. Instead of building a fleet of Ares rockets with various load specifications to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) and return them to the Moon, the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan [1] states that NASA will develop ``integrated architecture and capabilities for safe crewed and cargo missions beyond Low Earth Orbit.'' The technologies developed within this architecture will take astronauts beyond the Moon, to destinations such as Mars or asteroids and will most likely require the use of Nuclear Space Technologies (NSTs).While there are other proposals for novel power generation and propulsion, such as fusion technology, these technologies are immature and it may be decades before they have demonstrated feasibility; in contrast NSTs are readily available, proven to work in space, and flight qualified. However, NSTs such as nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) may or may not reach completion - especially with the lack of a mission in which they may be developed. Prospects and progress in current NST projects, ranging from power sources to propulsion units, are explored within this study, mainly in the United States, with an overview of projects occurring in other countries. At the end of the study, recommendations are made in order to address budget and political realities, aerospace export control and nuclear non-proliferation programs, and international issues and potentials as related to NSTs. While this report is not fully comprehensive, the selection of chosen projects illustrates a range of issues for NSTs. Secondly, the reader would be keen to make a distinction between technologies that have flown in the past, projects that have been tested and developed yet not flown, and concepts that have not yet reached the bench for testing.





    Incumbent companies sometimes innovate and attempt to revitalise old technology-based products, in decline after technological change, by improvements of their technical performance and/or extensions of their lifetime into the market. The name of this innovation approach is "sailing ship effect," the acceleration of innovation in the old technology in response to the threat from the new. However, in theory firms could achieve revitalisation even by an alternative innovation approach based on ...

  16. Change, Technology and Higher Education: Are Universities Capable of Organisational Change? (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen


    Technology and change are so closely related that the use of the word innovation seems synonymous with technology in many contexts, including that of higher education. This paper contends that university culture and existing capability constrain such innovation and to a large extent determine the nature and extent of organisational change. In the…

  17. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Ertsen, Maurits; Sivapalan, Murugesu


    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  18. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity (United States)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.


    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  19. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 1. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)


    Mitigating climate change and achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations will require deep reductions in global emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Developing and disseminating new, low-carbon energy technology will thus be needed. Two previous AIXG papers have focused on possible drivers for such a profound technological change: Technology Innovation, Development and Diffusion, released in June 2003, and International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, released in June 2004. The first of these papers assesses a broad range of technical options for reducing energy-related CO2 emissions. It examines how technologies evolve and the role of research and development efforts, alternative policies, and short-term investment decisions in making long-term options available. It considers various policy tools that may induce technological change, some very specific, and others with broader expected effects. Its overall conclusion is that policies specifically designed to promote technical change, or 'technology push', could play a critical role in making available and affordable new energy technologies. However, such policies would not be sufficient to achieve the Convention's objective in the absence of broader policies. First, because there is a large potential for cuts that could be achieved in the short run with existing technologies; and second, the development of new technologies requires a market pull as much as a technology push. The second paper considers the potential advantages and disadvantages of international energy technology collaboration and transfer for promoting technological change. Advantages of collaboration may consist of lowering R and D costs and stimulating other countries to invest in R and D; disadvantage may include free-riding and the inefficiency of reaching agreement between many actors. This paper sets the context for further discussion on the role of

  20. Assessment of penetration through vacuum cleaners and recommendation of wet cyclone technology. (United States)

    Seo, Youngjin; Han, Taewon


    In many commercial vacuum cleaners, the captured aerosol particles contained in the dust collector may accidentally release from the exhaust filtration owing to leakage or penetration. Vacuum cleaners may cause dust to become airborne by exhausting air that is not completely filtered. This may cause the operator to inhale dust, in turn causing health problems. This study aimed to investigate the dust penetration rates from three commercial vacuum cleaners and suggest the best technique for completely filtering exhaust air using a combination of cyclonic separation and water filtration. The commercial vacuum cleaners were tested inside a custom-built hood, and the exhausted particles were monitored using a sampling probe in conjunction with an aerosol particle sizer Quartzose mineral dusts were added to each vacuum cleaner through the dust transport line. A 2400 L/min wet cyclone was employed as the proposed vacuum cleaner It was designed using Stokes scaling, and its collection characteristics were evaluated using polystyrene latex beads. Surprisingly, the conventional vacuum cleaners failed to capture an overall average of approximately 14% of the particles in the given size range. However, only approximately 3.8% of the collected particles escaped from the vacuum cleaner that used the wet cyclone technology. Thus, the proposed vacuum cleaner should potentially be an effective method for vacuuming household dust. The successful investigation of conventional vacuum cleaners is useful for both manufacturers and users. As an effective vacuum cleaning mechanism, household dust is able to migrate along the thin water, film that forms on the inner walls of the cyclone vacuum cleaner. It collects dust in a small water inflow (3 mL/min), which allows it to capture a higher percentage of contaminants than most of the currently available vacuum cleaners. The significantly low accidental exposure rates achieved by this new vacuum cleaner enable healthy conditions in various

  1. Models of change and the adoption of web technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr


    it connects the change motors. The analysis questions the assumption that participation always helps in overcoming resistance to change. Participation often leads to tensions and conflicts, especially when multiple motors and different change efforts are operating simultaneously. Practically, this application......This article illustrates how advanced theories of change are useful in understanding the actual adoption of emergent Internet technologies drawing on surveys of Nordic banks. The point of departure is Van de Ven and Poole's identification of four basic types of theories of change: life cycle......, teleological (including planned change), dialectical, and evolutionary theories. These theories are shown to provide a useful framework for examining the adoption and implementation of Internet technology at different stages. Especially, it is shown how participation can be included in the models and how...

  2. Practical impact of the evolution and changes of ICRP recommendations on radiological protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, S.; Almen, A. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics


    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has given recommendations concerning the radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy, as well as of the worker in medicine and dentistry. In spite of these earlier recommendations, the situation in medicine is far from optimal showing a wide distribution of patient doses among various departments and hospitals without any similar variation in diagnostic information. There is a special need to emphasise such areas, which have the potential of high patient dose and/or high risk, e.g. interventional radiography, computed tomography, and paediatric radiology. For medical exposures, ICRP (Publication 60) still indicates that if the practice is justified and the protection optimised, dose limits should not be applied. However, it does recommend the development of reference levels as a quantitative guide to optimisation. Consideration should also be given to potential accidents and intervention. (Author).

  3. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo


    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  4. Dynamics of energy systems: Methods of analysing technology change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neij, Lena


    Technology change will have a central role in achieving a sustainable energy system. This calls for methods of analysing the dynamics of energy systems in view of technology change and policy instruments for effecting and accelerating technology change. In this thesis, such methods have been developed, applied, and assessed. Two types of methods have been considered, methods of analysing and projecting the dynamics of future technology change and methods of evaluating policy instruments effecting technology change, i.e. market transformation programmes. Two methods are focused on analysing the dynamics of future technology change; vintage models and experience curves. Vintage models, which allow for complex analysis of annual streams of energy and technological investments, are applied to the analysis of the time dynamics of electricity demand for lighting and air-distribution in Sweden. The results of the analyses show that the Swedish electricity demand for these purposes could decrease over time, relative to a reference scenario, if policy instruments are used. Experience curves are used to provide insight into the prospects of diffusion of wind turbines and photo voltaic (PV) modules due to cost reduction. The results show potential for considerable cost reduction for wind-generated electricity, which, in turn, could lead to major diffusion of wind turbines. The results also show that major diffusion of PV modules, and a reduction of PV generated electricity down to the level of conventional base-load electricity, will depend on large investments in bringing the costs down (through R D and D, market incentives and investments in niche markets) or the introduction of new generations of PV modules (e.g. high-efficiency mass-produced thin-film cells). Moreover, a model has been developed for the evaluation of market transformation programmes, i.e. policy instruments that effect technology change and the introduction and commercialisation of energy

  5. Relationship between climate change and environmental risk's of forestry technologies (United States)

    Pécsinger, Judit; Polgár, András


    Environmental risk analysis of the technological aspects of forestry is an important complement to the climate research. Commonly used forestry technologies, like cleaning cutting or final harvest, causes various environmental effects which presents different environmental risks. Based on their material and energy deductions and emissions, they can contribute in different ways to global environmental problems such as climate change. Using environmental risk assessment we explored the newly emerging environmental hazards of the typical forestry technologies due to climate change. These hazards are known in terms of their properties (eg. aridification, toxic load etc), but the spatial appearance is novel. We investigated the possible stressor-response relationships, then estimated the expected exposure. In the risk characterization, we summarized information received in the previous steps. As a result we set up the risk matrices of the working systems of intermediate cutting and final harvest in the stands of beech, oak and spruce. In the matrices, the technologies ranked by values of Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) were placed in relation of the average temperature change (dT [° C]) of climate change scenarios. We defined the environmental risks in text form, specifying classes of risks: - I. Class: high risk - II. Class: medium risk - III. Class: low risk. The use of a risk matrix is an important complement to climate change decision-making when selecting the forestry technologies. It serves as a guideline for both foresters and decision makers. Keywords: climate change / environmental risk / risk assessment / forest technology's risk matrix Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by the Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1- 2013-0034 project.

  6. Have Recommended Book Lists Changed to Reflect Current Expectations for Informational Text in K-3 Classrooms? (United States)

    Dreher, Mariam Jean; Kletzien, Sharon B.


    Despite both longstanding and recent calls for more informational text in K-3 classrooms, research indicates that narrative text remains in the majority for read alouds, classroom libraries, and instruction, thus limiting children's opportunity to experience the demands of expository text. Because national associations' recommended book lists are…

  7. Technologies for climate change adaptation. The water sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T. De (ed.) (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Elliott, M.; Armstrong, A.; Lobuglio, J.; Bartram, J. (The Water Institute at the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))


    This guidebook aims to provide expert information on the technologies most relevant for climate change adaptation in the water sector in developing countries. It is meant to be a practical tool for use by a broad range of stakeholders, including those in governmental agencies, water utilities, community water boards, non-governmental organizations, and private sector companies. Adaptation is an essential element of human response to climate change. The adverse impacts of climate change on the water sector will be experienced worldwide and are often projected to be most severe in resource-poor countries. Therefore, it is necessary to have access to a diverse array of adaptation technologies and practices that are appropriate and affordable in various contexts. The scale of these adaptation technologies/practices should range from the individual household level (e.g. household water treatment), to the community scale (e.g. rainwater collection in small reservoirs), to large facilities that can benefit a city or region (e.g. a desalination plant). The guidebook first reviews the projected impacts of climate change on the water sector. It then addresses the role of adaptation in the water sector and six typologies under which available strategies are categorized. Eleven technologies and practices are given detailed treatment in this guidebook and four others are covered briefly. While these do not constitute all of the adaptation technologies available in the water sector, they do represent many of the most important adaptation technologies for developing countries. For each of the 11 adaptation technologies and practices, the following are addressed: basic description, contribution to climate change and development, institutional and capacity building requirements, costs, barriers and opportunities for implementation, and extensive reference to external resources and case studies. The practical steps and appropriate contexts for implementation are covered in the

  8. Organisational Change Management: A Case Study of Bristol Customer Service Centre: Evaluation and Recommendations


    Upadhyay, Angeli


    Change in today's economy is pervasive, continuous and often a rapid process. Since change has become a ubiquitous part of organisational dynamics, employees who resist change can be a detriment to the effective running of the organisation. Employee perceptions of change are an integral part of the change process. It is imperative for employers to understand and address employee perspectives, motivational factors, and concerns related to the change in order to help them through the proc...

  9. Technologies for climate change adaptation. Coastal erosion and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. (ed.) (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Linham, M.M.; Nicholls, R.J. (Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom))


    This guidebook is intended to be a practical tool for use by coastal zone managers in developing countries. The aim is to provide best practice guidance and assist these managers in assessing their evolving adaptation needs and help them to prepare action plans for adapting to climate change in the coastal zone. The guidebook first reviews the main physical and societal impacts of climate change in the coastal zone. It then considers the process of adaptation to erosion and flooding/inundation hazards where major impacts may occur and a range of adaptation technologies are best developed. Thirteen of these adaptation technologies are presented in this guide, representing examples of the protect, accommodate or (planned) retreat approaches to adaptation. While this does not represent an exhaustive list of the adaptation technologies that are available, these technologies are among those most widely used/considered in the coastal zone today. All the technologies considered are relevant to climate change adaptation and collectively, more widespread application is expected in the future under climate change and rising sea levels. For each adaptation technology the following issues are addressed: (1) definition and description; (2) technical advantages and disadvantages; (3) institutional and organisational requirements; (4) potential costs and opportunities; and (5) barriers to implementation; followed by a case study example. We have endeavoured to include developing country examples wherever possible, but as there is less activity and less documentation of developing world projects and some technologies are barely used in the developing world, this is not always possible. Knowledge and capacity building requirements and monitoring technologies are considered and contrasted across all 13 adaptation technologies. Finally, more detailed sources are indicated. Each adaptation technology has widely varying advantages and disadvantages. As such, selection of measures

  10. Recommendations for Tritium Science and Technology Research and Development in Support of the Tritium Readiness Campaign, TTP-7-084

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Between 2006 and 2012 the Tritium Readiness Campaign Development and Testing Program produced significant advances in the understanding of in-reactor TPBAR performance. Incorporating these data into existing TPBAR performance models has improved permeation predictions, and the discrepancy between predicted and observed tritium permeation in the WBN1 coolant has been decreased by about 30%. However, important differences between predicted and observed permeation still remain, and there are significant knowledge gaps that hinder the ability to reliably predict other aspects of TPBAR performance such as tritium distribution, component integrity, and performance margins. Based on recommendations from recent Tritium Readiness Campaign workshops and reviews coupled with technical and programmatic priorities, high-priority activities were identified to address knowledge gaps in the near- (3-5 year), middle- (5-10 year), and long-term (10+ year) time horizons. It is important to note that there are many aspects to a well-integrated research and development program. The intent is not to focus exclusively on one aspect or another, but to approach the program in a holistic fashion. Thus, in addition to small-scale tritium science studies, ex-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMED, and large-scale in-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMIST, a well-rounded research and development program must also include continued analysis of WBN1 performance data and post-irradiation examination of TPBARs and lead use assemblies to evaluate model improvements and compare separate-effects and integral component behavior.

  11. Change, technology and higher education: are universities capable of organisational change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Marshall


    Full Text Available Technology and change are so closely related that the use of the word innovation seems synonymous with technology in many contexts, including that of higher education. This paper contends that university culture and existing capability constrain such innovation and to a large extent determine the nature and extent of organisational change. In the absence of strong leadership, technologies are simply used as vehicles to enable changes that are already intended or which reinforce the current identity. These contentions are supported by evidence from e-learning benchmarking activities carried out over the past five years in universities in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.

  12. The Changing World of the DSO in a Smart Energy System Environment : Key Issues and Policy Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna; Lavrijssen, Saskia; Trias Lopez, Ana


    Technological developments – summarised by the term ‘Smart Energy System’ – as well as changes on the supply and demand side of the electricity market (such as the growth of distributed generation and the deployment of charging stations for electric vehicles), are fundamentally changing and

  13. Pharmacotherapy for mood disorders in pregnancy: a review of pharmacokinetic changes and clinical recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring. (United States)

    Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Byatt, Nancy; Freeman, Marlene P


    Pharmacotherapy for mood disorders during pregnancy is often complicated by pregnancy-related pharmacokinetic changes and the need for dose adjustments. The objectives of this review are to summarize the evidence for change in perinatal pharmacokinetics of commonly used pharmacotherapies for mood disorders, discuss the implications for clinical and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), and make clinical recommendations. The English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE/PubMed was searched for original observational studies (controlled and uncontrolled, prospective and retrospective), case reports, and case series that evaluated or described pharmacokinetic changes or TDM during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Pregnancy-associated changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination may result in lowered psychotropic drug levels and possible treatment effects, particularly in late pregnancy. Mechanisms include changes in both phase 1 hepatic cytochrome P450 and phase 2 uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase enzyme activities, changes in hepatic and renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate. Therapeutic drug monitoring, in combination with clinical monitoring, is indicated for tricyclic antidepressants and mood stabilizers during the perinatal period. Substantial pharmacokinetic changes can occur during pregnancy in a number of commonly used antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Dose increases may be indicated for antidepressants including citalopram, clomipramine, imipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, and sertraline, especially late in pregnancy. Antenatal dose increases may also be needed for lithium, lamotrigine, and valproic acid because of perinatal changes in metabolism. Close clinical monitoring of perinatal mood disorders and TDM of tricyclic antidepressants and mood stabilizers are recommended.

  14. U.S. Climate Change Technology Program: Strategic Plan (United States)


    Biomass refers to both biomass residues (agricultural wastes such as corn stover and rice hulls, forest residues, pulp and paper wastes, animal wastes...gallon of ethanol, assuming a cost of $45 per dry ton of corn stover .20 ◆ Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass. Thermochemical technology uses heat to...changes in ocean chemistry ; (6) maintaining in situ observing systems to characterize local-scale dynamics of the carbon cycle under changing climatic

  15. Technology change priorities influencing competition quality promotion: Case study of Iran Keaton Polyester Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Nour


    Full Text Available In the changing world with various customers’ demands the businesses tend to improve their advantages to beat their rivals by means of better quality, lower prices and so. For Iranian polyester market quality is of crucial importance and is achieved through changing and updating technologies. According to highly regarded model of CAPTECH, which is recommended by UNIDO, technology parameters are defined in each phase and not generally as a whole. In the end the biggest gaps are defined. The main goal is to prioritize the main parameters affecting Iranian polyester company's quality. In order to fulfill our goal, 20 high and medium managers were questioned for this paper. The questions were gathered according to UNIDO samples. After a qualitative and quantitative test we concluded that the biggest gap is for supply chain(56.91 and the lowest gap is for combination phase(43.97.

  16. Preserving Heritage Through Technology in a City Undergoing Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Mathias; Nielsen, Emil; van Heijster, Seth


    Recent developments in information and communication technology have advanced the connectivity of cities, both in terms of scope and efficiency. The connected nature of a city is one of the key characteristics of the concept of a smart city; a modern city whose urban growth is fueled by technology...... for the preservation of a city’s threatened heritage. The present paper aims to place a city’s heritage in the context of a smart city, and how it is affected by such urban development. Using Aalborg in Denmark as a case study, this paper presents a potential way to use recent technological advancements to transfer......, infrastructure, and an emphasis on social and educational capital. Such growth affects the physical and social landscape of a city, and both the tangible and intangible heritage of a city is threatened by these changing landscapes. At the same time, new technology brings with it potential new methods...

  17. Changing Models for Researching Pedagogy with Information and Communications Technologies (United States)

    Webb, M.


    This paper examines changing models of pedagogy by drawing on recent research with teachers and their students as well as theoretical developments. In relation to a participatory view of learning, the paper reviews existing pedagogical models that take little account of the use of information and communications technologies as well as those that…

  18. Anticipating Technological Change: Combinatorial Chemistry and the Environment (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is to speculate, or suggest, how combinatorial chemistry may influence the environment and environmental policy...Technological change is frequently identified as a primary determinant of how human activities affect the environment and human health. Yet policy makers often

  19. Effect Of Technological Change On Output And Factor Shares In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normalized Cobb-Douglas profit function indirectly estimated the partial elasticities of the Cobb-Douglas production functions with constant returns to scale for potato in Jos Plateau. Keywords: Technological change, Cobb-Douglas and Profit functions ,Factor shares. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol.

  20. The Teaching of Anthropogenic Climate Change and Earth Science via Technology-Enabled Inquiry Education (United States)

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark


    A gap has existed between the tools and processes of scientists working on anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) and the technologies and curricula available to educators teaching the subject through student inquiry. Designing realistic scientific inquiry into AGCC poses a challenge because research on it relies on complex computer models, globally distributed data sets, and complex laboratory and data collection procedures. Here we examine efforts by the scientific community and educational researchers to design new curricula and technology that close this gap and impart robust AGCC and Earth Science understanding. We find technology-based teaching shows promise in promoting robust AGCC understandings if associated curricula address mitigating factors such as time constraints in incorporating technology and the need to support teachers implementing AGCC and Earth Science inquiry. We recommend the scientific community continue to collaborate with educational researchers to focus on developing those inquiry technologies and curricula that use realistic scientific processes from AGCC research and/or the methods for determining how human society should respond to global change.

  1. Digital Health Technologies to Promote Lifestyle Change and Adherence. (United States)

    Khan, Numan; Marvel, Francoise A; Wang, Jane; Martin, Seth S


    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an estimated 17.5 million deaths annually, or 31% of all global deaths, according to the World Health Organization. The majority of these deaths are preventable by addressing lifestyle modification (i.e., smoking cessation, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) and promoting medication adherence. At present, initiatives to develop cost-effective modalities to support self-management, lifestyle modification, and medication adherence are a leading priority. Digital health has rapidly emerged as technology with the potential to address this gap in cardiovascular disease self-management and transform the way healthcare has been traditionally delivered. However, limited evidence exists about the type of technologies available and how they differ in functionality, effectiveness, and application. We aimed to review the most important and relevant recent studies addressing health technologies to promote lifestyle change and medication adherence including text messaging, applications ("apps"), and wearable devices. The current literature indicates that digital health technologies will likely play a prominent role in future cardiovascular disease management, risk reduction, and delivery of care in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. However, there is limited large-scale evidence to support adoption of existing interventions. Further clinical research and healthcare policy change are needed to move the promise of new digital health technologies towards reality.

  2. Recommendations for the shallow-crack fracture toughness testing task within the HSST (Heavy-Section Steel Technology) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    Recommendations for Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program's investigation into the influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of a steel prototypic of those in a reactor pressure vessel are included in this report. The motivation for this investigation lies in the fact that probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluations show that shallow flaws play a dominant role in the likelihood of vessel failure, and shallow-flaw specimens have exhibited an elevated toughness compared with conventional deep-notch fracture toughness specimens. Accordingly, the actual margin of safety of vessels may be greater than that predicted using existing deep-notch fracture-toughness results. The primary goal of the shallow-crack project is to investigate the influence of crack depth on fracture toughness under conditions prototypic of a reactor vessel. A limited data base of fracture toughness values will be assembled using a beam specimen of prototypic reactor vessel material and with a depth of 100 mm (4 in.). This will permit comparison of fracture-toughness data from deep-cracked and shallow-crack specimens, and this will be done for several test temperatures. Fracture-toughness data will be expressed in terms of the stress-intensity factor and crack-tip-opening displacement. Results of this investigation are expected to improve the understanding of shallow-flaw behavior in pressure vessels, thereby providing more realistic information for application to the pressurized-thermal shock issues. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius JB


    Full Text Available Judith B Cornelius,1 Josephine A Appiah2 1School of Nursing, 2Health Services Research Doctoral Program, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. Keywords: mobile, safe sex, sexual health, practices, recommendations

  4. Cervical cancer screening in Australia: modelled evaluation of the impact of changing the recommended interval from two to three years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Kirsten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that sexually active women between the ages of 18-70 years attend routine screening every 2 years. The publically funded National HPV Vaccination Program commenced in 2007, with catch-up in females aged 12-26 years conducted until 2009; and this may prompt consideration of whether the screening interval and other aspects of the organized screening program could be reviewed. The aim of the current evaluation was to assess the epidemiologic outcomes and cost implications of changing the recommended screening interval in Australia to 3 years. Methods We used a modelling approach to evaluate the effects of moving to a 3-yearly recommended screening interval. We used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry over the period 1997-2007 to model compliance with routine screening under current practice, and registry data from other countries with 3-yearly recommendations to inform assumptions about future screening behaviour under two alternative systems for screening organisation - retention of a reminder-based system (as in New Zealand, or a move to a call-and-recall system (as in England. Results A 3-yearly recommendation is predicted to be of similar effectiveness to the current 2-yearly recommendation, resulting in no substantial change to the total number of incident cervical cancer cases or cancer deaths, or to the estimated 0.68% average cumulative lifetime risk of cervical cancer in unvaccinated Australian women. However, a 3-yearly screening policy would be associated with decreases in the annual number of colposcopy and biopsy procedures performed (by 4-10% and decreases in the number of treatments for pre-invasive lesions (by 2-4%. The magnitude of the decrease in the number of diagnostic procedures and treatments would depend on the method of screening organization, with call-and-recall screening associated with the highest reductions. The

  5. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D. [Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)


    This paper is the last in an AIXG (Annex 1 Expert Group of the UNFCC) series that looks at international collaboration, particularly for energy technologies, in the context of climate change mitigation. The papers and case studies point out that there is little information to indicate that technology collaboration alone leads to emission reductions on the scale needed to limit growth in greenhouse gas emissions. For many energy production and consumption activities, technology change is a slow process. So to improve the environmental performance of energy technologies and accelerate their uptake, governments need a portfolio approach that includes technology and complementary economic and social policies that provide an adequate framework for essential private sector investment. As the papers and case studies show, international collaboration can help in the quest by speeding momentum, sharing risks, exchanging knowledge and resources, sharing learning investments and harmonising standards. The incentives for collaboration include the need to 'learn' from technical and operational solutions and failed approaches of others, to improve the reliability of tools and techniques, to develop standards across market areas and to foster technical expertise for regulatory and standard setting processes. Technology collaboration can also provide a framework for long-term co-operation on climate change and energy challenges in which Annex I and Non-Annex I Parties can participate. The rationale for governments to engage in international collaboration is considered in the second part of this paper including the benefits and possible drawbacks of co-operative endeavours. Long-term and large-scale transformative energy technologies and systems that entail significant costs and risks are well suited for broad collaboration, as illustrated in the examples of hydrogen-fuel cells and fusion power (see annex) and carbon capture and storage. As new technologies progress

  6. Technological Change and Skills Development. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A. (United States)

    Bernard, Elaine

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document examines the relationship between technological change and skills development. The following topics are discussed: the new technological…

  7. American brachytherapy society recommends no change for prostate permanent implant dose prescriptions using iodine-125 or palladium-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J. [Tufts-New England Medical Center, Dept. of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Boston, MA (United States); Butler, W.M.; Merrick, G.S. [Wheeling Jesuit Univ., Schiffler Cancer Center, WV (United States); Devlin, P.M. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Hayes, J.K. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Hearn, R.A. [Gamma West Brachytherapy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lief, E.P. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States); Meigooni, A.S. [Kentucky Univ., Dept. of Radiation Medicine, Lexington, KY (United States); Williamson, J.F. [Medical College of Virginia, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Richmond, VA (United States)


    Purpose - In 2004, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) issued a report outlining recommended {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd datasets for consistency in calculating brachytherapy dose distributions. In 2005, to aid evaluating the clinical impact of implementing these datasets, the AAPM assessed the historical dependence of how prescribed doses differed from administered doses for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd for permanent implantation of the prostate. Consequently, the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) considered the nature of these changes towards issuing recommended dose prescriptions for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd interstitial brachytherapy implants for mono-therapy and standard boosts. Methods and materials - An investigation was performed of the 2005 AAPM analysis to determine changes in administered dose while affixing prescribed dose using 2004 AAPM {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy dosimetry datasets for prostate implants. For {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, administered dose would change by +1.4% and +4.2%, respectively. The biological and societal impact of changing prescribed dose was considered. Results - Based on the need for clinical constancy and in recognition of overall uncertainties, the ABS recommends immediate implementation of the 2004 AAPM consensus brachytherapy dosimetry datasets and no changes to {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd dose prescriptions at this time. Conclusions - Radiation oncologists should continue to prescribe mono-therapy doses of 145 Gy and 125 Gy for {sup 125}I and {sup 105}Pd, respectively, and standard boost doses of 100-110 Gy and 90-100 Gy for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, respectively. (authors)

  8. Statements Relating to the Impact of Technological Change. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix, Volume VI. (United States)

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Forty-seven statements by industrial and business spokesmen, union and association representatives, and professors concern the broad impact of technological change on individuals, establishments, and society in general. Some of the longer presentations are (1) "The Poverty and Unemployment Crisis," by Walter Buckingham, (2) "Technological…

  9. Evaluation of technological measures to cope with climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Yulchi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Onogawa Tsukuba (Japan)


    Because the global warming (climate change) is recognized as a highly probable phenomenon in the next century, the countermeasures to cope with this issue is really Important. International discussion Is progressing towards the conclusion of the treaty to stabilize global warming. Therefore, now is the time to take concrete action to reduce the emission to the greenhouse gases (GHG). To find the way to reduce the emission of the GHG, the procedure as next should be taken. (1) Systematic estimation of GHG emission (GHG analysis), (2) Identification of conventional and Innovative technologies, (3) Assessment of individual sectoral technologies, (4) Comprehensive evaluation of countermeasures as a whole. Both in the U.S.A. and Japan, this kind of research have been made independently. Among these processes, the standard methodologies should be established on the GHG analysis, the assessment of individual technologies and the comprehensive evaluation. From such a background, it is important to discuss the way to evaluate technological measures to cope with climate change between the specialist from the U.S.A. and Japan. And still required to search the possibility to establish a joint project between both countries.

