WorldWideScience

Sample records for change science compendium

  1. Climate change science compendium 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullen, C.P.; Jabbour, J.

    2009-09-15

    In a matter of a few weeks' time, governments will gather in Copenhagen, Denmark, for a crucial UN climate convention meeting. Many governments and stakeholders have requested an annual snapshot of how the science has been evolving since the publication of the IPCC's landmark fourth assessment in advance of the panel's next one in 2014. This Climate Change Science Compendium, based on the wealth of peerreviewed research published by researchers and institutions since 2006, has been compiled by UNEP in response to that request. The findings indicate that ever more rapid environmental change is underway with the pace and the scale of climate change accelerating, along with the confidence among researchers in their forecasts. The Arctic, with implications for the globe, is emerging as an area of major concern. There is growing evidence that the ice there is melting far faster than had been previously supposed. Mountains glaciers also appear to be retreating faster. Scientists now suggest that the Arctic could be virtually ice free in September of 2037 and that a nearly ice-free September by 2028 is well within the realms of possibility. Recent findings also show that significant warming extends well beyond the Antarctic Peninsula to cover most of West Antarctica, an area of warming much larger than previously reported. The impact on the Earth's multi-trillion dollar ecosystems is also a key area of concern. Under a high emission scenario-the one that most closely matches current trends-12-39 per cent of the planet's terrestrial surface could experience novel climate conditions and 10-48 per cent could suffer disappearing climates by 2100. Rising levels of aridity are also concentrating scientific minds. New research indicates that by the end of the 21st century the Mediterranean region will also experience much more severe increases in aridity than previously estimated rendering the entire region, but particularly the southern Mediterranean

  2. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    "From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations comprehensively explores the depiction of a curved world on a flat surface...

  3. W.E. Henry Symposium compendium: The importance of magnetism in physics and material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carwell, H.

    1997-09-19

    This compendium contains papers presented at the W. E. Henry Symposium, The Importance of Magnetism in Physics and Material Science. The one-day symposium was conducted to recognize the achievements of Dr. Warren Elliot Henry as educator, scientist, and inventor in a career spanning almost 70 years. Dr. Henry, who is 88 years old, attended the symposium. Nobel Laureate, Dr. Glenn Seaborg, a friend and colleague for over 40 years, attended the event and shared his personal reminiscences. Dr. Seaborg is Associate Director-At-Large at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Compendium begins with three papers which demonstrate the ongoing importance of magnetism in physics and material science. Other contributions cover the highlights of Dr. Henry`s career as a researcher, educator, and inventor. Colleagues and former students share insights on the impact of Dr. Henry`s research in the field of magnetism, low temperature physics, and solid state physics; his influence on students as an educator; and his character, intellect and ingenuity, and passion for learning and teaching. They share a glimpse of the environment and times that molded him as a man, and the circumstances under which he made his great achievements despite the many challenges he faced.

  4. Data Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Data Compendium provides key statistics about CMS programs and national health expenditures. The CMS Data Compendium contains historic, current, and...

  5. TRENDS '90: A compendium of data on global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.); Boden, T.A.; Kanciruk, P.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-08-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global change data. This first issue includes estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and from the production of cement, historical and modern records of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and methane concentrations, and several long-term temperature records. Included are tabular and graphical presentations of the data, discussions of trends in the data, and references to publications that provide further information. Data are presented in a two-page format, each dealing with a different data set. All data are available in digital form from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  6. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.)

    1991-12-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  7. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.

    1991-12-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N 2 ) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N 2 O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO 2 emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

  8. Composite materials and structures: Science, technology and applications. A compendium of books, review papers, and other sources of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanovich, A.E.; Sierakowski, R.L.

    1999-12-01

    A fast growing volume of literature in various fields of composite materials and structures has inspired the authors to attempt to assemble all major books and review papers in a concise compendium presented here. This could give researchers, engineers, designers, and graduate students a rapid access to the vast volume of references on any specific topic in the field of composites and thereby satisfy their research requirements. The compendium includes encyclopedias, handbooks, design guides, textbooks, reference books, review papers and also a few collections of papers. The topics span theory, modeling and analysis of composite materials, processing and manufacturing, properties and characterization, theory and analysis of composite structures, joints and connections, designing with composites, and composites applications. The compendium includes over 400 references, which are arranged in alphabetical order within each topic under consideration. Additionally, the reader can find, in this compendium, the lists of major conferences, journals, and ASTM STP publications on composites. The major objective of this work is not critically reviewing or discussing specific research approaches and results. The authors have rather intended to provide extensive bibliographic information that may help the reader to get familiar with the primary literature and, in necessary, undertake further literature search on any particular problem of interest.

  9. Games, Simulations and Virtual Labs for Science Education: a Compendium and Some Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have assembled a list of computer-based simulations, games, and virtual labs for science education. This list, with links to the sources of these resources, is available online. The entries span a broad range of science, math, and engineering topics. They also span a range of target student ages, from elementary school to university students. We will provide a brief overview of this web site and the resources found on it. We will also briefly demonstrate some of our own educational simulations and games. Computer-based simulations and virtual labs are valuable resources for science educators in various settings, allowing learners to experiment and explore "what if" scenarios. Educational computer games can motivate learners in both formal and informal settings, encouraging them to spend much more time exploring a topic than they might otherwise be inclined to do. Part of this presentation is effectively a "literature review" of numerous sources of simulations, games, and virtual labs. Although we have encountered several nice collections of such resources, those collections seem to be restricted in scope. They either represent materials developed by a specific group or agency (e.g. NOAA's games web site) or are restricted to a specific discipline (e.g. geology simulations and virtual labs). This presentation directs viewers to games, simulations, and virtual labs from many different sources and spanning a broad range of STEM disciplines.

  10. Simulations, Games, and Virtual Labs for Science Education: a Compendium and Some Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    We have assembled a list of computer-based simulations, games, and virtual labs for science education. This list, with links to the sources of these resources, is available online. The entries span a broad range of science, math, and engineering topics. They also span a range of target student ages, from elementary school to university students. We will provide a brief overview of this web site and the resources found on it. We will also briefly demonstrate some of our own educational simulations, including the "Very, Very Simple Climate Model", and report on formative evaluations of these resources. Computer-based simulations and virtual labs are valuable resources for science educators in various settings, allowing learners to experiment and explore "what if" scenarios. Educational computer games can motivate learners in both formal and informal settings, encouraging them to spend much more time exploring a topic than they might otherwise be inclined to do. Part of this presentation is effectively a "literature review" of numerous sources of simulations, games, and virtual labs. Although we have encountered several nice collections of such resources, those collections seem to be restricted in scope. They either represent materials developed by a specific group or agency (e.g. NOAA's games web site) or are restricted to a specific discipline (e.g. geology simulations and virtual labs). This presentation directs viewers to games, simulations, and virtual labs from many different sources and spanning a broad range of STEM disciplines.

  11. Doctors of John Ford: a compendium of science, ethics, humanistic heroism and idealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical science has been present in cinema since its origins. With the beginning of micro and macrocinematography, scientists could resort to the telephoto lens, the microscope, and the endoscope to record various phenomena such as the biological functioning of the organs of a human being, as well as accelerating or slowing a number of processes that otherwise would have turn out extremely complex to analyze. Since then, medicine has populated the screens for over a century of cinema, exhibiting characters with idiosyncrasies of very different nature: From the adoption of a purely scientific perspective opposed to faith designs (Dreyer or Tourneur to those ‘doctors of terror’ that aspired, as stated in Clarke’s third law, to discover the limits of the possible by daring to explore the impossible (Frankenstein, Moreau, Mabuse or Caligari. In this article, we comparatively analyze the peculiarities of those physicians that have played a central role in John Ford’s work: Doctor Arrowsmith (1931, Doctor Bull (1933 and The prisoner of Shark Island (1936, among which their sense of deontologic ethics as well as their noticeable humanism are considered outstanding. We finally report on other minor roles that have also provided Ford’s cinema with doctors.

  12. DOE methods compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasure, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE's Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objective of this program is to assemble a compendium of analytical chemistry methods of known performance for use by all DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. This compendium will include methods for sampling, field screening, fixed analytical laboratory and mobile analytical laboratory analyses. It will also include specific guidance on the proper selection of appropriate sampling and analytical methods in using specific analytical requirements

  13. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA's Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE

  14. Trends '91: A compendium of data on global change---highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-03-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been prompted to produce the series Trends, a concise inventory of data in response to heightened concern about global environmental issues, in particular climate changes induced by the greenhouse effect. This report contains extracts from Trends '91 to illustrate the content, style, and presentation of data contained in the full 700-page report. This report includes a listing of the investigators contributing data for Trends '91. In addition, it contains the abstract, foreword, and acknowledgments, as well as the introduction and a sample data record from each of the reports's five chapters. The chapters are ''Atmospheric CO 2 ,'' ''Atmospheric CH 4 ,'' ''Other Trace Gases,'' ''CO 2 Emissions,'' and ''Temperature.'' Appendix A provides information about CDIAC and its activities related to global environmental issues. Appendix B lists the contents of the full report. An order form for obtaining a free copy of Trends '91 is found in Appendix C

  15. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  16. Nursing Home Data Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The compendium contains figures and tables presenting data on all Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes in the United States as well as the residents in...

  17. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  18. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  19. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  20. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  1. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  2. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  3. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A.; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium" and its compliment, the "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement," are publications of statistics about people with disabilities and about the government programs which serve them. The "Compendium" and "Supplement" are designed to serve as a summary of government…

  4. OCS National Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, G.J.; Karpas, R.M.; Slitor, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Minerals Management Service's (MMS) Outer Continental Shelf Information Program (OCSIP) is responsible for making available to affected coastal States, local governments, and other interested parties data and information related to the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Program. Since its establishment through Section 26 of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA) Amendments of 1978, OCSIP has prepared regional summary reports, updates, and indexes on leasing, exploration, development, and production activities to fulfill the mandates of the OCSLA Amendments. The OCSIP receives many requests for out-of-print summary reports, updates, and indexes. The purpose of the OCS National Compendium is to consolidate these historical data and to present the data on an OCS-wide and regional scale. The single-volume approach allows the reader access to historical information and facilitates regional comparisons. The fold-out chart in the front of this publication provides the reader with a timeline (January 1988--November 1990) of events since publication of the last Compendium. Some of the events are directly related to the 5-year Oil and Gas Program, whereas others may or may not have an effect on the program. A predominantly graphic format is used in the report so that the large accumulation of data can be more readily comprehended. In some cases, it is not possible to update information through October 21, 1990, because of the nature of the data. For example, production data normally lags 3 months. 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  5. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  6. Transit Greenhouse Gas Management Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    This Compendium provides a framework for identifying greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunities while highlighting specific examples of effective GHG reduction practices. The GHG savings benefits of public transit are first described. GHG saving op...

  7. Compendium of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics comprise the canonical undergraduate curriculum of theoretical physics. In Compendium of Theoretical Physics, Armin Wachter and Henning Hoeber offer a concise, rigorous and structured overview that will be invaluable for students preparing for their qualifying examinations, readers needing a supplement to standard textbooks, and research or industrial physicists seeking a bridge between extensive textbooks and formula books. The authors take an axiomatic-deductive approach to each topic, starting the discussion of each theory with its fundamental equations. By subsequently deriving the various physical relationships and laws in logical rather than chronological order, and by using a consistent presentation and notation throughout, they emphasize the connections between the individual theories. The reader’s understanding is then reinforced with exercises, solutions and topic summaries. Unique Features: Every topic is ...

  8. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  9. Biomedical Engineering: A Compendium of Research Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document was prepared to provide a comprehensive view of the programs in biomedical engineering in existence in 1969. These programs are supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and are located at 18 universities. This compendium provides information as to the intent and content of these programs from data provided by…

  10. Technology Specialisation 1, 2 & 3 Compendium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Koch, Christian; Hansen, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    and progressive move forward inspired by the spirit of engineering. This compendium gives broad information on many aspects of the Technology Specialisation project courses relating to aim, method, mentor company roles, individual versus group performance, scientific motivation and many other issues. The content......Within the Master of Science in Technology-based Business Development study program, Technology Specialisations are the recurring technological stronghold. The Technology Specialisations should hold the students focus on the technological platform of this program and ideally constitute a continuous...

  11. Economic modeling of effects of climate change on the forest sector and mitigation options: a compendium of briefing papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig

    2010-01-01

    This report is a compilation of six briefing papers based on literature reviews and syntheses, prepared for U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service policy analysts and decisionmakers about specific questions pertaining to climate change. The main topics addressed here are economic effects on the forest sector at the national and global scales, costs of forest...

  12. Climate Change Science Program Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Collection consists of publications and other resources produced between 2007 and 2009 by the CCSP with the intention of...

  13. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences...... of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...

  14. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-22

    This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  15. Dutch Nature and Environmental Compendium 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The title publication comprises all the data on the nature and the environment in the Netherlands, information on related policy, references to data sources and recent research. The data and the information on the website are published in print, but the most actual data can be found on the site. The first book with the title Nature Compendium was published in April 2003. The second edition of the Environmental Compendium was published as a book in October 2001. Since March 2003 the websites of the Environmental Compendium and the Nature Compendium are integrated in one site: www.rivm.nl/milieuennatuurcompendium/nl/ [nl

  16. RWE NUKEM's 'Living' Nuclear Compendium eNICE. An internet-based, multifunctional nuclear information platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, R.; Max, A.

    2002-01-01

    Information has become a commodity particularly important to industry, science, and politics. Information becomes critical because of its rapid change. The basis and the catalyst of this change in information are the information technologies now available, and the Internet with its varied contents. This makes the Internet a new market place which, although it is open, can quickly turn into an information maze because of its sheer volume. Also the nuclear industry must find its way through this maze. eNICE was created in order to build a bridge between the flood of information in the Internet and the information really needed in a specific case. eNICE (e stands for electronic, and NICE stands for Nuclear Information Compendium Europe), a living Internet-based nuclear compendium in the English language, is a unique combination of a broad spectrum of information and data about the use of nuclear power in Europe. The information and data contained in eNICE are interconnected with the World Wide Web in such a way that structured searching for nuclear information is possible quickly and efficiently. This avoids the difficulties sometimes encountered in searches in the Internet as a consequence of the unstructured volume of information. A monthly update of eNICE ensures that the data available are up to date and reliable. eNICE also offers direct access to the library used by RWE NUKEM for internal purposes. (orig.) [de

  17. The Neumann compendium

    CERN Document Server

    Bródy, F

    1995-01-01

    After three decades since the first nearly complete edition of John von Neumann's papers, this book is a valuable selection of those papers and excerpts of his books that are most characteristic of his activity, and reveal that of his continuous influence.The results receiving the 1994 Nobel Prizes in economy deeply rooted in Neumann's game theory are only minor traces of his exceptionally broad spectrum of creativity and stimulation.The book is organized by the specific subjects-quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, operator algebra, hydrodynamics, economics, computers, science and society. In a

  18. The World Airpower Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mark

    1996-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world a current, accurate, and easily accessible data base of all the world's airpower assets is valuable to military students, educators, and war gaming professionals alike...

  19. Phase change materials science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Raoux, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ""Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications"" provides a unique introduction of this rapidly developing field. This clearly written volume describes the material science of these fascinating materials from a theoretical and experimental perspective.

  20. Climate change science - beyond IPCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The main conclusions of the IPCC Working Group I assessment of the physical science of climate change, from the Fourth IPCC Assessment, will be presented, along with the evidence supporting these conclusions. These conclusions include: Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased markedly as a result of human activities since 1750 and now far exceed pre-industrial values determined from ice cores spanning many thousands of years. The global increases in carbon dioxide concentration are due primarily to fossil fuel use and land use change, while those of methane and nitrous oxide are primarily due to agriculture; The understanding of anthropogenic warming and cooling influences on climate has improved since the Third Assessment Report, leading to very high confidence that the global average net effect of human activities since 1750 has been one of warming, with a radiative forcing of +1.6 [+0.6 to +2.4] Wm-2; Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level; At continental, regional and ocean basin scales, numerous long-term changes in climate have been observed. These include changes in arctic temperatures and ice, widespread changes in precipitation amounts, ocean salinity, wind patterns and aspects of extreme weather including droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves and the intensity of tropical cyclones. Palaeo-climatic information supports the interpretation that the warmth of the last half-century is unusual in at least the previous 1,300 years; Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations; Discernible human influences now extend to other aspects of climate, including ocean warming, continental

  1. Persuasion and Attitude Change in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Persuasion is presented as it may be applied by science educators in research and practice. The orientation taken is that science educators need to be acquainted with persuasion in the context of social influence and learning theory to be able to evaluate its usefulness as a mechanism for developing and changing science-related attitudes. (KR)

  2. Leading Change in the Primary Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Nicky; Baker, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Nicky Waller and Chris Baker believe that change can be a good thing and explain how their training has helped others to adjust to the new science curriculum. In September 2013, teachers across England received the definitive version of the new primary curriculum "Leading Change in the Primary Science Curriculum." This course aimed to…

  3. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.

  4. Science policy in changing times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, M.R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Like many scientists who were born right after World War II and who have learned a lot about physics, physical sciences, and biology from some of the incredible discoveries that were made in the defense laboratories, I have always been fascinated with Los Alamos. One of the marvelous opportunities that my job in Washington presented was to get to know a good deal more about the physical science world and the Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, particularly Los Alamos since the Manhattan Project

  5. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  6. The Science of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    2002-09-20

    What constitutes 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' is a value judgment arrived at through a socio-political process, taking issues like equity and sustainability into account. Science provides key information needed to arrive at an informed judgment. However, that judgment is primarily a political one, and not a purely scientific decision. Such judgments are based on risk assessment, and lead to risk management choices by decision makers, about actions and policies.

  7. Creative Change: Art, Music, and Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, R. A.; Hoffman, J. S.; Maurakis, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    As part of ongoing climate science education initiatives, the Science Museum of Virginia hosted Creative Change in March 2017. The event featured multidisciplinary programming created by scientists, artists, and students reacting to and interpreting climate change and resiliency through a variety of artistic mediums and informal science education. Creative Change was developed in consideration of studies conducted at Columbia University that indicate traditional educational approaches, which rely heavily on scientific information and data literacy, fail to engage and inspire action in a majority of people. Our informal science education programming developed for Creative Change, by contrast, is inclusive to all ages and backgrounds, integrating scientific data and an artistic human touch. Our goal was to increase public awareness of climate change and resiliency through the humanities in support of the Museum's mission to inspire Virginians to enrich their lives through science. Visitors were invited to attend Coral Reef Fever, a dance performance of coral bleaching; high school and university art exhibitions; climate data performed by a string quartet; poetry, rap, and theater performances; and a panel discussion by artists and scientists on communicating science through the arts and humanities. Based on 26 post- event survey results, we found as a result that visitors enjoyed the event (mean of 9.58 out of 10), learned new information (9.07), and strongly agreed that the arts and humanities should be used more in communicating science concepts (9.77). Funded in part by Bond Bradley Endowment and NOAA ELG Award #NA15SEC0080009.

  8. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  9. The Science of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Michael; Anttila-Hughes, Jesse K.

    2016-01-01

    Michael Oppenheimer and Jesse Anttila-Hughes begin with a primer on how the greenhouse effect works, how we know that Earth is rapidly getting warmer, and how we know that the recent warming is caused by human activity. They explain the sources of scientific knowledge about climate change as well as the basis for the models scientists use to…

  10. Science of adaptation to climate change and science for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob eSwart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change has gained a prominent place next to mitigation on global, national and local policy agendas. However, while an abundance of adaptation strategies, plans and programmes have been developed, progress in turning these into action has been slow. The development of a sound knowledge basis to support adaptation globally is suggested to accelerate progress, but has lagged behind. The emphasis in both current and newly proposed programmes is very much on practice-oriented research with strong stakeholder participation. This paper supports such practice-oriented research, but argues that this is insufficient to support adaptation policy and practice in a productive manner. We argue that there is not only a need for science for adaptation, but also a science of adaptation. The paper argues that participatory, practice-oriented research is indeed essential, but has to be complemented by and connected to more fundamental inquiry and concept development, which takes into account knowledge that has been developed in disciplinary sciences and on issues other than climate change adaptation. At the same time, the level and method of participation in science for adaptation should be determined on the basis of the specific project context and goals. More emphasis on science of adaptation can lead to improved understanding of the conditions for successful science for adaptation.