  10. ``Beautiful and cantankerous instruments'': telescopes, technology, and astronomy's changing practice (United States)

    McCray, W. Patrick


    Between the dedication of the 200” Hale Telescope in 1948 and the completion of today’s 8-10 m behemoths, astronomers’ most iconic symbol, the telescope itself—its design, its technology, and its use—was transformed as a research tool. The importance of this is deceptively simple: in astronomy, technological innovations have often led to new discoveries. Driven by the need to get as much observing time as possible and the desire to take advantage of the best observing conditions, modern observatories have experimented with new technologies and modes of collecting images and spectra. This entailed a re-casting of the telescope by astronomers and science managers as a factory of scientific data. At the same time, contemporary astronomers express considerable unease and apprehension about how these technological changes have altered, in ways subtle and profound, the nature of astronomical observing and what it meant to be an astronomer. This short essay addresses the issues associated with these recent changes in astronomical practice and their connections to astronomers’ desire for ever larger and more complex telescopes.

  11. Reframing climate change assessments around risk: recommendations for the US National Climate Assessment (United States)

    Weaver, C. P.; Moss, R. H.; Ebi, K. L.; Gleick, P. H.; Stern, P. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Wilson, R. S.; Arvai, J. L.


    Climate change is a risk management challenge for society, with uncertain but potentially severe outcomes affecting natural and human systems, across generations. Managing climate-related risks will be more difficult without a base of knowledge and practice aimed at identifying and evaluating specific risks, and their likelihood and consequences, as well as potential actions to promote resilience in the face of these risks. We suggest three improvements to the process of conducting climate change assessments to better characterize risk and inform risk management actions.

  12. Recommendations arising from an analysis of changes to the Australian agricultural research, development and extension system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Vanclay, Frank; Coutts, Jeff

    The business of agricultural research, development and extension (RD&E) has undergone considerable change in Australia since the late 1980s, moving from a domain largely dominated by government departments to a situation of multiple actors, and where rural industries now directly contribute funds

  13. Safe use of mine winding rope, volume 2: recommendations for changes in rope safety factors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecker, GFK


    Full Text Available The steering committee on factors of safety of winder ropes has appointed a working group to draw up a set of proposals for changing the regulations governing the required rope strength in the Minerals Act. Certain research projects have been...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rechkemmer


    Full Text Available In a world that is becoming more and more exposed and vulnerable to the effects of global climate change, combining integrated risk assessment tools with effective strategies for both mitigation and adaptation is a key prerogative for policy-making. With the focus of both researchers and decision-makers gradually shifting from observing and assessing the bio-physical aspects of climate change to a more human and society centered understanding of the nature of the problem, the social, behavioral, economic and technological aspects have entered center stage of the public discourse. Responses to the climate change challenge have to establish an optimal interplay between mitigation, adaptation and socio-economic instruments. Yet, given the band-width and scale of the climate problematique and its projected impacts, very ambitious mitigation measures have to be undertaken without delays, a fact that is particularly true for emerging economies with their very rapid and unprecedented growth rates, both in GDP and GHG emissions terms. The challenge for the next years is to harmonize poverty eradication and attaining the Millenium Development Goals through stable economic growth with mitigating the effects of climate change. Therefore, “inclusive green growth” has become the motto of the day. But how can this goal be achieved? Obviously, quite fundamental changes have to be introduced that affect both the production and the consumption sectors and allow for real innovation in technologies and energy, in urban mobility, infrastructure and transportation grids. This paper illustrates the deep social and societal nature of climate change response strategies, especially in the area of mitigation, and shows that transitions to green and low-carbon economies will have to embed policies, incentive schemes and economic instruments in a larger societal context of social learning and behavioral change.

  15. Examining Educational Climate Change Technology: How Group Inquiry Work with Realistic Scientific Technology Alters Classroom Learning (United States)

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark


    This study with 79 students in Montreal, Quebec, compared the educational use of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) global climate model (GCM) to climate education technologies developed for classroom use that included simpler interfaces and processes. The goal was to show how differing climate education technologies succeed and fail at getting students to evolve in their understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC). Many available climate education technologies aim to convey key AGCC concepts or Earth systems processes; the educational GCM used here aims to teach students the methods and processes of global climate modeling. We hypothesized that challenges to learning about AGCC make authentic technology-enabled inquiry important in developing accurate understandings of not just the issue but how scientists research it. The goal was to determine if student learning trajectories differed between the comparison and treatment groups based on whether each climate education technology allowed authentic scientific research. We trace learning trajectories using pre/post exams, practice quizzes, and written student reflections. To examine the reasons for differing learning trajectories, we discuss student pre/post questionnaires, student exit interviews, and 535 min of recorded classroom video. Students who worked with a GCM demonstrated learning trajectories with larger gains, higher levels of engagement, and a better idea of how climate scientists conduct research. Students who worked with simpler climate education technologies scored lower in the course because of lower levels of engagement with inquiry processes that were perceived to not actually resemble the work of climate scientists.

  16. Conflicts of interests in the area of healthcare products and technology. Current state of affairs and recommendations. (United States)

    Demarez, Jean-Paul; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Molimard, Mathieu


    The handling of conflicts of interest in the area of healthcare products and technology has become a major issue for all of those involved in healthcare. Round Table N°4 at the Giens Workshops 2011 has put forward concrete proposals to clarify and optimise the handling of conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest cannot be defined by the individuals consulted or applying for funds since each institution, whether public or private, that puts out a call for projects or that requests advice, analyses or expert testimony in the healthcare field has different degrees of what it defines as a conflict of interest, depending on the context of the proposal or specific request that it puts out. In contrast, each individual has ties of personal interest that can and must be openly disclosed. The ties are much more diverse than what is commonly found in the conflict of interest statements of large institutions operating in the healthcare field and are not limited to financial and operational ties between companies and individuals. In addition, the statements are difficult to manage because of their sheer number. The Round Table recommends that each individual should openly disclose all of his or her ties of personal interest in a Single Statement of Ties of personal Interest (SSTI). The SSTI would be updated regularly and accessible on line. Each institution could then determine whether or not the reported ties represent a conflict in the context of the mission proposed. Each institution could publish in advance the conditions that would give rise to a conflict and, in this way, an individual could refrain from applying for the mission. Other practical approaches to handling conflicts of interest were put forward. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. I.T. Changes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Motivation, Trust, and Resistance to Change in Information Technology (United States)

    Culmer, Nathan Paul


    Change is an organizational inevitability. There are few fields that undergo change more rapidly than information technology. Keeping up with the pace of change in a field so inclined toward change may take a unique toll on workers in information technology. Yet, little has been done to investigate workers' orientations towards change in this…

  18. Climate Change Policies for the XXIst Century: Mechanisms, Predictions and Recommendations


    Khmelinskii, Igor; Stallinga, Peter


    Recent experimental works demonstrated that the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) hypothesis, embodied in a series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global climate models, is erroneous. These works prove that atmospheric carbon dioxide contributes only very moderately to the observed warming, and that there is no climatic catastrophe in the making, independent on whether or not carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced. In view of these developments, we discuss climate predi...

  19. Changing the way we do business: recommendations to accelerate biomarker development in pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Tempero, Margaret A; Klimstra, David; Berlin, Jordan; Hollingsworth, Tony; Kim, Paula; Merchant, Nipun; Moore, Malcolm; Pleskow, Doug; Wang-Gillam, Andrea; Lowy, Andrew M


    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most aggressive of all epithelial malignancies. In contrast to the favorable trends seen in most other common malignancies, the five-year survival of patients with this disease remains only 6%, a statistic that has changed minimally for decades. Only two drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in pancreatic cancer in the last 15 years, and there are no established strategies for early detection.

  20. Changing Skills for a Changing World: Recommendations for Adult Literacy Policy in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Occasional Paper Series. (United States)

    Johnson, Alice H.

    This report summarizes issues facing New Zealand's modern adult literacy movement and places it in the context of the rapidly changing skill demands of the 21st century. Part I introduces political, economic, and social issues facing New Zealand. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the issues and structures that create the current climate. Part II…

  1. Participation during major technological change and low back pain. (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Dubi, Miriam; Semmer, Norbert K


    The development of IT involves major changes in many work settings. Theories of organizational change predict negative consequences of change-related work load on back pain to be less when employees participate in the planning and implementation of change. In a longitudinal field study the effects of participation in the introduction of a new internet service were tested. 29 employees (16 f, 13 m) of a municipal office were studied before, at the end of, and 6 months after implementation of an electronic service. Their participation in the planning and implementation of the project, psychosocial working conditions and back pain were assessed using standardized validated questions. 15 employees said that they had no influence on the project or were only informed of it, while 14 employees said that they could make suggestions, or even take part in decision-making. The two groups did not differ in experience of back pain six months before the project was started, but the group with low participation possibilities had significantly more back pain after the implementation of the project (p=0.021). There was no change in back pain in those employees who had sufficient possibilities of participation. Prevention of work related back pain during phases of technological change should involve employees in planning and implementation.

  2. Reducing risk for children in changing cultural contexts: recommendations for intervention and training. (United States)

    Roer-Strier, D


    This paper proposes guidelines to both parents and professionals for the prevention and reduction of risk associated with cultural differences, conflicts and misinterpretations. These guidelines are based on a conceptual framework derived from the multicultural reality of Israeli society and are supported by a growing corpus of studies on cross-cultural child development, immigration and minority families. The paper is based on a conceptual model followed by practical implications for training and intervention. Central to this paper is the concept of the "adaptive adult" which serves as a guiding metaphor for the organization of socialization goals, child-rearing ideologies, perceptions and values of socializing agents in a given culture or group. Childcare practices are defined as adaptive strategies, that is, means for socializing children to become "successful adults." The paper describes different types of "adaptive adult" metaphor (e.g., past and future oriented), and discusses images held by groups who have experienced either a duality of private and public culture or changes in their cultural contexts. The paper further explores and exemplifies the potential contributions of the proposed framework for a five step intervention plan with parents and for training of professionals in multicultural contexts. Children of families in changing cultural contexts are often considered to be at risk for maltreatment. This is because such families may experience sociocultural and socioeconomic change and a loss of their former support networks. Parental acculturation stress and related dysfunction might also affect children. The risk increases when children are exposed to systems with conflicting socialization goals and with contradictory definitions of desirable child-care or supervision frameworks. Conflicts and clashes between parents and socializing agents have been found to have long-term detrimental effects on children and families. Cultural differences may also

  3. Climate Change Policies for the XXIst Century: Mechanisms, Predictions and Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Khmelinskii, Igor


    Recent experimental works demonstrated that the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) hypothesis, embodied in a series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global climate models, is erroneous. These works prove that atmospheric carbon dioxide contributes only very moderately to the observed warming, and that there is no climatic catastrophe in the making, independent on whether or not carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced. In view of these developments, we discuss climate predictions for the XXIst century. Based on the solar activity tendencies, a new Little Ice Age is predicted by the middle of this century, with significantly lower global temperatures. We also show that IPCC climate models can't produce any information regarding future climate, due to essential physical phenomena lacking in those, and that the current budget deficit in many EU countries is mainly caused by the policies promoting renewable energies and other AGW-motivated measures. In absence of any predictable adverse climate...

  4. Information and Communication Technology and Cultural Change How ICT Changes Self-Construal and Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nina; Postmes, Tom; van der Vinne, Nikita; van Thiel, Wendy


    This paper studies whether and how information and communication technology (ICT) changes self-construal and cultural values in a developing country. Ethiopian children were given laptops in the context of an ICT for development scheme. We compared children who used laptops (n = 69) with a control

  5. Health technology assessment of drugs for rare diseases: insights, trends, and reasons for negative recommendations from the CADTH common drug review. (United States)

    Janoudi, Ghayath; Amegatse, William; McIntosh, Brendan; Sehgal, Chander; Richter, Trevor


    A shift in biochemical research towards drugs for rare diseases has created new challenges for the pharmaceutical industry, government regulators, health technology assessment agencies, and public and private payers. In this article, we aim to comprehensively review, characterize, identify possible trends, and explore reasons for negative reimbursement recommendations in submissions made to the Common Drug Review (CDR) for drugs for rare diseases (DRD) at the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), a publicly funded pan-Canadian health technology assessment agency. A public database ( was screened to identify DRD submissions to CDR. A diseases prevalence of ≤50 per 100,000 people was considered a rare disease. We calculated descriptive statistics for prevalence, study design, study size, treatment cost, reimbursement recommendation types, and reasons for negative reimbursement recommendations. From 2004 to 2015, 63 of 434 submissions to the CDR were for DRD (range: 1 submission in 2005 to 10 submissions in 2013). Most (74.6%) submissions included at least one double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). The average study size was 190 patients (range: 20 to 742). The average annual treatment cost was C$215,631 (range: $9,706 to $940,084). Reimbursement recommendations were positive for 54% of the submissions. Negative reimbursement recommendations were made due to a lack of clinical effectiveness (38.5%), insufficient evidence (30.8%), multiple reasons (23.1%), or lack of cost effectiveness/high cost (7.7%). The number of DRD submissions to CDR increased since 2013; from 4 to 5 per year between 2004 and 2012, to 10, 9, and 8 in 2013, 2014, and 2015 respectively. More than half of DRD submissions received positive reimbursement recommendation. Poor quality evidence and/or lack of supportive clinical evidence was at least partly responsible for a negative reimbursement recommendation in all cases. Although the average cost of DRD

  6. Foreign Ownership and Skill-biased Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Michael; Smolka, Marcel

    Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle on the relat......Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle...... firms due to access to foreign markets through the foreign parent. This market size effect, coupled with a technology-skill complementarity, raises the demand for high-skilled workers as well as worker training upon acquisition. The largest productivity gains predicted by the model accrue to those firms...... empirical evidence that foreign-acquired firms, not only increase their technology level, but also engage in skill upgrading upon acquisition (through both hiring and training). Moreover, we show that these changes are driven by the market size effect, and not by changes in the ownership structure per se...

  7. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.


    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of

  8. Bilateral Relationship between Technological Changes and Income Inequality in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirine MNIF


    Full Text Available The work focuses on the analysis of the bilateral relationship between technological changes and inequality. First, it focus on the impact of technological innovations on inequality and the theory of Skills Biased Technological Changes (SBTC. Given technology can produce inequality; what is the impact of these inequalities on the distribution and the production technologies? Conversely, it´s interested in, the transmission channels through which inequality affect technological changes. And that being said, let's enrich the interactions between inequality and technological changes. The empirical validation is based on the technique of Panel data for a sample of developing countries. The paper concludes that a positive relationship of technological changes on inequality seems to be confirmed. Increased innovation increases inequality. And a negative effect of inequality on technological changes also seems to be confirmed. Rising inequality hampers technological innovations.

  9. The Influence Of Globalisation And Modern Technological Changes On Manufacturing Industries In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri M. Triki


    Full Text Available Globalisation and new technologies are having an intense impact on the manufacturing industries. This is affecting business global and might demand new strategies and policies for manufacturing companies. Libya like several other countries in the Middle East and also is among the few developing African economies has been facing problems related to its productivity in industrial sector. Manufacturing industries in Libya was reared to offer better products and services as part of the government plans to reconstruct their economy and improve its industrial companies. So as to face these problems manufacturing sectors need to increase their production and they also require a clear strategy and policies towards an efficient supply chain about modern technology. A new technology is one of the improvement initiatives that can be used to enhance industrial performance competitiveness and decrease its costs by eliminating of waste and increasing added value activities. The significance of new technology and modern systems in the industrial world has enhanced in this decade because of the benefits that they bring to the factories and companies. The aims of this research is to investigate new technology strategies that will enable the Libyan manufacturing industries to shift towards an increase production and reduce its costs as well as to quantify the modern technological changes and the role of globalisation in addition to declaration of its effect on the growth additionally development of the Libyan industrial sector and competitiveness lastly moreover this survey make a recommendations to establish systems that improve the emergent needs of the national industrial sector.

  10. Changes in productivity and profitability of wool-growing farms that follow recommendations from agricultural and veterinary studies. (United States)

    Lean, G R; Vizard, A L; Ware, J K


    To estimate the changes in productivity and profitability in a group of wool-growing farms as they adopted major recommendations from agricultural and veterinary studies. FARMS: Four wool-growing farms in south western Victoria were selected from the clients of the Mackinnon Project, a farm consultancy service run from the University of Melbourne. Each farm had closely followed recommended procedures, kept comprehensive financial and physical records and had been clients for at least 5 years. The comparison group was the South Western Victoria Monitor Farm Project (SWVMFP), about 45 farms in the same region as the study farms that were monitored annually by Agriculture Victoria. For a 7-year period, the financial and physical performance of both groups of farms was estimated. Stocking rate, wool production, gross farm income, farm operating costs, net farm income and return on assets were compared. Mean gross farm income of the four study farms steadily rose from 86% of the average SWVMFP farm before the adoption of recommendations to an average of 155%. During the same period, net farm income rose from 70% to 207% of the average of the SWVMFP. Return on asset of the four farms rose irregularly from 26% to 145% of the average of the SWVMFP. Farm operating costs on the four farms were higher than for the SWVMFP group, but the ratio of costs remained relatively constant. The adoption of proven research results was associated with large increases in net farm income. An increase in gross income, rather than a reduction in costs was the main reason for this. Research results offer a way to increase the financial viability of wool-growing farmers, many of whom are currently unable to maintain their lifestyle, resources and infrastructure.

  11. Are changes in breast self-exam recommendations and early misperceptions of breast cancer risk increasing women's future risks? (United States)

    Polek, Carolee; Hardie, Thomas


    Young women, high school age, are exposed to breast cancer messages targeting adult women that can result in misperceptions, increasing future risks. Changes in breast self-exam screening recommendations may reduce nurse practitioner (NP) time addressing breast health. This study characterized misperceived knowledge of breast cancer risk in younger women. A survey (338 high school students aged 14 to 19) was conducted to assess their perceptions of breast cancer etiologies and risk behaviors. Survey results indicated 20% to 50% of students had misperceptions about breast cancer risk, and the mean knowledge score for all items was 65.47%. There were no differences in students with familial breast cancer histories or those instructed in breast self-exam. Approximately 12% reported being fearful, avoiding public health messages, and approximately 20% thought breastfeeding increased breast cancer risk. The findings suggest that school-based programs are not addressing misperceptions related to breast health effectively. A National Cancer Institute survey found that NPs and other providers are the most trusted sources of health information. Given the low rates of breast cancer in young women and recommendations against teaching breast self-exam, it is important for NPs to be knowledgeable about common misperceptions and address them with their patients. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Underdeveloped or underreported? Coverage of pretesting practices and recommendations for design of text message-based health behavior change interventions. (United States)

    Fitts Willoughby, Jessica; Furberg, Robert


    Text messaging interventions for health are becoming increasingly popular, but it is unclear how rigorously such interventions are developed and pretested before being implemented. Pretesting is important to the development of successful health communication interventions. This study reviewed the literature published on text messaging health behavior change interventions and examined pretesting practices. Results showed that pretesting is rarely mentioned in articles, although it is not clear as to why. Six articles mentioned pretesting practices conducted for their mobile intervention, and three articles were written specifically on the pretesting of an intervention. Most pretesting used qualitative methods. Recommendations are provided on pretesting best practices and pretesting reporting to help other researchers in the field of mobile health.

  13. Future of printing: changes and challenges, technologies and markets (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut


    Digitalization within the graphic arts industry is described and it is explained how it is improving and changing the print production strategies and which new kinds of print production systems are developed or can be expected. The relationship of printed media and electronic media is analyzed and a positioning for the next century is given. The state of the art of conventional printing technologies, especially using direct imagine techniques, and their position within the digital workflow are shortly described. Non-impact printing multicolor printing systems are explained, based on general design criteria and linked to existing and newly announced equipment. The use of high-tech components for building up successful systems with high reliability, high quality and low production costs is included with some examples. Digital printing systems open many opportunities in print production: distributed printing, personalization, print and book on demand are explained as examples. The overview of the several printing technologies and their positioning regarding quality and productivity leads to the scenario about the important position of printed media, also in the distant future.

  14. NATO Conference on Work, Organizations, and Technological Change

    CERN Document Server

    Niehaus, Richard


    This volume is the proceedings of the Symposium entitled, "Work, Organizations and Technological Change" which was held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany, 14-19 June 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the Special Panel on Systems Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division. In proposing this meeting the Symposium Directors built upon several preceding NATO conferences in the general area of personnel systems, manpower modelling, and organization. The most recent NATO Conference, entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design," was held in Stresa, Italy in 1977. That meeting was organized to foster research on the interrelationships between programmatic approaches to personnel planning within organizations and behavioral science approachs to organization design. From that context of corporate planning the total internal organizational perspective was the MACRO view, and the selection, assignment, care and feeding of the people was the MICRO view. Conceptually, this meant that an integrated appr...

  15. Designing healthcare information technology to catalyse change in clinical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lester


    Full Text Available The gap between best practice and actual patient care continues to be a pervasive problem in our healthcare system. Efforts to improve on this knowledge_performance gap have included computerised disease management programs designed to improve guideline adherence. However, current computerised reminder and decision support interventions directed at changing physician behaviour have had only a limited and variable effect on clinical outcomes. Further, immediate pay-for-performance financial pressures on institutions have created an environmentwhere disease management systems are often created under duress, appended to existing clinical systems and poorly integrated into the existing workflow, potentially limiting their realworld effectiveness. The authors present a review of disease management as well as a conceptual framework to guide the development of more effective health information technology (HIT tools for translating clinical information into clinical action.

  16. Aviation Industry – Mitigating Climate Change Impacts Through Technology and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Capoccitti


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the challenges facing the aviation industry and what is it doing about reducing its environmental footprint. The paper concludes that aviation industry needs to look past their traditional business model and move to a model that allows them to operate in a new global business environment which puts emphasis on environmental alignment of business goals. In the interim, the aviation industry continues to explore the issues related to alternative fuels, more efficient engine technology, better traffic management and policy mechanisms (such as emissions trading and carbon offsets with some degree of success. The paper strongly recommends the involvement of governments in establishing ground rules to help global aviation industry to mitigate climate change risks.

  17. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change. (United States)

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin


    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. Copyright © 2014 McAllister, Magee. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  18. Use of Digital Image Technology to 'Clearly' Depict Global Change (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Carbo, C. L.


    Earth is dynamic and beautiful. Understanding why, when, how, and how fast its surface changes yields information and serves as a source of inspiration. The artistic use of geoscience information can inform the public about what is happening to their planet in a non-confrontational and apolitical way. While individual images may clearly depict a landscape, photographic comparisons are necessary to clearly capture and display annual, decadal, or century-scale impacts of climate and environmental change on Earth's landscapes. After years of effort to artistically communicate geoscience concepts with unenhanced individual photographs or pairs of images, the authors have partnered to maximize this process by using digital image enhancement technology. This is done, not to manipulate the inherent artistic content or information content of the photographs, but to insure that the comparative photo pairs produced are geometrically correct and unambiguous. For comparative photography, information-rich historical photographs are selected from archives, websites, and other sources. After determining the geographic location from which the historical photograph was made, the original site is identified and eventually revisited. There, the historical photos field of view is again photographed, ideally from the original location. From nearly 250 locations revisited, about 175 pairs have been produced. Every effort is made to reoccupy the original historical site. However, vegetation growth, visibility reduction, and co-seismic level change may make this impossible. Also, inherent differences in lens optics, camera construction, and image format may result in differences in the geometry of the new photograph when compared to the old. Upon selection, historical photos are cleaned, contrast stretched, brightness adjusted, and sharpened to maximize site identification and information extraction. To facilitate matching historical and new images, digital files of each are overlain in

  19. When it comes to lifestyle recommendations, more is sometimes less: a meta-analysis of theoretical assumptions underlying the effectiveness of interventions promoting multiple behavior domain change. (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Senay, Ibrahim; Durantini, Marta; Sánchez, Flor; Hennessy, Michael; Spring, Bonnie; Albarracín, Dolores


    A meta-analysis of 150 research reports summarizing the results of multiple behavior domain interventions examined theoretical predictions about the effects of the included number of recommendations on behavioral and clinical change in the domains of smoking, diet, and physical activity. The meta-analysis yielded 3 main conclusions. First, there is a curvilinear relation between the number of behavioral recommendations and improvements in behavioral and clinical measures, with a moderate number of recommendations producing the highest level of change. A moderate number of recommendations is likely to be associated with stronger effects because the intervention ensures the necessary level of motivation to implement the recommended changes, thereby increasing compliance with the goals set by the intervention, without making the intervention excessively demanding. Second, this curve was more pronounced when samples were likely to have low motivation to change, such as when interventions were delivered to nonpatient (vs. patient) populations, were implemented in nonclinic (vs. clinic) settings, used lay community (vs. expert) facilitators, and involved group (vs. individual) delivery formats. Finally, change in behavioral outcomes mediated the effects of number of recommended behaviors on clinical change. These findings provide important insights that can help guide the design of effective multiple behavior domain interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Technologies for adaptation. Perspectives and practical experiences; Climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Lars; Olhoff, A.; Traerup, S.


    The present report is the second volume of the UNEP Risoe Centre Technology Transfer Perspectives Series. The report is related to the global Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project, financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented by UNEP Risoe Centre. The nine articles in this volume discuss issues like: a) the concepts and context of technologies for adaptation; b) assessments of adaptation technology needs; c) practical experiences from working with technologies for adaptation. (LN)

  1. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel


    intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...... technological innovation, andidentifying opportunities for the newly formed UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. We concludethat, while all programmes reviewed have promoted technology transfer, they have givenlimited attention to innovation capabilities with users, government and universities. Functionsthat could...

  2. Identifying Health Information Technology Needs of Oncologists to Facilitate the Adoption of Genomic Medicine: Recommendations From the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Omics and Precision Oncology Workshop. (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin S; Ambinder, Edward P; Hess, Gregory P; Yu, Peter Paul; Bernstam, Elmer V; Routbort, Mark J; Clemenceau, Jean Rene; Hamm, John T; Febbo, Phillip G; Domchek, Susan M; Chen, James L; Warner, Jeremy L


    At the ASCO Data Standards and Interoperability Summit held in May 2016, it was unanimously decided that four areas of current oncology clinical practice have serious, unmet health information technology needs. The following areas of need were identified: 1) omics and precision oncology, 2) advancing interoperability, 3) patient engagement, and 4) value-based oncology. To begin to address these issues, ASCO convened two complementary workshops: the Omics and Precision Oncology Workshop in October 2016 and the Advancing Interoperability Workshop in December 2016. A common goal was to address the complexity, enormity, and rapidly changing nature of genomic information, which existing electronic health records are ill equipped to manage. The subject matter experts invited to the Omics and Precision Oncology Workgroup were tasked with the responsibility of determining a specific, limited need that could be addressed by a software application (app) in the short-term future, using currently available genomic knowledge bases. Hence, the scope of this workshop was to determine the basic functionality of one app that could serve as a test case for app development. The goal of the second workshop, described separately, was to identify the specifications for such an app. This approach was chosen both to facilitate the development of a useful app and to help ASCO and oncologists better understand the mechanics, difficulties, and gaps in genomic clinical decision support tool development. In this article, we discuss the key challenges and recommendations identified by the workshop participants. Our hope is to narrow the gap between the practicing oncologist and ongoing national efforts to provide precision oncology and value-based care to cancer patients.

  3. Contribution of Pharmacogenetic Testing to Modeled Medication Change Recommendations in a Long-Term Care Population with Polypharmacy. (United States)

    Sugarman, Elaine A; Cullors, Ali; Centeno, Joel; Taylor, David


    Among long-term care facility residents, polypharmacy is common, and often appropriate, given the need to treat multiple, complex, chronic conditions. Polypharmacy has, however, been associated with increased healthcare costs, adverse drug events, and drug interactions. The current study evaluates the potential medication cost savings of adding personalized pharmacogenetic information to traditional medication management strategies. One hundred and twelve long-term care residents completed pharmacogenetic testing for targeted variants in the following genes: CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4/CYP3A5, HTR2A, HTR2C, SLC6A4, SLC6A2 COMT, OPRM1, SLCO1B1, VKORC1 and MTHFR. Following reporting of the IDgenetix Polypharmacy ® test results, an internal medication management assessment was performed by a licensed clinical pharmacist to identify potential opportunities for regimen optimization through medication changes or discontinuations. The medication cost differences before and after the pharmacogenetic-guided review were assessed. Medication review following pharmacogenetic result reporting identified 54 patients (48.2%) with a total of 132 drug change recommendations (45 reductions; 87 replacements) and an average of 2.4 proposed medication changes (range 1-6) per patient. Medication cost savings related to the identified reduction and replacement opportunities exceeded the cost of testing and are estimated to be US$ 1300 (year 2016 cost) per patient annually assuming full implementation. Compared with traditional medication review, pharmacogenetic testing resulted in a 38% increase in the number of patients with current medication change opportunities and also offered valuable genetic information that could be referenced to personalize future prescribing decisions for all patients.

  4. The Cumbria Rural Health Forum: initiating change and moving forward with technology. (United States)

    Ditchburn, Jae-Llane; Marshall, Alison


    The Cumbria Rural Health Forum was formed by a number of public, private and voluntary sector organisations to collaboratively work on rural health and social care in the county of Cumbria, England. The aim of the forum is to improve health and social care delivery for rural communities, and share practical ideas and evidence-based best practice that can be implemented in Cumbria. The forum currently consists of approximately 50 organisations interested in and responsible for delivery of health and social care in Cumbria. An exploration of digital technologies for health and care was recognised as an initial priority. This article describes a hands-on approach undertaken within the forum, including its current progress and development. The forum used a modified Delphi technique to facilitate its work on discussing ideas and reaching consensus to formulate the Cumbria Strategy for Digital Technologies in Health and Social Care. The group communication process took place over meetings and workshops held at various locations in the county. A roadmap for the implementation of digital technologies into health and social care was developed. The roadmap recommends the following: (i) to improve the health outcomes for targeted groups, within a unit, department or care pathway; (ii) to explain, clarify, share good (and bad) practice, assess impact and value through information sharing through conferences and events, influencing and advocacy for Cumbria; and (iii) to develop a digital-health-ready workforce where health and social care professionals can be supported to use digital technologies, and enhance recruitment and retention of staff. The forum experienced issues consistent with those in other Delphi studies, such as the repetition of ideas. Attendance was variable due to the unavailability of key people at times. Although the forum facilitated collective effort to address rural health issues, its power is limited to influencing and supporting implementation of change

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Texas Water: A White Paper Assessment of the Past, Present and Future and Recommendations for Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banner, Jay L.; Jackson, Charles S.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Hayhoe, Katharine; Woodhouse, Connie; Gulden, Lindsey; Jacobs, Kathy; North, Gerald; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Washington, Warren M.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Casteel, Richard


    Texas comprises the eastern portion of the Southwest region, where the convergence of climatological and geopolitical forces has the potential to put extreme stress on water resources. Geologic records indicate that Texas experienced large climate changes on millennial time scales in the past, and over the last thousand years, tree-ring records indicate that there were significant periods of drought in Texas. These droughts were of longer duration than the 1950s 'drought of record' that is commonly used in planning, and they occurred independently of human-induced global climate change. Although there has been a negligible net temperature increase in Texas over the past century, temperatures have increased more significantly over the past three decades. Under essentially all climate model projections, Texas is susceptible to significant climate change in the future. Most projections for the 21st century show that with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, there will be an increase in temperatures across Texas and a shift to a more arid average climate. Studies agree that Texas will likely become significantly warmer and drier, yet the magnitude, timing, and regional distribution of these changes are uncertain. There is a large uncertainty in the projected changes in precipitation for Texas for the 21st century. In contrast, the more robust projected increase in temperature with its effect on evaporation, which is a dominant component in the region's hydrologic cycle, is consistent with model projections of frequent and extended droughts throughout the state. For these reasons, we recommend that Texas invest resources to investigate and anticipate the impacts of climate change on Texas water resources, with the goal of providing data to inform resource planning. This investment should support development of (1) research programs that provide policy-relevant science; (2) education programs to engage future researchers and policy

  6. Technological Change In Small And Medium Scale Enterprises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMEs) have been assessed to deter-mine the effect of financial liberalization policy, by surveying purposively 66 SMEs and 11 financial institution-ns. While some SMEs acquired technologies and innovated internally to bring about technological ...

  7. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleff, A.M. [Stone Container Corp., Tucker, GA (United States)


    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  8. The Impact of Technological Change; The American Experience. Studies in Employment and Unemployment. (United States)

    Haber, William; And Others

    Technological change is a complex term involving many more factors than "changes in machinery or automation." Six changes which affect jobs and influence skills in our industrial systems that could logically be called technological change have been identified: (1) scientific management, or time and motion studies, (2) mergers and consolidations,…

  9. SLJ's 2011 Technology Survey: Things Are Changing. Fast (United States)

    Kenney, Brian


    Despite the funding challenges nearly all school libraries face, many media specialists are optimistic about the role of technology in the school library, according to "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") 2011 Technology Survey. But in spite of the general optimism, others point to some significant obstacles: technological innovations are often…

  10. Global climate change, technology transfer and trade with complete specialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, V. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Economics; Ruebbelke, D.T.G. [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Economics


    The paper develops a model in which a country with better technology for abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (the North) commits to an international protocol to keep the global GHG emission with a specified limit while it helps the mitigation effort in the other country (the South) with unconditional transfer of abatement technology. It finds out in the autarkic ('no trade') equilibrium that the technology transfer offer from the North is always accepted by the South. The North may offer either a partial or a complete technology transfer. If partial technology transfer is offered it finds out the determinants of the extent of technology transfer. Then it compares the autarkic equilibrium with the equilibrium where tradw with complete specialization occurs and finds out that trade limits the scope of technology transfer as an instrument for mitigation of global GHG emission.

  11. Productivity growth and biased technological change\\ud in Baltic banks


    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Managi, Shunsuke; Matousek, Roman


    In this paper, the productivity of Baltic banks over 2000-2006 is analysed with a Malmquist index and the input technological bias is investigated. Baltic banks on average became more efficient and experienced technological improvment. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Baltic banks.

  12. How to change GEBCO outreach activities with Information technologies? (United States)

    Chang, E.; Park, K.


    Since 1995, when National Geographic Information Project began, we have great advance in mapping itself and information service on the earth surface in Korea whether paper maps or online service map. By reviewing geological and mine-related information service in current and comparisons of demands, GEBCO outreach master plan has been prepared. Information service cannot be separated from data production and on dissemination policies. We suggest the potential impact of the changes in information technologies such as mobile service and data fusion, and big data on GEBCO maps based. Less cost and high performance in data service will stimulate more information service; therefore it is necessary to have more customer-oriented manipulation on the data. By inquiring questionnaire, we can draw the potential needs on GEBCO products in various aspects: such as education, accessibility. The gap between experts and non-experts will decrease by digital service from the private and public organizations such as international academic societies since research funds and policies tend to pursue "openness" and "interoperability" among the domains. Some background why and how to prepare outreach activities in GEBCO will be shown.

  13. The Plug-in Concept: Technology and Aesthetics of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Šenk


    Full Text Available The architecture concept of plug-in is based on the duality of the infrastructure system and units or elements connected to it. In the context of megastructures, the concept was most vividly characterised by works of Archigram and Japanese Metabolists in the 1960s and early 1970s. Blurring the boundary between the building and the city, the plug-in concept outgrew architectural boundaries and was slowly transformed into an urbanistic concept.The paper presents the cultural context relevant to contemporaneity, which influenced specific development of the technology-driven concept of plug-in in the British Archigram Group and Japanese Metabolists. Based on the aesthetics of change and incompleteness, which was characterised by similar architectural manifestations despite entirely different cultural backgrounds, the plug-in concept foreshadowed social transformation based on freedom, individualisation and mobility in an utopian manner and held a promise of urban development with adaptability to unpredictable needs and desires of residents, who would become its co-creators with an active approach.Although the revolutionary sixties are quite some time behind, the plug-in concept in its commodified form has become and remained operational and relevant at least on the metaphorical level; in the contemporary space it is evident primarily in urbanism and not as much in its original architectural form.

  14. Dilemmas in the Analysis of Technological Change. A Cognitive Approach to Understand Innovation and Change in the Water Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Borri


    Full Text Available In this paper we argue for the need to apply a cognitive approach to understand deep dynamics and determinants of technological evolutions. After examining main contributions from innovation studies to the conceptualization of innovation and change in complex socio-technical environments, we highlight the contribution coming from the application of the cognitive approach to evolutionary studies on technologies and we introduce the concept of technological memory as an interpretative tool to understand those changes. We discuss our hypothesis with reference to several observations carried out in different local contexts – Mexico, India and Italy – in relation to technological change in the water sector. In those cases deliberate attempts to substitute traditional technologies with modern ones led to interesting trajectories of change ranging from the collapse of old technologies to the development of multifaceted hybridization patterns.

  15. [The method and application to construct experience recommendation platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology]. (United States)

    Chen, Chuyun; Hong, Jiaming; Zhou, Weilin; Lin, Guohua; Wang, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qufei; Lu, Cuina; Lu, Lihong


    To construct a knowledge platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology, and to provide retrieval service for users. The Oracle 10 g database was applied and JAVA was selected as development language; based on the standard library and ancient books database established by manual entry, a variety of data mining technologies, including word segmentation, speech tagging, dependency analysis, rule extraction, similarity calculation, ambiguity analysis, supervised classification technology were applied to achieve text automatic extraction of ancient books; in the last, through association mining and decision analysis, the comprehensive and intelligent analysis of disease and symptom, meridians, acupoints, rules of acupuncture and moxibustion in acupuncture ancient books were realized, and retrieval service was provided for users through structure of browser/server (B/S). The platform realized full-text retrieval, word frequency analysis and association analysis; when diseases or acupoints were searched, the frequencies of meridian, acupoints (diseases) and techniques were presented from high to low, meanwhile the support degree and confidence coefficient between disease and acupoints (special acupoint), acupoints and acupoints in prescription, disease or acupoints and technique were presented. The experience platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology could be used as a reference for selection of disease, meridian and acupoint in clinical treatment and education of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  16. Tribal Recommendations for Designing Culturally Appropriate Technology-Based Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David


    Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues to reach Native youth on sensitive health topics. Project Red Talon, a sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention project that serves the 43 federally recognized tribes in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, used community-based participatory research…

  17. Technological and Organizational Changes. Developing a management platform based on participatory institutions and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian


    Management Programmes aimed at organisational and technological change often run into problems when it comes to implementing change. The purpose of the papeer is to discuss the possibilities for establishing a cooperation based platform for change.......Management Programmes aimed at organisational and technological change often run into problems when it comes to implementing change. The purpose of the papeer is to discuss the possibilities for establishing a cooperation based platform for change....

  18. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.


    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail.

  19. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.


    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  20. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo


    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  1. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations


    Cornelius JB; Appiah JA


    Judith B Cornelius,1 Josephine A Appiah2 1School of Nursing, 2Health Services Research Doctoral Program, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyvér KOVÁCS


    Full Text Available One of the major problem with online shopping is finingd the right product, because finding the right product presumes that we know its name, but in most cases it is not so. For this reason the users need help in the process of online searching/shopping. Recommender systems have became a popular technique and strategy for helping users to select desirable products or services. In the past few years the recommender systems have changed from novelties used by a few big e-commerce sites, to serious business tools that are re-shaping the world of e-commerce. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the classification of recommendation systems based on technology used to create recommendations, and inputs they need from the customers. Furthermore we analyze a few algorithms used by recommender systems and we will also present some marketing recommender systems and their comparative analysis.

  3. Functions of Innovation Systems : A new approach for analysing technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Suurs, R.A.A.; Negro, Simona; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Smits, R.E.H.M.


    The central idea of this paper is that innovation systems are a very important determinant of technological change. We describe that the emergence of a new innovation system and changes in existing innovation systems co-evolve with the process of technological change. Therefore, it is necessary to

  4. Changing Technologies Offer New Opportunities in the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Culley


    Full Text Available The plant sciences are now facing an unprecedented time in our history in which technology is advancing at a rapid pace, creating a wide variety of novel opportunities for our field. Applications in Plant Sciences is a new source for sharing exciting and innovative applications of new technologies that have the potential to propel plant research forward into the future.

  5. Social Movements and Their Technologies: Wiring Social Change. - Paperback edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milan, S.


    Now in paperback for the first time, Social Movements and their Technologies explores the interplay between social movements and their 'liberated technologies'. It analyzes the rise of low-power radio stations and radical internet projects ('emancipatory communication practices') as a political

  6. Developing Game Changing Technologies and Bringing Them Down to Earth (United States)

    Morse, David


    Address to entrepreneurs as a thought leader at the next upcoming seminar on 10/25/2016 at the Cardel Theater in Calgary. The technologies developed by NASA over the 60's through to today, has shaped the world as we know it, driving plastics to nano-electronics. To inspire local entrepreneurs developing new technologies.

  7. Beyond Change Blindness: Embracing the Technology Revolution in Higher Education (United States)

    Sutton, Kimberly Kode; DeSantis, Josh


    The pace of education technology innovation outpaces many professors' abilities to thoughtfully integrate new tools in their teaching practice. This poses challenges for higher education faculty as well as those responsible for planning professional development in higher education. This article explores recent trends in education technology and…

  8. Impact of information Technology on the ever changing Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The student-oriented instruction method is based on the intensive participation of students on the Teaching-Learning programme supported by latest available Information Technology. But shortage and usage of Information Technology materials is the current problem to student community to achieve desired goals.

  9. Concrete Poetry as Sign of Technological Changes in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    This case deals with the large cultural perspectives and the technological imagination evident in the Swedish critic Torsten Ekbom's review of Danish concrete poetry......This case deals with the large cultural perspectives and the technological imagination evident in the Swedish critic Torsten Ekbom's review of Danish concrete poetry...

  10. Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring for Health Behavior Change Into the 21st Century. (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani Shankar; Cutrona, Sarah L; Kinney, Rebecca L; Marlin, Benjamin M; Mazor, Kathleen M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Houston, Thomas K


    What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based CTHC with empirical recommender systems could be evaluated as the next frontier for CTHC. The objective of our study was to uncover barriers and challenges to using recommender systems in health promotion. We conducted a focused literature review, interviewed subject experts (n=8), and synthesized the results. We describe (1) limitations of current CTHC systems, (2) advantages of incorporating recommender systems to move CTHC forward, and (3) challenges to incorporating recommender systems into CTHC. Based on the evidence presented, we propose a future research agenda for CTHC systems. We promote discussion of ways to move CTHC into the 21st century by incorporation of recommender systems.

  11. Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring for Health Behavior Change Into the 21st Century (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Kinney, Rebecca L; Marlin, Benjamin M; Mazor, Kathleen M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Houston, Thomas K


    Background What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based CTHC with empirical recommender systems could be evaluated as the next frontier for CTHC. Objective The objective of our study was to uncover barriers and challenges to using recommender systems in health promotion. Methods We conducted a focused literature review, interviewed subject experts (n=8), and synthesized the results. Results We describe (1) limitations of current CTHC systems, (2) advantages of incorporating recommender systems to move CTHC forward, and (3) challenges to incorporating recommender systems into CTHC. Based on the evidence presented, we propose a future research agenda for CTHC systems. Conclusions We promote discussion of ways to move CTHC into the 21st century by incorporation of recommender systems. PMID:26952574

  12. A Holistic Approach for Addressing the Issue of Effective Technology Transfer in the Frame of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta


    Full Text Available Climate change policy and sustainable development issues and goals are closely intertwined. Recognizing the dual relationship between sustainable development and climate change points to a need for the exploration of actions that jointly address sustainable development and climate change. Technology transfer is considered an issue with growing interest worldwide and has been recognized as the key in supporting countries to achieve sustainable development, while addressing climate change challenges. This study presents an integrated decision support methodological framework for the formulation and evaluation of activities to promote technology transfer, as well as the provision of clear recommendations and strategies for framing specific policy in the context of climate change. The philosophy of the proposed approach, under the name: assess-identify-define (AID, consists of three components, where each one focuses on a particular problem. The methodology is integrated using appropriate tools in the information decision support system for effective technology transfer (DSS-ΕTT. The pilot application of the proposed methodology, in five representative developing countries, provided the possibility to evaluate the characteristics of the adopted methodology in terms of completeness, usability, extensionality, as well as analysis of results reliability.

  13. Health Technology Assessment for Molecular Diagnostics: Practices, Challenges, and Recommendations from the Medical Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group. (United States)

    Garfield, Susan; Polisena, Julie; S Spinner, Daryl; Postulka, Anne; Y Lu, Christine; Tiwana, Simrandeep K; Faulkner, Eric; Poulios, Nick; Zah, Vladimir; Longacre, Michael


    Health technology assessments (HTAs) are increasingly used to inform coverage, access, and utilization of medical technologies including molecular diagnostics (MDx). Although MDx are used to screen patients and inform disease management and treatment decisions, there is no uniform approach to their evaluation by HTA organizations. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group reviewed diagnostic-specific HTA programs and identified elements representing common and best practices. MDx-specific HTA programs in Europe, Australia, and North America were characterized by methodology, evaluation framework, and impact. Published MDx HTAs were reviewed, and five representative case studies of test evaluations were developed: United Kingdom (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's Diagnostics Assessment Programme, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase mutation), United States (Palmetto's Molecular Diagnostic Services Program, OncotypeDx prostate cancer test), Germany (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare, human papillomavirus testing), Australia (Medical Services Advisory Committee, anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing for non-small cell lung cancer), and Canada (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Rapid Response: Non-invasive Prenatal Testing). Overall, the few HTA programs that have MDx-specific methods do not provide clear parameters of acceptability related to clinical and analytic performance, clinical utility, and economic impact. The case studies highlight similarities and differences in evaluation approaches across HTAs in the performance metrics used (analytic and clinical validity, clinical utility), evidence requirements, and how value is measured. Not all HTAs are directly linked to reimbursement outcomes. To improve MDx HTAs, organizations should provide greater transparency, better communication and collaboration between industry and HTA


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Abreu-Lee


    Full Text Available La vigilancia tecnológica en centros de investigación y universidades está enfocada a realizar un seguimiento sistemático sobre el desarrollo de líneas de investigación, investigadores líderes, posibilidades de colaboración científico-tecnológica y también al conocimiento de las tendencias actuales desde la investigación. Todo lo anteriormente expresado permite guiar las investigaciones y apoyar la estrategia científico-tecnológica. El presente trabajo propone un modelo de vigilancia tecnológica apoyado de un sistema de recomendaciones, como una aplicación que está centrada en las preferencias de los investigadores en universidades y centros de investigación. Para proponer las recomendaciones se emplea el filtrado colaborativo, técnica que utiliza información del comportamiento pasado de los investigadores y de las opiniones o valoraciones de la comunidad científica a la que pertenecen. Este nuevo enfoque permite realizar propuestas de colaboración y temas de interés que se discuten en la comunidad científica en la que tiene lugar, de manera automática y proactiva.AbstractTechnology surveillance has a special place nowadays, in the success and development of R+D+i process, in research centers and academic environment. Technology surveillance in universities and research centers is focused in the constant analysis of the research lines, research leaders, collaborations chances and current trends in specific research fields. This paper presents a technology surveillance model supported by recommendations by an application that takes into account the preferences of the researchers in the academic environment. The recommender system uses the collaborative filtering technique in order to compute the behavior and past user interactions and infer the recommendations. This approach allows recommending useful, automatic and proactive collaboration possibilities and topics of interest which are discussed within the scientific

  15. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server


    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  16. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  17. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations. (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A


    Youth and young adults (19-24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans.

  18. Foreign Ownership and Skill-biased Technological Change


    Koch, Michael; Smolka, Marcel


    Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle on the relationship among foreign ownership, technology, and skills. We first develop a model in which heterogeneous firms decide endogenously about the level of technology, the share of high-skilled workers, and...

  19. Green energy - the road to a Danish energy system without fossil fuels. Summary of the work, results and recommendations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This summary report describes the main outcomes of the deliberations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy. It includes a proposal for how Denmark can become independent of fossil fuels and, at the same time, meet the target of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%-95% compared with 1990. In addition, 40 specific recommendations for initiatives which will contribute to the realisation of the vision are presented. The documentation section of the overall report, which is only available in Danish, presents the Climate Commission's work in more detail, as well as a description of the comprehensive analyses on which the Climate Commission has based its recommendations. Finally, the background documents, which have been prepared at the request of the Climate Commission are available (in Danish) at the Commission's website, We can both reduce Danish emissions of greenhouse gasses significantly, and make Denmark independent of fossil fuels. This will require a total conversion of the Danish energy system; conversion away from oil, coal and gas, which today account for more than 80% of our energy consumption, and to green energy with wind turbines and bioenergy as the most important elements. The cost of conversion may seem surprisingly low. The low cost means that not only can we maintain our present living standards, we can also have considerable economic growth, so that energy expenditures will constitute less of our budgets in the future than today. The reason the cost is not higher is primarily because we will not have to pay for overpriced fossil fuels and CO{sub 2} reductions, and we will be able to limit our energy consumption through efficiency improvements in all areas in the future. It is difficult to make predictions about the exact design of the green energy system of the future. However, in overall terms it could look like this: 1) Energy will be used far more efficiently, so that we can, for example, heat our houses

  20. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David


    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested

  1. Outcomes and Recommendations of an Indian Expert Panel for Improved Practice in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technology. (United States)

    Ahemmed, Baiju; Sundarapandian, Vani; Gutgutia, Rohit; Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Jagtap, Richa; Biliangady, Reeta; Gupta, Priti; Jadhav, Sachin; Satwik, Ruma; Dewda, Pavitra Raj; Thakor, Priti; Esteves, Sandro C


    Purpose. To improve success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted reproductive technology (ART) experts addressed four questions. What is optimum oocytes number leading to highest live birth rate (LBR)? Are cohort size and embryo quality correlated? Does gonadotropin type affect oocyte yield? Should "freeze-all" policy be adopted in cycles with progesterone >1.5 ng/mL on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration? Methods. Electronic database search included ten studies on which panel gave opinions for improving current practice in controlled ovarian stimulation for ART. Results. Strong association existed between retrieved oocytes number (RON) and LBRs. RON impacted likelihood of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Embryo euploidy decreased with age, not with cohort size. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/dL did not impair cycle outcomes in patients with high cohorts and showed disparate results on day of hCG administration. Conclusions. Ovarian stimulation should be designed to retrieve 10-15 oocytes/treatment. Accurate dosage, gonadotropin type, should be selected as per prediction markers of ovarian response. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist based protocols are advised to avoid OHSS. Cumulative pregnancy rate was most relevant pregnancy endpoint in ART. Cycles with serum progesterone ≥1.5 ng/dL on day of hCG administration should not adopt "freeze-all" policy. Further research is needed due to lack of data availability on progesterone threshold or index.



    Umetsu, Chieko


    This paper reviews approaches to the measurement of total factor productivity, efficiency and technological change. Nonfrontier analysis assumes that the production technology is efficient and technological change is equivalent to total factor productivity change. On the other hand, the frontier approach explicitly considers inefficiency of production. In the presence of inefficiency, total factor productivity consists of efficiency and technological change. The traditional parametric approac...

  3. Engaging College Science Students and Changing Academic Achievement with Technology: A Quasi-Experimental Preliminary Investigation (United States)

    Carle, Adam C.; Jaffee, David; Miller, Deborah


    Can modern, computer-based technology engage college students and improve their academic achievement in college? Although numerous examples detail technology's classroom uses, few studies empirically examine whether technologically oriented pedagogical changes factually lead to positive outcomes among college students. In this pilot study, we used…

  4. Skill-Biased Technological Change. Evidence from a Firm-Level Survey. (United States)

    Siegel, Donald S.

    A study addressed the effects of technological change using a new, rich source of firm-level data on technology usage and labor force composition. The empirical investigation is based on a survey of Long Island manufacturers' usage of computer-integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS) or advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study also…

  5. Training and Educating IS Proressionals to Manage Inrormation Technology in Changing Organizations


    Frew, Barry


    The article of record as published may be found at Technological changes continue to appear at an astonishing pace and are growing in complexity. Furthermore, corporate and government emphasis is on downsizing, empowerment, reengineering of processes, and changing organizational structures. These new initiatives address changes business processes in light of changing economic and political environments. Information technologies will be used ...

  6. On the Optimal Allocation of R&D Resources for Climate Change Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, G J; Clarke, L E


    While technology studies and integrated assessment models incorporating endogenous technological change have demonstrated that advancing technology is a crucial component of an optimal greenhouse gas abatement strategy, the R&D process itself has received little analytical attention. This paper presents a conceptual framework for considering and exploring the optimal allocation of R&D resources for climate change technology development. The framework is then applied to a stylized application that considers the allocation between R&D focused on resolving uncertainties about the retention of sequestration and R&D focused on improving the performance of renewable energy technologies.