  11. Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change…

  12. Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConn, Ronald J.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Rucker, Robert A.; Williams III, Robert

    2011-03-04

    Introduction Meaningful simulations of radiation transport applications require realistic definitions of material composition and densities. When seeking that information for applications in fields such as homeland security, radiation shielding and protection, and criticality safety, researchers usually encounter a variety of materials for which elemental compositions are not readily available or densities are not defined. Publication of the Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling, Revision 0, in 2006 was the first step toward mitigating this problem. Revision 0 of this document listed 121 materials, selected mostly from the combined personal libraries of staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and thus had a scope that was recognized at the time to be limited. Nevertheless, its creation did provide a well-referenced source of some unique or hard-to-define material data in a format that could be used directly in radiation transport calculations being performed at PNNL. Moreover, having a single common set of material definitions also helped to standardize at least one aspect of the various modeling efforts across the laboratory by providing separate researchers the ability to compare different model results using a common basis of materials. The authors of the 2006 compendium understood that, depending on its use and feedback, the compendium would need to be revised to correct errors or inconsistencies in the data for the original 121 materials, as well as to increase (per users suggestions) the number of materials listed. This 2010 revision of the compendium has accomplished both of those objectives. The most obvious change is the increased number of materials from 121 to 372. The not-so-obvious change is the mechanism used to produce the data listed here. The data listed in the 2006 document were compiled, evaluated, entered, and error-checked by a group of individuals essentially by hand, providing no library

  13. Compendium for Research in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This volume, a comprehensive survey and critical analysis of today's issues in mathematics education, distills research to build knowledge and capacity in the field. The compendium is a valuable new resource that provides the most comprehensive evidence about what is known about research in mathematics education. The 38 chapters present five…

  14. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  15. Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium brings together traditional as well as contemporary scoring and grading systems used for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases, dysfunctions, and complications. The article discusses scores used to help diagnose hypo-and hyperthyroidism, to grade and manage goiter and ophthalmopathy, and to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy.

  16. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Millions at Risk from Parry et al., 2001 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Climate Change · Is the global warming in the 20th century due to the increase in radiation emitted by the sun? Frohlich C, Lean J. 1998; ...

  17. Introducing the World Health Organization Postpartum Family Planning Compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium (http://srhr.org/postpartumfp) has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish. © 2016 World Health Organization. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  18. Climate change studies and the human sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Poul; Winiwarter, Verena

    2017-09-01

    Policy makers have made repeated calls for integration of human and natural sciences in the field of climate change. Serious multidisciplinary attempts began already in the 1950s. Progress has certainly been made in understanding the role of humans in the planetary system. New perspectives have clarified policy advice, and three insights are singled out in the paper: the critique of historicism, the distinction between benign and wicked problems, and the cultural critique of the 'myths of nature'. Nevertheless, analysis of the IPCC Assessment Reports indicates that integration is skewed towards a particular dimension of human sciences (economics) and major insights from cultural theory and historical analysis have not made it into climate science. A number of relevant disciplines are almost absent in the composition of authorship. Nevertheless, selective assumptions and arguments are made about e.g. historical findings in key documents. In conclusion, we suggest to seek remedies for the lack of historical scholarship in the IPCC reports. More effort at science-policy exchange is needed, and an Integrated Platform to channel humanities and social science expertise for climate change research might be one promising way.

  19. Information technology and global change science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify and briefly describe major existing and near term information technologies that cold have a positive impact on the topics being discussed at this conference by helping to manage the data of global change science and helping global change scientists conduct their research. Desktop computer systems have changed dramatically during the past seven years. Faster data processing can be expected in the future through full development of traditional serial computer architectures. Some other proven information technologies may be currently underutilized by global change scientists. Relational database management systems and good organization of data through the use of thoughtful database design would enable the scientific community to better share and maintain quality research data. Custodians of the data should use rigorous data administration to ensure integrity and long term value of the data resource. Still other emerging information technologies that involve the use of artificial intelligence, parallel computer architectures, and new sensors for data collection will be in relatively common use in the near term and should become part of the global science community's technical toolkit. Consideration should also be given to the establishment of Information Analysis Centers to facilitate effective organization and management of interdisciplinary data and the prototype testing and use of advanced information technology to facilitate rapid and cost-effective integration of these tools into global change science. 8 refs.

  20. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  1. Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, A.; Greene, B.; Dussich, J.; Sorkin, A.; Olsen, W.

    2017-01-01

    The Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) Principal Center and its predecessor organization the Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program (AP2) supported the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in identifying technology solutions to risks and costs to NASA programs driven by environmental regulations and requirements. TEERM researched the commercial and government marketplace to locate viable and available technologies that met NASAs needs. TEERM focused on addressing environmentally-driven risks of direct concern to NASA programs and facilities, including hazardous materials in NASA operations and materials that became obsolescent because of environmental regulations. TEERM projects aimed to reduce cost; ensure the health and safety of people, assets, and the environment; promote efficiency; and minimize duplication. Major TEERM and AP2 projects focused on waste minimization and hazardous waste treatment, recycling, corrosion prevention and control, solvent and ozone depleting substances substitution, and aqueous based cleaners. In 2017, NASA made the decision to terminate the TEERM Principal Center. This Compendium Report documents TEERM and AP2 project successes. The Compendium Report traces the evolution of TEERM based on evolving risks and requirements for NASA and its relationship to the Space Shuttle Program, the United States Department of Defense, the European Space Agency, and other public and private stakeholders. This Compendium Report also documents project details from Project Summaries and Joint Test Plans and describes project stakeholders and collaborative effort results.

  2. Addressing Issues for Land Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing

    2009-09-01

    Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; http://www.glp-beijing.org.cn/index.php and http://www.glp.hokudai.ac.jp) brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

  3. Open access: changing global science publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

    2013-08-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

  4. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  5. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  6. Climate Change: From Science to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Nicola; Watts, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to human health. Understanding how climate science can be translated into public health practice is an essential first step in enabling robust adaptation and improving resiliency to climate change. Recent research highlights the importance of iterative approaches to public health adaptation to climate change, enabling uncertainties of health impacts and barriers to adaptation to be accounted for. There are still significant barriers to adaptation, which are context-specific and thus present unique challenges to public health practice. The implementation of flexible adaptation approaches, using frameworks targeted for public health, is key to ensuring robust adaptation to climate change in public health practice. The BRACE framework provides an excellent approach for health adaptation to climate change. Combining this with the insights provided and by the adaptation pathways approach allows for more deliberate accounting of long-term uncertainties. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into public health practice and planning is important in facilitating this approach and overcoming the significant barriers to effective adaptation. Yet, the immediate and future limits to adaptation provide clear justification for urgent and accelerated efforts to mitigate climate change.

  7. Climate change adaptation and social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change subjects societies to a large range of uncertainties concerning the future and their development orientation. It came up as a scientific global problem, extended to political concerns first at a global and then national scales. Though it has long been the object of economic approaches which have notably contributed to its recognition, particularly the Stern Report, social sciences have hardly been mobilized as part of policies to counteract it. Social sciences strongly question the notion of climate change being built as a global scale transcendent phenomenon, analyzed by several authors. With the rise of adaptation policies, the question becomes even more important. Adaptation first comes up as a spontaneous behaviour, independent of policy, in close relationship to social dimensions as a basic way through which climate change is grasped collectively. Thus adaptation policies' social aspects need to be carefully worked in relation with more general goals for adaptation policies to be implemented efficiently, on the basis of wide interactions between local and global scales. (author)

  8. Measuring Science Curriculum Improvement Study Teachers' Attitudinal Changes Toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Larry Michael

    Investigated were three questions related to the relationship between a science teacher's attitude regarding the use of a newer science program, in this instance the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS): (1) Could the Projective Tests of Attitudes, originally designed for fifth-grade students, be modified for use with adults? (2) Is there a…

  9. A compendium and functional characterization of mammalian genes involved in adaptation to Arctic or Antarctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Nikolay S; Larkin, Denis M; Ignatieva, Elena V

    2017-12-28

    Many mammals are well adapted to surviving in extremely cold environments. These species have likely accumulated genetic changes that help them efficiently cope with low temperatures. It is not known whether the same genes related to cold adaptation in one species would be under selection in another species. The aims of this study therefore were: to create a compendium of mammalian genes related to adaptations to a low temperature environment; to identify genes related to cold tolerance that have been subjected to independent positive selection in several species; to determine promising candidate genes/pathways/organs for further empirical research on cold adaptation in mammals. After a search for publications containing keywords: "whole genome", "transcriptome or exome sequencing data", and "genome-wide genotyping array data" authors looked for information related to genetic signatures ascribable to positive selection in Arctic or Antarctic mammalian species. Publications related to Human, Arctic fox, Yakut horse, Mammoth, Polar bear, and Minke whale were chosen. The compendium of genes that potentially underwent positive selection in >1 of these six species consisted of 416 genes. Twelve of them showed traces of positive selection in three species. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis of 416 genes from the compendium has revealed 13 terms relevant to the scope of this study. We found that enriched terms were relevant to three major groups: terms associated with collagen proteins and the extracellular matrix; terms associated with the anatomy and physiology of cilium; terms associated with docking. We further revealed that genes from compendium were over-represented in the lists of genes expressed in the lung and liver. A compendium combining mammalian genes involved in adaptation to cold environment was designed, based on the intersection of positively selected genes from six Arctic and Antarctic species. The compendium contained 416 genes that have been

  10. Women in Academic Science: A Changing Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Williams, Wendy M

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written in the past two decades about women in academic science careers, but this literature is contradictory. Many analyses have revealed a level playing field, with men and women faring equally, whereas other analyses have suggested numerous areas in which the playing field is not level. The only widely-agreed-upon conclusion is that women are underrepresented in college majors, graduate school programs, and the professoriate in those fields that are the most mathematically intensive, such as geoscience, engineering, economics, mathematics/computer science, and the physical sciences. In other scientific fields (psychology, life science, social science), women are found in much higher percentages. In this monograph, we undertake extensive life-course analyses comparing the trajectories of women and men in math-intensive fields with those of their counterparts in non-math-intensive fields in which women are close to parity with or even exceed the number of men. We begin by examining early-childhood differences in spatial processing and follow this through quantitative performance in middle childhood and adolescence, including high school coursework. We then focus on the transition of the sexes from high school to college major, then to graduate school, and, finally, to careers in academic science. The results of our myriad analyses reveal that early sex differences in spatial and mathematical reasoning need not stem from biological bases, that the gap between average female and male math ability is narrowing (suggesting strong environmental influences), and that sex differences in math ability at the right tail show variation over time and across nationalities, ethnicities, and other factors, indicating that the ratio of males to females at the right tail can and does change. We find that gender differences in attitudes toward and expectations about math careers and ability (controlling for actual ability) are evident by kindergarten and increase

  11. Militant Ideology Atlas: Research Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    mujarrad), al-Maqdisi repeatedly brings up the Jews who changed the laws of "Zina" (tr. Illicit sexual activity) (42,52,59-60 and 59n46); indeed the...his methods in transmutation of quicksilver and sulfur into gold are described in the anonymous treatise Fi bayan `amal al- fidda wa’l-dhahab

  12. The Nature of Information Science: Changing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lyn; Karamuftuoglu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers the nature of information science as a discipline and profession. Method: It is based on conceptual analysis of the information science literature, and consideration of philosophical perspectives, particularly those of Kuhn and Peirce. Results: It is argued that information science may be understood as a field of…

  13. Development of the public transport research compendium portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dimitrov, L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available research and development programme. The research compendium portal is a database providing access to information pertaining to public transport projects in the Republic of South Africa from 2003. The specific projects include regulatory, policy...

  14. [Historical compendium of physical activity and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2004-01-01

    The Historical Compendium of Physical Activity and Sport analyses, from a scientific perspective, past events in the array of tasks or manoeuvres comprising body movement, in a setting of human liberty and creative capacity. Sport is examined as a result of the evolution of games and in a context of these games. This book contemplates sports, whose selection criteria have included specific features of their individual or team qualities, or combat or opposition characteristics, or those related to their artistic features or to instrumentation or adaptation, or other connotations. 1st authors are 36 professors, from the universities of Barcelona, (Central), Granada, Jaen, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, León, Madrid (Complutense), Málaga, Murcia, Oviedo, País Vasco, Salamanca, Valencia and Zaragoza.

  15. Computational Methods for Physicists Compendium for Students

    CERN Document Server

    Sirca, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This book helps advanced undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students in their daily work by offering them a compendium of numerical methods. The choice of methods pays  significant attention to error estimates, stability and convergence issues as well as to the ways to optimize program execution speeds. Many examples are given throughout the chapters, and each chapter is followed by at least a handful of more comprehensive problems which may be dealt with, for example, on a weekly basis in a one- or two-semester course. In these end-of-chapter problems the physics background is pronounced, and the main text preceding them is intended as an introduction or as a later reference. Less stress is given to the explanation of individual algorithms. It is tried to induce in the reader an own independent thinking and a certain amount of scepticism and scrutiny instead of blindly following readily available commercial tools.

  16. Compendium of recent Building 7503 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, J.T.

    1996-02-01

    This report is a compendium of available temperature, pressure, radiation, and other data from Building 7503, pertinent to the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project. The information is divided into sections that correspond to different components, cells, or areas of the defunct MSRE. A certain amount of data is included on groundwater monitoring wells around the building and on stack radionuclide emissions. As far as possible, information is provided on the methods by which the data were collected and on their interpretation. It can be concluded from this study that no evidence exists of a spread of air or water contamination. However, certain variations and data trends of the pressures in MSRE piping lack complete explanations at present.

  17. Advanced Light Source. Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.; Devereaux, M.K.; Dixon, D.J.; Greiner, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility located at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. Operation of the ALS is funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This Compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress during 1997, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998

  18. Advanced Light Source Compendium of User Abstracts andTechnical Reports 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Devereaux, M.K.; Dixon, D.J.; Greiner, A.; editors

    1998-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility located at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. Operation of the ALS is funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This Compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress during 1997, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998.

  19. The Changing Landscape of Science News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordon, James

    2011-03-01

    Social media are revolutionizing the ways that people communicate and the ways they get their news. Traditional news outlets are in decline, and no subject area is declining faster than science news. Every day there are fewer professional science journalists working in traditional media. On the other hand, ever greater numbers of scientists, science enthusiasts, and online journalists are turning to blogs, podcasts, eBooks, twitter feeds, and social media sites like Facebook and Tumbler to spread news about science. I will present an overview of the state of science journalism and speculate on the likely directions it seems to be heading. I will also offer some general guidelines to help scientists understand what makes a good science news story, as well as suggesting ways that they can get their work in the news.

  20. Compendium of quantum physics. Concepts, experiments, history and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, Daniel; Hentschel, Klaus; Weinert, Friedel

    2009-01-01

    With contributions by many of today's leading quantum physicists, philosophers and historians, including three Nobel laureates, this comprehensive A to Z of quantum physics provides a lucid understanding of the key concepts of quantum theory and experiment. It covers technical and interpretational aspects alike, and includes both traditional topics and newer areas such as quantum information and its relatives. The central concepts that have shaped contemporary understanding of the quantum world are clearly defined, with illustrations where helpful, and discussed at a level suitable for undergraduate and graduate students of physics, history of science, and philosophy of physics. All articles share three main aims: (1) to provide a clear definition and understanding of the term concerned; (2) where possible, to trace the historical origins of the concept; and (3) to provide a small but optimal selection of references to the most relevant literature, including pertinent historical studies. Also discussed are the often contentious philosophical implications derived from quantum theory and its associated experimental findings. This compendium will be an indispensable resource for all those seeking concise up-to-date information about the many facets of quantum physics. (orig.)

  1. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  2. Climate Change: Science and Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leggett, Jane A

    2007-01-01

    .... Science indicates that the Earth s global average temperature is now approaching, or possibly has passed, the warmest experienced since human civilizations began to flourish about 12,000 years ago...

  3. Changes in Urban Youths' Attitude Towards Science and Perception of a Mobile Science Lab Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jared

    This dissertation examined changes in urban youth's attitude towards science as well as their perception of the informal science education setting and third space opportunity provided by the BioBus, a mobile science lab. Science education researchers have often suggested that informal science education settings provide one possible way to positively influence student attitude towards science and engage marginalized urban youth within the traditional science classroom (Banks et al., 2007; Hofstein & Rosenfeld, 1996; National Research Council, 2009; Schwarz & Stolow, 2006; Stocklmayer, Rennie, & Gilbert, 2010). However, until now, this possibility has not been explored within the setting of a mobile science lab nor examined using a theoretical framework intent on analyzing how affective outcomes may occur. The merits of this analytical stance were evaluated via observation, attitudinal survey, open-response questionnaire, and interview data collected before and after a mobile science lab experience from a combination of 239 students in Grades 6, 8, 9, 11, and 12 from four different schools within a major Northeastern metropolitan area. Findings from this study suggested that urban youth's attitude towards science changed both positively and negatively in statistically significant ways after a BioBus visit and that the experience itself was highly enjoyable. Furthermore, implications for how to construct a third space within the urban science classroom and the merits of utilizing the theoretical framework developed to analyze cultural tensions between urban youth and school science are discussed. Key Words: Attitude towards science, third space, mobile science lab, urban science education.

  4. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  5. Phase change materials: science and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raoux, Simone; Wuttig, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    ... are the Ovonic threshold switch, the multi-state Ovonic Universal Memory (OUM), and the Ovonic cognitive device which emulates the biological neurons with its plasticity and synaptic activity. The field of amorphous and disordered materials created not only a basic new area of science, but also important new technologies. It should be kept in mind that...

  6. The "Pretty Redhead" Who Changed Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the historical marginalization of women with claims that they are neither fit for nor interested in careers in science. Describes two cases of the media depiction of a successful female scientist and a high school biology teacher who was involved in the challenge to Arkansas' antievolution laws. (MM)

  7. A Compendium of Energy Conservation Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office{endash}Energy Utilization Research{endash}sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  8. A compendium of energy conservation success stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  9. Environmental computing compendium - background and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkurinen, Matti; Kranzlmüller, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    The emerging discipline of environmental computing brings together experts in applied, advanced environmental modelling. The application domains address several fundamental societal challenges, ranging from disaster risk reduction to sustainability issues (such as food security on the global scale). The community has used an Intuitive, pragmatic approach when determining which initiatives are considered to "belong to the discipline". The community's growth is based on sharing of experiences and tools provides opportunities for reusing solutions or applying knowledge in new settings. Thus, limiting possible synergies by applying an arbitrary, formal definition to exclude some of the sources of solutions and knowledge would be counterproductive. However, the number of individuals and initiatives involved has grown to the level where a survey of initiatives and sub-themes they focus on is of interest. By surveying the project landscape and identifying common themes and building a shared vocabulary to describe them we can both communicate the relevance of the new discipline to the general public more easily and make it easier for the new members of the community to find the most promising collaboration partners. This talk presents the methodology and initial findings of the initial survey of the environmental computing initiatives and organisations, as well as approaches that could lead to an environmental computing compendium that would be a collaborative maintained shared resource of the environmental computing community.

  10. Environment compendium 1999. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy. Next, the environmental quality is described (section D), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section E. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section F. Finally, in section G, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  11. Environment compendium 2001. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy (section D). Next, the environmental quality is described (section E), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section F. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section G. Finally, in section H, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  12. The Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers and Science Teachers About Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Meilinda, M; Rustaman, N. Y; Tjasyono, B

    2017-01-01

    The global climate phenomenon in the context of climate change is the impact of both the dynamic complex climate system and human behaviors that affect environmental sustainability. Human is an important component that should be considered in science teaching that is believed to improve human attitudes towards the environmental sustainability. The research aims to investigate the perceptions of pre-service science teachers and science teachers in South Sumatra who teach climate change and glo...