  7. Reproducibility and relevance of future behavioral sciences should benefit from a cross fertilization of past recommendations and today's technology: "Back to the future". (United States)

    Spruijt, Berry M; Peters, Suzanne M; de Heer, Raymond C; Pothuizen, Helen H J; van der Harst, Johanneke E


    Thanks to the discovery of novel technologies and sophisticated analysis tools we can now 'see' molecules, genes and even patterns of gene expression, which have resulted in major advances in many areas of biology. Recently, similar technologies have been developed for behavioral studies. However, the wide implementation of such technological progress in behavioral research remains behind, as if there are inhibiting factors for accepting and adopting available innovations. The methods of the majority of studies measuring and interpreting behavior of laboratory animals seem to have frozen in time somewhere in the last century. As an example of the so-called classical tests, we will present the history and shortcomings of one of the most frequently used tests, the open field. Similar objections and critical remarks, however, can be made with regard to the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, various other mazes, object recognition tests, etc. Possible solutions and recommendations on how progress in behavioral neuroscience can be achieved and accelerated will be discussed in the second part of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review of Technology Education in Ireland; a Changing Technological Environment Promoting Design Activity (United States)

    Leahy, Keelin; Phelan, Pat


    In Ireland, Technology Education's structure and organisation across the levels of education is not delivered or governed in a coherent manner. Technology Education in primary level education, for students between 5 and 12 years of age, does not explicitly exist as a separate subject. In primary level education, Social, Environmental and…

  9. Change in Human Technology's Publisher: Continued Focus on Open Access Human–Technology Research




    Beginning January 1, 2017, the role of publisher of the journal Human Technology will be moved from the Agora Center to the Open Science Center at the University of Jyvaskyla because of internal university restructuring. Day-to-day operations and ongoing open access will continue for Human Technology's without interruption.

  10. Change in Human Technology's Publisher: Continued focus on open access human–technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Beginning January 1, 2017, the role of publisher of the journal Human Technology will be moved from the Agora Center to the Open Science Center at the University of Jyvaskyla because of internal university restructuring. Day-to-day operations and ongoing open access will continue for Human Technology's without interruption.

  11. Measuring embodied technological change in Indonesian textiles : The core-machinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.P.; Szirmai, A.E.; van der Kamp, R.


    This article focuses on the measurement of embodied technological change. It develops the core-machinery approach to capital measurement, which is based on an engineering perspective on technological change. Using technical characteristics of different types of machinery, technical progress in the

  12. Episode-Centered Guidelines for Teacher Belief Change toward Technology Integration (United States)

    Er, Erkan; Kim, ChanMin


    Teachers' episodic memories influence their beliefs. The investigation of episodic memories can help identify the teacher beliefs that limit technology-integration. We propose the Episode-Centered Belief Change (ECBC) model that utilizes teachers' episodic memories for changing beliefs impeding effective technology integration. We also propose…

  13. Information Technology Professionals as Collaborative Change Agents: A Case Study from Behavioral Health Care. (United States)

    Marion, Linda; Marion, David


    Highlights a case study from behavioral health care and focuses on the information technology professional's role as change agent. Discusses commercial applications, a conflict of cultures, dissemination and training interventions, and technological evolution and adaptation. Describes six steps for change agents' promotion of innovation and…

  14. Technologies for adaptation to climate change. Examples from the agricultural and water sectors in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Stephan, Jean


    for integrating adaptation technologies into the planning and implementation of on-going and future projects. Based on local-level data from a technology needs assessment project in Lebanon, this paper presents two examples of the economic feasibility of implementing adaptation technologies in the agricultural......Increasing attention is being given to climate technologies on the international climate change agenda, not least in the agricultural sector and water sectors, and to technologies for adaptation. However investments in technology-based adaptation (seeds, dams, irrigation, etc.) are complicated...

  15. Stage Evolution of Office Automation Technological Change and Organizational Learning. (United States)

    Sumner, Mary


    A study was conducted to identify stage characteristics in terms of technology, applications, the role and responsibilities of the office automation organization, and planning and control strategies; and to describe the respective roles of data processing professionals, office automation analysts, and users in office automation systems development…

  16. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn


    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  17. The influence of technological changes on labour availability: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing countries (such as Nigeria), labour is an essential factor in farming. This is because most of the farming activities are carried out with the use of labour. However, the advent of technological development has had an influence on labour availability. In view of the importance of labour in Nigerian agriculture, this ...

  18. Managing Technology in Libraries. (United States)

    Kelley, Kimberly Banks


    Explores the changing role of the library and the importance of developing a strategic technology policy. An approach to technology that includes a review of the technology base, continuing education, improved hiring practices, innovative organizational design, and greater involvement of libraries in research and development is recommended. (six…

  19. Socio-economic and Environmental Impacts of Technological Change in Bangladesh Agriculture


    Rahman, S


    Widespread controversies exist on the delayed consequences of technological change or ‘Green Revolution’ technology in agriculture largely due to the approach utilized in the evaluation process and the extent of issues covered. Early evaluations, focussing on issues of production, employment, and income only, failed to account for the delayed consequences of technological change on regional variations, gender equity, poverty and the environment. The present study employed a holistic approach ...

  20. Mountains of Work: NACUBO TRA97 Task Force Takes Proactive Stance in Developing Processes, Recommending Changes, and Offering Advice. (United States)

    Gross, Anne C.; Bachinger, Mary M.; Whalen, Edward L.


    A National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) task force has developed a process guide, list of policy issues and unsolved questions, and recommendations for colleges and universities to use in complying with the reporting requirements of the Tax Relief Act of 1997, which provides parents of college students with tax…

  1. Identifying and Revealing the Importance of Decision-Making Criteria for Health Technology Assessment: A Retrospective Analysis of Reimbursement Recommendations in Ireland. (United States)

    Schmitz, Susanne; McCullagh, Laura; Adams, Roisin; Barry, Michael; Walsh, Cathal


    Decisions on reimbursement of health interventions in many jurisdictions are informed by health technology assessments (HTAs). Historically, the focus of these has often been cost effectiveness or cost utility, while other criteria were considered informally. More recently, there has been an increasing interest in the formal incorporation of additional criteria using multi-criteria decision analysis. Such an approach has not yet formally been part of decision-making policy in Ireland. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that cost effectiveness is not the only criterion influencing reimbursement decisions in Ireland. Furthermore, the aim is to reveal criteria that may have informally influenced reimbursement decisions in the past. A list of potential criteria was identified based on the literature, national guidelines and experience of the national HTA agency. Information on each of these criteria was sought for every assessment conducted in Ireland up to July 2015. A logistic regression was fitted to the data to identify influential parameters. Model selection was performed using the Bolasso method. Thirteen criteria were considered in the analysis. Two members of the HTA review team assessed the performance of the interventions against these criteria. Model selection suggests that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and quality of evidence could be important drivers of reimbursement recommendations in Ireland. Less important drivers suggested include the year of assessment, the level of uncertainty, as well as safety and tolerability. The analysis demonstrates that recommendations for or against the reimbursement of technologies in Ireland are not only driven by cost effectiveness. This highlights the need for more formal inclusion of criteria in the process, to improve transparency and ensure consistency.

  2. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation. (United States)

    Forest, Benjamin


    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation.

  3. Attitude of farmers towards improved agricultural technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural technologies developed and disseminated should meet farmers' socio-cultural, economic and environmental changing situations and technologies should be cost effective and flexible for result oriented adoption and adaptation is therefore, recommended. Key words: Attitude, farmers, agricultural technologies.

  4. The Role of Change Agents in Technology Adoption Process (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert

    Although the total or partial failure of Information Technology (IT) projects are well documented such failures are not entirely technical in nature (Donohue et al, 2001). Project failures are often caused by lack of attention to social factors. (2002) identified ethical issues whilst (1999) and (2002) point to human factors, which in essence are the norms and culture of the implementation environment. On the. influence of culture on project success, (2003) noted that, the cultural problems are much bigger than the technical ones, adding: "The biggest hurdle is making people realise that information needs to be shared. It is only with this ethos of sharing information that take-up of technologies will be hastened." Consequently, research and debate about IT implementation is likely to continue until the development process is under better control (Nolan 1999). This state of constant evaluation is crucial because aborted IT projects are still common place. According to (1998), 31% of all corporate technology development projects resulted in cancellation. Although in broad terms, there seems to be ample evidence of the influence of non-technical factors on project failure the dynamics of how this happens is not widely discussed. There are some pointers to the dynamics of the process in literature.

  5. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology (United States)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John


    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  6. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul


    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.

  7. Building Change Readiness Practices for Information Technology Support Staff (United States)

    Perkins, Dianna Joseph


    With the turbulent economic conditions of the healthcare market, organizational leaders are faced with significant factors driving unprecedented change. Healthcare organizations are challenged with reimbursement reductions, high costs, modification of government regulations, and demanding healthcare consumers. Survival for healthcare organizations…

  8. Credit Crisis with focus on level three valuations anFAS157: Analysis and Recommendations for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D. candidate Arber H. Hoti


    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of level three valuations and FAS 157 implications on investors, auditors’ work, valuation disclosures and gives recommendations for improvements based on best practices. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that the fair value measurements should not be suspended. The standards provide for measurement of fair value in all market conditions. Therefore, level 3 measurements or mark-to-model is an answer for many issuers that are not sure how to measure their assets and liabilities at the fair value. The paper concludes that fair value measurement has not caused the current crisis and has no pro-cyclical effect and suggests several recommendations for policy makers and regulators.

  9. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.


    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  10. Older Adults' Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective. (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K; Thielke, Stephen


    Technologies have become a major force in people's lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Older Adults’ Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K.; Thielke, Stephen


    Technologies have become a major force in people’s lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. PMID:26215298

  12. Guideline recommendations on the use of allergen immunotherapy in house dust mite allergy: Time for a change? (United States)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Bousquet, Jean; Canonica, G Walter; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores Hernandez; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Demoly, Pascal


    Guidelines on the treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) lack recommendations for house dust mite (HDM) allergy. An expert panel reviewed current guidelines in the light of new data to assess whether guidelines could be improved. Most guidelines and key position papers did not provide specific recommendations on treatment of allergic asthma (AA) caused by HDM allergy, although some included AIT as a treatment option for AA in general. Around half of the guidelines stated that AIT with HDM extract was an effective treatment for AR, with several indicating sublingual immunotherapy as an option. This heterogeneity is caused by quality issues affecting studies of AIT with perennial allergens in patients with AA and AR, including use of different diagnosis and severity criteria, lack of consistent scoring or grading systems for primary and safety outcomes, and lack of consensus on treatment parameters. There is a need for well-designed clinical trials to serve as a basis for guideline recommendations. Although results from recent studies strengthen the evidence base for the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy in patients with HDM-induced AA and AR, their effect on subsequent guideline updates will depend on the methodology and evidence model used by each guideline. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of technological change on census taking. (United States)

    Brackstone, G J


    The increasing costs of traditional census collection methods have forced census administrators to look at the possibility of using administrative record systems in order to obtain population data. This article looks at the recent technological developments which have taken place in the last decade, and how they may affect data collection for the 1990 census. Because it is important to allow sufficient developmental and testing time of potential automated methods and technologies, it is not too soon to look at the trends resulting from technological advances and their implications for census data collection. These trends are: 1) the declining ratio of computing costs to manpower costs; 2) the increasing ratio of power and capacity of computers to their physical size; 3) declining data storage costs; 4) the increasing public acceptance of computers; 5) the increasing workforce familiarity with computers; and 6) the growing interactive computing capacity. Traditional use of computers for government data gathering operations were primarily for the processing stage. Now the possibility of applying these trends to census material may influence all aspects of the process; from questionnaire design and production, to data analysis. Examples include: the production of high quality maps for geographic frameworks, optical readers for data entry, the ability to provide users with a final data base, as well as printed output, and quicker dissemination of data results. Although these options exist, just like the use of administrative records for statistical purposes, they must be carefully analysed in context to the purposes for which they were created. The limitations of using administrative records for the and 2) definition, coverage, and quality limitations could bias statistical data derived from them. Perhaps they should be used as potential complementary sources of data, and not as replacements for census data. Influencing the evolution of these administrative records

  14. Managing the ERP implementation journey - change in discourse from classical IT project to technology-driven organisational change initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Rose, Jeremy

    system development and project management both in industry and academia); however, the experience of the project clearly changed the sense-making of the participants and the implementation later came to be regarded as an technology-driven organisational change initiative. The new technological discourse......In the implementation of an ERP system in a large Danish production company (here referred to as Omega), discourse surrounding the project changed appreciably during the course of the project. Drawing on recent adaptations of discourse theory, we provide a theoretical model which relates...

  15. Maximizing the Utility of the Serum Repository With Current Technologies and Recommendations to Meet Future Needs: Report of the Technical Panel. (United States)

    Baird, Coleen P


    The Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Silver Spring, Maryland, has over 55 million specimens. Over 80% of these specimens are linked to individual health data. In response to Congressional and Department of Defense (DoD) concern about toxic exposures of deployed Service members and rapidly developing laboratory capabilities that may identify those exposed, the AFHSC hosted two panels in 2013. The first, the Needs Panel, focused on assessing the needs of the DoD that may be met using the current DoDSR and an enhanced repository. The second panel, the Technical Panel, focused on identifying the emerging laboratory technologies that are or will be available to DoD public health workers and researchers. This report summarizes the recommendations of the Technical Panel, to include identified gaps in the ability of the current DoDSR to address questions of interest to the DoD, the availability of laboratory technology to address these needs, and the types and quality of specimens required from Service members possibly exposed. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. The Scanfin Merger: Technology, Strategy and Change (Case D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    This is the fourth of a four-case series (408-115-1, 908-025-1, 308-343-1 and 608-037-1). Timo Aikkonen, CIO of Scanfin Finland, is under pressure to carry out an IT change in Finland that will allow clients from every country to perform banking operations in the Finnish branches of Scanfin....... In order to do so, he has been commanded to overcome the barriers between business and IT people and to act pro-actively to achieve the necessary business changes. At the start of the project, however, Olaf Dahlberg, the Norwegian CIO, is fired brutally after making a comment on the IT line co......-operation. Aiming to give a strong message on the changing nature of the CIO job, the Scanfin 'UberCIO' fired Olaf during a meeting and demanded quick and relevant changes from the remaining CIOs. The Finnish IT team, headed by Markku, carries out the technical changes in collaboration with the IT functions from...

  17. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.


    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology is Changing What's "Fair Use" in Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Howe-Steiger


    Full Text Available The Doctrine of Fair Use was established by the courts to exempt certain activities such as teaching and research from the legal requirements of the copyright law. Before the 1976 Revision of the Copyright Act, only two cases were brought against teachers for copyright infringements. In both cases the teachers lost because their extensive copying was found to impact the copyright owner's market for legally published copies. Although the 1976 Act explicitly recognizes the existence of potentially Fair Uses, the act makes application of the principle highly situational. Classroom Guidelines attached to the Act make application even more murky and constrained. After 1976 photocopy technology and the advent of the coursepack began a trend towards circumscribing situations in which Fair Use may be applied. Potential impact on a new, lucrative market for sale of rights to copy portions of books and journals appears to dominate contemporary case law. Desktop publishing and Internet and web-based teaching, the authors believe, will further erode traditional applications of Fair Use for educational purposes. They argue that instructors and researchers should assume that there is no Fair Use on the Internet. Guidelines are provided for faculty and others considering dissemination of potentially copyrighted materials to students via digital technologies.

  19. Science, Technology and Social Change Course's Effects on Technological Literacy Levels of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Yigit, E. Ozlem


    Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…

  20. Using Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technology for Climate Change Education (United States)

    Cox, Helen; Kelly, Kimberle; Yetter, Laura


    This curriculum and instruction paper describes initial implementation and evaluation of remote-sensing exercises designed to promote post-secondary climate literacy in the geosciences. Tutorials developed by the first author engaged students in the analysis of climate change data obtained from NASA satellite missions, including the LANDSAT,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Živanović


    Full Text Available Small business development at the global level should be carried out continuously by continuous monitoring of international trends and developments in this area. Our Region is characterized by a lack of rapid development of small and medium enterprises. This paper presents the way of small business development new strategic change and modern development techniques.




  3. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may....... On the other hand, if started too late there is a chance that data may be lost because the technology has already been introduced into the daily clinics and physicians may be unwilling to recruit patients. Or the opposite, that the technique may have been rejected without a proper trial. In this situation...... it has been suggested to perform a so called tracker trial. In such trials protocols are more flexible without prefixed sample size and will require repeated interim analyses. Often, it will be relevant to supplement the clinical trials with data from large clinical databases - in particular when long...

  4. Did the 2011 AAP recommendations on youth HIV testing change practice? Trends from a large urban adolescent program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharaman S


    Full Text Available Sujatha Seetharaman,1 Cathryn L Samples,2 Maria Trent3 1Division of Adolescent Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, 2Division of Adolescent Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is adherence to the October 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP recommendations for HIV screening in a large urban adolescent program with availability of a publicly funded program providing free, confidential, sexually transmitted infection (STI and HIV counseling and testing (then rapid or third generation HIV testing, nested in the same adolescent clinic.Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV screening trends among 13- to 24-year-old patients tested for HIV during periods of January 2010 to June 2011 (18 months pre-AAP recommendations period and July 2011 to December 2012 (18-month period, which included 15 months after the AAP recommendations.Results: During the period of January 2010 to June 2011, there were 22 tests/1,000 medical visits (N = 824 of 37,520 medical visits, and during the period of July 2011 to December 2012, there were 27 tests/1,000 medical visits (N = 1,068 of 38,763 medical visits (p < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] 1.26. The number of 13- to 18-year-old patients screened in the pre-AAP period was 150, compared to 297 in the second 18-month period (X2 = 43.3, df = 1, p < 0.0001. A summative risk profile score of 0–9 was created in the form of a continuous variable, with a risk score of 0 for those with no risk factor identified and 1 point for each risk behavior identified. The proportion of HIV test clients with zero-specified risk (a risk score of “0” increased from 2010 to 2012.Conclusion: Release of the 2011 AAP HIV testing guidelines

  5. Advanced Propfan Engine Technology (APET) definition study, single and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism design (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.


    Single-rotation propfan-powered regional transport aircraft were studied to identify key technology development issues and programs. The need for improved thrust specific fuel consumption to reduce fuel burned and aircraft direct operating cost is the dominant factor. Typical cycle trends for minimizing fuel consumption are reviewed, and two 10,000 shp class engine configurations for propfan propulsion systems for the 1990's are presented. Recommended engine configurations are both three-spool design with dual spool compressors and free power turbines. The benefits of these new propulsion system concepts were evaluated using an advanced airframe, and results are compared for single-rotation propfan and turbofan advanced technology propulsion systems. The single-rotation gearbox is compared to a similar design with current technology to establish the benefits of the advanced gearbox technology. The conceptual design of the advanced pitch change mechanism identified a high pressure hydraulic system that is superior to the other contenders and completely external to the gearboxes.

  6. Recommended Wilderness (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Recommended wilderness is an Arcview shapefile representing the porposed wilderness areas throughout the park. The boundaries for this data set were digitized by...

  7. The Need for Knowledge Modification in Technology Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Mikkelsen, Lars Lindegaard


    This paper researches productivity in relation to domain complexity and the present knowledge capacity in an organizational context. The study is based on five very different case studies. Three studies are conducted in Denmark, Germany, Mexico, and China and are related to knowledge transfer in ......, the paper develops a conceptual framework that management can use for discussions of productivity, development of knowledge, and design of learning programs when considering changes in the complexity of a domain or a change in knowledge.......This paper researches productivity in relation to domain complexity and the present knowledge capacity in an organizational context. The study is based on five very different case studies. Three studies are conducted in Denmark, Germany, Mexico, and China and are related to knowledge transfer...

  8. Communicating intended routes in ECDIS: evaluating technological change. (United States)

    Porathe, Thomas; Lützhöft, Margareta; Praetorius, Gesa


    Misunderstanding each other's intentions is one of the most common causes of shipping accidents. By sending out a number of waypoints ahead and displaying them on the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) a ship's intentions would be clearly visible for other ships. Displaying ships' intentions would be a major change compared to navigation today. It could be very beneficial but it could also have unintended consequences. This paper reports on findings from an evaluation looking for unintended consequences of change using system simulation. During the simulation an unanticipated behavior was observed. Bridge crews started to click and drag waypoints too negotiate crossing situations ahead of time. The behavior could be compared to agreeing over the VHF. However further research is needed to evaluate this new behavior and how it aligns to COLREGS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad


    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  10. New Technology Changing The Face of Mobile Seismic Networks (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Denton, P.; Seis-Uk

    SEIS-UK, a seismic equipment pool and data management facility run by a consortium of four UK universities (Leicester, Leeds, Cambridge and Royal Holloway, London) completed its second phase in 2001. To compliment the existing broadband equipment pool, which has been deployed to full capacity to date, the consortium undertook a tender evaluation process for low-power, lightweight sensors and recorders, for use on both controlled source and passive seismic experiments. The preferred option, selected by the consortium, was the Guralp CMG-6TD system, with 150 systems ordered. The CMG-6TD system is a new concept in temporary seismic equipment. A 30s- 100Hz force-feedback sensor, integral 24bit digitiser and 3-4Gbyte of solid-state memory are all housed in a single unit. Use of the most recent technologies has kept the power consumption to below 1W and the weight to 3.5Kg per unit. The concept of the disk-swap procedure for obtaining data from the field has been usurped by a fast data download technique using firewire technology. This allows for rapid station servicing, essential when 150 stations are in use, and also ensures the environmental integrity of the system by removing the requirement for a disk access port and envi- ronmentally exposed data disk. The system therefore meets the criteria for controlled source and passive seismic experiments: (1) the single unit concept and low-weight is designed for rapid deployment on short-term projects; (2) the low power consumption reduces the power-supply requirements facilitating deployment; (3) the low self-noise and bandwidth of the sensor make it applicable to passive experiments involving nat- ural sources. Further to this acquisition process, in collaboration with external groups, the SEIS- UK data management procedures have been streamlined with the integration of the Guralp GCF format data into the PASSCAL PDB software. This allows for rapid dissemination of field data and the production of archive-ready datasets

  11. Technological Response of Wild Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to Anthropogenic Change. (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Svensson, Magdalena S; Haslam, Michael; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Proffitt, Tomos; Gumert, Michael


    Anthropogenic disturbances have a detrimental impact on the natural world; the vast expansion of palm oil monocultures is one of the most significant agricultural influences. Primates worldwide consequently have been affected by the loss of their natural ecosystems. Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascilularis) in Southern Thailand have, however, learned to exploit oil palm nuts using stone tools. Using camera traps, we captured the stone tool behavior of one macaque group in Ao Phang-Nga National Park. Line transects placed throughout an abandoned oil palm plantation confirmed a high abundance of nut cracking sites. Long-tailed macaques previously have been observed using stone tools to harvest shellfish along the coasts of Thailand and Myanmar. The novel nut processing behavior indicates the successful transfer of existing lithic technology to a new food source. Such behavioral plasticity has been suggested to underlie cultural behavior in animals, suggesting that long-tailed macaques have potential to exhibit cultural tendencies. The use of tools to process oil palm nuts across multiple primate species allows direct comparisons between stone tool using nonhuman primates living in anthropogenic environments.

  12. The Changing Role of Librarians - Managing New Technologies in Libraries (United States)

    Griffiths, J.-M.

    Never before have there been so many opportunities for involvement in an information-based society including electronic and multimedia publishing; local, national, and global networking; development of navigational and filtering tools for access to networked and non-electronic sources; and new modes for delivering information and educational programs. The base of recorded information is growing at an accelerating rate, in increasing varieties of formats (texts, numeric, graphic, video, audio, image, electronic, etc.). Furthermore, an increasing array of computing and telecommunications technologies are emerging to create new options and opportunities for the development of information capture, storage, retrieval, and delivery systems/services. These developments point toward increased difficulty for the information user to obtain needed information in the required time-frame, quantity, and level of detail. The role of information specialists is to facilitate the interactions between the potential information user community and the body of recorded information. The traditional information access and management roles played by the information professions are expanding, particularly in the design and development of new information products and services and of tools to support information seeking and selection, the analysis and synthesis of information content on behalf of users, and information user instruction. The emerging recognition of companies as learning organizations, reinvention of government agencies, new directions for education in universities, colleges, and schools, promise new opportunities for information specialists to reinforce and expand their facilitation of communication and learning processes in their organizations and communities.

  13. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change, and institutional bias toward capital intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  14. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce


    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change and institutional bias towards capital-intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  15. Information and Communication Technology as a Driver for Change in Agri-food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Krijn J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, Cor; Verwaart, Tim


    Agri-food chains will be changed in the coming years by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Technological trends and economic analysis suggest that ICT will be a major driver for innovation. Satellites and sensors make precision agriculture possible. More and more data are being

  16. Managing technological and organizational change in relation to the social system of the company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian


    The paper aims at the discussion of why some work design questions are taken up in the technology management process, and other questions often are neglected or changed through the management process. It is described how the agenda for technology management is created through a complex political...

  17. Competencies Required for Healthcare Information Technology to Be an Effective Strategic Business Change Partner (United States)

    Davalos, Eugenia


    One of the core strategies to transform the United States national healthcare system is the implementation of key technologies such as the electronic patient medical record. Such key technologies improve patient care and help the organization gain competitive advantage. With a high demand for strategic and operational change, healthcare providers…

  18. Information Technology in the Virtual Library: Leadership in Times of Change. (United States)

    Glogoff, Stuart


    Describes the impact of networked information technology environments on libraries, users, and library competitors, focusing on the leadership role of library administrators. Discusses the network generation as agents of change; transforming learning; the impact of networked information; the impact on the workplace; and emerging technologies.…

  19. Human Aspects of the Management of Technological Change: A Case-Study (United States)

    Gorman, Liam; Mullan, Cathal


    Describes the switchover from an outdated cargo warehouse using shelves and forklifts'' technology to a new semi-automatic facility with electronically controlled freight storage and retrieval, and an associated computerized documentation system. Illustrates the management of the personnel aspects in introducing technological change. (Author)

  20. Big Bang Technology: What's Next in Design Education, Radical Innovation or Incremental Change? (United States)

    Fleischmann, Katja


    Since the introduction of digital media, design education has been challenged by the ongoing advancement of technology. Technological change has created unprecedented possibilities for designers to engage in the broadening realm of interactive digital media. The increasing sophistication of interactivity has brought a complexity which needs to be…

  1. Analysis of life cycle technology of BTL (Biomass to Liquid): state of art and recommendations; Analise do ciclo de vida das tecnologias BTL: estado da arte e recomendacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Maria Luiza G.; Lora, Electo E.S. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida; Ugaya, Cassia M.L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica


    In the last decades, the intensive and no rational use of energy resources from fossil fuels has been causing climatic changes, due to the increase in air pollutants, mainly Co2. The production of liquid fuels from biomass stands out as one of the principal energy alternatives with low environmental impact that could substitute the fuels derived from petroleum in the transportation section. The present work shows a revision from the main Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) studies performed for biofuel production by BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. In this revision, it is possible to identify some of the main environmental impacts associated with this type of fuel production, as a function of the energy and material required to its production. Likewise, it is possible to elaborate recommendations in fuel production that allow the increase of benefits to the environment. (author)

  2. Climate change and forest trees in the Pacific Northwest: a vulnerability assessment and recommended actions for national forests (United States)

    A. Bower; W. Devine; C. Aubry


    Climate change presents new challenges to land managers. At stake is our ability to make thoughtful, science-based decisions and to add climate change considerations to our project and management plans. We also must prioritize among the opportunities that can be included in adaptation strategies because funding and time are limited, now more than ever. In 2012, we...

  3. A case study of enabling factors in the technology integration change process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pi-Sui Hsu; Priya Sharma


    .... We interviewed seven participants who played the role of change agents twice during the six-year period of time and examined documents related to integrating science specific technology in this multi-section course...

  4. Strategies for Change in a Technological Society. Conference Report. [Bath University 20 December 1977]. (United States)

    Page, Ray, Ed.


    Separate papers examined: post-industrial economy and education; advances in British industry; attitudes toward industry; and technological unemployment. Change strategies for the education and employment of young adults were discussed. (CP)

  5. Phase Change Permeation Technology for Environmental Control & Life Support Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will explore a recent advancement in Phase Change Permeation™ technology to enable improved (1) water recovery from urine/brine for Environmental...

  6. Managing Positive Stress for Change in the Implementation of Technology in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Vanvooren


    Full Text Available In the Information Age, faculty and staff in large institutions and schools make transformative changes slowly. The implementation of technology as a tool for communication and in classroom integration for instruction is also slow for many educators. However, today there is an urgency to bring the most recent technology systems, applications, and strategies into the educational organization, creating an environment that requires knowledgeable leaders to manage the rapid change. With resistance just a parking lot whisper away, leaders must orchestrate the right amount of stress to create a need in the staff to constantly evolve to a new level of technology implementation. The five positive stress inducing strategies for change, first introduced by DeVore in 1994 [4], have proven to be used by highly effective leaders from elementary schools through college. With leaders trained in these key strategies, the likelihood of faculty and staff commitment to the needed changes in technology integration is greatly increased. Leaders can’t wait for the experienced employee to consider using technology as a tool; even elementary students race past the limited and readily outdated technology skills of most teachers. Leaders must create the positive stressors to initiate change for technology in their organizations now.

  7. Use of change management theories in gaining acceptance of telemedicine technology. (United States)

    Rufo, Rebecca Zapatochny


    The success of telemedicine applications within health care begins with the process of implementing planned change. The attitudes of staff and their willingness to embrace new technology can be positively influenced in order to gain acceptance of new ways to perform tasks. Telemedicine applications have been designed to improve operational efficiency and obtain improved outcomes, but system designers and procurers are dependent upon the organization's leadership to effect attitudinal and behavioral changes that are essential for acceptance and usage of new technology.

  8. [Changes in nutritional recommendations for a healthy population and their influence on a diabetic diet]. (United States)

    Anděl, Michal; Brunerová, Ludmila; Dlouhý, Pavel; Polák, Jan; Gojda, Jan; Kraml, Pavel

    Recently, thousands of papers brought knowledge about effects of nutrients on cellular level, in experimental animals and in human experiments on one side, the results of epidemiological studies on the other side have suggested the nutrients and foods for healthy diet and nutrients and foods, which should be consumed only in limited amount. Among foods, which should be avoided, those with higher content of trans-fatty acids. Their daily intake should not exceed 1 % of total energy intake. Similar should be limited saturated fatty acid, added sugar and salt. On the contrary, the intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods should be basic part of fat intake. In these conditions the amount of consumed fat could create up to 35 % of all daily energy intake. Beneficial carbohydrates are those with low glycemic index, i.e. whole grain and brown rice products and legumes. The intake of salt is necessary to limit fewer than 6 g per day and alcohol intake should not exceed 10 g per day in women and 20 g per day in men. The recommendation in last years do not limit cholesterol daily intake. The food of animal origin with high content of saturated fatty acids, i.e. meat and milk products parallel contains also cholesterol. On the other hand, the oils of vegetable origin mostly from tropical oils, which contents high amount of saturated fatty acids represents the risk? On the contrary eggs and shellfish contents high amount of cholesterol and very low amounts of saturated fatty acids. Therefore, there is no reason for their strict limitation in the diet. carbohydrate - diabetes - dietary recommendation - energy intake - fat - healthy diet - iron - cholesterol - protein.

  9. Integrative assessment of climate change for fast-growing urban areas: Measurement and recommendations for future research. (United States)

    Scheuer, Sebastian; Haase, Dagmar; Volk, Martin


    Over the 20th century, urbanization has substantially shaped the surface of Earth. With population rapidly shifting from rural locations towards the cities, urban areas have dramatically expanded on a global scale and represent crystallization points of social, cultural and economic assets and activities. This trend is estimated to persist for the next decades, and particularly the developing countries are expected to face rapid urban growth. The management of this growth will require good governance strategies and planning. By threatening the livelihoods, assets and health as foundations of human activities, another major global change contributor, climate change, became an equally important concern of stakeholders. Based on the climate trends observed over the 20th century, and a spatially explicit model of urbanization, this paper investigates the impacts of climate change in relation to different stages of development of urban areas, thus evolving a more integrated perspective on both processes. As a result, an integrative measure of climate change trends and impacts is proposed and estimated for urban areas worldwide. We show that those areas facing major urban growth are to a large extent also hotspots of climate change. Since most of these hotspots are located in the Global South, we emphasize the need for stakeholders to co-manage both drivers of global change. The presented integrative perspective is seen as a starting point to foster such co-management, and furthermore as a means to facilitate communication and knowledge exchange on climate change impacts.

  10. International Association of Technological University Libraries (IATUL: Promoting Science and Technology Librarianship in the Changing Library Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrayee Ghosh


    Full Text Available International Association of Technological University Libraries (IATUL has been in the forefront of providing leadership to information professionals and promoting science and Technology librarianship in today's changing library landscape. The present article is an attempt to comprehend the present status of IATUL and analyze the activities and contribution it has made to overcome the range of challenges facing by tertiary level Technological libraries throughout the world. The SWOT analysis method is used to assess the achievements of IATUL, failures and ascertain constraints being faced in this internet age. The author relied on web sites as well as ephemeral material such as minutes, annu- al reports, newsletters, and memoranda to construct this article. Meeting and Interview with IATUL present and past presidents and other office bearers of the associations provided useful sources of information. It is also attempted to pro- vide relevant information for those interested to join IATUL for professional development.

  11. Changing Pattern and Relation with Technological Level of the Korean and Japanese Export Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyul Kim


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore empirically whether export competitiveness of Korea and Japan has changed since 1990s. Unlike existing literature, we tried to grasp changing patterns of export competitiveness by new methodology such as belonging quadrant and moving direction, rather than simply showing its trend or comparison classified by industry. And we categorized 48 sectors into some technological levelsThe purpose of this paper is to explore empirically whether export competitiveness of Korea and Japan has changed since 1990s. Unlike existing literature, we tried to grasp changing patterns of export competitiveness by new methodology such as belonging quadrant and moving direction, rather than simply showing its trend or comparison classified by industry. And we categorized 48 sectors into some technological levels, then analyzed how the change of export competitiveness is distributed by each technological level. When seeing 'revealed comparative advantage' and 'trade specification index', we found considerable changes in export competitiveness. Competitiveness of Korea has rapidly improved while that of Japan has been continuously decreasing. Especially the gap of competitiveness between Korea and Japan has largely reduced around the midterm of 2000s. Shrinking of the gap in export competitiveness has begun from the latter half of 1990s and first half of 2000s. Change of export competitiveness shows different trend by technology level. Korea has gained more competitiveness than Japan in high and middle level of technology. Korea shows upward tendency of competitiveness in mid and high technology, while Japan in low technology. Competitiveness gap between Korea and Japan is rapidly decreasing since the late 1990s, and curtailment of the gap is mainly happening in the high level of technological capabilities.

  12. Temporal changes in trying to lose weight and recommended weight-loss strategies among overweight and obese Americans, 1996-2003. (United States)

    Baradel, Lesley A; Gillespie, Cathleen; Kicklighter, Jana R; Doucette, Michele M; Penumetcha, Meera; Blanck, Heidi M


    We examined whether the reported prevalence of trying to lose weight among overweight and obese individuals has changed over time, and whether those trying to lose weight report using recommended weight-loss strategies. We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 50 states and the District of Columbia during 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2003. The sample included participants with a self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) of > or =25.0 kg/m(2) (N=333,378). The prevalence of trying to lose weight and eating fewer calories, using physical activity, or both, were examined for endpoint change and linear trends. Between 1996 and 2003, the prevalence of trying to lose weight among obese individuals increased significantly, while it remained stable among overweight individuals. The prevalence of eating fewer calories, using physical activity and using a combination of both increased significantly over time among the overweight and obese individuals trying to lose weight. Despite a rise in the number of overweight and obese people, there was little change among overweight adults in trying to lose weight over time, and a modest-but significant-change among obese adults in trying to lose weight over time. Among those who reported trying to lose weight, there were significant increases in their efforts to use recommended strategies.

  13. Technological advances for improving adenoma detection rates: The changing face of colonoscopy. (United States)

    Ishaq, Sauid; Siau, Keith; Harrison, Elizabeth; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Hoffman, Arthur; Gross, Seth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Neumann, Helmut


    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer. Over 90% follow an adenoma-to-cancer sequence over many years. Colonoscopy is the gold standard method for cancer screening and early adenoma detection. However, considerable variation exists between endoscopists' detection rates. This review considers the effects of different endoscopic techniques on adenoma detection. Two areas of technological interest were considered: (1) optical technologies and (2) mechanical technologies. Optical solutions, including FICE, NBI, i-SCAN and high definition colonoscopy showed mixed results. In contrast, mechanical advances, such as cap-assisted colonoscopy, FUSE, EndoCuff and G-EYE™, showed promise, with reported detections rates of up to 69%. However, before definitive recommendations can be made for their incorporation into daily practice, further studies and comparison trials are required. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Re-evaluation of risks associated with hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients: recommendations for a change in management. (United States)

    Block, G A; Port, F K


    Hyperphosphatemia is a predictable consequence of chronic renal failure and is present in most patients on dialysis. Traditionally, the risk associated with elevated serum phosphorus has focused on its impact on renal osteodystrophy. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests that abnormalities in serum phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product (CaxP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are resulting in vascular and visceral calcification, thereby contributing to the substantially increased risk of cardiovascular death in this population. In this analysis, we review in detail the literature that describes these associations. We show that the current treatment paradigm for serum phosphorus and secondary hyperparathyroidism is ineffective for a large segment of dialysis patients. Currently, 60% of hemodialysis patients have phosphorus greater than 5.5 mg/dL, and 40% have CaxP greater than 60 mg(2)/dL(2). It is our belief that prevention of uremic calcification, cardiac death, and vascular disease should assume primary importance when evaluating the risks associated with elevated levels of phosphorus, CaxP, and PTH. We recommend that target levels should become 9.2 to 9.6 mg/dL for calcium, 2.5 to 5.5 mg/dL for phosphorus, less than 55 mg(2)/dL(2) for CaxP product, and 100 to 200 pg/mL for intact PTH.

  15. Technological changes in present-day conditions: reflections of an economist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available All economists agree that technological changes constitute the main source of economic development. Nonetheless, many economists are convinced that such changes are important only in pushing up the rate of economic development, which in the long run would otherwise be lower and constant, with capital accumulation and labor force growth taking place gradually. To the contrary, the present work argues that in the long run, technical progress is not the main factor of economic development, but rather a necessary condition. The author examines technological change in economic theory and the history of economic development. Technological unemployment and Keynesian unemployment are then considered as well as the reduction of working hours. Finally, the author considers more recent technological and economic developments and their relation to manual and intellectual labour.

  16. An Analysis of Change Mechanisms in Government Budgets on Science and Technology (United States)

    Jung, C.


    Recent studies on policy changes have shown that there are limitations of incrementalism and that there no longer exists a general theory that can explain policy change. A number of studies have been conducted to examine policy changes in terms of drastic changes in budgets or policy agenda. According to the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), policy change is punctuated by long periods of stability, and large, but rare, changes due to shifts in society or the government. Although the reasons for these drastic changes are interpreted mainly from external events, the exact mechanisms of these changes are still not known. In this study, we assume that the punctuated budget changes are a result of not only external events but also the bureaucratic power of government departments. We attempt to identify the regularity of budget change pattern due to these internal characteristics (bureaucratic power). In order to understand budget changes caused by external events, especially for science and technology, the ARIMA-Intervention analysis was implemented. The results showed that the ARIMA-Intervention analysis explained the abrupt change in budget well. This means that a change in budget cannot be explained as incrementalism. Also, we analyzed the budget change kurtosis of government department along with various policy and organization types. Normally, a high kurtosis means there is a high probability of a punctuated equilibrium. The results show that science and technology agency as well as productive, delivery, and transfer agencies have a relatively high kurtosis.;

  17. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keyworth


    Technological supports aiming to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals show considerable promise, particularly those involving computer-generated reminders and feedback. Due to the lack of theoretically-informed interventions, we were unable to draw conclusions around the effectiveness of theory-behaviour change interventions in this context. Interventions currently lack consistency in delivery method and content, which future research should address.

  18. Models of Change, Organizational Redesign, and the Adoption of Web Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr


    Theories of organizational design provide limited guidance in the ongoing adjustment to web technologies. There is also a gap between the rather sophisticated theories of change that analyze how and why change occurs and the practice-oriented focus of the implementation and guidance of actual...

  19. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques. (United States)

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M


    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi


    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  1. Measuring land-use and land-cover change using the U.S. department of agriculture's cropland data layer: Cautions and recommendations (United States)

    Lark, Tyler J.; Mueller, Richard M.; Johnson, David M.; Gibbs, Holly K.


    Monitoring agricultural land is important for understanding and managing food production, environmental conservation efforts, and climate change. The United States Department of Agriculture's Cropland Data Layer (CDL), an annual satellite imagery-derived land cover map, has been increasingly used for this application since complete coverage of the conterminous United States became available in 2008. However, the CDL is designed and produced with the intent of mapping annual land cover rather than tracking changes over time, and as a result certain precautions are needed in multi-year change analyses to minimize error and misapplication. We highlight scenarios that require special considerations, suggest solutions to key challenges, and propose a set of recommended good practices and general guidelines for CDL-based land change estimation. We also characterize a problematic issue of crop area underestimation bias within the CDL that needs to be accounted for and corrected when calculating changes to crop and cropland areas. When used appropriately and in conjunction with related information, the CDL is a valuable and effective tool for detecting diverse trends in agriculture. By explicitly discussing the methods and techniques for post-classification measurement of land-cover and land-use change using the CDL, we aim to further stimulate the discourse and continued development of suitable methodologies. Recommendations generated here are intended specifically for the CDL but may be broadly applicable to additional remotely-sensed land cover datasets including the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based land cover products, and other regional, national, and global land cover classification maps.

  2. Аsymmetry of Structural Institutional and Technological Changes in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkovа Marina Andreevna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research on interrelation between institutional and technological changes. The authors provide the convincing argument in favor of the thesis on asymmetry of structural, institutional and technological changes. The complex of analytic methods is used in the work – comparative statics, static analysis, dynamic analysis. The analysis results in the conclusion on strengthening the heterogeneity, instability and uncertainty of the social and economic phenomena and processes. The authors comprehend structural changes as the changes in ratios and proportions of economic structure. They point to the emergence of new integrated characteristics and describe the synergetic effect of the general development. The use of the theory of technological modes allowed allocating radical and local shifts. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of reversible and irreversible structural and technological shifts as a special form of structural and technological changes. The application of the method of institutional statics and dynamics is effective in the analysis of technological and institutional symmetry / asymmetry. The emergence of negative institutional changes is explained by insufficient, inadequate or fragmentary assimilation of market institutes. The institutes interfering the innovative development stand against the institutes of innovative development. The institutional traps of structural and technological transformations are subdivided by authors into the traps of micro- and macrolevel. The authors point to the difficulty of assessing the institutes of microlevel by means of statistical data. They suggest using the phenomena which are under the control of authorities and subject to regulation as indicators. To define the opportunities of institutional management and the borders of government intervention the authors investigate in detail the institutional traps. They include moral and psychological unreadiness

  3. How places matter: telecare technologies and the changing spatial dimensions of healthcare. (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly


    Dominant discourses on telecare technologies often celebrate the erasure of distance and place. This paper provides a critical intervention into these discourses by investigating how spaces still matter, despite the move from physical to virtual encounters between healthcare professionals and patients. I argue that science and technology studies (STS) research on telecare, as well as other technologies, can be enriched by including a focus on place to understand the dynamic interactions between people and things. Adopting insights of human geographers, I show how places in which technologies are used affect how technologies enable or constrain human actions and identities. Whereas some spaces may facilitate the incorporation of technologies, others may resist technologies. A focus on how places matter is important for understanding how telecare technologies reorder and redefine healthcare. Although other healthcare technologies are also important actors in transforming healthcare, telecare technologies do this in a very specific way: they redefine the spatial dimensions of healthcare. To capture and further explore this changing spatial configuration of healthcare, I introduce the notion of technogeography of care. This concept provides a useful heuristic to study how places matter in healthcare. Although telecare technologies introduce virtual encounters between healthcare providers and patients, the use of telecare devices still largely depends on locally grounded, situated care acts. Based on interviews with users of several cardiac telecare applications, including healthcare professionals and patients in Germany and The Netherlands, the paper shows how patients' homes and public spaces are important for shaping the implementation and use of telecare technologies, and vice versa. Last, but not least, telecare devices are implicated as well. The paper emphasizes the place-dependency of the use and meaning of technical devices by showing how the same technological



    Treloar, A


    Print has been the most significant scholarly communication technology for the last three hundred years (at least). Kaufer and Carley's Ecology of Communicative Transactions analyses print communication in ecological terms. This paper applies this perspective to the changes now occurring in scholarly communication. The theory of punctuated equilibrium proposes that evolution of new species occurs both in bursts and in response to changes in environments. Rapid changes in the scholarly communi...

  5. The Kyoto mechanisms and technological innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik


    Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark...... countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation....

  6. Cardiothoracic surgery at a crossroads: the impact of disruptive technologic change. (United States)

    Cohen, David J


    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, cardiothoracic surgery is arguably the most successful of all medical specialties. There are effective treatments including transplantation, for almost all cardiac and thoracic diseases that can be performed with low morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic surgeons have mastered technical difficulties through innovation, hard work, planning and skill. Yet in the past decade, the primacy of cardiothoracic surgery has been challenged by new technologies. This paper applies business school theories to examine how cardiothoracic surgeons might best respond to such "disruptive technologies". Otherwise well-managed business and industrial enterprises have had difficulty dealing with disruptive technological change because of well-recognized organizational impediments. Cardiothoracic surgeons must understand the characteristics of disruptive technologies and consider organizational changes that will allow the profession to better adapt to them.

  7. Cardiothoracic surgery at a crossroads: The impact of disruptive technologic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen David J


    Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the twenty-first century, cardiothoracic surgery is arguably the most successful of all medical specialties. There are effective treatments including transplantation, for almost all cardiac and thoracic diseases that can be performed with low morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic surgeons have mastered technical difficulties through innovation, hard work, planning and skill. Yet in the past decade, the primacy of cardiothoracic surgery has been challenged by new technologies. This paper applies business school theories to examine how cardiothoracic surgeons might best respond to such "disruptive technologies". Otherwise well-managed business and industrial enterprises have had difficulty dealing with disruptive technological change because of well-recognized organizational impediments. Cardiothoracic surgeons must understand the characteristics of disruptive technologies and consider organizational changes that will allow the profession to better adapt to them.

  8. Cardiothoracic surgery at a crossroads: The impact of disruptive technologic change (United States)

    Cohen, David J


    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, cardiothoracic surgery is arguably the most successful of all medical specialties. There are effective treatments including transplantation, for almost all cardiac and thoracic diseases that can be performed with low morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic surgeons have mastered technical difficulties through innovation, hard work, planning and skill. Yet in the past decade, the primacy of cardiothoracic surgery has been challenged by new technologies. This paper applies business school theories to examine how cardiothoracic surgeons might best respond to such "disruptive technologies". Otherwise well-managed business and industrial enterprises have had difficulty dealing with disruptive technological change because of well-recognized organizational impediments. Cardiothoracic surgeons must understand the characteristics of disruptive technologies and consider organizational changes that will allow the profession to better adapt to them. PMID:17686151

  9. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.


    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  10. Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens


    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced b...

  11. Starting Off on the Best Foot: A Review of Message Framing and Message Tailoring, and Recommendations for the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change. (United States)

    Pope, J Paige; Pelletier, Luc; Guertin, Camille


    Health promotion programs represent a salient means through which physical activity promoters can cultivate positive health behavior change and maintenance. The messages communicated within these programs serve as an essential component as they are often used to convey valuable information, resources, or tools that facilitate health behavior initiation and sustained engagement. Identifying the most effective way to communicate health promotion information is, therefore, of considerable importance to ensuring that people not only attend to these messages, but also connect with and internalize the information conveyed within them. This paper was written to (1) summarize and evaluate the most prominent reviewed research approaches of message framing and tailoring to message design; and (2) offer a comprehensive messaging strategy to promote sustained health behavior change. A review of the literature demonstrated that a messaging strategy that has consistently led to healthy behavior change has yet to be identified. Furthermore, scholars have articulated that a multi-theoretical approach that places emphasis on facilitating motivation and healthy behavior change needs to be employed. Thus, this paper proposes and provides recommendations for employing the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change (CMSSBC), which advocates tailoring messages to peoples' stage of change and framing them to focus on self-determined motives and intrinsic goals.



    Schwentesius, Rita


    It is necessary to boost a series of measures and policies to help peoples search for a new balance in the growth of civilization while reducing starvation and malnourishment, using new production and technological strategies that may help humankind and societies, not only to recover their food self-sufficiency, but also, based on a new relationship between age-old knowledge and technology, to put a stop on environmental deterioration which allows humanity to revert climate change, as well as...

  13. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0


    Świeczak Witold


    The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the n...

  14. Technology Transfer and Climate Change: Additional Considerations for Implementation under the UNFCCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sullivan


    Full Text Available Technology transfer is recognised as playing a central and critical role in the global response to climate change, as embodied in the Unite Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. However, technology transfer is a complex process, and despite numerous attempts to prescribe approaches to optimisation, there remain serious obstacles to its effective operation. The breadth of technologies and range of would-be recipient territories under the climate change regime serve to complicate things even further. Against this background, the Expert Group on Technology Transfer have produced a robust Strategy, which it will now fall to the Technology Mechanism announced in Cancun to implement. However, despite the rigour with which the technology transfer strategy was produced, it is never possible to cover all possible eventualities. It is on this basis that this article presents a number of tactical and strategic issues which may merit further consideration as the implementation process moves forward. At the operational level, such issues include a possible role for a centralised or regional technology procurement effort, the need for greater emphasis on sectoral specific approaches to technology transfer, and a pragmatic approach to reducing the impact of some barriers to transactions by the expedient use of insurance to reduce risk, as opposed to the longer term approach of international standardisation. At the strategic level, there are major issues with regard to prioritisation of resources applied to technology transfer, and in particular the resolution of the tensions existing between achieving sustainable development and the time critical need to achieve climate stabilisation.

  15. Technological change and salary variation in Mexican regions: Analyzing panel data for the service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camberos C.


    Full Text Available In this paper Hypothesis Biased Technological Change is applied for Mexican workers services sector, belonging several Mexican regions. Economics Census microdata, 1998, 2003 and 2008 are used. Hypothesis is proved with technological gaps, under consideration of different index and result statistics consistency by taking account panel analysis. Mayor wages differences at 2008 year were find out between Capital region and South one, about five hundred percent on 1998 year; but it was lower on 2008, two hundred percent. This result is in correspondence with diminishing technological gap, perhaps caused by economic crisis impact.

  16. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira


    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  17. On the optimal allocation of green technology under climate change agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, David


    This report investigates whether a technology transfer mechanism can help to reach a cooperative outcome, in a game on a climate change treaty that involves emission caps for both developed and developing countries. A climate change treaty without the inclusion of developing countries and their acceptance of emission limits is likely to be ineffective. Too little research and development of green technology is currently undertaken, considering its potential global impact, especially in developing countries. Analyzing a simple game with two asymmetric players, a tentative result is that the technology-transfer mechanism considered here cannot help to establish the cooperative outcome as a Nash equilibrium. However, the inclusion of secondary benefits in the payoff function, which are likely to occur when such a transfer takes place, could change this result. (Author)

  18. Modeling technological change in energy systems - From optimization to agent-based modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tieju [School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai 200237 (China); Transition to New Technology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Nakamori, Yoshiteru [School of Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)


    Operational optimization models are one of the main streams in modeling energy systems. Agent-based modeling and simulation seem to be another approach getting popular in this field. In either optimization or agent-based modeling practices, technological change in energy systems is a very important and inevitable factor that researchers need to deal with. By introducing three stylized models, namely, a traditional optimization model, an optimization model with endogenous technological change, and an agent-based model, all of which were developed based on the same deliberately simplified energy system, this paper compares how technological change is treated differently in different modeling practices for energy systems, the different philosophies underlying them, and the advantages/disadvantages of each modeling practice. Finally, this paper identifies the different contexts suitable for applying optimization models and agent-based models in decision support regarding energy systems. (author)

  19. From XML to RDF: how semantic web technologies will change the design of 'omic' standards. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Gorlitsky, Robert; Almeida, Jonas S


    With the ongoing rapid increase in both volume and diversity of 'omic' data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and others), the development and adoption of data standards is of paramount importance to realize the promise of systems biology. A recent trend in data standard development has been to use extensible markup language (XML) as the preferred mechanism to define data representations. But as illustrated here with a few examples from proteomics data, the syntactic and document-centric XML cannot achieve the level of interoperability required by the highly dynamic and integrated bioinformatics applications. In the present article, we discuss why semantic web technologies, as recommended by the World Wide Web consortium (W3C), expand current data standard technology for biological data representation and management.

  20. How do we convert the transport sector to renewable energy and improve the sector's interplay with the energy system? Main findings and recommendations from Workshop on Transport - renewable energy in the transport sector and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)


    As part of the DTU Climate Change Technologies Programme, DTU arranged a series of workshops and conferences on climate change technology focusing on assessment of and adaptation to climate changes as well as on mitigation of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Each workshop targeted a specific technology problem area. The Workshop on Transport took place at DTU 17 - 18 March 2009. The workshop developed and discussed recommendations for future climate change technologies. This report presents summary and recommendations from the workshop. (au)

  1. Explaining technological change of wind power in China and the United States: Roles of energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration (United States)

    Tang, Tian

    The following dissertation explains how technological change of wind power, in terms of cost reduction and performance improvement, is achieved in China and the US through energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how energy policies affect key actors in the power sector to promote renewable energy and achieve cost reductions for climate change mitigation in different institutional arrangements. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the learning processes and technological change of wind power in China. I integrate collaboration and technological learning theories to model how wind technologies are acquired and diffused among various wind project participants in China through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--an international carbon trade program, and empirically test whether different learning channels lead to cost reduction of wind power. Using pooled cross-sectional data of Chinese CDM wind projects and spatial econometric models, I find that a wind project developer's previous experience (learning-by-doing) and industrywide wind project experience (spillover effect) significantly reduce the costs of wind power. The spillover effect provides justification for subsidizing users of wind technologies so as to offset wind farm investors' incentive to free-ride on knowledge spillovers from other wind energy investors. The CDM has played such a role in China. Most importantly, this essay provides the first empirical evidence of "learning-by-interacting": CDM also drives wind power cost reduction and performance improvement by facilitating technology transfer through collaboration between foreign turbine manufacturers and local wind farm developers. The second essay extends this learning framework to the US wind power sector, where I examine how state energy policies, restructuring of the electricity market, and learning among actors in wind industry lead to

  2. From ER to E.T. how electromagnetic technologies are changing our lives

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Rajeev


    From ER to ET: How Electromagnetic Technologies Are Changing Our Lives explores electromagnetic wave theory including its founders, scientific underpinnings, ethical issues, and applications through history. Utilizing a format of short essays, this book explains in a balanced, and direct style how electromagnetic technologies are changing the world we live in and the future they may create for us. Quizzes at the end of each chapter provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the material. This book is a valuable resource for microwave engineers of varying levels of experience, and for instructors to motivate their students and add depth to their assignments.