  13. Advanced light source: Compendium of user abstracts 1993-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress from 1993-1996, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998. Two tables of contents organize the user abstracts by beamline and by area of research, and an author index makes abstracts accessible by author and by principal investigator. Technical details for each beamline including whom to contact for additional information can be found in the beamline information section. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this compendium

  14. Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is an accepted fact that the Earth’s climate is warming. Recent research has demonstrated the direct links between the Arctic regions and the rest of the planet. We have become more aware that these regions are feeling the effects of global climate change more intensely than anywhere else on Earth -- and that they are fast becoming the new frontiers for resources and political disputes. This paper examines some of the potential climate change impacts in the Arctic and how the science of climate change can be used to develop policies that will help mitigate some of these impacts. Despite the growing body of research we do not yet completely understand the potential consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Climate models predict significant changes and impacts on the northern physical environment and renewable resources, and on the communities and societies that depend on them. Policies developed and implemented as a result of the research findings will be designed to help mitigate some of the more serious consequences. Given the importance of cost in making policy decisions, the financial implications of different scenarios will need to be considered. The Arctic Ocean Basin is a complex and diverse environment shared by five Arctic states. Cooperation among the states surrounding the Arctic Ocean is often difficult, as each country has its own political and social agenda. Northerners and indigenous peoples should be engaged and able to influence the direction of northern adaptation policies. Along with climate change, the Arctic environment and Arctic residents face many other challenges, among them safe resource development. Resource development in the Arctic has always been a controversial issue, seen by some as a solution to high unemployment and by others as an unacceptably disruptive and destructive force. Its inherent risks need to be considered: there are needs for adaptation, for management frameworks, for addressing cumulative effects, and for

  15. Engaging Students In The Science Of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Halversen, C.; Weiss, E.; Pedemonte, S.; Weirman, T.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is arguably the defining environmental issue of our generation. It is thus increasingly necessary for every member of the global community to understand the basic underlying science of Earth's climate system and how it is changing in order to make informed, evidence-based decisions about how we will respond individually and as a society. Through exploration of the inextricable interconnection between Earth's ocean, atmosphere and climate, we believe students will be better prepared to tackle the complex issues surrounding the causes and effects of climate change and evaluate possible solutions. If students are also given opportunities to gather evidence from real data and use scientific argumentation to make evidence-based explanations about climate change, not only will they gain an increased understanding of the science concepts and science practices, the students will better comprehend the nature of climate change science. Engaging in argument from evidence is a scientific practice not only emphasized in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), but also emphasized in the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies and Science (CCSS). This significant overlap between NGSS and CCSS has implications for science and language arts classrooms, and should influence how we support and build students' expertise with this practice of sciences. The featured exemplary curricula supports middle school educators as they address climate change in their classrooms. The exemplar we will use is the NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence (OSS) for Grades 6-8: The ocean-atmosphere connection and climate change, which are curriculum units that deliver rich science content correlated to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Disciplinary Core Ideas and an emphasis on the Practices of Science, as called for in NGSS and the Framework. Designed in accordance with the latest

  16. Construction of the first compendium of chemical-genetic profiles in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and comparative compendium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangjo [Bioinformatics Lab, Healthcare Group, SK Telecom, 9-1, Sunae-dong, Pundang-gu, Sungnam-si, Kyunggi-do 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minho [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyeshik [Department of Biological Science, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Miyoung [Department of New Drug Discovery and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Han-Oh [Bioneer Corp., 8-11 Munpyeongseo-ro, Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 306-220 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Youn-Sig [Department of Applied Biology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hye-jeong [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongsup [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sung-Ook [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inha University Hospital, 7-206 Sinheung-dong, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hoe, Kwang-Lae [Department of New Drug Discovery and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Uk [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •The first compendium of chemical-genetic profiles form fission yeast was generated. •The first HTS of drug mode-of-action in fission yeast was performed. •The first comparative chemical genetic analysis between two yeasts was conducted. -- Abstract: Genome-wide chemical genetic profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae since the budding yeast deletion library construction have been successfully used to reveal unknown mode-of-actions of drugs. Here, we introduce comparative approach to infer drug target proteins more accurately using two compendiums of chemical-genetic profiles from the budding yeast S. cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. For the first time, we established DNA-chip based growth defect measurement of genome-wide deletion strains of S. pombe, and then applied 47 drugs to the pooled heterozygous deletion strains to generate chemical-genetic profiles in S. pombe. In our approach, putative drug targets were inferred from strains hypersensitive to given drugs by analyzing S. pombe and S. cerevisiae compendiums. Notably, many evidences in the literature revealed that the inferred target genes of fungicide and bactericide identified by such comparative approach are in fact the direct targets. Furthermore, by filtering out the genes with no essentiality, the multi-drug sensitivity genes, and the genes with less eukaryotic conservation, we created a set of drug target gene candidates that are expected to be directly affected by a given drug in human cells. Our study demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to construct the multiple compendiums of chemical genetic profiles using many different species. The fission yeast chemical-genetic compendium is available at (http://pombe.kaist.ac.kr/compendium)

  17. Public Perception of Uncertainties Within Climate Change Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, multifaceted problem involving various interacting systems and actors. Therefore, the intensities, locations, and timeframes of the consequences of climate change are hard to predict and cause uncertainties. Relatively little is known about how the public perceives this scientific uncertainty and how this relates to their concern about climate change. In this article, an online survey among 306 Swiss people is reported that investigated whether people differentiate between different types of uncertainty in climate change research. Also examined was the way in which the perception of uncertainty is related to people's concern about climate change, their trust in science, their knowledge about climate change, and their political attitude. The results of a principal component analysis showed that respondents differentiated between perceived ambiguity in climate research, measurement uncertainty, and uncertainty about the future impact of climate change. Using structural equation modeling, it was found that only perceived ambiguity was directly related to concern about climate change, whereas measurement uncertainty and future uncertainty were not. Trust in climate science was strongly associated with each type of uncertainty perception and was indirectly associated with concern about climate change. Also, more knowledge about climate change was related to less strong perceptions of each type of climate science uncertainty. Hence, it is suggested that to increase public concern about climate change, it may be especially important to consider the perceived ambiguity about climate research. Efforts that foster trust in climate science also appear highly worthwhile. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Climate Change: Science and Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leggett, Jane A

    2007-01-01

    .... During the 20th Century, some areas became wetter while others experienced more drought. Most climate scientists conclude that humans have induced a large part of the climate change since the 1970s...

  19. Climate Change: Science and Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leggett, Jane A

    2007-01-01

    .... Although natural forces such as solar irradiance and volcanoes contribute to variability, scientists cannot explain the climate changes of the past few decades without including the effects of elevated greenhouse gas (GHG...

  20. Science Matters Podcast: Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Andy Miller, the Associate Director for Climate for the Agency's Air, Climate, and Energy Research Program, as he answers questions about climate change research, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  1. An Interface between Law and Science: The Climate Change Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Y.; Grandbois, M.; Kaniaha, S.

    2012-04-01

    Law and Science are jointly building the international climate change regime. Up to date, international law and climate science have been unable to take into consideration both regional law and Pacific climate science in this process. Under the International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (the Australian Government Initiative to assist with high priority climate adaptation needs in vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region) significant efforts were dedicated to improve understanding of climate in the Pacific through the Pacific Climate Change Science Program (PCCSP) and through the Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program (PASAP). The first comprehensive PCCSP scientific report on the South Pacific climate has been published in 2011. Under the PASAP, web-based information tools for seasonal climate prediction have been developed and now outputs from dynamical climate model are used in 15 countries of the North-West and South Pacific for enhanced prediction of rainfall, air and sea surface temperatures which reduces countries' vulnerability to climate variability in the context of a changing climate. On a regional scale, the Meteorological and Geohazards Department of Vanuatu is preparing a full report on Climate change impacts on the country. These scientific reports and tools could lead to a better understanding of climate change in the South Pacific and to a better understanding of climate change science, for lawyers and policy-makers. The International climate change regime develops itself according to science findings, and at the pace of the four scientific reports issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In return, Law is a contributing factor to climate change, a structural data in the development and perception of environmental issues and it exerts an influence on Science. Because of the dependency of law on science, the PCCSP and PASAP outcomes will also stimulate and orientate developments in law of the Pacific

  2. USGS science for the Nation's changing coasts; shoreline change assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2011-01-01

    The coastline of the United States features some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations in the world and is the site of intense residential, commercial, and industrial development. The coastal zone also has extensive and pristine natural areas, with diverse ecosystems providing essential habitat and resources that support wildlife, fish, and human use. Coastal erosion is a widespread process along most open-ocean shores of the United States that affects both developed and natural coastlines. As the coast changes, there are a wide range of ways that change can affect coastal communities, habitats, and the physical characteristics of the coast?including beach erosion, shoreline retreat, land loss, and damage to infrastructure. Global climate change will likely increase the rate of coastal change. A recent study of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast, for example, found that it is virtually certain that sandy beaches will erode faster in the future as sea level rises because of climate change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for conducting research on coastal change hazards, understanding the processes that cause coastal change, and developing models to predict future change. To understand and adapt to shoreline change, accurate information regarding the past and present configurations of the shoreline is essential. A comprehensive, nationally consistent analysis of shoreline movement is needed. To meet this national need, the USGS is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean coasts of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii, as well as the coasts of the Great Lakes.

  3. Cool Science: Engaging Adult and K-16 Audiences in Climate Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) uses advertising spaces on buses and terminals to engage the public with an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) learning experience. K-16 classrooms throughout Massachusetts will submit original artwork that conveys a scientific concept central to understanding climate change. The best 6 works submitted will be printed and placed on every bus in the city over a 6 month period during the first half of 2013. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general adult public and k-16 students/teachers. Cool Science offers teachers an efficient and effective means of seamlessly bringing the study of climate change into classroom learning both within science and across disciplines. The products of this effort are then used to improve public engagement with the science of climate change in mass transit environments. Cool Science is an example of Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Math education (STEAM). The goals of CS are: 1) Engage professors, teachers, and their respective students in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Run the winning 6 selected placards and posters throughout the LRTA. 3) Identify how different communities of risk among the riding public approach and understand climate change. 4) Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using buses as a context for research on informal science learning. 5) Determine the extent to which student artwork serves as a trusted source of information. As advances in technology allow for more scientific knowledge to be generated, the role of informal education to improve adult understanding of science has never been greater. We see the convergence of circumstances (ISE, climate change, OHMM, mobile technology) as an enormous

  4. Secondary School Science Department Chairs Leading Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary school department chairs are content area specialists in their schools and are responsible for providing students with the most appropriate curricula. However, most secondary school department chairs have limited authority to institute change unilaterally (Gmelch, 1993; Hannay & Erb, 1999). To explore how these educational leaders…

  5. Managing change : Case study: HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Valkeakoski

    OpenAIRE

    Chau Thi Tra, Mi

    2012-01-01

    In response to changes imposed by the Finnish government on the Univer-sities of Applied Sciences system in the near future, HAMK has proactive-ly adopted several programmes to prepare for future challenges and rein-force the organization’s competitiveness. However, organizational change has never been an easy, straightforward issue and how to manage change effectively has become an interest to the organization. The study aims at providing suggestions for a more successful change im-pleme...

  6. Weather on Steroids: The Art of Climate Change Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Gershunov, A.; Sizonenko, T.; Wiese, A.; Fox, H.

    2017-12-01

    There have been many different kinds of efforts to improve climate change literacy of diverse audiences in the past several years. The challenge has been to balance science content with audience-specific messaging that engages them in both rational and affective ways. In the San Diego Region, Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been working with business leaders, elected officials, tribal leaders, and other community leaders to develop a suite of programs and activities to enhance the channels of communication outside traditional settings. CEP has partnered with the La Jolla Historical Society and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in a unique exhibition of art inspired by climate science, a project blending science and art to communicate the science of climate change in a new way and engage audiences more effectively. Weather on Steroids: the Art of Climate Change Science explores the question of consequences, challenges, and opportunities that arise from the changing climate on our planet. The exhibition merges the artistic and scientific to create a visual dialogue about the vexing problem of climate change, explores how weather variability affects the day-to-day life of local communities, and investigates Southern California vulnerability to climate change. Science serves as the inspiration for the creative responses from visual artists, who merge subjective images with empirical observation to reveal how climate variations upset the planet's balance with extreme weather impacts. Both the scientists and artists created didactic pages to explain their perspectives and each pair worked closely to incorporate the information into the creative piece so that the connection of each of 11 art installations to the science that inspired them is clear. By illuminating the reality of climate change, Weather on Steroids aspires to proactively stimulate public dialogue about one of the most important issues of our time.

  7. Changing the Culture of Science Communication Training for Junior Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S.

    2018-01-01

    Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today’s society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists. PMID:29904538

  8. Changing the Culture of Science Communication Training for Junior Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S

    2018-01-01

    Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today's society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists.

  9. Climate change science: The literacy of Geography teachers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This response requires, among other things, teachers who are fully literate about climate change science, so that they can explain the concepts underlying the causes, impacts and solutions of climate change as accurately as possible to learners. The main intention of this study was to understand high school Geography ...

  10. Women and Spatial Change: Learning Resources for Social Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.

    Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…

  11. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Taking Action on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) emphasizes the foundational role of science in understanding global change and its impacts on the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an integral and important part of that effort

  12. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  13. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  14. Toward solidarity as the ground for changing science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-10-01

    In science education, reform frequently is conceived and implemented in a top-down fashion, whether teachers are required to engage in change by their principals or superintendents (through high-stakes testing and accountability measures) or by researchers, who inform teachers about alternatives they ought to implement. In this position paper on science education policy, I draw on first philosophy to argue for a different approach to reform, one that involves all stakeholders—teachers, interns, school and university supervisors, and, above all, students—who participate in efforts to understand and change their everyday praxis of teaching and learning. Once all stakeholders experience control over the shaping and changing of classroom learning (i.e., experience agency), they may recognize that they really are in it together, that is, they experience a sense of solidarity. Drawing on ethnographic vignettes, science teaching examples, and philosophical concepts, I outline how more democratic approaches to reform can be enabled.

  15. Carbon dioxide capture and storage : a compendium of Canada's participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legg, J.F.; Campbell, F.R.; Campbell, G.; Bulut, D.; Kishiuchi, K.

    2006-07-01

    Global interest in CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CSS) from point sources for addressing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has increased, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is now considering CSS as a mitigation option. The value of CSS to Canada is enormous, due to the proximity of large point sources of CO{sub 2} and geological CO{sub 2} sinks. This compendium was created to help the community engaged in CSS to identify gaps, set priorities and inform Canada's representatives in international discussions of the extent of Canada's engagement. The report was divided into 3 main sections: (1) an overview of the principal Canadian organizations engaged in the organization and planning of CSS as well as the international organizations active within Canada; (2) summaries of scientific, economic, social and regulatory projects under way or recently completed, and (3) a set of documents relating to Canada's strategy for developing capacity in CSS. Entries in the compendium described the organization and its activities in CSS, as well as identifying each project's duration and funding sources. A list of contacts for each organization was also provided. It was concluded that organizations devoted to CSS are growing rapidly in number.

  16. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  17. Climate Change: Issues in the Science and Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Thomas Lovejoy , Mr. Stuart Eizenstat, and Ms. Stephanie Meeks. Hearing...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-3904 Log: H 09-000863 July 2009 Climate Change: Issues in the Science and...challenges. I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-3904 Climate Change: Issues in the Science and Its Use

  18. [The introduction of compendium of materia medica and praxis in the late Joseon dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun; Kim, Yongjin

    2011-06-30

    Sakae Miki said Classified Emergency Materia Medica had been the dominant standard of herbology throughout Joseon Dynasty, and that Compendium of Materia Medica had only been accepted so lately that a few books used herbological result of it in the late Joseon Dynasty. But according to Visiting Old Beijing Diary written by Munjoong Seo in 1690, Compendium of Materia Medica was in fact introduced before the year 1712, the year Miki Sakae argued to be the year Compendium of Materia Medica was accepted to Joseon officially. Now, we can assume that the introducing year of Compendium of Materia Medica was faster than Miki Sakae's opinion by the following reasons; the effort of Joseon government and intellectuals to buy new books of Ming & Ching; the publishing year of the book for living in countryside regarded as the first citing literature of Compendium of Materia Medica. And the True Records of the Joseon Dynasty and many collections written by intellectuals in the 18th century show that the herbological knowledge from Compendium of Materia Medica had already spread to the corners of Joseon Dynasty. Thus we can make the following assumption: Classified Emergency Materia Medica and Compendium of Materia Medica had coexisted in the late Joseon Dynasty. Sakae Miki suggested 6 examples which used Compendium of Materia Medica in the late Joseon Dynasty. I reviewed two of them in this paper, Essentials of Materia Medica & Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica. Essentials of Materia Medica quoted Compendium of Materia Medica briefly focusing clinical use, and Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica also re-compiled Compendium of Materia Medica to practical use according to the form of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine. It means that the results of Compendium of Materia Medica have been used positively, based on the herbology of materia medica from countryside. From this point of view, the hyphothesis there weren't any herbological progress after accepting

  19. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicators Collection contains 103 variables for 146...

  20. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2004 Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2004 Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections contains 111 variables for 235...

  1. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: Complete Collection, Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections, Version 1.1 contains 426 indicators for 239 countries from five major environmental...

  2. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: Rio to Johannesburg Dashboard of Sustainable Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rio to Johannesburg Dashboard of Sustainable Development Indicators portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections contains 35...

  3. The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  5. Using Copy Change with Trade Books to Teach Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.; Wright, Pam; Sheffer, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Developing and implementing relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory curriculum is critical at all levels of schooling. This article describes one attempt to develop and implement an instance of interdisciplinary curriculum by using copy change with trade books to teach earth science. Specifically, it introduces trade books as a way to…

  6. Changing struggles for relevance in eight fields of natural science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.; Lente, H. van; Smits, R.E.H.M.; Grin, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of institutional changes on academic research practices in eight fields of natural science in the Netherlands. The authors analyse the similarities and differences among the dynamics of these different fields and reflect on possible explanations for the

  7. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Huesties, L.R.; Maughan, A.D.; Miley, T.B.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The initial effort for the CRCIA is the development of a compendium of existing data on Columbia River contamination. This document provides the data compendium. It also includes a discussion of data sources, descriptions of the physical format of the data, and descriptions of the search process used to identify data

  8. Changes in Student Science Interest from Elementary to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Trudi E.

    This study is a transcendental phenomenological study that described the experience of students’ interest in science from elementary school through middle school grades and the identification of the factors that increase or decrease interest in science. Numerous researchers have found that interest in science changes among children and the change in interest seems to modulate student motivation, which ultimately leads to fewer children choosing not only science classes in the future but science careers. Research studies have identified numerous factors that affect student interest in science; however, this study incorporated the lived experience of the child and looked at this interest in science through the lens of the child. The study design was a collective cross-case study that was multi-site based. This study utilized a sample of children in fifth grade classes of three different elementary schools, two distinct seventh grade classes of different middle schools, and ninth grade children from one high school in the State of Illinois. The phenomenon was investigated through student interviews. The use of one-on-one semi-structured interviews limited to 45 minutes in length provided the researcher with data of each child’s description of science interest. All interviews were audio- recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was collected and analyzed in order to identify themes, and finally checked for validity. The most significant findings of this study, and possible factors contributing to science interest in children as they progress from elementary to high school, were those findings relating to hands-on activities, the degree to which a student was challenged, the offering of new versus previously studied topics in the curriculum, the perceived relevance of the curricular materials to personal life, and the empowerment children felt when they were allowed to make choices related to their learning experiences. This study’s possible implications for

  9. A Social Science Guide for Communication on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.

  10. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    ... the application of one layer of complex mathematics before continuing on to the next. He also supplies numerous one-page tutorials that review terms and methodologies, helping minimize the challenges of unfamiliar mathematical territory...

  11. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    .... Starting from widely described geometric projecting onto flat paper, cylinder, and cone, and then progressing through several layers of mathematics to reach modern projections, the author maximizes...

  12. A compendium of major US radiation protection standards and guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Flack, D.S.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

    1988-07-01

    Following discussion of the general issue, the CIRRPC Executive Committee approved, with concurrence of the full Committee, an Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) staff proposal to develop a compendium of Fact Sheets on the major US radiation protection standards and guides, existing or proposed. The compendium contains relevant legal or statutory information and detailed technical requirements that state and describe the protection to be achieved. The report provides appropriate legislative citations; notes any legislative language that gave direction to the development of standards promulgated under the legislation; cites rationales for the standards promulgated; and provides a listing of related standards. Two consultants with considerable experience in radiation protection regulations were contracted to assist the ORAU staff in developing the report. This report has been reviewed twice by the CIRRPC member agencies; once to ensure the accuracy of all the legal and technical facts in the compendium, and once to comment on the entire document, including the accompanying text. This final report reflects consideration of all the agencies' comments received during the reviews. Part I of this report presents information on the selection, preparation and content of the Fact Sheets; an overview of their scopes, applications and modes of control; and the ORAU conclusions and recommendations. Part II contains the Fact Sheets and a User's Guide to finding relevant information in the Fact Sheets

  13. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821

  14. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  15. Summoned by Science. Reporting Climate Change at Copenhagen and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.

    2010-11-01

    The December 2009 summit on climate change in Copenhagen was remarkable not because it ended in an ambitious deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions but because of the unprecedented number of journalists, delegates, NGOs and scientists present. In this wide-ranging study, the author has produced a detailed analysis of the coverage of the summit across the globe through studying more than 400 articles published in two print media in 12 countries.The analysis reveals that articles written principally about the science of climate change represented less than 10 per cent of all those surveyed. The study makes extensive use of official UN figures to produce the first detailed assessment of who actually attended Copenhagen. It also includes a survey of over 50 environmental journalists and scientists across the 12 target countries post-Copenhagen to ascertain how they think climate change science might be best communicated.

  16. Summoned by Science. Reporting Climate Change at Copenhagen and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, J.

    2010-11-15

    The December 2009 summit on climate change in Copenhagen was remarkable not because it ended in an ambitious deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions but because of the unprecedented number of journalists, delegates, NGOs and scientists present. In this wide-ranging study, the author has produced a detailed analysis of the coverage of the summit across the globe through studying more than 400 articles published in two print media in 12 countries.The analysis reveals that articles written principally about the science of climate change represented less than 10 per cent of all those surveyed. The study makes extensive use of official UN figures to produce the first detailed assessment of who actually attended Copenhagen. It also includes a survey of over 50 environmental journalists and scientists across the 12 target countries post-Copenhagen to ascertain how they think climate change science might be best communicated.

  17. Kuhn and conceptual change: on the analogy between conceptual changes in science and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffenhagen, Christian; Sherman, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the analogy between conceptual changes in the history of science and conceptual changes in the development of young children is problematic. We show that the notions of ‘conceptual change’ in Kuhn and Piaget’s projects, the two thinkers whose work is most commonly drawn upon to support this analogy, are not compatible in the sense usually claimed. We contend that Kuhn’s work pertains not so much to the psychology of individual scientists, but to the way philosophers and historians should describe developments in communities of scientists. Furthermore, we argue that the analogy is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of science and the relation between science and common sense. The distinctiveness of the two notions of conceptual change has implications for science education research, since it raises serious questions about the relevance of Kuhn’s remarks for the study of pedagogical issues.