  3. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world. (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph


    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology alignment in the presence of regulatory changes: The case of meaningful use of information technology in healthcare. (United States)

    Nair, Anand; Dreyfus, David


    Using the context of the healthcare sector, this study examines the impact of regulatory change on technology implementation and use. Hospitals are now federally mandated to showcase meaningful use of information technology (IT). We theorize that IT plan scope structured prior to a regulatory change by means of a long-term planning horizon, top management involvement, and steering committee engagement impacts organizations' ability to fulfill meaningful use requirements three to five years later. Furthermore, we contend that this impact is contingent on the specific IT adoption strategy. Data from the HIMSS and HITECH Act databases were combined to analyze 688 hospitals. Regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. The results of this longitudinal study show that frequency of steering committee meetings and length of planning horizon broaden IT plan scope. Broader IT plan scope is positively associated with the ability of organizations to meaningfully use IT. The link between IT plan scope and meaningful use metric is particularly significant for organizations that adopt a more integrated approach towards IT adoption. Average reimbursement amount differences are provided and discussed between the different IT adoption strategies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.


    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  6. The fabrication of a programmable via using phase-change material in CMOS-compatible technology. (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Neng; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia


    We demonstrate an energy-efficient programmable via concept using indirectly heated phase-change material. This via structure has maximum phase-change volume to achieve a minimum on resistance for high performance logic applications. Process development and material investigations for this device structure are reported. The device concept is successfully demonstrated in a standard CMOS-compatible technology capable of multiple cycles between on/off states for reconfigurable applications.

  7. A dynamic model of socio-technical change : institutions, actors and technologies in interaction


    Fünfschilling, Lea


    Many of today’s societal problems, such as climate change, resource scarcity or environmental degradation call for some sort of radical social and often also technological change. Especially utility sectors like water, energy or transportation are increasingly pressured to transition to a more sustainable mode of operation, as for instance seen in the recent political efforts in Switzerland and Germany to introduce a transition in the energy sector from fossil and nuclear to renewable energy ...

  8. Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza


    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is changes in the market for broadcasting services as a result of technological, political, and economic drivers. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the ICT-based information and knowledge intensive services that have gone through radical change...... and demand sites, scarcity of transmission resources, and the historical aspects that make the development of the broadcasting service market different from other information and knowledge intensive services....

  9. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.


    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  10. The clean development mechanism versus international permit trading: The effect on technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine [Statistics Norway, Research Department, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)


    The clean development mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol may induce technological change in developing countries. As an alternative to the clean development mechanism regime, developing countries may accept a (generous) cap on their own emissions, allow domestic producers to invest in new efficient technologies, and sell the excess emission permits on the international permit market. The purpose of this article is to show how the gains from investment, and hence the incentive to invest in new technology in developing countries, differ between the two alternative regimes. We show that the difference in the gains from investment depends on whether the producers in developing countries face competitive or noncompetitive output markets, whether the investment affects fixed or variable production costs, and whether producers can reduce emissions through means other than investing in new technology. (author)

  11. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  12. Climate change, insurance, and the buildings sector: Technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan


    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to better understand this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognized are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to significantly expanding these efforts. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups.

  13. A Sample Application for Use of Biography in Social Studies; Science, Technology and Social Change Course (United States)

    Er, Harun


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opinions of social studies teacher candidates on use of biography in science, technology and social change course given in the undergraduate program of social studies education. In this regard, convergent parallel design as a mixed research pattern was used to make use of both qualitative and quantitative…

  14. Why Do Firms Train? Empirical Evidence on the Relationship between Training and Technological and Organizational Change (United States)

    Neirotti, Paolo; Paolucci, Emilio


    We explore the relationship between training and innovation using key insights from the resource-based approach, organizational learning and labour studies. By using data from 304 large enterprises in Italy, the study highlights a twofold role of training in favouring technological and organizational changes. First, training plays a role in…

  15. Technological Magic, Social Change, and Counseling Rituals: The Future of Career Assessment. (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.


    Developments that will transform career assessment in the next 30 years include technological advances and demographic and work environment changes. Due to increased automation of assessment and counseling, the effectiveness of career assessment will be even more dependent on the work of vocational psychologists. (SK)

  16. Inside Moves: As Technologies and Job Descriptions Change, Communications and Marketing Offices Opt for Strategic Realignment (United States)

    Scully, Maura King


    Realists recognize reorganizations for what they are: opportunities to do things better--to change business as usual to reflect best practices, new tools and technologies, and current challenges in the marketplace. At educational institutions, perhaps no area is as sensitive to those shifts as communications and marketing offices. The advances in…

  17. Changing the game; some thoughts on future healthcare demands, technology, nursing and interprofessional education. (United States)

    Garrett, Bernard M


    This editorial discusses the conclusions of a number of high-profile reports on the future of healthcare provision, and healthcare professional education. The need for the realignment of service provision, regulation, interdisciplinary healthcare and supporting education is discussed in the context of rapid technological and social change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology and the Organisation of Work. EEE701 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B. (United States)

    Littler, Craig R.

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document analyzes the relationship between technology, skill, and work within the context of the debates concerning deskilling and managerial control…

  19. Technological Change in an Auto Assembly Plant: The Impact on Workers' Tasks and Skills. (United States)

    Milkman, Ruth; Pullman, Cydney


    Worker surveys and interviews with workers, managers, and unions explored the impact of technological change and reorganization at General Motors' plant in Linden, New Jersey. Skilled trades workers experienced skill upgrading and increased responsibility, whereas production workers underwent deskilling and were increasingly subordinated to the…

  20. The effects of internationalization, intangible resources and technological change on the transition to a multiproduct company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moisés Alejandro Alarcón Osuna; Carlos Fong Reynoso; Luis Ernesto Ocampo Figueroa


    .... The results show that the accumulation of intangibles, such as human capital, allows a transition to a multi-product company, but the effect of this accumulation is higher in an internationalized company. In addition, technological change creates incentives to not move to a multi-product company, where this effect is greater in an internationalized company.

  1. 'The Voracity Effect' and Climate Change : The Impact of Clean Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.


    In the absence of a successful international cooperative agreement over the control of emissions there is a growing interest in the role that clean technologies may play to alleviate the climate change problem. Within a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, we investigate, analytically and

  2. Learning and the New Workplace: Impacts of Technology Change on Postsecondary Career and Technical Education (United States)

    Washbon, Janet L.


    The experience of technology change pervades people's lives. Sometimes it comes in the guise of a new smart phone, e-reader, or patch for a leaky artery. Other times, it appears as a new way to track packages, connect with others through social networks, or find one's way around an unfamiliar place. Or it reveals itself as a new surgical…

  3. Using feedback from persuasive technologies to disrupt and change habitual behavior: a review of current literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, S.; Frost, J.H.; Renes, R.J.; Kerkhof, P.


    Habitual behavior is often hard to change because of a lack of self-monitoring skills. Digital technologies offer an unprecedented chance to facilitate self-monitoring by delivering feedback on undesired habitual behavior. This review analyzed the results of 72 studies in which feedback from digital

  4. Teachers' perceptions of effective science, technology, and mathematics professional development and changes in classroom practices (United States)

    Boriack, Anna Christine

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' perceptions of professional development and changes in classroom practice. A proposed conceptual framework for effective professional development that results in changes in classroom practices was developed. Data from two programs that provided professional development to teachers in the areas of technology, mathematics, and science was used to inform the conceptual framework. These two programs were Target Technology in Texas (T3) and Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Preparation Academies (MSTTPA). This dissertation used a multiple article format to explore each program separately, yet the proposed conceptual framework allowed for comparisons to be made between the two programs. The first study investigated teachers' perceptions of technology-related professional development after their districts had received a T3 grant. An online survey was administrated to all teachers to determine their perceptions of technology-related professional development along with technology self-efficacy. Classroom observations were conducted to determine if teachers were implementing technology. The results indicated that teachers did not perceive professional development as being effective and were not implementing technology in their classrooms. Teachers did have high technology self-efficacy and perceived adequate school support, which implies that effective professional development may be a large factor in whether or not teachers implement technology in their classrooms. The second study evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of mathematics and science professional development offered through a MSTTP academy. Current and former participants completed an online survey which measured their perceptions of academy activities and school environment. Participants also self-reported classroom implementation of technology. Interviews and open-ended survey questions were used to provide further insight into

  5. The US Food and Drug Administration’s drug safety recommendations and long-acting beta2-agonist dispensing pattern changes in adult asthma patients: 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou EH


    Full Text Available Esther H Zhou,1 Sally Seymour,2 Margie R Goulding,1 Elizabeth M Kang,1 Jacqueline M Major,1 Solomon Iyasu1 1Division of Epidemiology, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, 2Office of New Drugs, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA Background: Emerging safety issues associated with long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA have led to multiple regulatory activities by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA since 2003, including Drug Safety Communications (DSCs in 2010. These DSCs had three specific recommendations for the safe use of LABA products in adult asthma treatment. Methods: We examined the initiation of LABA-containing products for adult asthma treatment using an intermittent time series approach in a claims database from 2003 to 2012. We assessed the alignment of dispensing patterns with the following 2010 FDA recommendations: 1 contraindicated use of single-ingredient (SI-LABA without an asthma controller medication (ACM; 2 a LABA should only be used when asthma is not adequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs or ACM; and 3 step-down asthma therapy (e.g., discontinue LABA when asthma control is achieved. Results: There were 477,922 adults (18–64 years old dispensed a new LABA during 2003–2012. Among LABA initiators, patients who initiated an SI-LABA and who did “not” have an ACM dispensed on the same date decreased from >9% in 2003 (the initial labeling change to <2% post 2010 DSCs (p-value <0.0001 in the segmented regression model. The proportion of asthma patients dispensed an ICS in 6 months prior to initiating LABA treatment did not increase. The proportion of patients with longer than 4 months of continuous treatment did not decrease over the study period. Conclusion: Although the decrease in SI-LABA initiation is consistent with FDA’s recommendations, low ICS dispensing before initiating a LABA and LABA continuation practices require further efforts

  6. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea


    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  7. The Analysis of the Relationship between Clean Technology Transfer and Chinese Intellectual Property Countering the Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Hao

    This report discusses the relationship between the Chinese intellectual property systems which counter with the climate change and the transfer of clean technology, and states how to encourage the developed countries transfer the clean technology to the developing countries according...... to the relative international climate convention program. The report also proposes the current hindrances and developing strategies according to Chinese current situation at this field. The report is mainly divided into three subjects: the relationship between clean technology transfer and the intellectual...... property countering the climate changes; the analysis of current technology transfer modes relating to the climate; the difficulties of Chinese countering climate changes technology transfer and strategic thinking....

  8. Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems (United States)

    Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.

  9. Persistence of rubella and mumps antibodies, following changes in the recommended age for the second dose of MMR vaccine in Portugal. (United States)

    Gonçalves, G; Frade, J; Nascimento, M S J; Mesquita, J R; Nunes, C


    In Portugal, the recommended age for the second dose of MMR (MMR2) was changed from 10-13 years to 5-6 years for those born in 1994 and afterwards. This study aimed to assess if MMR schedule and time elapsed from the last dose are associated with the concentration of rubella and mumps IgG antibodies. Three Portuguese birth cohorts (convenience samples) were selected for this study (66, 59 and 41 participants born respectively in 1990-1993, 1994-1995 and 2001-2003). Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for mumps IgG were respectively 36, 30 and 38 RU/ml (P = 0·236) and for rubella IgG were 18, 20 and 17 IU/ml (P = 0·641). For both specific antibodies, no differences were observed with time since MMR2. Receiving MMR2 at 5-6 or 10-13 years was not associated with concentration of both antibodies. The GMC of rubella IgG was lower in males (P = 0·029). Taking into account previous evidence and the logistics needed to change vaccination schedules, it seems reasonable that sustaining very high coverage with two doses of MMR is currently the most pragmatic way to control mumps and rubella rather than any changes to the schedule.

  10. Groundwater Quality Changes in a Karst Aquifer of Northeastern Wisconsin, USA: Reduction of Brown Water Incidence and Bacterial Contamination Resulting from Implementation of Regional Task Force Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Erb


    Full Text Available In the Silurian Dolostone region of eastern Wisconsin, the combination of thin soils and waste application (animal manure, organic waste has led to significant groundwater contamination, including Brown Water Incidents (BWIs—contamination resulting in a color or odor change in well water and detections of pathogen indicator bacteria such as E. coli and others. In response, a Karst Task Force (KTF was convened to identify risks and recommend solutions. This article looks at the impact eight years after the 2007 Karst Task Force report—both the actions taken by local resource managers and the changes to water quality. We present the first regional analysis of the 2007 Karst Task Force report and subsequent regulatory changes to determine if these regulations impacted the prevalence of wells contaminated with animal waste and the frequency of BWIs. While all of the counties in the KTF area promoted increased awareness, landowner/manager and waste applicator education alone did not result in a drop in BWIs or other water quality improvements. The two counties in the study that adopted winter manure spreading restrictions on frozen or snow-covered ground showed statistically significant reductions in the instances of BWIs and other well water quality problems.

  11. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology. (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C


    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of health information technology change over time: a study of Tele-ICU functions. (United States)

    Anders, S H; Woods, D D; Schweikhart, S; Ebright, P; Patterson, E


    Longitudinal studies exploring the evolution of health information technology functions provide valuable information about how technology systems are integrated and exploited in situ. This study reports changes in the distribution of functions for a specific health information technology, the tele-ICU, over time. The studied tele-ICU provided care to six remote ICUs within a local geographic region in the same state and had nursing staff around the clock. The intervention logs of tele-ICU nurses were collected during two discrete times and coded into nine emergent functional categories, who initiated the intervention and, if required, subsequent escalation. All coded functional categories were investigated for significant changes over time in the nursing logged interventions. A total of 1927 interventions were coded into the nine emergent functional categories. Seven of the nine categories (78%) were significantly different between 2005 and 2007. The functions of the tele-ICU system continue to change and develop over time. These findings suggest that the tele-ICU increased support when ICU nurses were off the unit, inter-hospital coordinating and adherence to best practices, while simultaneously decreasing real-time support for ICU nurses. This research suggests that sustaining safety features in a new technology over time have post-conditions after implementation.

  13. National technology needs assessment for the preparation and implementation of climate change action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkel, C.W.M. van; Blonk, T.J.; Westra, C.A.


    In the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) it is recognised that developed countries have a responsibility in assisting developing countries and countries in economic transition in building a national capacity for the development, acquisition and transfer of Climate-related Technologies (CTs). Such assistance is most likely to be successful once it is tailored to the results of a sound assessment of the country`s development needs and once the results of this assessment have been endorsed by the most important stakeholders in the country. Recent insight in the opportunities and constraints for National (technology) Needs Assessments (NNAs) as planning tool for both capacity building and technology transfer regarding Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) is applied here to propose a participatory Climate Change Action Planning (CCAP) process. This participatory planning process is thought to serve the dual objective of defining a national Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) while at the same time contributing to the creation of a broad supportive basis for its acceptance and implementation among stakeholders in the developing country.

  14. Technology-Driven and Innovative Training for Sustainable Agriculture in The Face of Climate Change (United States)

    Wishart, D. N.


    Innovative training in 'Sustainable Agriculture' for an increasingly STEM-dependent agricultural sector will require a combination of approaches and technologies for global agricultural production to increase while offsetting climate change. Climate change impacts the water resources of nations as normal global weather patterns are altered during El Nino events. Agricultural curricula must incorporate awareness of 'climate change' in order to find novel ways to (1) assure global food security; (2) improve soil productivity and conservation; (3) improve crop yields and irrigation; (4) inexpensively develop site specific principles of crop management based on variable soil and associated hydrological properties; and (5) improve precision farming. In February 2015, Central State University (CSU), Ohio became an 1890 Land-Grant institution vital to the sustainability of Ohio's agricultural sector. Besides agricultural extension, the agriculture curriculum at CSU integrates multidisciplinary courses in science, technology engineering, agriculture, and mathematics (STEAM). The agriculture program could benefit from a technology-driven, interdisciplinary soil science course that promotes climate change education and climate literacy while being offered in both a blended and collaborative learning environment. The course will focus on the dynamics of microscale to mesoscale processes occurring in farming systems, those of which impact climate change or could be impacted by climate change. Elements of this course will include: climate change webinars; soil-climate interactions; carbon cycling; the balance of carbon fluxes between soil storage and atmosphere; microorganisms and soil carbon storage; paleoclimate and soil forming processes; geophysical techniques used in the characterization of soil horizons; impact of climate change on soil fertility; experiments; and demonstrations.

  15. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole


    between different roles and mobilize different types of knowledge depending on the context; the consultant is a navigator in the sense of knowing how to navigate in the complex organization surrounding the technological change process. The competencies of a political reflective navigator are outlined...... of OHS consultants is placed on the line between an expert and a process consultant. Based on evidence from the cases and on the concepts of actor-network theory on technological development, we suggest a supplementary third role, that of the 'political reflective navigator', where the OHS consultant...

  16. Technologically changing African context and usage of Information Communication and Technology in churches: Towards discerning emerging identities in church practice (a case study of two Zimbabwean cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi


    Full Text Available The last decade has seen massive progress in technological advancement in Africa. Many pastors have embraced the use of technology in their religious and ministerial practices. Within such a context, it is necessary to understand the various identities of the African pastor emerging from responses to the use of technology. This article discusses technological use in churches, particularly focusing on the changing technological context of Africa. The article uses Zimbabwe as a case study to assess and determine technology use and the responsive emerging identities of pastors. Three identities of pastors arising from increased technological use in Zimbabwe have been discerned. The first identity is that of the pastor who is on a par with the world. He is a technology embracer and is as sophisticated as the congregational members. He is a networker and entrepreneur. The second identity is that of a pastor who is trailing society and technology. He is a cautious technology embracer and is a confused technology consumer. The third identity is that of a pastor in isolation. He is a technology objector, and is unconnected, ignorant and feels that God is somewhat an enemy of technology.

  17. Practical recommendations for the implementation of health technologies to enhance physical fitness of students in extracurricular classes during non-traditional gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomenko E.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop practical recommendations for extracurricular classes nontraditional kinds of gymnastics to improve the organization of physical education teachers in schools. Material : in the experiment involved 358 students. Analyzed the available literature data. Results : a comparative analysis of physical fitness of students and practical recommendations for the non-traditional occupations gymnastics. Been a significant interest in physical education classes. Found that the main ways of improving physical education students may be the formation of the need for strengthening health facilities fitness aerobics, shaping, pilates. Conclusions : highlights the need to structure the problems they need and develop appropriate solutions.

  18. Future yields assessment of bioenergy crops in relation to climate change and technological development in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore L. Cosentino


    Full Text Available Bioenergy crops are expected to play an important role in reducing CO2 emission, in energy supply and in European energy policy. However, a sustainable bioenergy supply must be resilient to climate change and the impacts on agriculture at both global and regional scale. The purpose of this study was to forecast the potential distribution of several bioenergy crops based on agronomic and environmental constrains under current conditions and future scenarios (2020 and 2030 in European Union. Potential biomass yield, according to the category end use product achievable in each environmental zone of Europe at present and in the future available land have been also studied. Future yields were assessed according to two factors: technological development and climate change: the former was based on prospect of DG-Agriculture for conventional crops and expert judgments for bioenergy crops, while the latter based on relevant research papers and literature reviews which used site-specific crop growth models. Yields are expected to increase in northern Europe due to climate change and technological development, while in southerneastern Europe the negative effect of climate change will be mitigated by the technological development. The estimated total biomass production in Europe, on the basis of future yields and surplus land made available for energy crops, may not be sufficient to meet the needs of bioenergy supply as claimed in the European directive 2009/28/EC.

  19. Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, V.V.; Kaushik, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tyagi, S.K. [School of Infrastructure Technology and Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320, J and K (India); Akiyama, T. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-86283 (Japan)


    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change material (PCM) have been recognized as one of the most advanced energy technologies in enhancing the energy efficiency and sustainability of buildings. Now the research is focus on suitable method to incorporate PCMs with building. There are several methods to use phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal energy storage (TES) for different applications. Microencapsulation is one of the well known and advanced technologies for better utilization of PCMs with building parts, such as, wall, roof and floor besides, within the building materials. Phase change materials based microencapsulation for latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) systems for building application offers a challenging option to be employed as effective thermal energy storage and a retrieval device. Since the particular interest in using microencapsulation PCMs for concrete and wall/wallboards, the specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. This paper presents an overview of the previous research work on microencapsulation technology for thermal energy storage incorporating the phase change materials (PCMs) in the building applications, along with few useful conclusive remarks concluded from the available literature. (author)

  20. Assessing the impacts of local knowledge and technology on climate change vulnerability in remote communities. (United States)

    Bone, Christopher; Alessa, Lilian; Altaweel, Mark; Kliskey, Andrew; Lammers, Richard


    The introduction of new technologies into small remote communities can alter how individuals acquire knowledge about their surrounding environment. This is especially true when technologies that satisfy basic needs, such as freshwater use, create a distance (i.e., diminishing exposure) between individuals and their environment. However, such distancing can potentially be countered by the transfer of local knowledge between community members and from one generation to the next. The objective of this study is to simulate by way of agent-based modeling the tensions between technology-induced distancing and local knowledge that are exerted on community vulnerability to climate change. A model is developed that simulates how a collection of individual perceptions about changes to climatic-related variables manifest into community perceptions, how perceptions are influenced by the movement away from traditional resource use, and how the transmission of knowledge mitigates the potentially adverse effects of technology-induced distancing. The model is implemented utilizing climate and social data for two remote communities located on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. The agent-based model simulates a set of scenarios that depict different ways in which these communities may potentially engage with their natural resources, utilize knowledge transfer, and develop perceptions of how the local climate is different from previous years. A loosely-coupled pan-arctic climate model simulates changes monthly changes to climatic variables. The discrepancy between the perceptions derived from the agent-based model and the projections simulated by the climate model represent community vulnerability. The results demonstrate how demographics, the communication of knowledge and the types of 'knowledge-providers' influence community perception about changes to their local climate.

  1. The Comparison of Personalization Recommendation for E-Commerce (United States)

    Ya, Luo

    Personalization recommendation is the key technology in E-commerce, which affects the performance of E-commerce system. This paper mainly introduces personalization recommendation system and its role, and several widely used recommendation technology. Through comparing and analyzing on the strengths and weaknesses of recommendation technology, it concludes that the combined application for a variety of techniques should satisfy the actual needs better.

  2. Reproducibility and relevance of future behavioral sciences should benefit from a cross fertilization of past recommendations and today's technology: "Back to the future"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Berry; Peters, Suzanne; de Heer, Raymond; Pothuizen, Helen; van der Harst, Johanna


    Thanks to the discovery of novel technologies and sophisticated analysis tools we can now ‘see’ molecules, genes and even patterns of gene expression, which have resulted in major advances in many areas of biology. Recently, similar technologies have been developed for behavioral studies. However,

  3. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Bodó


    Full Text Available This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs. Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of online political activism. Through the short summary of the ad-hoc vigilante group Anonymous, this article describes hacktivism 1.0 as electronic civil disobedience conducted by outsiders. Through the analysis of Wikileaks, the anonymous whistleblowing website, it describes how strong PETs enable the development of hacktivism 2.0, where the source of threat is shifted from outsiders to insiders. Insiders have access to documents with which power can be exposed, and who, by using PETs, can anonymously engage in political action. We also describe the emergence of a third generation of hacktivists who use PETs to disengage and create their own autonomous spaces rather than to engage with power through anonymous whistleblowing.

  4. The TIME Model: Time to Make a Change to Integrate Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Mitchell


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to report the successful creation and implementation of an instructional model designed to assist educators in infusing technology into the curriculum while at the same time create opportunities for faculty to learn, become more proficient,and successful at integrating technology into their own classroom curriculum.The model was successfully tested and implemented with faculty, inservice and preservice teachers at the University of Central Florida (UCF. Faculty, inservice, and preservice teachers were successfully trained to integrate technology using a theme based curriculum with an instructional model called the TIME model which consists of twelve elements that include: Vision, Incentives, Personalization, Awareness, Learning Communities, Action Plan, Research, Development of Modules, Skills, Implementation, Evidence of Change, and Evaluation/Reflection.

  5. A MERGE model with endogenous technological change and the cost of carbon stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, Socrates [Laboratory of Energy Systems Analysis, The Energy Departments, Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    Two stylized backstop systems with endogenous technological learning (ETL) are introduced in the ''model for evaluating regional and global effects'' (MERGE): one for the electric and the other for the non-electric markets. Then the model is applied to analyze the impacts of ETL on carbon-mitigation policy, contrasting the resulting impacts with the situation without ETL. We model research and development (R and D) spending and learning subsidies for the demonstration and deployment stage as control variables, and we investigate the ability of this extra spending to create path-dependent experience and knowledge to aid in the implementation of carbon-free technologies. Based on model estimations and sensitivity analyses, we conclude that increased commitments for the development of new technologies to advance along their learning curves has a potential for substantial reductions in the cost of mitigating climate change and thereby helping to reach safe concentrations of carbon in the atmosphere. (author)

  6. Do Technological and Course-Related Variables Impact Undergraduates' Perceived Favorability and Willingness to Recommend Online/Hybrid Business Courses? (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Drennan, Rob B., Jr.; Karnik, Satyajit; Kapanjie, Darin


    Lower teaching evaluations can affect students' willingness to recommend an online course. To maintain online course quality, it is important to keep the "integrity" of a course, that is, offer to the extent possible, the same content and learning outcomes in an online course as the face-to-face (F2F) equivalent. This study explored the…

  7. Changes in mental health in compliers and non-compliers with physical activity recommendations in patients with stress-related exhaustion. (United States)

    Lindegård, Agneta; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Börjesson, Mats; Lindwall, Magnus; Gerber, Markus


    There is a lack of research regarding the long-lasting effects of a more physically active lifestyle in patients with mental disorders. In the present study, clinical data were analysed to examine if initially physically inactive patients, clinically diagnosed with stress-related exhaustion, taking part in 12-month multimodal treatment (MMT), differ at the 18-month follow-up regarding mental health, depending on whether they did or did not comply with the physical activity (PA) recommendations resembling those of the American College of Sports Medicine. The study population consisted of 69 patients (65% women) who were referred to a stress clinic due to stress-related exhaustion. All patients received MMT. A major goal was to increase patients' PA levels. The patients received general comprehensive instructions including personal advice regarding the positive effects of PA on mental health and could self-select for an 18-week coached exercise program. Changes in mental health symptoms over an 18-month period were compared between non-compliers (n = 26), mild compliers (n = 22) and strong compliers (n = 21) with the PA recommendations included in the MMT. Non-compliers, mild and strong compliers did not differ regarding burnout, depression and anxiety at baseline. Although substantial improvements occurred in all groups, mild and strong compliers reported significantly lower burnout and depression levels at the 18-month follow-up than the non-complying group (p stress-related exhaustion. Thus, the promotion of a more active lifestyle among patients with stress-related exhaustion should be implemented as a part of MMT, to achieve a more sustainable decrease of symptoms of burnout and depression. This is not a clinical trial.

  8. Why We All Want It to Work: Towards a Culturally Based Model for Technology and Educational Change (United States)

    Kerr, Stephen T.


    This paper explores reasons why the use of technology in education may be so attractive to so many people. Two emerging perspectives--memetics, and the social history of technology--are explored, and a typology of technology-as-cultural-tool is presented. Finally, implications of these ideas for educational change are considered.

  9. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernthal, F.M.


    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  10. Efficiency scale and technological change in credit unions and multiple banks using the COSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Rocha Bittencourt


    Full Text Available The modernization of the financial intermediation process and adapting to new technologies, brought adjustments to operational processes, providing the reduction of information borrowing costs, allowing generate greater customer satisfaction, due to increased competitiveness in addition to making gains with long efficiency period. In this context, this research aims to analyze the evolution in scale and technological efficiency of credit and multiple cooperative banks from 2009 to 2013. We used the method of Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA, which allows to calculate the change in efficiency of institutions through the Malmquist Index. The results indicated that institutions that employ larger volumes of assets in the composition of its resources presented evolution in scale and technological efficiency, influencing the change in total factor productivity. It should be noticed that cooperatives had, in some years, advances in technology and scale efficiency higher than banks. However, this result can be explained by the fact that the average efficiency of credit unions have been lower than that of banks in the analyzed sample, indicating that there is greater need to improve internal processes by cooperatives, compared to multiple banks surveyed.

  11. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)


    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  12. Dynamical regimes due to technological change in a microeconomical model of production (United States)

    Hamacher, K.


    We develop a microeconomical model to investigate the impact of technological change onto production decisions of suppliers—modeling an effective feedback mechanism of the market. An important property—the time horizon of production planning—is related to the Kolmogorov entropy of the one-dimensional maps describing price dynamics. We simulate this price dynamics in an ensemble representing the whole macroeconomy. We show how this model can be used to support ongoing research in economic growth and incorporate the obtained microeconomic findings into the discussion about appropriate macroeconomic quantities such as the production function—thus effectively underpinning macroeconomics with microeconomical dynamics. From there we can show that the model exhibits different dynamical regimes (suggesting "phase transitions") with respect to an order parameter. The non-linear feedback under technological change was found to be the crucial mechanism. The implications of the obtained regimes are finally discussed.

  13. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change


    David Auston; Scott Samuelsen; Jack Brouwer; Steven DenBaars; William Glassley; Bryan Jenkins; Per Petersen; Venkat Srinivasan


    Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term im...

  14. Using technology for bed management in public hospitals - A strategic analysis and change management plan


    Brayan, Daniel Joseph


    As healthcare organisations in New South Wales, Australia, are facing the increased demands of an aging population, new approaches to improving access to services are being sought. This project explores the potential of applying information technology to the management of beds in a large Sydney public hospital. More specifically, this project addresses the cultural and organizational aspects of hospital environments and factors them into a change management plan for implementing bed managemen...

  15. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas


    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyunto Wahyunto


    Full Text Available Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Time series satellite imageries of land use and land cover, ground truthing, and statistical data of land use change were analyzed for generating the dynamics of land use changes in the period of 1986-2008. Field observation, peat sampling, and peat analyses of representative land use types were undertaken to assess peat characteristics and its agricultural suitability. The study showed that within 22 years (1986-2008, the area of peat forests in Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts decreased as much as 13.6% from 391,902 ha to 328,078 ha. The current uses of the peatland in the two districts include oil palm plantation (8704 ha, smallholder rubber plantation (13,186 ha, annual crops (15,035 ha, mixed cropping of trees and annual crops (22,328 ha, and pineapple farming (11,744 ha. Our evaluation showed unconformity of the current uses of peatland with regulations and crops agronomic requirements such as peat thickness and maturity, rendering unsustainability. This study recommends that expansion of agriculture and plantation on peatland areas be limited over idle land within the agricultural production and conversion production forest areas. About 34,362 ha (9.7% of uncultivated log-over forest and shrubs can potentially be developed for agriculture. Peat soils with the thickness of >3 m should be allocated for conservation or forest protection due to low inherent soil fertility and high potential greenhouse gas emissions if converted for agriculture.

  17. A Methodology for Integrated, Multiregional Life Cycle Assessment Scenarios under Large-Scale Technological Change. (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Wood, Richard; Arvesen, Anders; Bergesen, Joseph D; Suh, Sangwon; Hertwich, Edgar G


    Climate change mitigation demands large-scale technological change on a global level and, if successfully implemented, will significantly affect how products and services are produced and consumed. In order to anticipate the life cycle environmental impacts of products under climate mitigation scenarios, we present the modeling framework of an integrated hybrid life cycle assessment model covering nine world regions. Life cycle assessment databases and multiregional input-output tables are adapted using forecasted changes in technology and resources up to 2050 under a 2 °C scenario. We call the result of this modeling "technology hybridized environmental-economic model with integrated scenarios" (THEMIS). As a case study, we apply THEMIS in an integrated environmental assessment of concentrating solar power. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for this plant range from 33 to 95 g CO2 eq./kWh across different world regions in 2010, falling to 30-87 g CO2 eq./kWh in 2050. Using regional life cycle data yields insightful results. More generally, these results also highlight the need for systematic life cycle frameworks that capture the actual consequences and feedback effects of large-scale policies in the long term.

  18. The OHS consultant as a ‘political reflective navigator’ in technological change processes at client enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hermund, Ingelise


    The occupational health service (OHS) in Denmark is only sparsely in-volved as adviser when technological changes take place in client enter-prises. In order to promote the OHS efforts in this area, the work of OHS consultants has been studied in four cases of technological change. Instead...

  19. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany; Gruener Wandel. Erneuerbare Energien, Policy Mix und Innovation. Ergebnisse des GRETCHEN-Projektes zum Einfluss des Policy Mixes auf technologischen und strukturellen Wandel bei erneuerbaren Stromerzeugungstechnologien in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany); Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)


    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  20. Information and communication technology and climate change adaptation: Evidence from selected mining companies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew I. Aleke


    Full Text Available The mining sector is a significant contributor to the gross domestic product of many global economies. Given the increasing trends in climate-induced disasters and the growing desire to find lasting solutions, information and communication technology (ICT has been introduced into the climate change adaptation mix. Climate change-induced extreme weather events such as flooding, drought, excessive fog, and cyclones have compounded the environmental challenges faced by the mining sector. This article presents the adoption of ICT innovation as part of the adaptation strategies towards reducing the mining sector’s vulnerability and exposure to climate change disaster risks. Document analysis and systematic literature review were adopted as the methodology. Findings from the study reflect how ICT intervention orchestrated changes in communication patterns which are tailored towards the reduction in climate change vulnerability and exposure. The research concludes with a proposition that ICT intervention must be part of the bigger and ongoing climate change adaptation agenda in the mining sector.Keywords: ICT; climate change; disaster risk reduction; mining; adaptation; South Africa

  1. Blending “Hard” and “Soft” Science: the “Follow-the-Technology” Approach to Catalyzing and Evaluating Technology Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boru Douthwaite


    Full Text Available The types of technology change catalyzed by research interventions in integrated natural resource management (INRM are likely to require much more social negotiation and adaptation than are changes related to plant breeding, the dominant discipline within the system of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR. Conceptual models for developing and delivering high-yielding varieties have proven inadequate for delivering natural resource management (NRM technologies that are adopted in farmers' fields. Successful INRM requires tools and approaches that can blend the technical with the social, so that people from different disciplines and social backgrounds can effectively work and communicate with each other. This paper develops the "follow-the-technology" (FTT approach to catalyzing, managing, and evaluating rural technology change as a framework that both "hard" and "soft" scientists can work with. To deal with complexity, INRM needs ways of working that are adaptive and flexible. The FTT approach uses technology as the entry point into a complex situation to determine what is important. In this way, it narrows the research arena to achievable boundaries. The methodology can also be used to catalyze technology change, both within and outside agriculture. The FTT approach can make it possible to channel the innovative potential of local people that is necessary in INRM to "scale up" from the pilot site to the landscape. The FTT approach is built on an analogy between technology change and Darwinian evolution, specifically between "learning selection" and natural selection. In learning selection, stakeholders experiment with a new technology and carry out the evolutionary roles of novelty generation, selection, and promulgation. The motivation to participate is a "plausible promise" made by the R&D team to solve a real farming problem. Case studies are presented from a spectrum of technologies to show that repeated

  2. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świeczak Witold


    Full Text Available The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the new communication and information technologies so that quantifiable benefits can be gained. The research topic underpinning this paper is: 1 an analysis of social media use by the Millennial generation; 2 an evaluation of the attitudes of SMEs towards the incorporation of information technology into their current marketing practices; 3 determining the implementation possibilities of Marketing 4.0 by promoting a flexible approach to organising marketing actions. Following a review of the available literature on the subject, we will present a concept of the model of the flexible organisation of marketing actions. The D3I2C concept combines today’s marketing actions and digital transformation. It can be harnessed by academia and other organisations seeking guidance on the implementation of transformation in the organisation of marketing actions.

  3. Electronic game: A key effective technology to promote behavioral change in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Safdari


    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis is a very unpleasant and unbelievable experience. Appropriate management and treatment of these diseases require a high degree of patient engagement. Interactive health electronic games are engaging, fun, challenging, and experiential and have the potential to change the attitude and behavior, which can improve the player's health. The use of these digital tools, as one of the most attractive and entertaining modern technologies, canem power patients, provide suitable palliative care, promote health behavior change strategies, increase patient engagement, enhance healthy lifestyle habits, improve, and finally improve the quality of life of the patients. Finally, the aim of this article was to describe electronic games and their effects on the promotion of behavior change in cancer patients. In addition, this article describes categories, characteristic features, and benefits of this digital media in the lifestyle modification of cancer patients.

  4. Transformation through expeditionary change using online learning and competence-building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Norris


    Full Text Available This paper presents a patterns-based model of the evolution of learning and competence-building technologies, grounded in examples of current practice. The model imagines five simple stages in how institutions use ‘expeditionary change' to innovate more nimbly. It builds upon three assertions. First, the pervasiveness of web-based knowledge-sharing in higher education's communities, observatories and social networks makes it easier to: introduce relevant technologies, find people doing similar things, learn from their experiences, find and collaborate with early adopters of learning technologies, hear about relevant innovations, and discover and exploit news of opportunities, threats and trends. Second, expeditionary change based on such knowledge-sharing facilitates transformations in: production functions for learning, roles of faculty and mentors, business models, patterns and cadences of interactivity, use of open resources, and the roles of learners. Third, those transformations make it easier for disruptive forms of higher education to emerge; for example, dynamically updated curricula that address emerging and important knowledge gaps, and thereby increase students' employability.

  5. Engaging with change: Information and communication technology professionals’ perspectives on change in the context of the ‘Brexit’ vote (United States)


    Background Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been a key agent of change in the 21st century. Given the role of ICT in changing society this research sought to explore the responses and attitudes to change from ICT professionals and ICT academics in dealing with the potentially far reaching political challenge triggered by the UK’s 2016 European Union Referendum and its decision to leave the European Union (referred to as Brexit). Whilst the vote was a UK based decision its ramifications have global implications and as such the research was not confined to the UK. Methods and findings Data was collected through a survey launched on the first working day after the Brexit referendum vote to leave the EU and kept open for four weeks. The survey contained qualitative and quantitative questions. It sought to understand the opportunities and threats that would exist post-Brexit for ICT professionals and academics triggered by the decision. The research captured a complex rich picture on ICT professionals’ responses to the potential challenge of change triggered by the Brexit vote. Immediately after the Brexit decision the research reveals uncertainties amongst ICT professionals regarding what the decision would mean, with just under half of the participants not identifying any opportunities or threats. For those who did, threats outweighed opportunities by just more than double. Whilst understanding the global possibilities and dangers, participants saw their position from national and organizational perspectives. The highest frequency coded threats related to areas outside the participants’ control and the highest frequency opportunities related to areas where there was the potential for ICT interventions. This survey is part of longitudinal piece of research. Using the same methodological approach two further surveys are planned. The second survey will be one year after Article 50 was triggered on 29 March 2017. The final survey will be one year

  6. Engaging with change: Information and communication technology professionals' perspectives on change in the context of the 'Brexit' vote. (United States)

    Lomas, Elizabeth; McLeod, Julie


    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been a key agent of change in the 21st century. Given the role of ICT in changing society this research sought to explore the responses and attitudes to change from ICT professionals and ICT academics in dealing with the potentially far reaching political challenge triggered by the UK's 2016 European Union Referendum and its decision to leave the European Union (referred to as Brexit). Whilst the vote was a UK based decision its ramifications have global implications and as such the research was not confined to the UK. Data was collected through a survey launched on the first working day after the Brexit referendum vote to leave the EU and kept open for four weeks. The survey contained qualitative and quantitative questions. It sought to understand the opportunities and threats that would exist post-Brexit for ICT professionals and academics triggered by the decision. The research captured a complex rich picture on ICT professionals' responses to the potential challenge of change triggered by the Brexit vote. Immediately after the Brexit decision the research reveals uncertainties amongst ICT professionals regarding what the decision would mean, with just under half of the participants not identifying any opportunities or threats. For those who did, threats outweighed opportunities by just more than double. Whilst understanding the global possibilities and dangers, participants saw their position from national and organizational perspectives. The highest frequency coded threats related to areas outside the participants' control and the highest frequency opportunities related to areas where there was the potential for ICT interventions. This survey is part of longitudinal piece of research. Using the same methodological approach two further surveys are planned. The second survey will be one year after Article 50 was triggered on 29 March 2017. The final survey will be one year after the UK exit from the EU, assuming

  7. Engaging with change: Information and communication technology professionals' perspectives on change in the context of the 'Brexit' vote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lomas

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has been a key agent of change in the 21st century. Given the role of ICT in changing society this research sought to explore the responses and attitudes to change from ICT professionals and ICT academics in dealing with the potentially far reaching political challenge triggered by the UK's 2016 European Union Referendum and its decision to leave the European Union (referred to as Brexit. Whilst the vote was a UK based decision its ramifications have global implications and as such the research was not confined to the UK.Data was collected through a survey launched on the first working day after the Brexit referendum vote to leave the EU and kept open for four weeks. The survey contained qualitative and quantitative questions. It sought to understand the opportunities and threats that would exist post-Brexit for ICT professionals and academics triggered by the decision. The research captured a complex rich picture on ICT professionals' responses to the potential challenge of change triggered by the Brexit vote. Immediately after the Brexit decision the research reveals uncertainties amongst ICT professionals regarding what the decision would mean, with just under half of the participants not identifying any opportunities or threats. For those who did, threats outweighed opportunities by just more than double. Whilst understanding the global possibilities and dangers, participants saw their position from national and organizational perspectives. The highest frequency coded threats related to areas outside the participants' control and the highest frequency opportunities related to areas where there was the potential for ICT interventions. This survey is part of longitudinal piece of research. Using the same methodological approach two further surveys are planned. The second survey will be one year after Article 50 was triggered on 29 March 2017. The final survey will be one year after the UK exit from


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz AKBULUT


    Full Text Available A recent study investigated the degree of involvement in new teaching and learning methods by the academic staff of a large privileged Turkish state university, and revealed that faculties of education and open education were better in terms of change readiness than other faculties. The current study builds on that study, and investigates the involvement of the institution and teaching staff in technology integration from observers’ perspectives through administering a personal information form and a 31-item Likert questionnaire to 475 senior students of the Faculty of Education. Findings revealed that what were reported by instructors in the previous study seem somewhat different from what is being reported by their students in the current study. More specifically, students found their instructors and the infrastructure of the faculty quite inadequate in terms of the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT within classroom settings. Implications and suggestions regarding the integration process are provided.

  9. Fourth International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS'16): Epic for Change, the Pillars for Persuasive Technology for Smart Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Meschtscherjakov, A.; de Ruyter, B.; Fuchsberger, V.; Murer, M.; Tscheligi, M.


    Emergent technologies allow gathering larger amounts of data from multiple sources, e.g., multi-sensor data and self-tracking data, that can be used for customization and personalization purposes. So far, the capacities of technologies to change behaviors and to continuously monitor the progress and

  10. Recommendation System for Adaptive Learning. (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang


    An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics. An important question then follows: How should recommendations be made? To answer this question, a mathematical framework is proposed that characterizes the recommendation process as a Markov decision problem, for which decisions are made based on the current knowledge of the learner and that of the learning materials. In particular, two plain vanilla systems are introduced, for which the optimal recommendation at each stage can be obtained analytically.

  11. Panorama of Recommender Systems to Support Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga C.; Manouselis, Nikos


    This chapter presents an analysis of recommender systems in TechnologyEnhanced Learning along their 15 years existence (2000-2014). All recommender systems considered for the review aim to support educational stakeholders by personalising the learning process. In this meta-review 82 recommender

  12. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.


    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  13. Opportunities and barriers for OHS consultants in a technological change process at a client enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hermund, Ingelise


    In a case study of the design of inside finish and equipment of a new factory building the opportunities and barriers for OHS consultants in integrating work environment aspects are discussed. The work prac-tice of OHS consultants is studied in terms of theories from the sociology of technology....... Taking initially the role as experts the consultants in a reflective process change their strategy towards establishing a net-work in the client enterprise, going beyond the joint safety organization and more directly to the designers of new buildings and equipment. This indicates that the conditions...... for the work of OHS consultants can be challenged and changed if the consultants are able to take the role of a political reflective navigator....

  14. The Pain and Ecstasy: Pre-service Teacher Perceptions On Changing Teacher Roles and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Dyer


    Full Text Available Are pre-service teachers really open to change? Are they prepared for the shifts in their roles that are likely to occur over the next few decades? Are they developing a critical consciousness, to better assume leadership roles in educational change? These questions framed this exploration which qualitatively investigated pre-service teachers' perceptions of their role as educators in relation to advanced technologies. Pre-service teachers were asked to respond to a reading identifying (via an open ended think paper assignment what they liked and did not like about the future vision of education offered in the reading. Their responses indicate a strong conflict between the desire to work with motivated, responsible students who are actively engaged in their own learning and their notion of what a teacher should be, based on their own experiences in schools.

  15. Fostering Entrepreneurial Investment Decision in Medical Technology Ventures in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bettina Keppler


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from a survey among public and private venture capitalists from countries which attract a large amount of venture capital investment: Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Israel. The objective is to investigate venture capitalists’ investment criteria for medical technology ventures in the start-up or expansion phase. Since existing research evaluated venture capitalists’ general investment criteria, the aim of this study is to provide specific results on entrepreneurial investment decisions for the medical technology sector, which constantly attracted a significant share of European venture capital. The research used semi-structured interviews with 39 venture capitalists and experts. The results show that venture capitalists prefer to invest in companies which develop products for treating and diagnosing diseases showing a high prevalence and large market volumes, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological diseases, and orthopaedic disorders. The study confirms that venture capitalists use a number of industry-specific criteria highly relevant in a changing business environment. These include a high medical need for the product, availability of clinical data, stage of European Conformity approval, high probability of receiving reimbursement from health insurances, medical key opinion leaders supporting technology, management’s regulatory experience and their communication ability with doctors and key opinion leaders.

  16. Changing direction: the struggle of regulating assisted reproductive technology in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Griessler


    Full Text Available From 1992 until 2015, Austria had a very restrictive Reproductive Medicine Law (FMedG, 1992 that prohibited a number of treatments such as egg donation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, heterologous sperm donation for IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as well as general access to assisted reproductive technology for same-sex couples. As one consequence of this rather prohibitive law, Austrian physicians active in the area of assisted reproductive technology co-operated with, or had daughter institutes in, countries with less restrictive legislation such as the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which are only a few hours’ drive away. For a long time, liberalisation of the Reproductive Medicine Law was blocked by the fierce and seemingly unresolvable struggle between the restrictive conservative party (ÖVP and the permissive social democrats’ party (SPÖ. In 2014 the impasse, which had lasted for decades, was finally resolved in favour of a more liberal Reproductive Medicine Law that permits egg donation, PGD in some cases and heterologous sperm donation for IVF/ICSI and lesbian couples. Assisted reproductive technology treatments for single women and surrogate motherhood remain prohibited. The new Reproductive Medicine Law was heavily opposed by the Catholic Church, by some conservatives and by disability associations. By applying the concept of political culture, this paper explains why a liberalisation of the Reproductive Medicine Law was blocked for decades, and how the sudden policy change came about.

  17. Studying the place of technology to lower financial barriers for dietary change. (United States)

    Siek, K A; Maitland, J


    Current dietary self-monitoring systems assume users have access to healthy foods and resources to effectively implement and monitor dietary behavioral change. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the specific financial-related barriers that caregivers of low socioeconomic status encounter when attempting to make dietary behavior change. In this qualitative study, we conducted a focus group and 14 in-person interviews with the primary caregivers of low socioeconomic families. Participants were recruited from a community considered to be 'at risk' through high levels of exposure to multiple modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. All participants were English-speaking caregivers, who had children under eight years old. The families lived in an urban, public housing community. The focus group and interviews were transcribed and coded during data analysis sessions, then analyzed for emergent themes. We abstracted three main themes from the data. The caregivers of 17 families: 1) feared trying healthier food alternatives because of possibly wasting the food; 2) planned meals only when they had enough time, space, and financial security; and 3) defined produce as luxury items and often could only afford staple food items, such as meat and grains. We challenge the community to design technological interventions to lower the financial barriers presented with existing information and communication technology available to low socioeconomic populations. In addition, we encourage interventions to foster a community's social capital to decrease feelings of isolation and increase opportunities for cooperation.

  18. Determining the Changes of Information and Communication Technology Guidance Teacher Candidates' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Competency, Information and Communication Technology Usage Stages and Levels / Bilişim Teknolojileri Rehber Öğretm


    Ceylan, Beril; Türk, Mesut; Fatih YAMAN; KABAKÇI YURDAKUL, Işıl


    The purpose of this study is to determine the changes of Information and Communication Technology and Guidance teacher candidates’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge competency levels, Information and Communication Technology usage stages and levels. The research was designed as onegroup pre-test post-test experimental model and correlational research model. The study was conducted in the spring term 2012-2013 and the study sample consisted of 71 students of Department of Computer Ed...



    Netra B. Chhetri; Shrestha, Sundar S.


    We use panel data from Nepal to examine the effect of climate in inducing technology to understand potential agricultural adaptation to climate change in rice and wheat crops. We find different degree of climate-technology interaction in the productivity of two crops.

  20. Teacher-Related Factors in Assimilation of Technological Change in Schools: The Case of an Arab School in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abramovitz, Ruth


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore teachers' attitudes toward the implementation of new computer technology to improve teaching and learning products at a private Arab school in Israel. Specifically, the aim was to individuate teachers' factors associated with higher productivity of this technological change.…

  1. A switch by design : User-centred design of smart energy technologies to change habits of using energy at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, C.B.A.


    This doctoral thesis demonstrates that households are able and willing to permanently change their habits of using energy, if they are supported by well-designed, user-friendly technology. Previous studies have assessed the impact of smart energy technologies and new tariff structures to make

  2. New NIH-funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents A ... pregnancies, and much more. At the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver, health professionals used handheld Vscans to ...

  3. A Comparison of Novel Optical Remote Sensing-Based Technologies for Forest-Cover/Change Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V. Lui


    Full Text Available Remote sensing is gaining considerable traction in forest monitoring efforts, with the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System lite (CLASlite software package and the Global Forest Change dataset (GFCD being two of the most recently developed optical remote sensing-based tools for analysing forest cover and change. Due to the relatively nascent state of these technologies, their abilities to classify land cover and monitor forest dynamics have yet to be evaluated against more established approaches. Here, we compared maps of forest cover and change produced by the more traditional supervised classification approach with those produced by CLASlite and the GFCD, working with imagery collected over Sierra Leone, West Africa. CLASlite maps of forest change from 2001–2007 and 2007–2014 exhibited the highest overall accuracies (79.1% and 89.6%, respectively and, importantly, the greatest capacity to discriminate natural from planted mature forest growth. CLASlite’s comparative advantage likely derived from its more robust sub-pixel classification logic and numerous user-defined parameters, which resulted in classified products with greater site relevance than those of the two other classification approaches. In light of today’s continuously growing body of analytical toolsets for remotely sensed data, our study importantly elucidates the ways in which methodological processes and limitations inherent in certain classification tools can impact the maps they are capable of producing, and demonstrates the need to understand and weigh such factors before any one tool is selected for a given application.

  4. A Study on Effect of Technological Change on the Frequency of Child Labour in the Indian Match Industry (United States)

    Velayutham, C. Muthu; Palanivel, R. V.; Anbarasan, R.; Sinthuja, M.


    The Indian match industry in the southern state of Tamil Nadu has been characterized by child labour and a stagnant technology for over half a century. We investigate the technological changes and industrial restructuring, catalyzed by the changing duty structure that has moved the match industry towards greater mechanization. Our examination indicates that increased mechanization in the production processes has implied greater demand for skilled labour and a decline in child labour.

  5. Communication and Technology in the Process of Social Change: A Critical Appraisal of the Early Communication Theories


    Res.Assist. Banu Durdağ


    This article explores the conceptualization of communication and technology by the early communication scholars, which laid the foundation of contemporary communication studies, in their quests for explaining social change. In this respect, it aims to contribute to social scientists that frequently emphasize developments in communication processes and technologies for explaining the ever-hastening social change in the contemporary era. Similar to the contemporary literature,...

  6. When should irrigators invest in more water-efficient technologies as an adaptation to climate change? (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Yoder, J.


    The western US is expected to experience more frequent droughts with higher magnitudes and persistence due to the climate change, with potentially large impacts on agricultural productivity and the economy. Irrigated farmers have many options for minimizing drought impacts including changing crops, engaging in water markets, and switching irrigation technologies. Switching to more efficient irrigation technologies, which increase water availability in the crop root zone through reduction of irrigation losses, receives significant attention because of the promise of maintaining current production with less. However, more efficient irrigation systems are almost always more capital-intensive adaptation strategy particularly compared to changing crops or trading water. A farmer's decision to switch will depend on how much money they project to save from reducing drought damages. The objective of this study is to explore when (and under what climate change scenarios) it makes sense economically for farmers to invest in a new irrigation system. This study was performed over the Yakima River Basin (YRB) in Washington State, although the tools and information gained from this study are transferable to other watersheds in the western US. We used VIC-CropSyst, a large-scale grid-based modeling framework that simulates hydrological processes while mechanistically capturing crop water use, growth and development. The water flows simulated by VIC-CropSyst were used to run the RiverWare river system and water management model (YAK-RW), which simulates river processes and calculates regional water availability for agricultural use each day (i.e., the prorationing ratio). An automated computational platform has been developed and programed to perform the economic analysis for each grid cell, crop types and future climate projections separately, which allows us to explore whether or not implementing a new irrigation system is economically viable. Results of this study indicate that

  7. Appeals to autonomy and obedience: continuity and change in governing technologies in Danish and Swedish health promotion. (United States)

    Vallgårda, Signild


    The increasingly used concept new public health indicates that a fundamental change has occurred in the goals and methods of disease prevention and health promotion. The change is often said to imply less expert-driven governing of citizens. In this article, governing technologies in the field of public health in Denmark and Sweden are analysed to investigate whether substantial changes have taken place in the governing efforts. In the endeavours unfolded in relation to health examinations for children and pregnant women during the last eighty years, no apparent evidence exists of a significant change in governing technologies. Regulatory, expert-driven and empowering technologies have been used during the whole period; additionally, appeals to autonomy, responsibility and obedience as well as to trust in authorities co-exist throughout the period. The fundamental change is the huge increase in the health authorities' governing ambitions.