  18. Chaos and The Changing Nature of Science and Medicine. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, D.E.; Croft, P.; Silver, D.S.; Williams, S.G.; Woodall, M.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings represent the lectures given at the workshop on chaos and the changing nature of science and medicine. The workshop was sponsored by the University of South Alabama and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The topics discussed covered nonlinear dynamical systems, complexity theory, fractals, chaos in biology and medicine and in fluid dynamics. Applications of chaotic dynamics in climatology were also discussed. There were 8 lectures at the workshop and all 8 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  19. A Science-Driven Photojournalistic Documentation of Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, G.; Rothlein, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    World View of Global Warming is an independent photojournalistic documentation of global warming and rapid climate change begun in 1999. The intended outcomes of the work - the photographs, reportage and publications - are based on the principles of scientific accuracy, a journalistic approach, strong photographic skills, long-term observations, science literacy, education, documentation for policy makers and inspiration to others. During the course of this project the team of photojournalist and public health toxicologist visited, interviewed and/or had correspondence with more than 150 scientists in the field on every continent. Hundreds more have influenced and informed the work. World View of Global Warming has tested the idea that climate change can be more easily understood by the public and government officials through photographs which accurately and engagingly depict the locations and the scientists involved in research, communities responding to impacts of climate change and innovations for mitigation. Use of the photographs by scientists to further their own work and outreach was an immediate and continuing result, including use in journals, reports, textbooks and conferences. This presentation will demonstrate the many uses of photography in climate change communications and discuss how scientists and educators can more effectively interact with the public and media and artists. The website for this project was established in 2002 and now has more than 100 pages of photographs and information. It is strictly non-commercial and documented. Wide and repeated publication indicates the value of the project's climate communication: Exhibition at the Boston Museum of Science (2013), the National Academy of Sciences and the American Assn. for the Advancement of Science and other venues; extended use by the United Nations, UNFCCC, World Meteorological Organization, Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive

  20. Compendium of Statistical and Financial Information: Ontario Universities, 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This compendium presents data on various aspects of the Ontario University System, Canada. It is a companion to the Financial Report of Ontario Universities, the annual series of volumes prepared under the auspices of the Council of Financial Officers-Universities of Ontario (COFO-UO). This compendium contains supplementary information that helps…

  1. Compendium of Statistical and Financial Information: Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This compendium presents data about aspects of the Ontario University System, Canada. It is a companion to the "Financial Report of Ontario Universities," the annual series of volumes prepared under the auspices of the Council of Financial OfficersUniversities of Ontario (COFO-UO). The Compendium contains supplementary information on…

  2. Joint sciences academies statement: global response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Taking into account that there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring, the Joint Science Academies, urge, by this statement, all nations in the line with the UNFCCC principles, to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change, adapt to its impacts and ensure that the issue is included in all relevant national and international strategies. Some recommendations are also given. (A.L.B.)

  3. Integrating Climate Change Science and Sustainability in Environmental Science, Sociology, Philosophy and Business Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Cantzler, J.; Croom, S.; Huston, C.; Woods, M.

    2015-12-01

    Courses on sustainability can be taught from multiple perspectives with some focused on specific areas (environmental, socio-cultural, economic, ethics) and others taking a more integrated approach across areas of sustainability and academic disciplines. In conjunction with the Climate Change Education Program efforts to enhance climate change literacy with innovative approaches, resources and communication strategies developed by Climate Education Partners were used in two distinct ways to integrate climate change science and impacts into undergraduate and graduate level courses. At the graduate level, the first lecture in the MBA program in Sustainable Supply Chain Management is entirely dedicated to climate change science, local and global impacts and discussions about key messages to communicate to the business community. Basic science concepts are integrated with discussions about mitigation and adaptation focused on business leaders. The concepts learned are then applied to the semester-long business plan project for the students. At the undergraduate level, a new model of comprehensive integration across disciplines was implemented in Spring 2015 across three courses on Sustainability each with a specific lens: Natural Science, Sociology and Philosophy. All three courses used climate change as the 'big picture' framing concept and had similar learning objectives creating a framework where lens-specific topics, focusing on depth in a discipline, were balanced with integrated exercises across disciplines providing breadth and possibilities for integration. The comprehensive integration project was the creation of the climate action plan for the university with each team focused on key areas of action (water, energy, transportation, etc.) and each team built with at least one member from each class ensuring a natural science, sociological and philosophical perspective. The final project was presented orally to all three classes and an integrated paper included

  4. Compendium of shock wave data. Section C. Organic compounds excluding hydrocarbons. Section D. Mixtures. Section E. Mixtures and solutions without chemical characterization. Compendium index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Thiel, M.; shaner, J.; Salinas, E.

    1977-06-01

    This volume lists thermodynamic data for organic compounds excluding hydrocarbons, mixtures, and mixtures and solutions without chemical characterization. Alloys and some minerals are included among the mixtures. This volume also contains the index for the three-volume compendium

  5. Changes in regulation at the science and technology agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent changes in the regulation at the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan. The changes are based on the lessons learned from the series of incidents at the nuclear facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). It is considered that the safety culture was missing in the organization, which was reflected in the rating of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) level of the incidents. The PNC is going to be reorganized in October 1997, and the outline of the reorganization is also presented. (author)

  6. Communicating Climate Change: Sometimes It's Not about the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an overwhelming scientific consensus that humans are driving modern day climate change, a significant portion of Americans are not convinced. This gap in understanding challenges both instructors and students who wish to effectively communicate climate change science. Individuals subconsciously resist factual information that threatens their worldview. Their misperceptions are reinforced by journalistic false balance, coordinated misinformation campaigns, and incorrect or misleading information that is easily accessible via social media. Here the author presents effective refutation strategies that avoid the most common backfire effects while also offering strategies to properly frame the discussion to audiences holding diverse worldviews.

  7. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  8. Synthesis in land change science: methodological patterns, challenges, and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Rudel, Thomas K; Verburg, Peter H; McConnell, William J; Mertz, Ole; Gerstner, Katharina; Heinimann, Andreas; Ellis, Erle C

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena and world regions most commonly studied are presented. Significant challenges to successful synthesis research in LCS are also identified, including issues of interpretability and comparability across case-studies and the limits of and biases in the geographic coverage of case studies. Nevertheless, synthesis methods based on local case studies will remain essential for generating systematic global and regional understanding of local land change for the foreseeable future, and multiple opportunities exist to accelerate and enhance the reliability of synthetic LCS research in the future. Demand for global and regional knowledge generation will continue to grow to support adaptation and mitigation policies consistent with both the local realities and regional and global environmental and economic contexts of land change.

  9. Regional climate change-Science in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sonya A.

    2010-01-01

    Resource managers are at the forefront of a new era of management. They must consider the potential impacts of climate change on the Nation's resources and proactively develop strategies for dealing with those impacts on plants, animals, and ecosystems. This requires rigorous, scientific understanding of environmental change. The role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in this effort is to analyze climate-change data and develop tools for assessing how changing conditions are likely to impact resources. This information will assist Federal, State, local, and tribal partners manage resources strategically. The 2008 Omnibus Budget Act and Secretarial Order 3289 established a new network of eight Department of Interior Regional Climate Science Centers to provide technical support for resource managers. The Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) is the first regional assessment to be funded by the USGS National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (http://nccw.usgs.gov/). The USGS is working closely with the developing Department of Interior Landscape Conservation Cooperatives to ensure that the project will meet the needs of resource managers in the Southeast. In addition, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is providing resources to the SERAP to expand the scope of the project.

  10. Climate change as seen by science and scientific dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The climate change approach by two daily newspapers and two weekly magazines in 2006 and 2007, and this theme perception by opinion-makers, constitute the major target of this work. A survey was conducted with subscribers to Folha de S. Paulo and O Estado de S. Paulo newspapers, Veja and Epoca magazines, with their journalists, as well as with climate change scientists. The survey showed that is equally high the public interest in general science subjects and in specific environmental themes. In the analyzed periodicals, some incorrect technical concepts were detected and the press coverage focused, mainly, on research into climate change impacts. Energy security, another factor strongly related to climate, was explored by the research to evaluate public view of a relation between climate change and nuclear energy. A parallel may be made between climate change and nuclear catastrophe, present in the popular imaginary, since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Considering the science role in general, it is essential to highlight the fact that the state of the art research should not be dissociated from efficient and effective communication, able to mobilize citizens and touch decision-makers. Although the dialogue between scientists and the public was considered, traditionally, as related to separated fields of awareness, it may be achieved and the media has a fundamental role in this process. (author)

  11. Infusion of Climate Change and Geospatial Science Concepts into Environmental and Biological Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Bhaskar, M. S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Shishodia, S.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our activity is to improve the students understanding and interpretation of geospatial science and climate change concepts and its applications in the field of Environmental and Biological Sciences in the College of Science Engineering and Technology (COEST) at Texas Southern University (TSU) in Houston, TX. The courses of GIS for Environment, Ecology and Microbiology were selected for the curriculum infusion. A total of ten GIS hands-on lab modules, along with two NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) lab modules on climate change were implemented in the "GIS for Environment" course. GIS and Google Earth Labs along with climate change lectures were infused into Microbiology and Ecology courses. Critical thinking and empirical skills of the students were assessed in all the courses. The student learning outcomes of these courses includes the ability of students to interpret the geospatial maps and the student demonstration of knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and climate change. At the end of the courses, students developed a comprehensive understanding of the geospatial data, its applications in understanding climate change and its interpretation at the local and regional scales during multiple years.

  12. Changing epistemological beliefs with nature of science implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon

    2018-06-01

    This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students' epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS) assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc.), degree (BA or BS), status (freshman, sophomore, etc.), and gender (male or female). We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.

  13. Changing epistemological beliefs with nature of science implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students’ epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc., degree (BA or BS, status (freshman, sophomore, etc., and gender (male or female. We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.

  14. Climate change: Conflict of observational science, theory, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Debate over whether human activity causes Earth climate change obscures the immensity of the dynamic systems that create and maintain climate on the planet. Anthropocentric debate leads people to believe that they can alter these planetary dynamic systems to prevent that they perceive as negative climate impacts on human civilization. Although politicians offer simplistic remedies, such as the Kyoto Protocol, global climate continues to change naturally. Better planning for the inevitable dislocations that have followed natural global climate changes throughout human history requires us to accept the fact that climate will change, and that human society must adapt to the changes. Over the last decade, the scientific literature reported a shift in emphasis from attempting to build theoretical models of putative human impacts on climate to understanding the planetwide dynamic processes that are the natural climate drivers. The current scientific literature is beginning to report the history of past climate change, the extent of natural climate variability, natural system drivers, and the episodicity of many climate changes. The scientific arguments have broadened from focus upon human effects on climate to include the array of natural phenomena that have driven global climate change for eons. However, significant political issues with long-term social consequences continue their advance. This paper summarizes recent scientific progress in climate science and arguments about human influence on climate. ?? 2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Complex systems and health behavior change: insights from cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Plaut, David C

    2014-05-01

    To provide proof-of-concept that quantum health behavior can be instantiated as a computational model that is informed by cognitive science, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and quantum health behavior theory. We conducted a synthetic review of the intersection of quantum health behavior change and cognitive science. We conducted simulations, using a computational model of quantum health behavior (a constraint satisfaction artificial neural network) and tested whether the model exhibited quantum-like behavior. The model exhibited clear signs of quantum-like behavior. Quantum health behavior can be conceptualized as constraint satisfaction: a mitigation between current behavioral state and the social contexts in which it operates. We outlined implications for moving forward with computational models of both quantum health behavior and health behavior in general.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for the safety operation procedure for hot cell. It covers the master-slave manipulators, dry waste removal, cell transfers, hoists, cask handling, liquid waste system, and physical characterization of fluids

  17. Speaking truth to power revisited: science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserforschung; Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien

    2000-07-01

    The issue of climate change from the perspectives of climate change scientists and climate policy makers is discussed using results from two survey questionnaires. Emphasis is given to the German context. Included is the self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the importance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Conclusions indicate that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science, and have assigned a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change than have scientists. (orig.) [German] Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogenaktionen wird diskutiert, wie sich die Problematik von Klimaveraenderungen aus der Perspektive von Klimaforschern und aus der Perspektive von mit Klimapolitik befassten Entscheidungstraegern darstellt. Die Betonung liegt auf den Verhaeltnissen in Deutschland. Eingeschlossen ist eine Einschaetzung des aktuellen Standes der Klimaforschung durch die Wissenschaftler selbst sowie der Bedeutung, welche von politischen Entscheidungstraegern verschiedenen Informationsquellen beigemessen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass sich politische Entscheidungstraeger auf zahlreiche Informationsquellen verlassen, die nur indirekt die Resultate der Klimaforschung wiedergeben und, dass dieser Personenkreis das Problem der Klimaveraenderungen als draengender ansieht als die Wissenschaftler selbst. (orig.)

  18. When complexity science meets implementation science: a theoretical and empirical analysis of systems change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Churruca, Kate; Long, Janet C; Ellis, Louise A; Herkes, Jessica

    2018-04-30

    Implementation science has a core aim - to get evidence into practice. Early in the evidence-based medicine movement, this task was construed in linear terms, wherein the knowledge pipeline moved from evidence created in the laboratory through to clinical trials and, finally, via new tests, drugs, equipment, or procedures, into clinical practice. We now know that this straight-line thinking was naïve at best, and little more than an idealization, with multiple fractures appearing in the pipeline. The knowledge pipeline derives from a mechanistic and linear approach to science, which, while delivering huge advances in medicine over the last two centuries, is limited in its application to complex social systems such as healthcare. Instead, complexity science, a theoretical approach to understanding interconnections among agents and how they give rise to emergent, dynamic, systems-level behaviors, represents an increasingly useful conceptual framework for change. Herein, we discuss what implementation science can learn from complexity science, and tease out some of the properties of healthcare systems that enable or constrain the goals we have for better, more effective, more evidence-based care. Two Australian examples, one largely top-down, predicated on applying new standards across the country, and the other largely bottom-up, adopting medical emergency teams in over 200 hospitals, provide empirical support for a complexity-informed approach to implementation. The key lessons are that change can be stimulated in many ways, but a triggering mechanism is needed, such as legislation or widespread stakeholder agreement; that feedback loops are crucial to continue change momentum; that extended sweeps of time are involved, typically much longer than believed at the outset; and that taking a systems-informed, complexity approach, having regard for existing networks and socio-technical characteristics, is beneficial. Construing healthcare as a complex adaptive system

  19. Changes in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Personal Science Teaching Efficacy and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancies: The Influence of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated contextual changes in perceptions of science teaching self-efficacy through pre-, post- and retrospective administrations of the Science Teaching Expectancy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) among preservice elementary teachers when exposed to a science teaching methods course. Findings revealed that the number of postsecondary…

  20. Sensing risk, fearing uncertainty: Systems science approach to change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo P Janecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMedicine devotes its primary focus to understanding change, from cells to network relationships; observations of non-linearity are inescapable. Recent events provide extraordinary examples of major non-linear surprises within the societal system: human genome-from anticipated 100,000+ genes to only 20,000+; junk DNA-initially ignored but now proven to control genetic processes; economic reversals-bursting of bubbles in technology, housing, finance; foreign wars; relentless rise in obesity, neurodegenerative diseases.There are two attributes of systems science that are especially relevant to this research: One- it offers a method for creating a structural context with a guiding path to pragmatic knowledge; and, two- it gives pre-eminence to sensory input capable to register, evaluate, and react to change. Material / MethodPublic domain records of change, during the last fifty years, have been studied in the context of systems science, the dynamic systems model, and various cycles. Results / Conclusions Change is dynamic, ever-present, never isolated, and of variable impact; it reflects innumerable relationships among contextual systems; change can be perceived as risk or uncertainty depending upon how the assessment is made; risk is quantifiable by sensory input and generates a degree of rational optimism; uncertainty is not quantifiable and evokes fear; trust is key to sharing risk; the measurable financial credit can be a proxy for societal trust; expanding credit dilutes trust; when a credit bubble bursts, so will trust; absence of trust paralyzes systems’ relationships leading to disorganized complexity which prevents value creation and heightens the probability of random events; disappearance of value, accompanied by chaos, threatens all systems.From personal health to economic sustainability and collective rationality, most examined components of the societal system were found not to be optimized and trust was not in evidence.

  1. In a Time of Change: Integrating the Arts and Humanities with Climate Change Science in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M.; Golux, S.; Franzen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The arts and humanities have a powerful capacity to create lines of communication between the public, policy and scientific spheres. A growing network of visual and performing artists, writers and scientists has been actively working together since 2007 to integrate scientific and artistic perspectives on climate change in interior Alaska. These efforts have involved field workshops and collaborative creative processes culminating in public performances and a visual art exhibit. The most recent multimedia event was entitled In a Time of Change: Envisioning the Future, and challenged artists and scientists to consider future scenarios of climate change. This event included a public performance featuring original theatre, modern dance, Alaska Native Dance, poetry and music that was presented concurrently with an art exhibit featuring original works by 24 Alaskan visual artists. A related effort targeted K12 students, through an early college course entitled Climate Change and Creative Expression, which was offered to high school students at a predominantly Alaska Native charter school and integrated climate change science, creative writing, theatre and dance. Our program at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is just one of many successful efforts to integrate arts and humanities with science within and beyond the NSF LTER Program. The efforts of various LTER sites to engage the arts and humanities with science, the public and policymakers have successfully generated excitement, facilitated mutual understanding, and promoted meaningful dialogue on issues facing science and society. The future outlook for integration of arts and humanities with science appears promising, with increasing interest from artists, scientists and scientific funding agencies.

  2. U.S. science in a changing context: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Byerly, Jr.

    In 1989 Francis Fukuyama, a senior policy analyst at the U.S. Department of State, wrote a paper about the end of the Cold War entitled “The End of History?” It offered an intriguing thesis: “What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such; that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government” [Fukuyama, 1989 p 4]. What Fukuyama calls “the end of history” is an important change in the context of science for two overlapping reasons. First, because the challenge of the communist Soviet Union drove United States science policy for much of the twentieth century. Second, because the atomic bomb and a subsequent series of events and circumstances—including SDI, the Green Revolution, AIDS, and now global change—have connected science to global geopolitics, irreversibly enlarging its relevant context.

  3. 78 FR 50085 - Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Climate Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Meeting.... 2, we announce that the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold... Partnership Coordinator, National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201...

  4. 78 FR 79478 - Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice... announce that the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold a meeting..., National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive...

  5. Conceptual Change in Understanding the Nature of Science Learning: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetto, Christina M.

    This study is the first of its kind to explore the thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and values of secondary educators as they experience conceptual change in their understanding of the nature of science learning vis a vis the Framework for K-12 Science Education published by the National Research Council. The study takes aim at the existing gap between the vision for science learning as an active process of inquiry and current pedagogical practices in K-12 science classrooms. For students to understand and explain everyday science ideas and succeed in science studies and careers, the means by which they learn science must change. Focusing on this change, the study explores the significance of educator attitudes, beliefs and values to science learning through interpretive phenomenological analysis around the central question, "In what ways do educators understand and articulate attitudes and beliefs toward the nature of science learning?" The study further explores the questions, "How do educators experience changes in their understanding of the nature of science learning?" and "How do educators believe these changes influence their pedagogical practice?" Study findings converge on four conceptions that science learning: is the action of inquiry; is a visible process initiated by both teacher and learner; values student voice and changing conceptions is science learning. These findings have implications for the primacy of educator beliefs, attitudes and values in reform efforts, science teacher leadership and the explicit instruction of both Nature of Science and conceptual change in educator preparation programs. This study supports the understanding that the nature of science learning is cognitive and affective conceptual change. Keywords: conceptual change, educator attitudes and beliefs, framework for K-12 science education, interpretive phenomenological analysis, nature of science learning, next generation science standards, science professional development

  6. Sport medicine and sport science practitioners' experiences of organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, C R D; Gilmore, S; Thelwell, R C

    2015-10-01

    Despite the emergence of and widespread uptake of a growing range of medical and scientific professions in elite sport, such environs present a volatile professional domain characterized by change and unprecedentedly high turnover of personnel. This study explored sport medicine and science practitioners' experiences of organizational change using a longitudinal design over a 2-year period. Specifically, data were collected in three temporally defined phases via 49 semi-structured interviews with 20 sport medics and scientists employed by three organizations competing in the top tiers of English football and cricket. The findings indicated that change occurred over four distinct stages; anticipation and uncertainty, upheaval and realization, integration and experimentation, normalization and learning. Moreover, these data highlight salient emotional, behavioral, and attitudinal experiences of medics and scientists, the existence of poor employment practices, and direct and indirect implications for on-field performance following organizational change. The findings are discussed in line with advances to extant change theory and applied implications for prospective sport medics and scientists, sport organizations, and professional bodies responsible for the training and development of neophyte practitioners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Towards a compendium of the psychopathologies of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Adults are commonly preoccupied with their love lives and in psychotherapy they often express frustrations with themselves and their partners. Ironically, patients' preoccupations with the processes of love have not created many professional deliberations on the nature of love and mechanisms of its subversion. This essay describes the converging influences that may explain the professional avoidance of love. It then describes the reasons to try to create a compendium of clinically apparent impediments to loving. The pathologies of love are divided into three categories: (1) characteristics that impede the formation of a sexual adult attachment; (2) patterns that diminish the index person's lovability to the partner; (3) processes that deteriorate the index person's ability to continue to love the partner. The compendium seems to present several important utilities. It clarifies the pathogenesis of some mental suffering. It defines a distinct, more relevant focus to psychotherapy. It makes clear that a better understanding of love's subtle processes of evolution is needed. It invites further refinement of both healthy and problematic love processes.