  8. Evolution of technology convergence networks in Korea: Characteristics of temporal changes in R&D according to institution type (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Seongkyoon


    This study investigates the temporal changes in development of technology convergence networks by institution type, i.e., public research institute (PRI), university and industry. Using the co-classification of technological domains of patents, we identified technology convergence of Korean patents, which were filed at Korea Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) from 1997 to 2011. We conducted a network analysis at the technology level to search for the key technology fields and frequent instances of technology convergence. The results show that technology convergence networks have grown significantly in the recent period regardless of the institution type. While industries started to conspicuously engage in technology convergence in the late 1990s, universities or PRIs did not do so until the mid-2000s. This discrepancy in the phase of technology convergence is attributed to the temporal difference in R&D stage (e.g., basic research and commercial product development). Our findings imply that corporal and governmental R&D management decision on promising technology fields will be more effective if the decision makers carefully consider the type of R&D entity in analyzing technological landscapes. PMID:29420574

  9. Transitional economy, technological change and women's employment: the case of Vietnam. (United States)

    Nguyen Nhat Tuyen


    This paper examines the changing labor and gender relations in the process of economic change in Vietnam. The report also explores the extent of opportunities for women emerging from the processes of technological change and economic liberalization. Vietnam was able to achieve considerable progress and growth with the introduction of the policy package known as doi-moi (renovation). Along with liberalization, came withdrawal of state support in vital social sectors. Under socialism, the state had observed a set of minimum labor standards and provided facilities such as childcare, which were crucial in enabling women to participate in the public sphere. With the state receding into the background, labor has been made much vulnerable to exploitation by internal and external forces. Much affected are women who have steadily been losing all support from the state, which also affects their ability to compete equally with men in the market. Therefore, although there is a Labor Code, which guarantees the rights of workers, in particular the rights of women workers, not many women in the nonstate sector can practically enjoy its legal benefits. In order to correct this situation, the government should develop a program for the implementation and monitoring of the Labor Code, with a special focus on possible violations in the private sector.

  10. Visualization and other emerging technologies as change makers for oral cancer prevention. (United States)

    Rosin, Miriam P; Poh, Catherine F; Guillard, Martial; Williams, P Michele; Zhang, Lewei; MacaUlay, Calum


    The genomic era has fueled a rapid emergence of new information at the molecular level with a great potential for developing innovative approaches to detection, risk assessment, and management of oral cancers and premalignant disease. As yet, however, little research has been done on complementary approaches that would use different technology in conjunction with molecular approaches to create a rapid and cost-effective strategy for patient assessment and management. In our ongoing 8-year longitudinal study, a set of innovative technologies is being validated alone and in combination to best correlate with patient outcome. The plan is to use these devices in a step-by-step sequence to guide key clinicopathological decisions on patient risk and treatment. The devices include a hand-held visualization device that makes use of tissue autofluorescence to detect and delineate abnormal lesions and fields requiring follow-up, to be used in conjunction with optical contrast agents such as toluidine blue. In addition, two semi-automated high-resolution computer microscopy systems will be used to quantitate the protein expression phenotype of cell nuclei in tissue sections and exfoliated cell brushings. Previously identified risk-associated molecular changes are being used to validate these systems as well as to establish their place in a population-based triage program that will filter out high-risk cases in the community and funnel them to dysplasia clinics where higher-cost molecular tools will guide intervention. A critical development for the translation of this technology into community settings is the establishment of an effective methodology for education and training of health practitioners on the front lines.

  11. Technological change of the main container terminals in Mexico, 2000-2014: An analysis by Malmquist with Bootstrap index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Virginia Delfín Ortega


    Full Text Available In this work, it is determined technological change of the main container terminals in Mexico in the period 2000-2014. For this Malmquist index methodology is implemented from which it can obtain the components of productivity: changes in technical efficiency and technological change, the last component is analyzed in this investigation. Within considered inputs are quay length and the number of workers and as output the number of teUs moved annually. The results show that in general, there was technological progress in the study period, obtaining an average score of 1.19, mainly due to the increase that is from 2010 to 2014. Stand out Ensenada and Altamira ports that have the highest growth in this indicator, on the opposite side Salina Cruz port has the greatest technological retrogression accentuated in the early years of the review period.

  12. Prospects of Russian Agriculture development under global climate and technological changes (United States)

    Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan


    Despite the great progresses of the last century in the agricultural sector and food supply, still about 820 million of people in developing countries are facing food scarcity and malnutrition. More than 180 million children are underweight. Except in Africa, 80 percent of the production gains came from increased yields in major cereal crops. The area cultivated has actually begun to decline in some regions. From now on, however, even Africa, which has always relied on cultivation of new land for production increases, will have to count on yield gains or pay high financial and ecological costs for expansion into areas not yet cultivated. The global scenario is changing fast. The technological, climatic and human-induced factors are creating long-lasting effects on the lives of people and on economic activities around the globe. In particular, climate change and/or variability is exacerbating rural increasing heat stress to natural habitats and human settlements, increasing climatic extremes, including drought and impacting food production. Agriculture of any kind is strongly influenced by the availability of water. Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation, runoff, and soil moisture storage. Changes in total seasonal precipitation or in its pattern of variability are both important. The occurrence of moisture stress during flowering, pollination, and grain-filling is harmful to most crops and particularly so to corn, soybeans, and wheat. Increased evaporation from the soil and accelerated transpiration in the plants themselves will cause moisture stress; as a result there will be a need to develop crop varieties with greater drought tolerance. These climate change effects are particularly harmful in tropical regions of South America, Africa and South East Asia where food production is feeding a large part of world countries and poses serious risks to global food security in the future. Despite global projected climate change will affect a general decline of

  13. Implementing and managing change: A guide for assessing information technology. [Office automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, J.A.; Gryder, R.; Fleischer, M.


    Assessing the impact of office automation (OA) requires expertise in the generic aspects of evaluation and innovation adoption, combined with specialized knowledge of OA. There is an extensive literature on the two generic subjects, but no companion literature concerning the application of the knowledge to the unique case of OA. By providing that specialized information, this report assists the implementors of OA in two ways: it shows them how to monitor implementation efforts, thus providing feedback to facilitate adoption of OA technology; and it provides guidance for measuring OA's impact on people and organizations. The report assumes an immediate impact of OA on the work groups where the technology is implemented, and a continually spreading effect from that locus of immediate use. Included in the report are discussions of: sources of data, methods of data collection, factors which affect implementation, and measures of impact. Special attention is given to measuring productivity changes that may result from the use of OA. A detailed appendix supplies a variety of examples which show how the variables discussed in the report were actually measured in applied settings.

  14. [Using ESR technology observe the change of free radicals in cochlea after acute acoustic trauma]. (United States)

    Gao, Gang; Sun, Jianjun; Gong, Shusheng; Jiang, Ping


    To observe the changes of free radicals in the cochlea of guinea pigs after noise exposure directly using electron spin resonance (ESR) technology. Forty-two guinea pigs as experimental group were given (125 +/- 1) dB SPL noise exposure for 2 hours, and then investigated auditory function immediately, at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hour. After ABR examinations, 21 animals decollated and extracted cochlea immediately and then placed the cochleas to liquid nitrogen for deep freezing and measuring free radicals using ESR technology. Another 21 animals observed hair cells morphology by AgNO3 staining. Meantime, 6 animals without noise exposure were served as negative control group. A few free radicals were detected in the cochlea at control group and the relative value of free radicals were (21.68 +/- 1.27) dB SPL. After noise exposure, the relative value of free radicals increased obviously and achieved to the max of (147.01 +/- 4.95) dB SPL at 2 h and gradually decreased near the normal level. Free radicals in the cochlea increase evidently and have a concentration-time rule after acute acoustic trauma. The ESR method can be used to examine the content of free radicals in cochlea for its direct, objective and sensitive characters.

  15. Sustainable Development and Airport Surface Access: The Role of Technological Innovation and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Qazi


    Full Text Available Sustainable development reflects an underlying tension to achieve economic growth whilst addressing environmental challenges, and this is particularly the case for the aviation sector. Although much of the aviation-related focus has fallen on reducing aircraft emissions, airports have also been under increasing pressure to support the vision of a low carbon energy future. One of the main sources of airport-related emissions is passenger journeys to and from airports (the surface access component of air travel, which is the focus of this paper. Two aspects associated with the relationship between sustainable development and airport surface access are considered. Firstly, there is an evaluation of three technological innovation options that will enable sustainable transport solutions for surface access journeys: telepresence systems to reduce drop-off/pick-up trips, techniques to improve public transport and options to encourage the sharing of rides. Secondly, the role of behavioral change for surface access journeys from a theoretical perspective, using empirical data from Manchester airport, is evaluated. Finally, the contribution of technology and behavioral intervention measures to improvements in sustainable development are discussed.

  16. Didactic Changes in Distance Education in Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Rokkjær, Ole; Knudsen, Morten


    Since 1999 the didactic used in Master of Industrial Information technology (MII) e-learning education has been a transformation of the on-campus project organised problem based learning (POPBL). Many attempts to improve factors such as discussions, individual and group reflections during...... the course of study, which are fully integrated in on-campus PBL, have to some extent failed when working virtually over the Internet. As POPBL still is believed to be the best learning method the start up in 2003 for the e-learning students has been changed to improve individual and group reflections......, and it was hoped that the learning would be improved as well. This paper describes the experiences from the first part of the basis semester, the Pilot Project period, and it is documented that some improvements are achieved....

  17. Selection of representative instruments for a global change technology architecture trade study (United States)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Keafer, Lloyd; Ross, Rogard T.; Knight, Heather R.; Jalink, Anthony; Allen, Cheryl L.


    The objectives of Task 2 of the Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) Architectural Trade Study were to select representative sets of instruments for making the science measurements specified in Task 1 and to identify instruments that, when flown together, form special complementary packages for measurement purposes. The list of representative instruments and their complementary relationships provide a payload manifest defined in terms of mass, power, size, viewing angles, data rates, etc. which can be used to focus spacecraft trade studies and the definition of a candidate GCTI fleet. Science requirements from Task 1 are given in tabular form. Numerous instruments are described, including visible-infrared radiometers, visible-infrared spectrometers, gas correction radiometers, active systems for Earth observation, Limb viewing instruments, visible-infrared and grating spectrometers, and microwave radiometers.

  18. Accounting for Technological Change in Regulatory Impact Analyses: The Learning Curve Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Regulatory impact assessment is formally required by the U.S. and many other nations in order to help governments weigh the costs and benefits of proposed regulations, particularly as they compare to those of alternative actions and other government priorities. 1 One of the “best practices” of regulatory impact assessments, as established by the OECD, is to use estimates of costs that are grounded in economic theory. Economic theory indicates that changes in compliance costs should be expected over time as a result of factors related to technological innovation. But many U.S. regulatory impact assessments have traditionally employed a practice that is in conflict with this expectation: they take current estimates of the costs of complying with a proposed regulation and project that those costs will remain unchanged over the full time period that the regulation would be in effect.

  19. Technological choice and change in the Southwest Bath in the Athenian Agora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artz, James


    Full Text Available During its five architectural phases, the Southwest bath in the Athenian Agora changes from a Greek-style bath into a Roman-style bath. This article will focus on the first two phases, when Roman elements begin to be incorporated into the traditional forms of Greek bath architecture – particularly, a hypocaust floor system and a concrete vaulted ceiling built into a traditional Greek tholos bath. After describing these architectural features and analyzing the techniques used in their construction, I will examine possible sources of influence on the design and construction of the Southwest baths. The Roman army, citizenry, and workmen could all have potentially affected the incorporation of Roman bathing technologies and building techniques into the Southwest bath. The available evidence, however, indicates that the most likely source of influence is Roman workmen, who were employed in large numbers for the numerous building projects underway in Augustan Athens.

  20. Is the Sky Falling? New Technology, Changing Media, and the Future of Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick P. Couper


    Full Text Available In this paper I review three key technology-related trends: 1 big data, 2 non-probability samples, and 3 mobile data collection. I focus on the implications of these trends for survey research and the research profession. With regard to big data, I review a number of concerns that need to be addressed, and argue for a balanced and careful evaluation of the role that big data can play in the future. I argue that these developments are unlikely to replace transitional survey data collection, but will supplement surveys and expand the range of research methods. I also argue for the need for the survey research profession to adapt to changing circumstances.

  1. New insights into the molecular mechanisms of biomembrane structural changes and interactions by optical biosensor technology. (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Hirst, Daniel J; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel


    Biomolecular-membrane interactions play a critical role in the regulation of many important biological processes such as protein trafficking, cellular signalling and ion channel formation. Peptide/protein-membrane interactions can also destabilise and damage the membrane which can lead to cell death. Characterisation of the molecular details of these binding-mediated membrane destabilisation processes is therefore central to understanding cellular events such as antimicrobial action, membrane-mediated amyloid aggregation, and apoptotic protein induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilisation. Optical biosensors have provided a unique approach to characterising membrane interactions allowing quantitation of binding events and new insight into the kinetic mechanism of these interactions. One of the most commonly used optical biosensor technologies is surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and there have been an increasing number of studies reporting the use of this technique for investigating biophysical analysis of membrane-mediated events. More recently, a number of new optical biosensors based on waveguide techniques have been developed, allowing membrane structure changes to be measured simultaneously with mass binding measurements. These techniques include dual polarisation interferometry (DPI), plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy (PWR) and optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy (OWLS). These techniques have expanded the application of optical biosensors to allow the analysis of membrane structure changes during peptide and protein binding. This review provides a theoretical and practical overview of the application of biosensor technology with a specific focus on DPI, PWR and OWLS to study biomembrane-mediated events and the mechanism of biomembrane disruption. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing


    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  3. The Potential of Technology-Based Psychological Interventions for Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Recommendations for Future Research (United States)

    Bürger, Carolina; Schmidt, Luise; Herbst, Nirmal; Voderholzer, Ulrich


    Background Previous studies have shown an unmet need in the treatment of eating disorders. In the last decade, interest in technology-based interventions (TBIs) (including computer- and Internet-based interventions [CBIs] or mobile interventions) for providing evidence-based therapies to individuals with different mental disorders has increased. Objective The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the potential of TBIs in the field of eating disorders, namely for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), for both prevention and treatment, and also for carers of eating disorder patients. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline and PsycINFO. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed without date or study type restrictions. Results Forty studies resulting in 45 publications reporting outcomes fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 22 randomized controlled trials, 2 controlled studies, and 16 uncontrolled studies. In total, 3646 patients were included. Overall, the studies provided evidence for the efficacy of guided CBIs, especially for BN patients and for compliant patients. Furthermore, videoconferencing also appeared to be a promising approach. Evaluation results of Internet-based prevention of eating disorders and Internet-based programs for carers of eating disorder patients were also encouraging. Finally, there was preliminary evidence for the efficacy of mobile interventions. Conclusions TBIs may be an additional way of delivering evidence-based treatments to eating disorder patients and their use is likely to increase in the near future. TBIs may also be considered for the prevention of eating disorders and to support carers of eating disorder patients. Areas of future research and important issues such as guidance, therapeutic alliance, and dissemination are discussed. PMID:25840591

  4. The potential of technology-based psychological interventions for anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a systematic review and recommendations for future research. (United States)

    Schlegl, Sandra; Bürger, Carolina; Schmidt, Luise; Herbst, Nirmal; Voderholzer, Ulrich


    Previous studies have shown an unmet need in the treatment of eating disorders. In the last decade, interest in technology-based interventions (TBIs) (including computer- and Internet-based interventions [CBIs] or mobile interventions) for providing evidence-based therapies to individuals with different mental disorders has increased. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the potential of TBIs in the field of eating disorders, namely for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), for both prevention and treatment, and also for carers of eating disorder patients. A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline and PsycINFO. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed without date or study type restrictions. Forty studies resulting in 45 publications reporting outcomes fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 22 randomized controlled trials, 2 controlled studies, and 16 uncontrolled studies. In total, 3646 patients were included. Overall, the studies provided evidence for the efficacy of guided CBIs, especially for BN patients and for compliant patients. Furthermore, videoconferencing also appeared to be a promising approach. Evaluation results of Internet-based prevention of eating disorders and Internet-based programs for carers of eating disorder patients were also encouraging. Finally, there was preliminary evidence for the efficacy of mobile interventions. TBIs may be an additional way of delivering evidence-based treatments to eating disorder patients and their use is likely to increase in the near future. TBIs may also be considered for the prevention of eating disorders and to support carers of eating disorder patients. Areas of future research and important issues such as guidance, therapeutic alliance, and dissemination are discussed.

  5. Geospatial Technologies and i-Tree Echo Inventory for Predicting Climate Change on Urban Environment (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Robinson, L.; Ghariban, N.; Comar, M.; Pope, B.; Frey, G.


    Urban forests can be useful both in mitigating climate change and in helping cities adapt to higher temperatures and other impacts of climate change. Understanding and managing the impacts of climate change on the urban forest trees and natural communities will help us maintain their environmental, cultural, and economic benefits. Tree Inventory can provide important information on tree species, height, crown width, overall condition, health and maintenance needs. This presentation will demonstrate that a trees database system is necessary for developing a sustainable urban tree program. Virginia State University (VSU) campus benefits from large number and diversity of trees that are helping us by cleaning the air, retaining water, and providing shade on the buildings to reduce energy cost. The objectives of this study were to develop campus inventory of the trees, identify the tree species, map the locations of the trees with user-friendly tools such as i-Tree Eco and geospatial technologies by assessing the cost/benefit of employing student labor for training and ground validation of the results, and help campus landscape managers implement adaptive responses to climate change impacts. Data was collected on the location, species, and size of trees by using i-Tree urban forestry analysis software. This data was transferred to i-Tree inventory system for demonstrating types of trees, diameter of the trees, height of the trees, and vintage of the trees. The study site was mapped by collecting waypoints with GPS (Global Positioning System) at the trees and uploading these waypoints in ArcMap. The results of this study showed that: (i) students make good field crews, (ii) if more trees were placed in the proper area, the heating and cooling costs will reduce, and (iii) trees database system is necessary for planning, designing, planting, and maintenance, and removal of campus trees Research sponsored by the NIFA Grant, "Urban Forestry Management" (2012-38821-20153).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr


    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  7. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing


    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  8. Evaluation the effectiveness of remote blood pressure monitoring technology in patients with hypertension on the basis of clinical recommendations performance measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posnenkova O.M.


    Material and Methods ― Remote BP monitoring was organized on the basis of computer system which automatically in text messages send requests about BP level to Htn patients. Obtained BP results were stored in the system and automatically worked. A doctor corrected a patient’s therapy if necessary based on this information. To evaluate the effectiveness of a new technology one year observation of 97 Htn patients was organized (54.6% – male aged 49±11 years. Patients regularly responded to automated SMS requests the computer system about the level of blood pressure. The effectiveness was evaluated with the help of the following hypertension guidelines performance measures: 1 a part of patients with four or more BP results during the previous 12 months; 2 a part of patients with BP above the goal level who prescribed two or more antihypertensive drugs on the last visit during the previous 12 months; 3 a part of patients with BP above the goal level 140/90 mm Hg who prescribed two or more antihypertensive drugs on the last visit during the previous 12 months; 4 a part of patients with goal blood pressure (less than 140/90 mmHg on the last visit during the previous 12 months. To evaluate a performance of these measures before BP monitoring the data extracted from patients’ ambulatory cards were used. Results ― 62 patients completed one-year BP monitoring A part of patients with four or more BP results during the previous 12 months increased from 21% to 100% (p<0.001. From 70% to 82% increased the part of patients who were prescribed two or more antihypertensive drugs (p=0.091. From 31% to 15% reduced the part of hypertensives with uncontrolled BP who were prescribed less than two antihypertensive drugs on the last visit (p=0.044. After one-year monitoring a goal BP was registered in 77% of Htn patients versus 13% at the start of the observation (p<0.001. Conclusion ― Htn guidelines performance measures allowed evaluate quantitatively the positive influence

  9. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.


    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Structural change of the economy, technological progress and long-term energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    This report is a result of a project carried out in the period from August 1996 to September 1999 and financed by the Danish Energy Research Programme (EFP) 1996. The project has been carried out as a PhD project, and the material included in the report is a collection of papers dealing with diff......This report is a result of a project carried out in the period from August 1996 to September 1999 and financed by the Danish Energy Research Programme (EFP) 1996. The project has been carried out as a PhD project, and the material included in the report is a collection of papers dealing...... with different issues related to the topics included in the title. Some of these papers have already either been published or presented at various conferences. Together with a general introduction, they constitute the author’s PhD dissertation. The dissertation includes six papers and two shorter notes...... on different aspects of structural change of the economy and energy demand. Three different issues related to long-term energy demand are discussed: (1) the importance of technological change and its representation in energy-economy modelling, (2) an integration of two different modelling approaches, and (3...

  11. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study (United States)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.


    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  12. The role of coal technology in redefining India’s climate change agents and other pollutants (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.


    It is well established that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prominent agent of climate change. The level of CO2 in the atmosphere has been increasing persistently over the last few decades due to rising dependence on fossil fuels for energy production. India is facing a potential energy crisis. India has large coal reserves and coal is currently the linchpin of the Indian power sector, making Indian coal-derived emissions a focus of global attention. Further, India’s journey from a challenging energy security situation to the ‘Make in India’ initiative is expected to drive energy needs exponentially. Thus, in the context of a rapidly changing climate, it has become imperative to quantify the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from emerging coal-based energy plants in India. The present work attempts not only to do this, with the intention of highlighting India’s commitment to reducing CO2 emissions, but also to redefine India’s future emissions. We draw attention to India’s attempt to transform the coal technology used in coal-based thermal power plants. We have tried to adopt a holistic approach to quantify the past (2010), present (2015) and future (2025) emission trends for important GHGs like CO2 and other critical air pollutants from rapidly penetrating low-emission advanced coal technology. Our estimation shows that CO2 emissions will increase from 1065 Tg yr-1 (2015) to 2634 Tg yr-1 (2025), which is approximately 147% of the current value. This rapid increase is largely attributed to rising energy demand due to industrial development, followed by demand from the domestic and agricultural sectors. The present trend of CO2 emissions is sure to propel India to become world’s second largest emitter of GHGs in 2025, dislodging the United States. We have also estimated the emission of other pollutants like NOx, SO2, black carbon, organic carbon, particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), volatile organic compounds and CO. Our findings seem to suggest

  13. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  14. Proposal of recommendations for quality control in computerized tomography, with emphasis in new technologies; Proposta de um protocolo de controle de qualidade em tomografia computadorizada, com enfase nas novas tecnologias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marlon da Silva Brandao; Neves, Camila Nascimento das


    The use of computed tomography (CT) has continuously grown over the years and expanding its applications in different medical procedures. As a result, there was an increase of frequency and in collective dose. One of the strategies to maximize the benefits of this important imaging modality is the implementation of optimization of protection programs. As part of this process, a quality control should be established to ensure the correct performance of the scanner. Quality control protocols can be very useful to carry out all tests in a standard methodology and well-established tolerance values. However, to keep up with the constant advances in technology, these protocols must be constantly reviewed and updated to allow its application in different existing models. The objective of this work is to develop a quality control protocol based on international recommendations and in national standards. (author)

  15. Experimental subjects and partial truth telling during technological change in radiotherapy. (United States)

    Wood, Lisa Anne


    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), the focus of a number of radiotherapy fundraising campaigns in the mid-2000s, was introduced accompanied by a fanfare of newness and discourses of 'hope', 'inspiring clinical confidence' and 'accuracy'. The CBCT system, used in the delivery of Radiotherapy treatment, was incorporated into strategic planning priorities across the United Kingdom based on a rationale of self-evidence. During this time, the way in which the new system was discussed with patients was variable. The purpose of this study was to uncover how experimental practices were embedded and enacted during the use of a new technological system, specifically relating to how patients were enrolled during introductory phases of technology adoption. Research design and context: Drawing on ethnographic work and interviews with staff members in one hospital, the study examines staff discussions prior to the introduction of the Cone-Beam CT imaging system in radiotherapy. It considers how staff views were at odds with practices that occurred during the 'experimental' stages of use and how these were shared with patients. Ethical considerations: Approval was obtained from the Local National Health Service Research Ethics Committee and National Health Service Main Research Ethics Committee (REC 07/Q1308/16) for the interview and ethnographic stages, respectively. All names have been changed and participants signed a consent form. Staff reported a lack of evidence, absence of proof and perturbing doubts with the X-ray volumetric imaging. Both patients' and practitioners' partial understanding about the risks and benefits of the system created incommensurable ideas regarding its use and what the patients' role was during these introductory stages. Maintaining partial truth telling renders patients' experiences of new treatment at odds with 'experimental' practice. This has wide-reaching implications for practice.

  16. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Auston


    Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to

  17. Patterns of Multistakeholder Recommendation


    Burke, Robin; Abdollahpouri, Himan


    Recommender systems are personalized information systems. However, in many settings, the end-user of the recommendations is not the only party whose needs must be represented in recommendation generation. Incorporating this insight gives rise to the notion of multistakeholder recommendation, in which the interests of multiple parties are represented in recommendation algorithms and evaluation. In this paper, we identify patterns of stakeholder utility that characterize different multistakehol...

  18. Traditional Cultures and Contemporary Changes: Kokonuco Ethnic People and Information and Communication Technologies (icts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paola Andrea Acosta Nates


    ... communication links beyond the territorial dimension. The model of the gradual appropriation of technology within the Kokonuco indigenous peoples located in the Cauca region of Colombia is analyzed through an anthropology of technology and particularly...

  19. Simulating future wheat yield under climate change, carbon dioxide enrichment and technology improvement in Iran. Case study: Azarbaijan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, H.; Raei, Y.; Zaeim, A.N.


    Climate change and technology development can affect crop productivity in future conditions. Precise estimation of crops yield change as affected by climate and technology in the future is an effective approach for management strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the impacts of climate change, technology improvement, CO2 enrichment, and overall impacts on wheat yield under future conditions. Wheat yield was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) compared to baseline year (2011) under two scenarios of IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) including SRES-A2 as regional economic scenario and SRES-B1 as global environmental scenario in Azarbaijan region (NW of Iran). A linear regression model, describing the relationship between wheat yield and historical year, was developed to investigate technology development effect. The decision support system for agro-technology transfer (DSSAT4.5) was used to evaluate the influence of climate change on wheat yield. The most positive effects were found for wheat yield as affected by technology in all studied regions. Under future climate change, the SRES projected a decrease in yield, especially in West Azarbaijan region. When the effects of elevated CO2 were considered, all regions resulted to increase in wheat yield. Considering all components effect in comparison with baseline (2011), yield increase would range from 5% to 38% across all times, scenarios and regions. According to our findings, it seems that we may expect a higher yield of wheat in NW Iran in the future if technology development continues as well as past years. (Author)

  20. Information to Change the World--Fulfilling the Information Needs of Technology Transfer. (United States)

    Duberman, Josh; Zeller, Martin


    Provides an introduction to fulfilling the information needs of technology transfer. Highlights include a definition of technology transfer; government and university involvement; industry's role; publishers; an annotated list of information sources and contacts; technology assessment, including patent searching, competitive intelligence, and…