  8. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner II, B.L.; Lambin, E.F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

      Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research.  This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land-cover and land-use as a coupled human-environment system in order to address theory, concepts, models......, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two.  The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system-causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues.  The six articles...

  10. The KEDAK program compendium. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, B.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of the neutron nuclear data library KEDAK and the computer program system KEMA for updating the KEDAK library e.g. for deletion, insertion and change of data records is presented. Besides this the program REFORM for preparation of an input for KEMA is described here. Both programs are written in Fortran IV and are presupposing the direct access form of the KEDAK library as used in Karlsruhe. (orig.) [de

  11. Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) as a Means for School-Based Science Curriculum Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Christi L.

    The challenge of school-based science curriculum change and educational reform is often presented to science teachers and departments who are not necessarily prepared for the complexity of considerations that change movements require. The development of a Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on a science department's curriculum change efforts, may provide the necessary tools to foster sustainable school-based curriculum science changes. This research presents a case study of an evolving science department PLC consisting of 10 middle school science teachers from the same middle school and their efforts of school-based science curriculum change. A transformative mixed model case study with qualitative data and deepened by quantitative analysis, was chosen to guide the investigation. Collected data worked to document the essential developmental steps, the occurrence and frequency of the five essential dimensions of successful PLCs, and the influences the science department PLC had on the middle school science department's progression through school-based science curriculum change, and the barriers, struggles and inhibiting actions of the science department PLC. Findings indicated that a science department PLC was unique in that it allowed for a focal science departmental lens of science curriculum change to be applied to the structure and function of the PLC and therefore the process, proceedings, and results were directly aligned to and driven by the science department. The science PLC, while logically difficult to set-up and maintain, became a professional science forum where the middle school science teachers were exposed to new science teaching and learning knowledge, explored new science standards, discussed effects on student science learning, designed and critically analyzed science curriculum change application. Conclusions resulted in the science department PLC as an identified tool providing the ability for science departmental actions to lead to

  12. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for physical testing. Covered are: properties of solutions, slurries, and sludges; rheological measurement with cone/plate viscometer; % solids determination; particle size distribution by laser scanning; penetration resistance of radioactive waste; operation of differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer, and high temperature DTA and DSC; sodium rod for sodium bonded fuel; filling SP-100 fuel capsules; sodium filling of BEATRIX-II type capsules; removal of alkali metals with ammonia; specific gravity of highly radioactive solutions; bulk density of radioactive granular solids; purification of Li by hot gettering/filtration; and Li filling of MOTA capsules

  13. My Science Is Better than Your Science: Conceptual Change as a Goal in Teaching Science Majors Interested in Teaching Careers about Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Brian C.; Paulson, Scott A.; Almarode, John T.; Daniel, David B.

    2018-01-01

    We argue, based on a multi-year collaboration to develop a pedagogy course for physics majors by experts in physics, education, and the science of learning, that the process of teaching science majors about education and the science of learning, and evidence-based teaching methods in particular, requires conceptual change analogous to that…

  14. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for sample preparation methods. Covered are: acid digestion for metals analysis, fusion of Hanford tank waste solids, water leach of sludges/soils/other solids, extraction procedure toxicity (simulate leach in landfill), sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy, acid digestion for radiochemical analysis, leach preparation of solids for free cyanide analysis, aqueous leach of solids for anion analysis, microwave digestion of glasses and slurries for ICP/MS, toxicity characteristic leaching extraction for inorganics, leach/dissolution of activated metal for radiochemical analysis, extraction of single-shell tank (SST) samples for semi-VOC analysis, preparation and cleanup of hydrocarbon- containing samples for VOC and semi-VOC analysis, receiving of waste tank samples in onsite transfer cask, receipt and inspection of SST samples, receipt and extrusion of core samples at 325A shielded facility, cleaning and shipping of waste tank samplers, homogenization of solutions/slurries/sludges, and test sample preparation for bioassay quality control program

  16. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2006 National Footprint Accounts (NFA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2006 National Footprint Accounts (NFA) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections, version 1.1 is a data set that measures...

  17. Changing the Future of Obesity: Science, Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd; Levy, David; Carter, Rob; Mabry, Patricia L.; Finegood, Diane; Huang, Terry; Marsh, Tim; Moodie, Marj

    2011-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has been on the rise for four decades, yet sustained prevention efforts have barely begun. An emerging science using quantitative models has provided key insights into the dynamics of this epidemic, and made it possible to combine different pieces of evidence and calculate the impact of behaviors, interventions and policies at multiple levels – from person to population. Forecasts indicate large effects of high levels of obesity on future population health and economic outcomes. Energy gap models have quantified the relationships of changes in energy intake and expenditure to weight change, and documented the dominant role of increasing intake on obesity prevalence. The empirical evidence base for effective interventions is limited but growing. Several cost-effective policies are identified that governments should prioritize for implementation. Systems science provides a framework for organizing the complexity of forces driving the obesity epidemic and has important implications for policy-makers. Multiple players (including governments, international organizations, the private sector, and civil society) need to contribute complementary actions in a coordinated approach. Priority actions include policies to improve the food and built environments, cross-cutting actions (such as leadership, health-in-all policies, and monitoring), and much greater funding for prevention programs. Increased investment in population obesity monitoring would improve the accuracy of forecasts and evaluations. Embedding actions within existing systems in both health and non-health sectors (trade, agriculture, transport, urban planning, development) can greatly increase impact and sustainability. We call for a sustained worldwide effort to monitor, prevent and control obesity. PMID:21872752

  18. Fostering Change from Within: Influencing Teaching Practices of Departmental Colleagues by Science Faculty with Education Specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Seth D; Rudd, James A; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy S

    2016-01-01

    Globally, calls for the improvement of science education are frequent and fervent. In parallel, the phenomenon of having Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES) within science departments appears to have grown in recent decades. In the context of an interview study of a randomized, stratified sample of SFES from across the United States, we discovered that most SFES interviewed (82%) perceived having professional impacts in the realm of improving undergraduate science education, more so than in research in science education or K-12 science education. While SFES reported a rich variety of efforts towards improving undergraduate science education, the most prevalent reported impact by far was influencing the teaching practices of their departmental colleagues. Since college and university science faculty continue to be hired with little to no training in effective science teaching, the seeding of science departments with science education specialists holds promise for fostering change in science education from within biology, chemistry, geoscience, and physics departments.

  19. 77 FR 60717 - Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... engagement of key partners at the regional Climate Science Center level. Advise on the nature and... Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... seeking nominations for the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (Committee...

  20. Changes in Pre-service Science Teachers' Understandings After Being Involved in Explicit Nature of Science and Socioscientific Argumentation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluca, A. Y.; Aydın, A.

    2017-08-01

    The study explored the changes in pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science and their opinions about the nature of science, science teaching and argumentation after their participation in explicit nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific argumentation processes. The participants were 56 third-grade pre-service science teachers studying in a state university in Turkey. The treatment group comprised 27 participants, and there were 29 participants in the comparison group. The comparison group participants were involved in a student-centred science-teaching process, and the participants of the treatment group were involved in explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes. In the study, which lasted a total of 11 weeks, a NOS-as-argumentation questionnaire was administered to all the participants to determine their understanding of NOS at the beginning and end of the data collection process, and six random participants of the treatment group participated in semi-structured interview questions in order to further understand their views regarding NOS, science teaching and argumentation. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis revealed that the explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes had a significant effect on pre-service science teachers' NOS understandings. Furthermore, NOS, argumentation and science teaching views of the participants in the treatment group showed a positive change. The results of this study are discussed in light of the related literature, and suggestions are made within the context of contribution to science-teaching literature, improvement of education quality and education of pre-service teachers.

  1. Climate change projections: past and future mysteries of climate science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The history of climate change has been wrapped in mysteries. Some have been solved, and we await the outcome of others. The major mystery of 20th century climate was why did temperatures rise in the early part of the century, level off, and then rise rapidly again after the 1970s? It has only been in the past seven years that advances in climate modelling have allowed us to deconstruct 20th century climate to pull apart the separate influences of natural and human-caused factors. This has allowed us to understand the subtle interplay between these various influences that produced the temperature time evolution. Another mystery has involved extreme weather and climate events. Again, climate models have allowed us to quantify how the small changes in average climate translate into much larger changes of regional extremes. The biggest remaining mysteries in climate science involve the future, and how the climate will evolve over the coming century. Up until now, various scenarios postulating different possible outcomes for 21st century climate, assuming different types of human activities, have been run in the climate models to provide a wide range of possible futures. However, more recently the outlook for global warming is being framed as a combination of mitigation and adaptation. If policy actions are taken to mitigate part of the problem of global warming, then climate models must be relied on to quantify the time-evolving picture of how much regional climate change we must adapt to. Solving this mystery will be the biggest and most important challenge ever taken on by the climate modelling community

  2. Secondary Science Teachers' and Students' Involvement in a Primary School Community of Science Practice: How It Changed Their Practices and Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Anne; Skamp, Keith

    2016-02-01

    MyScience is a primary science education initiative in which being in a community of practice is integral to the learning process. In this initiative, stakeholder groups—primary teachers, primary students and mentors—interact around the `domain' of `investigating scientifically'. This paper builds on three earlier publications and interprets the findings of the views of four secondary science teachers and five year 9 secondary science students who were first-timer participants—as mentors—in MyScience. Perceptions of these mentors' interactions with primary students were analysed using attributes associated with both `communities of practice' and the `nature of science'. Findings reveal that participation in MyScience changed secondary science teachers' views and practices about how to approach the teaching of science in secondary school and fostered primary-secondary links. Year 9 students positively changed their views about secondary school science and confidence in science through participation as mentors. Implications for secondary science teaching and learning through participation in primary school community of science practice settings are discussed.

  3. A compendium of fossil marine animal families, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive listing of 4075 taxonomic families of marine animals known from the fossil record is presented. This listing covers invertebrates, vertebrates, and animal-like protists, gives time intervals of apparent origination and extinction, and provides literature sources for these data. The time intervals are mostly 81 internationally recognized stratigraphic stages; more than half of the data are resolved to one of 145 substage divisions, providing more highly resolved data for studies of taxic macroevolution. Families are classified by order, class, and phylum, reflecting current classifications in the published literature. This compendium is a new edition of the 1982 publication, correcting errors and presenting greater stratigraphic resolution and more current ideas about acceptable families and their classification.

  4. Depictions of global environmental change in science fiction : an overview of educational applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadonaga, L. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2000-06-01

    This paper examined how the use of science fiction books and movies can be used as a tool to educate the public. Narratives encourage interest in global environmental changes and can help demystify how science works. Although most science fiction depictions of global environmental change are outdated and oversimplified, the genre can encourage discussion of ecological and social impacts. Writers of science fiction consider both natural systems and human societies, anticipating the work of impacts researchers. It was argued that while both science fiction writers and global change researchers require knowledge and creativity to construct realistic extrapolations, a well-written science fiction book is likely to reach a larger audience. Science fiction books emphasize that climate projections are intended as warnings. If properly handled, they can improve public awareness of issues such as global warming and climatic change. It was suggested that collaboration between researchers and science fiction writers could produce some interesting work. 48 refs.

  5. In Brief: Science academies' statement on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-06-01

    “It is essential that world leaders agree on emissions reductions needed to combat negative consequences of anthropogenic climate change,” national science academies from 13 countries declared in a joint statement issued on 11 June. The statement, issued by the academies of the G8 countries—including England, France, Russia, and the United States—and five other countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), came in advance of a G8 meeting in Italy in July and prior to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations in Denmark in December. “The G8+5 should lead the transition to an energy-efficient and low-carbon world economy, and foster innovation and research and development for both mitigation and adaptation technologies,” the statement noted. The academies urged governments to agree at the UNFCCC negotiations to adopt a long-term global goal and short-term emissions reduction targets so that by 2050 global emissions would be reduced by about 50% from 1990 levels.

  6. Wetlands in a changing climate: Science, policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, William R.; Chmura, G.L.; Davies, Gillian T.; Finlayson, Max; Middleton, Beth A.; Natali, Sue M.; Perry, James; Roulet, Nigel; Sutton-Grier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon as do global forest ecosystems. Estimates of the consequences of rising temperature on current wetland carbon storage and future carbon sequestration potential are summarized. We also demonstrate the need to prevent drying of wetlands and thawing of permafrost by disturbances and rising temperatures to protect wetland carbon stores and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services. Preventing further wetland loss is found to be important in limiting future emissions to meet climate goals, but is seldom considered. In Part 2, the paper explores the policy and management realm from international to national, subnational and local levels to identify strategies and policies reflecting an integrated understanding of both wetland and climate change science. Specific recommendations are made to capture synergies between wetlands and carbon cycle management, adaptation and resiliency to further enable researchers, policy makers and practitioners to protect wetland carbon and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services.

  7. A compendium of cyclic sugar amino acids and their carbocyclic and heterocyclic nitrogen analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Martijn; Overhand, Mark; Fleet, George W J; Simone, Michela I

    2013-10-01

    This compendium focuses on functionalised sugar amino acids (SAAs) and their 3- to 6-membered nitrogen heterocyclic and carbocyclic analogues. The main benefit of using SAAs and their related nitrogen and carbon congeners in the production of peptidomimetics and glycomimetics is that their properties can be readily altered via modification of their ring size, chemical manipulation of their numerous functional groups and fine-tuning of the stereochemical arrangement of their ring substituents. These building blocks provide access to hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide isosteres whose physical properties allow entry to a region of chemotherapeutic space which is still under-explored by medicinal chemists. These building blocks are also important in providing amino acids whose inherent conformational bias leads to predisposition to secondary structure upon oligomerisation in relatively short sequences. These foldamers, particularly those containing ω-amino acids, provide an additional opportunity to expand access to the control of structures by artificial peptides. The synthesis and biological evaluation of these building blocks in glycomimetics and peptidomimetics systems keep expanding the reach of the glycosciences to the medical sciences, provide a greater outlook onto the wide range of cellular functions of saccharides and their derivatives involved and greater insight into the nature of oligosaccharide and protein folding.

  8. Role of social science in global environmental change: case of urbanisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available the role of social scientists in global environmental change by examining urbanisation and other environmental changes as suggested in the science plan of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP 2005)...

  9. Opinions and knowledge about climate change science in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker-Schuch, Inez; Bugge-Henriksen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage of correct answers was still below 60 % indicating an urgent need for improving climate change science education.

  10. Changing Preservice Science Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: Why Some Conceptions May Be More Easily Altered than Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee' S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and…

  11. Change over a service learning experience in science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about elementary school students' ability to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Camille A.

    This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated

  12. Motivating Students with Authentic Science Experiences: Changes in Motivation for School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Jenny M.; Lindberg, Stina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Students' motivation for science declines over the early teenage years, and students often find school science difficult and irrelevant to their everyday lives. This paper asks whether creating opportunities to connect school science to authentic science can have positive effects on student motivation. Purpose: To understand how…

  13. 76 FR 8381 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Impromptu Notice of Time & Location Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Time & Location Change The National Science Board's Committee on Program and Plans, pursuant to NSF... MATTER: No change. STATUS: No change. ORIGINAL LOCATION: Room 1295 or 1235, National Science Foundation, 4201Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. NEW LOCATION: Room 1295. Public overflow room for the open session...

  14. Global Climate Change: What Has Science Education Got to Do with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Despite a near universal consensus among scientists regarding the perils of climate change for human civilizations, climate change has not emerged as a key issue among science educators. This position paper advocates for the centrality of climate change in science education. Using Polanyi's critique of market in capitalist societies, it positions…

  15. Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M

    2018-02-01

    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do compulsory secondary science courses change students’ attitude towards studying science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lærke Elisabeth; Petersen, Morten Rask

    2015-01-01

    recruitment to STEM education has been a compulsory course in the Gymnasium called Natural Science Subject (NSS). This is an interdisciplinary, introductory course with the intention that students shall “ … realize the importance of knowing and understanding natural science thinking” (Authors translation...... science and science careers. In this approach we ended up with the following research question: “Does a compulsory introductory sciences course have an impact on students’ attitude towards studying sciences in secondary school?” In this approach we chose to use parameters as motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2002...... Subject course. The distribution included all levels (K10-K12) and all study lines. Student answers were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test using SPSS statistics 22 as analytical tool. Comparisons for this study were made across study lines (natural science vs. human science & social science...

  17. Changing the way science is taught through gamified laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Makransky, G.; Wandall, J.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of high school and college students indicate that they have little interest in science, and many graduate with marginal science competencies. However, laboratory exercises, usually the most engaging part of science courses, tend to be expensive, time consuming and occasionally...... the crime-scene case in an introductory, college-level, life science course was conducted revealed that a gamified laboratory simulation can significantly increase both learning outcomes and motivation levels when compared with, and particularly when combined with, traditional teaching....

  18. An educational ethnography of teacher-developed science curriculum implementation: Enacting conceptual change-based science inquiry with Hispanic students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, Eric Steven

    An achievement gap exists between White and Hispanic students in the United States. Research has shown that improving the quality of instruction for minority students is an effective way to narrow this gap. Science education reform movements emphasize that science should be taught using a science inquiry approach. Extensive research in teaching and learning science also shows that a conceptual change model of teaching is effective in helping students learn science. Finally, research into how Hispanic students learn best has provided a number of suggestions for science instruction. The Inquiry for Conceptual Change model merges these three research strands into a comprehensive yet accessible model for instruction. This study investigates two questions. First, what are teachers' perceptions of science inquiry and its implementation in the classroom? Second, how does the use of the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model affect the learning of students in a predominantly Hispanic, urban neighborhood. Five teachers participated in a professional development project where they developed and implemented a science unit based on the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model. Three units were developed and implemented for this study. This is a qualitative study that included data from interviews, participant reflections and journals, student pre- and post-assessments, and researcher observations. This study provides an in-depth description of the role of professional development in helping teachers understand how science inquiry can be used to improve instructional quality for students in a predominantly Hispanic, urban neighborhood. These teachers demonstrated that it is important for professional development to be collaborative and provide opportunities for teachers to enact and reflect on new teaching paradigms. This study also shows promising results for the ability of the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model to improve student learning.

  19. Changes in Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understandings After Being Involved in Explicit Nature of Science and Socioscientific Argumentation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluca, A. Y.; Aydin, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study explored the changes in pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science and their opinions about the nature of science, science teaching and argumentation after their participation in explicit nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific argumentation processes. The participants were 56 third-grade pre-service science…

  20. Changes in Attitudes towards Science-Technology-Society of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Yager, Robert; Dogan, Alev

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on use of a triadic teaching approach in a science-technology-society (STS) course designed for future science teachers for middle schools in Turkey. Forty-three pre-service science teachers were enrolled in a semester-long course organized around issues students identified and used throughout the semester. The triadic…

  1. The Changing Roles of Science Specialists during a Capacity Building Program for Primary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sandra; Xu, Lihua; Kelly, Leissa

    2017-01-01

    Science education starts at primary school. Yet, recent research shows primary school teachers lack confidence and competence in teaching science (Prinsley & Johnston, 2015). A Victorian state government science specialist initiative responded to this concern by providing professional learning programs to schools across Victoria. Drawing on…

  2. Opinions and Knowledge About Climate Change Science in High School Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harker-Schuch, Inez; Henriksen, Christian Bugge

    2013-01-01

    in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans......This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students...... are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage...

  3. Compendium of Immune Signatures Identifies Conserved and Species-Specific Biology in Response to Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Jernej; Tan, Yan; Liberzon, Arthur; Tamayo, Pablo; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Butte, Atul J; Mesirov, Jill P; Haining, W Nicholas

    2016-01-19

    Gene-expression profiling has become a mainstay in immunology, but subtle changes in gene networks related to biological processes are hard to discern when comparing various datasets. For instance, conservation of the transcriptional response to sepsis in mouse models and human disease remains controversial. To improve transcriptional analysis in immunology, we created ImmuneSigDB: a manually annotated compendium of ∼5,000 gene-sets from diverse cell states, experimental manipulations, and genetic perturbations in immunology. Analysis using ImmuneSigDB identified signatures induced in activated myeloid cells and differentiating lymphocytes that were highly conserved between humans and mice. Sepsis triggered conserved patterns of gene expression in humans and mouse models. However, we also identified species-specific biological processes in the sepsis transcriptional response: although both species upregulated phagocytosis-related genes, a mitosis signature was specific to humans. ImmuneSigDB enables granular analysis of transcriptomic data to improve biological understanding of immune processes of the human and mouse immune systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combating climate change: How nuclear science and technology are making a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is the biggest environmental challenge of our time. As governments around the world prepare to negotiate a legally binding, universal agreement on climate at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris at the end of the year, it is important that the contributions that nuclear science and technology can make to combating climate change are recognized. Nuclear science, including nuclear power, can play a significant role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  5. Framing risk and uncertainty in social science articles on climate change, 1995–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Chris; Hellsten, Iina; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The issue of climate change is intimately linked to notions of risk and uncertainty, concepts that pose challenges to climate science, climate change communication, and science-society interactions. While a large majority of climate scientists are increasingly certain about the causes of climate change and the risks posed by its impacts (see IPCC, 2013 and 2014), public perception of climate change is still largely framed by uncertainty, especially regarding impacts (Poortinga et al., 2011). ...

  6. Framing risk and uncertainty in social science articles on climate change, 1995-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, C.; Hellsten, I.; Nerlich, B.; Crichton, J.; Candlin, C.N.; Firkins, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The issue of climate change is intimately linked to notions of risk and uncertainty, concepts that pose challenges to climate science, climate change communication, and science-society interactions. While a large majority of climate scientists are increasingly certain about the causes of climate

  7. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  8. Change Vocational Funding to Acquire Qualified Math/Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Bill

    1985-01-01

    Gives a brief overview of the problems occurring at the high school level due to inadequately paid personnel in the math and science areas, summarizes the current bureaucratic structure surrounding vocational funding, and suggests an alternative. (FL)

  9. Mathematical sciences for climate change resilience (MS4CR ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences' Next Einstein Initiative (AIMS-NEI) in building a critical ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019 ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women.

  10. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  11. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–606,104 Stat. 3096–3104)—“Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”—with a focus on climate and land-use change.There are three major characteristics of this science strategy. First, it addresses the science required to broadly inform global change policy, while emphasizing the needs of natural-resource managers and reflecting the role of the USGS as the science provider for the Department of the Interior and other resource-management agencies. Second, the strategy identifies core competencies, noting 10 critical capabilities and strengths the USGS uses to overcome key problem areas. We highlight those areas in which the USGS is a science leader, recognizing the strong partnerships and effective collaboration that are essential to address complex global environmental challenges. Third, it uses a query-based approach listing key research questions that need to be addressed to create an agenda for hypothesis-driven global change science organized under six strategic goals. Overall, the strategy starts from where we are, provides a vision for where we want to go, and then describes high-priority strategic actions, including outcomes, products, and partnerships that can get us there. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystems, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy

  12. Compendium of computer codes for the safety analysis of LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    A high level of mathematical sophistication is required in the safety analysis of LMFBR's to adequately meet the demands for realism and confidence in all areas of accident consequence evaluation. The numerical solution procedures associated with these analyses are generally so complex and time consuming as to necessitate their programming into computer codes. These computer codes have become extremely powerful tools for safety analysis, combining unique advantages in accuracy, speed and cost. The number, diversity and complexity of LMFBR safety codes in the U. S. has grown rapidly in recent years. It is estimated that over 100 such codes exist in various stages of development throughout the country. It is inevitable that such a large assortment of codes will require rigorous cataloguing and abstracting to aid individuals in identifying what is available. It is the purpose of this compendium to provide such a service through the compilation of code summaries which describe and clarify the status of domestic LMFBR safety codes. (U.S.)

  13. Radiation protection. Scientific fundamentals, legal regulations, practical applications. Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Guido; Gay, Juergen; Kirchner, Gerald; Michel, Rolf; Niggemann, Guenter; Schumann, Joerg; Wust, Peter; Jaehnert, Susanne; Strilek, Ralf; Martini, Ekkehard

    2011-06-01

    The compendium on radiation protection, scientific fundamentals, legal regulations and practical applications includes contributions to the following issues: (1) Effects and risk of ionizing radiation: fundamentals on effects and risk of ionizing radiation, news in radiation biology, advantages and disadvantages of screening investigations; (2) trends and legal regulations concerning radiation protection: development of European and national radiation protection laws, new regulations concerning X-rays, culture and ethics of radiation protection; (3) dosimetry and radiation measuring techniques: personal scanning using GHz radiation, new ''dose characteristics'' in practice, measuring techniques for the nuclear danger prevention and emergency hazard control; (4) radiation exposure in medicine: radiation exposure of modern medical techniques, heavy ion radiotherapy, deterministic and stochastic risks of the high-conformal photon radiotherapy, STEMO project - mobile CT for apoplectic stroke patients; (5) radiation exposure in technology: legal control of high-level radioactive sources, technical and public safety using enclosed radioactive sources for materials testing, radiation exposure in aviation, radon in Bavaria, NPP Fukushima-Daiichi - a status report; (6) radiation exposure in nuclear engineering: The Chernobyl accident - historical experiences or sustaining problem? European standards for radioactive waste disposal, radioactive material disposal in Germany risk assessment of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (7) Case studies.

  14. Vesiclepedia: a compendium for extracellular vesicles with continuous community annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kalra

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an exponential increase in molecular data pertaining to EVs. Here, we describe Vesiclepedia, a manually curated compendium of molecular data (lipid, RNA, and protein identified in different classes of EVs from more than 300 independent studies published over the past several years. Even though databases are indispensable resources for the scientific community, recent studies have shown that more than 50% of the databases are not regularly updated. In addition, more than 20% of the database links are inactive. To prevent such database and link decay, we have initiated a continuous community annotation project with the active involvement of EV researchers. The EV research community can set a gold standard in data sharing with Vesiclepedia, which could evolve as a primary resource for the field.

  15. Changing the face of science: Lessons from the 2017 Science-A-Thon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R. T.; Licker, R.; Burt, M. A.; Holloway, T.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown that over two-thirds of Americans cannot name a living scientist. This disconnect is a concern for science and scientists, considering the large role of public funding for science, and the importance of science in many policy issues. As a large-scale public outreach initiative and fundraiser, the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) launched "Science-A-Thon" on July 13, 2017. This "day of science" invited participants to share 12 photos over 12 hours of a day, including both personal routines and professional endeavors. Over 200 scientists participated, with the #DayofScience hashtag trending on Twitter for the day. Earth scientists represented the largest portion of participants, but the event engaged cancer biologists, computer scientists, and more, including scientists from more than 10 countries. Science-A-Thon builds on the success and visibility of other social media campaigns, such as #actuallivingscientist and #DresslikeaWoman. Importantly these efforts share a common goal, by providing diverse images of scientists we can shift the public perception of who a scientist is and what science looks like in the real world. This type of public engagement offers a wide range of potential role models for students, and individual stories to increase public engagement with science. Social media campaigns such as this shift the public perception of who scientists are, why they do what they do, and what they do each day. The actions and conversations emerging from Science-A-Thon included scientists talking about (1) their science and motivation, (2) the purpose and need for ESWN, and (3) why they chose to participate in this event increased the reach of a social media campaign and fundraiser.

  16. NASA Family Science Night: Changing perceptions one family at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara E.; Drobnes, Emilie; Sol Colina-Trujillo, M.; Noel-Storr, Jacob

    2008-12-01

    Parents and families have the greatest influence on children's attitudes towards education and career choices. If students' attitudes towards science, particularly the physical sciences, are not influenced positively by parental/familial attitudes, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching of these subjects in school may be futile. Research shows that parental involvement increases student achievement outcomes, and family-oriented programs have a direct impact on student performance. Based on this premise, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center started a series of Family Science Nights for middle school students and their families. The program provides a non-threatening venue for families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by engaging in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

  17. Climate Change Education Today in K-12: What's Happening in the Earth and Space Science Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.; National Earth Science Teachers Association

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is a highly interdisciplinary topic, involving not only multiple fields of science, but also social science and the humanities. There are many aspects of climate change science that make it particularly well-suited for exploration in the K-12 setting, including opportunities to explore the unifying processes of science such as complex systems, models, observations, change and evolution. Furthermore, this field of science offers the opportunity to observe the nature of science in action - including how scientists develop and improve their understanding through research and debate. Finally, climate change is inherently highly relevant to students - indeed, students today will need to deal with the consequences of the climate change. The science of climate change is clearly present in current science education standards, both at the National level as well as in the majority of states. Nonetheless, a significant number of teachers across the country report difficulties addressing climate change in the classroom. The National Earth Science Teachers Association has conducted several surveys of Earth and space science educators across the country over the past several years on a number of issues, including their needs and concerns, including their experience of external influences on what they teach. While the number of teachers that report external pressures to not teach climate change science are in the minority (and less than the pressure to not teach evolution and related topics), our results suggest that this pressure against climate change science in the K-12 classroom has grown over the past several years. Some teachers report being threatened by parents, being encouraged by administrators to not teach the subject, and a belief that the "two sides" of climate change should be taught. Survey results indicate that teachers in religious or politically-conservative districts are more likely to report difficulties in teaching about climate change than in

  18. Russian science trapped in web of rapid change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    During the Cold War, Soviet physicists were revered for their contribution to the country's prestige, economic growth, and national security, says Paul Josephson, a professor in the Department of Science, Technology, and Society at Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, New York. But the lavish support the Russian physics establishment once received is gone. In fact, the dissolution of the Soviet regime and deepening economic and political crisis have left scientists struggling to maintain their programs and keep institutes open. Internal crisis and the internationalization of science and technology have led to a drain of top Russian scientists in many fields, particularly in mathematics and theoretical physics. The West has responded to these concerns by giving financial aid and sponsoring initiatives designed to keep former Soviet scientists employed either at home or in the United States or Europe. However, the ultimate health of Russian science will depend on internal government reforms and public support, concludes Josephson

  19. Climate Change Science: The Literacy of Geography Teachers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Raymond; Le Grange, Lesley; Beets, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the universal responses to tackling global climate change is teaching climate change concepts at all levels of formal education. This response requires, among other things, teachers who are fully literate about climate change science, so that they can explain the concepts underlying the causes, impacts and solutions of climate change as…

  20. Women in science 50 fearless pioneers who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Ignotofsky, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A charmingly illustrated and educational book, New York Times best seller Women in Science highlights the contributions of fifty notable women to the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from the ancient to the modern world. Full of striking, singular art, this fascinating collection also contains infographics about relevant topics such as lab equipment, rates of women currently working in STEM fields, and an illustrated scientific glossary. The trailblazing women profiled include well-known figures like primatologist Jane Goodall, as well as lesser-known pioneers such as Katherine Johnson, the African-American physicist and mathematician who calculated the trajectory of the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon.

  1. Advanced light source: Compendium of user abstracts and technical reports,1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-04-01

    This compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress from 1993-1996, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998. Two tables of contents organize the user abstracts by beamline and by area of research, and an author index makes abstracts accessible by author and by principal investigator. Technical details for each beamline including whom to contact for additional information can be found in the beamline information section. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this compendium.

  2. Compendium of computer codes for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The objective of the compendium is to provide the reader with a guide which briefly describes many of the computer codes used for liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety analyses, since it is for this system that most of the codes have been developed. The compendium is designed to address the following frequently asked questions from individuals in licensing and research and development activities: (1) What does the code do. (2) To what safety problems has it been applied. (3) What are the code's limitations. (4) What is being done to remove these limitations. (5) How does the code compare with experimental observations and other code predictions. (6) What reference documents are available

  3. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  4. Framing the challenge of climate change in Nature and Science editorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Mike; Obermeister, Noam; Randalls, Samuel; Borie, Maud

    2018-06-01

    Through their editorializing practices, leading international science journals such as Nature and Science interpret the changing roles of science in society and exert considerable influence on scientific priorities and practices. Here we examine nearly 500 editorials published in these two journals between 1966 and 2016 that deal with climate change, thereby constructing a lens through which to view the changing engagement of science and scientists with the issue. A systematic longitudinal frame analysis reveals broad similarities between Nature and Science in the waxing and waning of editorializing attention given to the topic, but, although both journals have diversified how they frame the challenges of climate change, they have done so in different ways. We attribute these differences to three influences: the different political and epistemic cultures into which they publish; their different institutional histories; and their different editors and editorial authorship practices.

  5. Changing the science education paradigm: from teaching facts to engaging the intellect: Science Education Colloquia Series, Spring 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Caleb Nathaniel

    2011-09-01

    Dr. Jo Handelsman, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor in the Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology at Yale University, is a long-time devotee of scientific teaching, receiving this year's Presidential Award for Science Mentoring. She gave a seminar entitled "What is Scientific Teaching? The Changing Landscape of Science Education" as a part of the Scientific Education Colloquia Series in spring 2011. After dissecting what is wrong with the status quo of American scientific education, several ideological and practical changes are proposed, including active learning, regular assessment, diversity, and mentorship. Copyright © 2011.

  6. Understanding Educational Change through the Lens of Complexity Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girtz, Suzann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate four attractor states in schools through the perceptions of formal leaders that engaged in and reflected upon school reform regarding the Millennial generation. The term attractor was used as a metaphor for a habitual pattern, gleaned from complexity science which informs of new ways in which to…

  7. Changing human relationships with nature: making and remaking wilderness science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill M. Belsky

    2000-01-01

    The paper identifies and discusses two major themes in wilderness social science. First, that wilderness studies (and its advocates) have been limited by an ontological tension between those who mainly approach the relationship between humans and nature on the basis of material factors and constraints and those who approach it through an examination of shifting...

  8. Science Teachers' Pedagogical Discontentment: Its Sources and Potential for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Sowell, Scott; Enderle, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This research explored science teachers' pedagogical discontentment and described its role in teachers' consideration of new teaching practices. Pedagogical discontentment is an expression of the degree to which one is discontented because one's teaching practices do not achieve one's teaching goals. Through a series of structured interviews…

  9. Does Science-Fiction predict [or change] the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian Graswohl; Jan Westren-Doll; Douglas Fenech

    2010-01-01

    This research paper looks at a selection of science-fiction films and its connection with the progression of the use of television, telephone and print media. It also analyzes statistical data obtained from a questionnaire conducted by the research group regarding the use of communication media.

  10. Using Theory of Mind to Promote Conceptual Change in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulou, Natassa; Vosniadou, Stella

    2014-01-01

    We argue that learning science requires children to move from perceptually based representations to more abstract conceptual representations and to understand that appearance may sometimes deceive us and that the same phenomenon in the world can have more than one representation when seen from different perspectives. We also argue that the…

  11. Making Science Worthwhile: Still Seeking Critical, Not Cosmetic, Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Tonso's commentary on Sinnes and Løken's paper links what they found to empirical research done in science and engineering career settings. Sinnes and Løken's findings are a welcome addition to a literature dedicated to pointing out, yet again, some of the reasons we have made so little progress reversing gender inequities in the…

  12. Changing Epistemological Beliefs with Nature of Science Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Willoughby, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS) implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS…

  13. Changing Science Teaching Practice in Early Career Secondary Teaching Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Rex; Moeed, Azra; Anderson, Dayle

    2011-01-01

    Initial teacher education (ITE) is being challenged internationally to prepare teachers with the understandings needed to teach an increasingly diverse student population. Science teachers need to prepare students with both conceptual and procedural understanding. The challenge is to prioritise a balance in ITE courses between theoretical…

  14. Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Promoting Understanding about the Science of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Devarati

    Efforts to adapt and mitigate the effects of global climate change (GCC) have been ongoing for the past two decades and have become a major global concern. However, research and practice for promoting climate literacy and understanding about GCC have only recently become a national priority. The National Research Council (NRC), has recently emphasized upon the importance of developing learners' capacity of reasoning, their argumentation skills and understanding of GCC (Framework for K-12 Science Education, National Research Council, 2012). This framework focuses on fostering conceptual clarity about GCC to promote innovation, resilience, and readiness in students as a response towards the threat of a changing environment. Previous research about teacher understanding of GCC describes that in spite of the prevalent frameworks like the AAAS Science Literacy Atlas (AAAS, 2007) and the Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (United States Global Climate Research Program, 2009; Bardsley, 2007), most learners are challenged in understanding the science of GCC (Michail et al., 2007) and misinformed perceptions about basic climate science content and the role of human activities in changing climate remain persistent (Reibich and Gautier, 2006). Our teacher participants had a rather simplistic knowledge structure. While aware of climate change, teacher participants lacked in depth understanding of how change in climate can impact various ecosystems on the Earth. Furthermore, they felt overwhelmed with the extensive amount of information needed to comprehend the complexity in GCC. Hence, extensive efforts not only focused on assessing conceptual understanding of GCC but also for teaching complex science topics like GCC are essential. This dissertation explains concept mapping, and the photo elicitation method for assessing teachers' understanding of GCC and the use of metacognitive scaffolding in instruction of GCC for developing competence of learners in this complex

  15. Education in Parana in the teachers’ formation process in republican Brazil: the contribution of the compendium of pedagogy by Dario Vellozo - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i2.18295

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete dos Anjos Silva Schaffrath

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work has a result the study on the Compendium of Pedagogy (1907 by Dario Vellozo (1869-1937, teacher of Ginasio Paranaense and Escola Normal de Curitiba. The Compendium of Pedagogy by Vellozo was published in 1907 and republished in 1975. It was organized in three parts, one for every year of Teachers’ School. The article refers to the first book of the collection. In the first part of that book, there are ten lessons which covers the Pedagogy subject and their methods, organization of school and definitions of educations, as well as several lessons about Ancient, Medieval and Modern History and the prevailing educational thought in each one of them. The book for the second year, which was also organized in ten lesson, emphasizes the teaching methods, didactics, and physical education (health, moral, intellectual aspects. For the third year of course, Vellozo writes lessons about science, geography, history, drawing, music and a special lesson about kindergartens. The Compendium follows the scientific logics that should guide the school practices in that historical period, but also reflects the current culture in Teachers’ School, as well as  it shows the social-economic, political and cultural influences in Brazil and in Parana.  

  16. Synthesis in land change science: methodological patterns, challenges, and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, N.; Rudel, T.; Verburg, P.H.; McConnell, W.; Mertz, O.; Gerstner, K.; Heinimann, A.; Ellis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences of

  17. News coverage of climate change in Nature News and ScienceNOW during 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    of appreciating climate change, its severe consequences, and its anthropogenic causes. During that year the two journals’ online news services Nature News and ScienceNOW framed climate change to fit particular agendas resulting in markedly different narratives. This article demonstrates that Nature News reported...... more critically on political decisions, scientific results, and social matters of climate change compared to ScienceNOW. Operating under different institutional constraints ScienceNOW generally took a more cautious line. The evidence drawn from both textual and visual analyses shows that news sections...

  18. [Necessary changes for advancing nursing as caring science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2013-09-01

    The article aimed to reflect upon the challenges involved in strengthening Nursing as a caring science. It is founded on the sociological theory, connecting three approaches: the historical-dialectic materialism perspective about the working process in health care and nursing; the sociology of professions from a critical perspective; and the philosophy of science. The discussion is organized considering the aspects of Nursing as a discipline, work and health care profession. It sustains that knowledge production should be driven both by the purpose of Nursing work which is providing care to human beings with health needs and to advocate for the indispensable work conditions to a safe and responsible practice. It concludes that to strengthening Nursing it is necessary to produce knowledge to support nursing care and the political actions defending safe work conditions, the universal right to health as well safe and high quality care.

  19. How to change students' images of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Zahava; Oren, Miri

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines the images middle school students have of science and technology, the workplaces, and the relevant professions. It also describes the effect on these images caused by an instructional initiative, Investigation into Science and Technology (IST), designed to introduce students to science and technology in the real life. Students' images were delineated via questionnaires, drawing tasks, and interviews before and after their participation in the IST program. The sample consisted of 100 students from six classes (eighth or ninth grade) of three schools. We found that before the IST intervention students' images about the scientific or technological environments were superficial, unreal, and even incorrect. Their impressions of the characteristics of scientists and technologists were superficial, misleading, and sometimes reflected ignorance. The findings demonstrate that the IST program stimulated a positive effect on students' images. Their preconceptions were altered in several dimensions: in the cognitive dimension, from superficial and vague to precise and correct images; in the perceptive dimension, from stereotypic to rational and open-minded images; and in the affective dimension, from negative to positive attitudes.

  20. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  1. Bringing Climate Change into the Life Science Classroom: Essentials, Impacts on Life, and Addressing Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Amy J.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is at the forefront of our cultural conversation about science, influencing everything from presidential debates to Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech. The topic is becoming increasingly socially and scientifically relevant but is no closer to being resolved. Most high school students take a life science course but…

  2. Science Express: Out-of-Home-Media to Communicate Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R.

    2013-12-01

    Science Express is an initiative to explore, develop, and test various approaches to using Out-of-Home-Media (OHM) to engage adults riding mass transit. To date, three projects represent this work: 1) Carbon Smarts Conference, 2) Cool Science, and 3) ScienceToGo.org. While the aim of each project is different, together they serve an immediate need to understand how OHM can be leveraged as an informal science learning medium. Using Climate Change as the content focus, each project is a variation on the theme of understanding mass transit as a form of mobile classroom for riders. The basic idea behind these initiatives is to engage individuals who do not necessarily read the science magazines, listen to science radio shows, or watch science programming on television. Science Express is about bringing the science learning opportunity to the audience during their daily routines. Mass Transit provides an ideal opportunity for engaging the disengaged in science learning since they represent a ';captive' audience while waiting at the bus stop, standing on the platform, riding inside the bus or train. These ';downtimes' present informal science educators with the opportunity to foster some science learning. With the advent of smartphone technology and its explosion in popularity among consumers, OHM is poised to offer riders a new kind of real time learning experience. The Science Express projects aim to understand the strengths and weaknesses of this new model for informal science learning so as to refine and improve its effectiveness at achieving desired goals. While the Science Express model for informal science learning could be used to foster understanding about any relevant scientific content, the research team chose to use Climate Change as the focus. Climate Change seemed like an obvious because of its timeliness, complexity, robust scientific foundation, and presence in popular media. Nearly all our riders have heard of 'Climate Change' or 'Global Warming', but a

  3. The rise of information science: a changing landscape for soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, Pierre; Ritchie, Alistair; Hedley, Carolyn; Medyckyj-Scott, David

    2015-07-01

    The last 15 years have seen the rapid development of a wide range of information technologies. Those developments have been impacting all fields of science, at every step of the scientific method: data collection, data analysis, inference, science communication and outreach. The rate at which data is being generated is increasing exponentially, giving opportunities to improve our understanding of soils. Parallel developments in computing hardware and methods, such as machine learning, open ways to not only harness the '”data deluge”, but also offer a new way to generate knowledge. Finally, emerging data and information delivery protocols are leveraging the outreach power of the World Wide Web to disseminate scientific data and information, and increase their use and understanding outside the boundaries of a given scientific field. However, the nature of this data is mostly new to soil science, and requires adaptation to its diversity and volume. In particular, the integration of the significant amount of legacy soil data collected throughout decades of soil science can be problematic when all necessary metadata is not available. Likewise, knowledge accumulated by our scientific field needs to be acknowledged by - rather than opposed to - numerical methods. While the introduction of this set of emerging technologies is enabling soil science from different points of view, its successful implementation depends on the ability of soil scientists to act as knowledge brokers and support numerical methods.

  4. Development and validation of the ACSI : measuring students' science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science Perspectives into Climate and Global Change Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Li, J.; Zycherman, A.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of social science into climate and global change assessments is fundamental for improving understanding of the drivers, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and the social, cultural and behavioral challenges related to climate change responses. This requires disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge as well as integrational and translational tools for linking this knowledge with the natural and physical sciences. The USGCRP's Social Science Coordinating Committee (SSCC) is tasked with this challenge and is working to integrate relevant social, economic and behavioral knowledge into processes like sustained assessments. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a recent SSCC workshop, "Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change" and their applications to sustained assessments. The workshop brought academic social scientists from four disciplines - anthropology, sociology, geography and archaeology - together with federal scientists and program managers to discuss three major research areas relevant to the USGCRP and climate assessments: (1) innovative tools, methods, and analyses to clarify the interactions of human and natural systems under climate change, (2) understanding of factors contributing to differences in social vulnerability between and within communities under climate change, and (3) social science perspectives on drivers of global climate change. These disciplines, collectively, emphasize the need to consider socio-cultural, political, economic, geographic, and historic factors, and their dynamic interactions, to understand climate change drivers, social vulnerability, and mitigation and adaptation responses. They also highlight the importance of mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to explain impacts, vulnerability, and responses at different time and spatial scales. This presentation will focus on major contributions of the social sciences to climate and global change research. We will discuss future directions for

  6. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2010

    2010-01-01

    From the oceans to continental heartlands, human activities have altered the physical characteristics of Earth's surface. With Earth's population projected to peak at 8 to 12 billion people by 2050 and the additional stress of climate change, it is more important than ever to understand how and where these changes are happening. Innovation in the…

  7. Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Awareness, Beliefs, Values, and Behaviours Pertinent to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higde, Emrah; Oztekin, Ceren; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined Turkish pre-service science teachers' awareness, uncertainty beliefs, values, and behaviours pertinent to climate change. It aimed to determine significant predictors of climate change-related behaviours and uncertainty beliefs about the reality of climate change. A Turkish-adapted survey was administered to 1277 pre-service…

  8. Experts' workshop on critical issues in the science of global climate change. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary is given of the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association's Workshop on 'Critical issues in the science of global climate change' held in 1994. The topics of the panel sessions were (1) modelling global climate change: capabilities and limitations; (2)the physics and chemistry of greenhouse gas concentrations; (3) other factors in predicting climate change; and (4) ecosystem response. (UK)

  9. Multi Media Systems. International Compendium. Eleven Project Descriptions of Combined Teaching Systems in Eight Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudray, Francine, Comp.

    The demands made by modern technological society on the traditional educational system are briefly discussed. The remainder of the compendium describes 11 projects which are using educational technology, principally televised instruction, with success. Projects from Brazil, Canada, West Germany, France, England, Japan, Poland, and the United…

  10. CROPPER: a metagene creator resource for cross-platform and cross-species compendium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Jussi; Storvik, Markus; Wong, Garry

    2006-09-22

    Current genomic research methods provide researchers with enormous amounts of data. Combining data from different high-throughput research technologies commonly available in biological databases can lead to novel findings and increase research efficiency. However, combining data from different heterogeneous sources is often a very arduous task. These sources can be different microarray technology platforms, genomic databases, or experiments performed on various species. Our aim was to develop a software program that could facilitate the combining of data from heterogeneous sources, and thus allow researchers to perform genomic cross-platform/cross-species studies and to use existing experimental data for compendium studies. We have developed a web-based software resource, called CROPPER that uses the latest genomic information concerning different data identifiers and orthologous genes from the Ensembl database. CROPPER can be used to combine genomic data from different heterogeneous sources, allowing researchers to perform cross-platform/cross-species compendium studies without the need for complex computational tools or the requirement of setting up one's own in-house database. We also present an example of a simple cross-platform/cross-species compendium study based on publicly available Parkinson's disease data derived from different sources. CROPPER is a user-friendly and freely available web-based software resource that can be successfully used for cross-species/cross-platform compendium studies.

  11. Compendium of fruit fly host information (CoFFHI), edition 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI), edition 3.0 (available at: https://coffhi.cphst.org/), developed through collaborative efforts of scientists in USDA-APHIS, USDA-ARS, and the Center for Integrated Pest Management (CIPM) of North Carolina State University (NCSU), provides centra...

  12. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  13. Climate Change Adaptation Act : report of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on S. 2355

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-05

    The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to which was referred the bill (S. 2355) to amend the National Climate Program Act to enhance the ability of the United States to : develop and implement climate change adaptation programs and p...

  14. Changes in Participants’ Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs During an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p self-efficacy (negative change, p scale did not change much and this change was not related to any of our recorded project activity variables. The interviews suggest that the social aspect of the project is important to participants and the change in self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.

  15. Investigating and Promoting Trainee Science Teachers' Conceptual Change of the Nature of Science with Digital Dialogue Games `InterLoc'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser; Wegerif, Rupert; Skinner, Nigel; Postlethwaite, Keith; Hetherington, Lindsay

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how an online-structured dialogue environment supported (OSDE) collaborative learning about the nature of science among a group of trainee science teachers in the UK. The software used (InterLoc) is a linear text-based tool, designed to support structured argumentation with openers and `dialogue moves'. A design-based research approach was used to investigate multiple sessions using InterLoc with 65 trainee science teachers. Five participants who showed differential conceptual change in terms of their Nature of Science (NOS) views were purposively selected and closely followed throughout the study by using key event recall interviews. Initially, the majority of participants held naïve views of NOS. Substantial and favourable changes in these views were evident as a result of the OSDE. An examination of the development of the five participants' NOS views indicated that the effectiveness of the InterLoc discussions was mediated by cultural, cognitive, and experiential factors. The findings suggest that InterLoc can be effective in promoting reflection and conceptual change.

  16. Joint science academies' statement:Global response to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Climate change is real There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world's climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring1.

  17. Conveying the Science of Climate Change: Explaining Natural Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanton, J.

    2011-12-01

    One of the main problems in climate change education is reconciling the role of humans and natural variability. The climate is always changing, so how can humans have a role in causing change? How do we reconcile and differentiate the anthropogenic effect from natural variability? This talk will offer several approaches that have been successful for the author. First, the context of climate change during the Pleistocene must be addressed. Second, is the role of the industrial revolution in significantly altering Pleistocene cycles, and introduction of the concept of the Anthropocene. Finally the positive feedbacks between climatic nudging due to increased insolation and greenhouse gas forcing can be likened to a rock rolling down a hill, without a leading cause. This approach has proven successful in presentations to undergraduates to state agencies.

  18. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible i...

  19. A rethink of how policy and social science approach changing individuals' actions on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, William; Middlemiss, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists from all areas are developing theories and testing practical approaches to change individuals' actions to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In the UK context, policy-makers, local authorities, companies and organisations are using these theories to invest resources to change individual's actions. The problem is that social scientists are delivering fragmented science based on narrow disciplinary views and those using this science are cherry picking whatever theory suits their agenda. We argue that with substantial GHG emission reduction targets to be achieved, a multidisciplinary application and view of social science are urgently needed.

  20. Danish and German students’ reflections and recommendations to changes in their science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rask; Ahrenkiel, Linda; Michelsen, Claus

    We here present a case study on students’ reflections and recommendations on their everyday science education. These recommendations come from a minority group seldom heard in science education, namely those students who are already engaged in science and science education. In November 2010...... situation in science education. The seminar was studied as a case study and data was collected by the use of questionnaires, videotaping, student presentations, field notes and interviews with some of the participants. The focus on the findings is on the students’ motives for changing their current...... a seminar was held in Sankelmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. 29 upper secondary students from 4 schools (2 Danish and 2 German) attended the seminar in order to prepare some recommendations to take home to their own school. The students were asked to describe their current situation in science education...

  1. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

  2. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  3. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Braks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  4. Narrative Style Influences Citation Frequency in Climate Change Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Hillier

    Full Text Available Peer-reviewed publications focusing on climate change are growing exponentially with the consequence that the uptake and influence of individual papers varies greatly. Here, we derive metrics of narrativity from psychology and literary theory, and use these metrics to test the hypothesis that more narrative climate change writing is more likely to be influential, using citation frequency as a proxy for influence. From a sample of 732 scientific abstracts drawn from the climate change literature, we find that articles with more narrative abstracts are cited more often. This effect is closely associated with journal identity: higher-impact journals tend to feature more narrative articles, and these articles tend to be cited more often. These results suggest that writing in a more narrative style increases the uptake and influence of articles in climate literature, and perhaps in scientific literature more broadly.

  5. Narrative Style Influences Citation Frequency in Climate Change Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ann; Kelly, Ryan P; Klinger, Terrie

    2016-01-01

    Peer-reviewed publications focusing on climate change are growing exponentially with the consequence that the uptake and influence of individual papers varies greatly. Here, we derive metrics of narrativity from psychology and literary theory, and use these metrics to test the hypothesis that more narrative climate change writing is more likely to be influential, using citation frequency as a proxy for influence. From a sample of 732 scientific abstracts drawn from the climate change literature, we find that articles with more narrative abstracts are cited more often. This effect is closely associated with journal identity: higher-impact journals tend to feature more narrative articles, and these articles tend to be cited more often. These results suggest that writing in a more narrative style increases the uptake and influence of articles in climate literature, and perhaps in scientific literature more broadly.

  6. When climate science became climate politics: British media representations of climate change in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2014-02-01

    Climate change has become a pressing environmental concern for scientists, social commentators and politicians. Previous social science research has explored media representations of climate change in various temporal and geographical contexts. Through the lens of Social Representations Theory, this article provides a detailed qualitative thematic analysis of media representations of climate change in the 1988 British broadsheet press, given that this year constitutes an important juncture in this transition of climate change from the domain of science to that of the socio-political sphere. The following themes are outlined: (i) "Climate change: a multi-faceted threat"; (ii) "Collectivisation of threat"; (iii) "Climate change and the attribution of blame"; and (iv) "Speculative solutions to a complex socio-environmental problem." The article provides detailed empirical insights into the "starting-point" for present-day disputes concerning climate change and lays the theoretical foundations for tracking the continuities and discontinuities characterising social representations of climate change in the future.

  7. Informal Education and Climate Change: An Example From The Miami Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaughter, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Miami Science Museum recently took part in the National Conversation on Climate Action, held on October 4, 2007. This nationwide event encouraged members of the general public to explore local climate policy options. It provided an opportunity for citizens to discuss the issues and science of climate change with experts and policy makers, as well as neighbors and friends. During the day, the Miami Science Museum hosted a variety of events with something for everyone. Local school groups played DECIDE games and competed to find the most "treasure" in trash. Members and visitors were encouraged to leave their mark by posting comments and ideas about climate change. A "Gates of Change" exhibit provided dramatic visual indication of the effects of climate change and sea level rise. And a special "Meet the scientists" forum allowed the general public to discuss the facts and fictions of climate change with experts from Miami University's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. This activity was part of the Association of Science and Technology Centers' (ASTC) International action on Global Warming (IGLO) program. ASTC is the largest association of public science venues, and has 540 member institutions in 40 countries.

  8. Tackling Weather and Climate Change Creatively in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Murray

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers some practical support for teaching about weather, climate and climate change. In England, weather and climate are traditionally taught within the geography curriculum, although it is actually a very scientific subject, involving skills such as making careful observations and measurements, interpreting data…

  9. Science Support for Climate Change Adaptation in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Laura M.; Harvey, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Earth's changing climate is among the foremost conservation challenges of the 21st century, threatening to permanently alter entire ecosystems and contribute to extinctions of species. Lying only a few feet above sea level and already suffering effects of anthropogenic stressors, south Florida's ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate change. Recent research accounting for the gravitational effects of melting ice sheets predicts that sea level rise on U.S. coastlines will be much higher than global averages (Gomez et al. 2010), and the Miami-Dade Climate Change Advisory Task Force predicts that local sea level rise will be at least 3 to 5 ft. (0.9 m to 1.5 m) by 2100 (MDCCATF 2008). In a 5 ft. scenario, up to 873 additional square miles of the Everglades would be inundated with saltwater (see maps below). Accelerated sea level rise is likely to be accompanied by increasing temperatures (IPCC 2007a) and more intense tropical storms and hurricanes (Webster et al. 2005). In addition, changes in amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall in south Florida may lead to more severe droughts and floods (SFWMD 2009).

  10. COMPENDIUM: SURVEYS EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS CONCERNING HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    This compendium updates a 2003 literature review of surveys of knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Its purpose is to ensure that results of comparable surveys are considered in surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over twice as many studies related to the DOE survey have been published since 2003 than prior to that date. The fact that there have been significantly more studies implies that there have been further demonstration projects and/or increased interest in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The primary findings of these 15 new surveys, all of which were conducted in Europe (E) or North America (NA), to the DOE surveys are as follows: 1.Respondents who are more educated are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (NA). 2.Respondents who are more knowledgeable about hydrogen and/or fuel cells are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (E, NA). 3.When asked about issues of trust, respondents generally expressed distrust of the government or political parties but trusted scientists and environmental protection organizations (E). 4.Technical knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is low (E, NA). 5.Respondents may express opinions about a technology even when they are lacking in knowledge of that technology (E). 6.Women and men have different priorities when deciding on an automobile purchase (E). 7.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of decreased safety (E, NA). 8.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of increased cost (E, NA). The DOE surveys are similar to surveys that examine technical knowledge of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, although the technical questions are certainly different. The DOE surveys are also similar to the opinion surveys in that they address many of the same issues, such as safety, sources of energy information, or trust. There are many differences between the surveys reviewed in this compendium and the DOE surveys. The

  11. Collaborative Education in Climate Change Sciences and Adaptation through Interactive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of several funded climate change education grants, collaboration between VSU, DSU, and MSU, was established to provide the innovative and cohesive education and research opportunities to underrepresented groups in the climate related sciences. Prior to offering climate change and adaptation related topics to the students, faculty members of the three collaborating institutions participated at a number of faculty training and preparation workshops for teaching climate change sciences (i.e. AMS Diversity Project Workshop, NCAR Faculty-Student Team on Climate Change, NASA-NICE Program). In order to enhance the teaching and student learning on various issues in the Environmental Sciences Programs, Climatology, Climate Change Sciences and Adaptation or related courses were developed at Delaware State University and its partner institutions (Virginia State University and Morgan State University). These courses were prepared to deliver information on physical basis for the earth's climate system and current climate change instruction modules by AMS and historic climate information (NOAA Climate Services, U.S. and World Weather Data, NCAR and NASA Climate Models). By using Global Seminar as a Model, faculty members worked in teams to engage students in videoconferencing on climate change through Contemporary Global Studies and climate courses including Climate Change and Adaptation Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Introduction to Environmental Sciences, Climatology, and Ecology and Adaptation courses. All climate change courses have extensive hands-on practices and research integrated into the student learning experiences. Some of these students have presented their classroom projects during Earth Day, Student Climate Change Symposium, Undergraduate Summer Symposium, and other national conferences.

  12. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  13. Thinking social sciences from Latin America at the epochal change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Antonio Preciado Coronado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the legacy of an original disciplinary approach, as the Dependence theory and its Marxian critics, or the neo-structural economic theory founded by The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, the Latin-American social sciences deny the Anglo-European centered approaches, in the way of reaffirming its own critical thinking, including the neo-colonial practices. The challenge for this critical thinking is to be, simultaneously, cosmopolitan and Latin American’s one. In this process, the Latin-American social thinking is regaining its own originality and its vigorous proposals, thanks to a rich south-south dialogue, that implies a global character of its reflections and the questioning of its universal references. Although neither classical nor western Marxism are hegemonic within critical theory, the (neo Marxism enriched with criticism of the coloniality of power, the theory of World-System, critical geopolitics and political ecology recover the field of critical theory in key founder of an epochal thinking time. Epistemological debates with post-structuralism and postmodern approaches configure various recent developments in critical theory

  14. Senior science teachers' experience of teaching in a changing multicultural classroom: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mark

    Demographic changes within the US are bringing significant changes in the cultural make-up of the classrooms in our schools. Results from national and state assessments indicate a growing achievement gap between the science scores of white students and students from minority communities. This gap indicates a disconnect somewhere in the science classrooms. This study examines the teacher's perspective of the changing learning environment. The study focuses on senior teachers with traditional Midwestern backgrounds and little multicultural experience assuming these teachers had little or no education in multicultural education. Senior teachers are also more likely to have completed their science education within a traditional Universalist perspective of science and likewise have little or no education in multicultural science. The research method was comparative case studies of a purposeful sample of nine science teachers within a community experiencing significant demographic change, seven core senior teachers and two frame of reference teachers. The interviews examined the teachers' awareness of their own cultural beliefs and the impact of those beliefs on classroom practices, the teachers' understanding of cultural influences on the students' academic performance, and the relationships between the teachers' understanding of the cultural aspects of the nature of science and their classroom practices. Analysis of the interview data revealed that the teachers maintain a strong, traditional Midwestern worldview for classroom expectations and they are generally unaware of the impact of those standards on the classroom environment. The teachers were supportive of minority students within their classroom, changing several practices to accommodate student needs, but they were unaware of the broader cultural influences on student learning. The teachers had a poor understanding of the nature of science and none of them recognized a cultural element of NOS. They maintained a

  15. Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on 'Appropriate' K-8 Climate Change and Environmental Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    With the release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NRC, 2013), climate change and related environmental sciences will now receive greater emphasis within science curricula at all grade levels. In grades K-8, preparation in foundational content (e.g., weather and climate, natural resources, and human impacts on the environment) and the nature of scientific inquiry will set the groundwork for later learning of climate change in upper middle and high school. These rigorous standards increase pressure on elementary and middle school teachers to possess strong science content knowledge, as well as experience supporting children to develop scientific ideas through the practices of science. It also requires a set of beliefs - about children and the science that is appropriate for them - that is compatible with the goals set out in the standards. Elementary teachers in particular, who often have minimal preparation in the earth sciences (NSF, 2007), and entrenched beliefs about how particular topics ought to be taught (Holt- Reynolds, 1992; Pajares, 1992), including climate change (Bryce & Day, 2013; Lambert & Bleicher, 2013), may face unique challenges in adjusting to the new standards. If teachers hold beliefs about climate change as controversial, for example, they may not consider it an appropriate topic for children, despite its inclusion in the standards. On the other hand, those who see a role for children in efforts to mitigate human impacts on the environment may be more enthusiastic about the new standards. We report on a survey of preservice K-8 teachers' beliefs about the earth and environmental science topics that they consider to be appropriate and inappropriate for children in grades K-3, 4-5, and 6-8. Participants were surveyed on a variety of standards-based topics using terminology that signals publicly and scientifically neutral (e.g. weather, ecosystems) to overtly controversial (evolution, global warming) science. Results from pilot data

  16. Becoming the Change: A Critical Evaluation of the Changing Face of Life Science, as Reflected in the NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Govett, Aimee L.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-six states voluntarily partnered to provide leadership and guidance for the purpose of adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, a need exists to examine the NGSS versus state standards to better understand changes in curriculum and instruction to make their implementation successful for all states. The present…

  17. Culture, science and the changing nature of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Walitt, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common but contested illness. Its definition and content have changed repeatedly in the 110 years of its existence. The most important change was the requirement for multiple tender points and extensive pain that arose in the 1980s, features that were not required previously. By 2010, a second shift occurred that excluded tender points, allowed less extensive pain, and placed reliance on patient-reported somatic symptoms and cognitive difficulties ('fibro fog') that had never been part of past definitions or content. Fibromyalgia is closely allied with and often indistinguishable from neurasthenia, a disorder of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that lost favour when it was perceived as being a psychological illness. Fibromyalgia's status as a 'real disease', rather than a psychocultural illness, is buttressed by social forces that include support from official criteria, patient and professional organizations, pharmaceutical companies, disability access, and the legal and academic communities.

  18. Controversy in Biology Classrooms—Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Yoho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to “hot topics” of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors.

  19. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  20. How behavioural science can contribute to health partnerships: the case of The Change Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie M T; Bull, Eleanor R; Burton, Amy; Dharni, Nimarta; Gillison, Fiona; Maltinsky, Wendy; Mason, Corina; Sharma, Nisha; Armitage, Christopher J; Johnston, Marie; Byrne, Ged J; Hart, Jo K

    2017-06-12

    Health partnerships often use health professional training to change practice with the aim of improving quality of care. Interventions to change practice can learn from behavioural science and focus not only on improving the competence and capability of health professionals but also their opportunity and motivation to make changes in practice. We describe a project that used behavioural scientist volunteers to enable health partnerships to understand and use the theories, techniques and assessments of behavioural science. This paper outlines how The Change Exchange, a collective of volunteer behavioural scientists, worked with health partnerships to strengthen their projects by translating behavioural science in situ. We describe three case studies in which behavioural scientists, embedded in health partnerships in Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique, explored the behaviour change techniques used by educators, supported knowledge and skill development in behaviour change, monitored the impact of projects on psychological determinants of behaviour and made recommendations for future project developments. Challenges in the work included having time and space for behavioural science in already very busy health partnership schedules and the difficulties in using certain methods in other cultures. Future work could explore other modes of translation and further develop methods to make them more culturally applicable. Behavioural scientists could translate behavioural science which was understood and used by the health partnerships to strengthen their project work.

  1. Using the Socioscientific Context of Climate Change to Teach Chemical Content and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flener-Lovitt, Charity

    2014-01-01

    A thematic course called "Climate Change: Chemistry and Controversy" was developed for upper-level non-STEM students. This course used the socioscientific context of climate change to teach chemical principles and the nature of science. Students used principles of agnotology (direct study of misinformation) to debunk climate change…

  2. An Inquiry-Based Science Activity Centred on the Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    We propose an inquiry-based science activity centred on the effects of climate change on ocean ecosystems. This activity can be used to improve acquisition of knowledge on the effects of climate change and to promote inquiry skills, such as researching, reading and selecting relevant information, identifying a problem, focusing on a research…

  3. U.S. National forests adapt to climate change through science-management partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Constance I. Millar; Kathy A. O' Halloran

    2011-01-01

    Developing appropriate management options for adapting to climate change is a new challenge for land managers, and integration of climate change concepts into operational management and planning on United States national forests is just starting. We established science-management partnerships on the Olympic National Forest (Washington) and Tahoe National Forest (...

  4. Medical Education in the Anatomical Sciences: The Winds of Change Continue to Blow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course…

  5. The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center annual report for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Acevedo, Elda

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Congress created the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The center was formed to respond to the demands of natural resource managers for rigorous scientific information and effective tools for assessing and responding to climate change. Located at the USGS National Headquarters in Reston, Va., the NCCWSC has invested more than $93 million (through FY13) in cutting-edge climate change research and, in response to Secretarial Order No. 3289, established and is managing eight regional Department of Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs). In 2013:

  6. Information Foraging and Change Detection for Automated Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, P. Michael; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for autonomous on-line exploration in unknown environments. The objective is to free remote scientists from possibly-infeasible extensive preliminary site investigation prior to sending robotic agents. We simulate a common exploration task for an autonomous robot sampling the environment at various locations and compare performance against simpler control strategies. An extension is proposed and evaluated that further permits operation in the presence of environmental variability in which the robot encounters a change in the distribution underlying sampling targets. Experimental results indicate a strong improvement in performance across varied parameter choices for the scenario.

  7. Communicating Climate Change: The Intersection Between Science and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.

    2013-12-01

    While the vast majority of scientists in climate-related fields take as fact anthropogenic global warming, public opinion is far less certain, as are the publicly stated views of many policy-makers. This disparity is often ascribed, at least in part, to effective campaigns to cast doubt on the evidence, which we as scientists naturally feel an obligation to rectify. While denial campaigns and propaganda do play a role in skewing public opinion away from the strong scientific consensus and often feed pre-defined narratives, the reality is more complicated. This disparity is rooted mainly the differing values, priorities, and perspectives of individuals, organizations, and other entities. As scientists, we sometimes view our role as needing to counter the more extreme claims of those trying to cast doubt on the evidence. This stems in part, from our need as scientists to refute misinformation, from our frustration with the success of some of these campaigns, and from our sense of urgency and concern about our changing environment. But this approach produces very limited results, and sometimes leads to our portrayal as being condescending and self-serving. The conversation is most effectively advanced, when we focus not on the striking down the forces of opposition, but rather framing the conversation in the context of values. Similarly, our success and credibility as scientist communicators depends fundamentally on our recognizing that we will not change the values of our audience. The vast majority of those who are uncertain about climate change and the role of humans are open to accurate and honestly-portrayed information that speaks to what is important to them and fairly takes into consideration the legitimacy of opposing concerns. Doing so strengthens our credibility in their eyes and can constructively engage a large fraction of the general public, policy makers, etc. Such engagement is fundamental to meaningful action, and thus allows us to fulfill our unique

  8. 76 FR 9054 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Impromptu Notice of Change (Addition of Agenda Item)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Impromptu Notice of Change (Addition of Agenda Item) The National Science Board's (NSB) Audit & Oversight (A&O) Committee..., National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. Telephone: (703) 292-7000. Daniel A...

  9. The Climate Science Special Report: Rising Seas and Changing Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    GMSL has risen by about 16-21 cm since 1900. Ocean heat content has increased at all depths since the 1960s, and global mean sea-surface temperature increased 0.7°C/century between 1900 to 2016. Human activity contributed substantially to generating a rate of GMSL rise since 1900 faster than during any preceding century in at least 2800 years. A new set of six sea-level rise scenarios, spanning a range from 30 cm to 250 cm of 21st century GMSL rise, were developed for the CSSR. The lower scenario is based on linearly extrapolating the past two decades' rate of rise. The upper scenario is informed by literature estimates of maximum physically plausible values, observations indicating the onset of marine ice sheet instability in parts of West Antarctica, and modeling of ice-cliff and ice-shelf instability mechanisms. The new scenarios include localized projections along US coastlines. There is significant variability around the US, with rates of rise likely greater than GMSL rise in the US Northeast and the western Gulf of Mexico. Under scenarios involving extreme Antarctic contributions, regional rise would be greater than GMSL rise along almost all US coastlines. Historical sea-level rise has already driven a 5- to 10-fold increase in minor tidal flooding in several US coastal cities since the 1960s. Under the CSSR's Intermediate sea-level rise scenario (1.0 m of GMSL rise in 2100) , a majority of NOAA tide gauge locations will by 2040 experience the historical 5-year coastal flood about 5 times per year. Ocean changes are not limited to rising sea levels. Ocean pH is decreasing at a rate that may be unparalleled in the last 66 million years. Along coastlines, ocean acidification can be enhanced by changes in the upwelling (particularly along the US Pacific Coast); by episodic, climate change-enhanced increases in freshwater input (particularly along the US Atlantic Coast); and by the enhancement of biological respiration by nutrient runoff. Climate models project

  10. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, R.; Fort, E.; Hartke-O'Berg, N.; Varela-Acevedo, E.; Padgett, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the USGS's National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) is to serve the scientific needs of managers of fish, wildlife, habitats, and ecosystems as they plan for a changing climate. DOI Climate Science Centers (CSCs) are management by NCCWSC and include this mission as a core responsibility, in line with the CSC mission to provide scientific support for climate-adaptation across a full range of natural and cultural resources. NCCWSC is a Science Center application designed in Drupal with the OMEGA theme. As a content management system, Drupal allows the science center to keep their website up-to-date with current publications, news, meetings and projects. OMEGA allows the site to be adaptive at different screen sizes and is developed on the 960 grid.

  11. Indirect Land Use ChangeScience or Mission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Finkbeiner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current discussions of indirect land use change (iLUC and the greenhouse gas (GHG reduction potential of bioresources have turned into a rather controversial debate. The scientific robustness and consistency of current iLUC models and data are at least unclear. However, representatives of the scientific community still dare to provide straightforward political advice in their papers – way beyond the fact-based ‘proof’ of their data and on a level that is usually not accepted by scientific journals. But the actual task and challenge for the scientific community is to determine the environmental performance of bioresources as objectively and fact-based as possible – with a clear and sober focus on integrity and soundness, not sense of mission.

  12. An Analysis of Change Mechanisms in Government Budgets on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies on policy changes have shown that there are limitations of incrementalism and that there no longer exists a general theory that can explain policy change. A number of studies have been conducted to examine policy changes in terms of drastic changes in budgets or policy agenda. According to the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), policy change is punctuated by long periods of stability, and large, but rare, changes due to shifts in society or the government. Although the reasons for these drastic changes are interpreted mainly from external events, the exact mechanisms of these changes are still not known. In this study, we assume that the punctuated budget changes are a result of not only external events but also the bureaucratic power of government departments. We attempt to identify the regularity of budget change pattern due to these internal characteristics (bureaucratic power). In order to understand budget changes caused by external events, especially for science and technology, the ARIMA-Intervention analysis was implemented. The results showed that the ARIMA-Intervention analysis explained the abrupt change in budget well. This means that a change in budget cannot be explained as incrementalism. Also, we analyzed the budget change kurtosis of government department along with various policy and organization types. Normally, a high kurtosis means there is a high probability of a punctuated equilibrium. The results show that science and technology agency as well as productive, delivery, and transfer agencies have a relatively high kurtosis.;

  13. Using a Family Science Day Event to Engage Youth in Climate Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, C.; Brevik, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Each fall, Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events for elementary-aged children to increase their engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities which center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change and the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change and soil in a fun, interactive environment. The activities also helped the children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focusing on climate change was also offered during the event. The fully immersive, 360-degree show allowed the kids and their parents to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids can understand. Education majors who participated practiced communicating science concepts to children, and students in other majors who helped with this event gained experiences that reinforced various concepts they had learned in their general education science courses.

  14. The changing roles of science in managing Australian droughts: An agricultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Howden; Serena Schroeter; Steven Crimp; Ivan Hanigan

    2014-01-01

    As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts...

  15. Trust Pathways, Trust Catalysts, Theory of Change and Citizen Science: A COASST Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, H. K.; Parrish, J.; Dolliver, J.; Metes, J.; Ballard, H. L.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental challenges, from local water quality to the effects of global climate change, are overwhelming the mainstream science community. We need help. Citizen science offers one solution pathway - in the ideal, thousands of participants engaged in authentic science that delivers high quality information not otherwise obtainable. But in the real world, are citizen science data used? And more broadly: what are the interactions between citizen science and natural resource management in service of conserving or protecting system structure and function? The Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST) is a rigoros citizen science program focused on documenting patterns of beached bird and marine debris abundance on beaches along the coast of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Housed at the University of Washington, COASST partners directly with a wide range of local, tribal, state and federal agencies to effect positive change and a wide range of scientific, community and educational outcomes. Following from years of trial, error and adaptive management, we propose a "trust pathway" between citizen science and agencies that moves from an initial contact and multiple interaction types to eventual partnership and capacity sharing. Along the way are trust catalysts, including but not limited to: stakeholder engagement, data QA/QC, interactive data analysis, housing at an academic institution, and timely, repeated communication. In this presentation, we will discuss strategies and outcomes employed by COASST for fostering trust and successful partnerships, drawing on 20 years of program experience as well as reflections from a variety of partners and stakholdres.

  16. Getting The Picture: Our Changing Climate- A new learning tool for climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, K.; Balog, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Earth Vision Trust (EVT), founded by James Balog- photographer and scientist, has developed a free, online, multimedia climate science education tool for students and educators. Getting The Picture (GTP) creates a new learning experience, drawing upon powerful archives of Extreme Ice Survey's unique photographs and time-lapse videos of changing glaciers around the world. GTP combines the latest in climate science through interactive tools that make the basic scientific tenets of climate science accessible and easy to understand. The aim is to use a multidisciplinary approach to encourage critical thinking about the way our planet is changing due to anthropogenic activities, and to inspire students to find their own voice regarding our changing climate The essence of this resource is storytelling through the use of inspiring images, field expedition notes and dynamic multimedia tools. EVT presents climate education in a new light, illustrating the complex interaction between humans and nature through their Art + Science approach. The overarching goal is to educate and empower young people to take personal action. GTP is aligned with national educational and science standards (NGSS, CCSS, Climate Literacy) so it may be used in conventional classrooms as well as education centers, museum kiosks or anywhere with Internet access. Getting The Picture extends far beyond traditional learning to provide an engaging experience for students, educators and all those who wish to explore the latest in climate science.

  17. Climate change science education across schools, campuses, and centers: strategies and successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Rogers, M.; Buttram, J.; Petrone, C.; Veron, D. E.; Sezen-Barrie, A.; Stylinski, C.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-02-01

    With established partnerships in higher education, K-12, and informal science education communities across Delaware and Maryland, the NSF-funded MADE CLEAR project (Maryland Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment, and Research) has instituted a suite of professional development strategies to bring climate change science into science education methods courses, K-12 classrooms, university lecture halls, and public park facilities. MADE CLEAR partners have provided consistent climate literacy topics (mechanisms, human contributions, local and global impacts, mitigation and adaptation) while meeting the unique needs of each professional community. In-person topical lectures, hands-on work with classroom materials, seed funding for development of new education kits, and on-line live and recorded sessions are some of the tools employed by the team to meet those needs and build enduring capacity for climate change science education. The scope of expertise of the MADE CLEAR team, with climate scientists, educators, learning scientists, and managers has provided not only PD tailored for each education audience, but has also created, fostered, and strengthened relationships across those audiences for long-term sustainability of the newly-built capacity. Specific examples include new climate change programs planned for implementation across Delaware State Parks that will be consistent with middle school curriculum; integration of climate change topics into science methods classes for pre-service teachers at four universities; and active K-12 and informal science education teams working to cooperatively develop lessons that apply informal science education techniques and formal education pedagogy. Evaluations by participants highlight the utility of personal connections, access to experts, mentoring and models for developing implementation plans.

  18. The Climate Science Special Report: Perspectives on Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    This chapter of CSSR provides scientific context for key issues regarding the long-term mitigation of climate change. Policy analysis and recommendations are beyond the scope of CSSR. Limiting and stabilizing warming to any level implies that there is an upper limit to the cumulative amount of CO2 that can be added to the atmosphere. Eventually stabilizing the global temperature requires CO2 emissions to approach zero. For a 3.6°F (2°C) or any desired global mean temperature target, an estimated range of allowable cumulative CO2 emissions from the current period onward can be calculated. Accounting for the temperature effects of non-CO2 species, cumulative CO2 emissions are required to stay below about 800 GtC in order to provide a two-thirds likelihood of preventing 3.6°F (2°C) of warming, meaning approximately 230 GtC more could be emitted globally. Assuming global emissions follow the range between the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, emissions could continue for approximately two decades before this cumulative carbon threshold is exceeded. Meeting a 2.7°F (1.5°C) target implies much tighter constraints. Mitigation of non-CO2 species contributes substantially to near-term cooling benefits but cannot be relied upon for ultimate stabilization goals. Successful implementation of the first round of Nationally Determined Contributions associated with the Paris Agreement will provide some likelihood of meeting the long-term temperature goal of limiting global warming to "well below" 3.6°F (2°C) above preindustrial levels; the likelihood depends strongly on the magnitude of global emission reductions after 2030. If interest in geoengineering increases, interest will also increase in assessments of the technical feasibilities, costs, risks, co-benefits, and governance challenges of these additional measures, which are as yet unproven at scale.

  19. Behavior change interventions: the potential of ontologies for advancing science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kai R; Michie, Susan; Hekler, Eric B; Gibson, Bryan; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Ahern, David; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Hesse, Bradford; Moser, Richard P; Yi, Jean

    2017-02-01

    A central goal of behavioral medicine is the creation of evidence-based interventions for promoting behavior change. Scientific knowledge about behavior change could be more effectively accumulated using "ontologies." In information science, an ontology is a systematic method for articulating a "controlled vocabulary" of agreed-upon terms and their inter-relationships. It involves three core elements: (1) a controlled vocabulary specifying and defining existing classes; (2) specification of the inter-relationships between classes; and (3) codification in a computer-readable format to enable knowledge generation, organization, reuse, integration, and analysis. This paper introduces ontologies, provides a review of current efforts to create ontologies related to behavior change interventions and suggests future work. This paper was written by behavioral medicine and information science experts and was developed in partnership between the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Technology Special Interest Group (SIG) and the Theories and Techniques of Behavior Change Interventions SIG. In recent years significant progress has been made in the foundational work needed to develop ontologies of behavior change. Ontologies of behavior change could facilitate a transformation of behavioral science from a field in which data from different experiments are siloed into one in which data across experiments could be compared and/or integrated. This could facilitate new approaches to hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery in behavioral science.

  20. Effective and responsible teaching of climate change in Earth Science-related disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is a core topic within Earth Science-related courses. This vast topic covers a wide array of different aspects that could be covered, from past climatic change across a vast range of scales to environmental (and social and economic) impacts of future climatic change and strategies for reducing anthropogenic climate change. The Earth Science disciplines play a crucial role in our understanding of past, present and future climate change and the Earth system in addition to understanding leading to development of strategies and technological solutions to achieve sustainability. However, an increased knowledge of the occurrence and causes of past (natural) climate changes can lead to a lessened concern and sense of urgency and responsibility amongst students in relation to anthropogenic causes of climatic change. Two concepts integral to the teaching of climate change are those of scientific uncertainty and complexity, yet an emphasis on these concepts can lead to scepticism about future predictions and a further loss of sense of urgency. The requirement to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty and think and move between different scales in particular relating an increased knowledge of longer timescale climatic change to recent (industrialised) climate change, are clearly areas of troublesome knowledge that affect students' sense of responsibility towards their role in achieving a sustainable society. Study of the attitudes of university students in a UK HE institution on a range of Earth Science-related programmes highlights a range of different attitudes in the student body towards the subject of climate change. Students express varied amounts of ‘climate change saturation' resulting from both media and curriculum coverage, a range of views relating to the significance of humans to the global climate and a range of opinions about the relevance of environmental citizenship to their degree programme. Climate change is therefore a challenging

  1. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  2. Climate change, uncertainty, and resilient fisheries: Institutional responses through integrative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, K.; Charles, A.; Barange, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of a focus on the fundamental goals of resilience and adaptive capacity in the governance of uncertain fishery systems, particularly in the context of climate change. Climate change interacts strongly with fishery systems, and adds to the inherent uncertainty...... that understanding these aspects of fishery systems and fishery governance is valuable even in the absence of climate-induced processes of change, but that attention to climate change both reinforces the need for, and facilitates the move toward, implementation of integrative science for improved fishery governance....... and processes – to support suitable institutional responses, a broader planning perspective, and development of suitable resilience-building strategies. The paper explores how synergies between institutional change and integrative science can facilitate the development of more effective fisheries policy...

  3. A record of change - Science and elder observations on the Navajo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret M.; Wessells, Stephen M.

    2017-09-20

    A Record of Change - Science and Elder Observations on the Navajo Nation is a 25-minute documentary about combining observations from Navajo elders with conventional science to determine how tribal lands and culture are affected by climate change. On the Navajo Nation, there is a shortage of historical climate data, making it difficult to assess changing environmental conditions.This video reveals how a team of scientists, anthropologists, and translators combined the rich local knowledge of Navajo elders with recent scientific investigation to effectively document environmental change. Increasing aridity and declining snowfall in this poorly monitored region of the Southwest are accompanied by declining river flow and migrating sand dunes. The observations of Navajo elders verify and supplement this record of change by informing how shifting weather patterns are reflected in Navajo cultural practices and living conditions.

  4. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based.

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  6. Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shires, T.M.; Loughran, C.J. [URS Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This document is a compendium of currently recognized methods and provides details for all oil and gas industry segments to enhance consistency in emissions estimation. This Compendium aims to accomplish the following goals: Assemble an expansive collection of relevant emission factors for estimating GHG emissions, based on currently available public documents; Outline detailed procedures for conversions between different measurement unit systems, with particular emphasis on implementation of oil and gas industry standards; Provide descriptions of the multitude of oil and gas industry operations, in its various segments, and the associated emissions sources that should be considered; and Develop emission inventory examples, based on selected facilities from the various segments, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the methodologies. The overall objective of developing this document is to promote the use of consistent, standardized methodologies for estimating GHG emissions from petroleum industry operations. The resulting Compendium documents recognized calculation techniques and emission factors for estimating GHG emissions for oil and gas industry operations. These techniques cover the calculation or estimation of emissions from the full range of industry operations - from exploration and production through refining, to the marketing and distribution of products. The Compendium presents and illustrates the use of preferred and alternative calculation approaches for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for all common emission sources, including combustion, vented, and fugitive. Decision trees are provided to guide the user in selecting an estimation technique based on considerations of materiality, data availability, and accuracy. API will provide (free of charge) a calculation tool based on the emission estimation methodologies described herein. The tool will be made available at http://ghg.api.org/.

  7. Classroom-based science research at the introductory level: changes in career choices and attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Melinda; Dunbar, David; Ratmansky, Lisa; Boyd, Kimberly; Lopatto, David

    2011-01-01

    Our study, focused on classroom-based research at the introductory level and using the Phage Genomics course as the model, shows evidence that first-year students doing research learn the process of science as well as how scientists practice science. A preliminary but notable outcome of our work, which is based on a small sample, is the change in student interest in considering different career choices such as graduate education and science in general. This is particularly notable, as previous research has described research internships as clarifying or confirming rather than changing undergraduates' decisions to pursue graduate education. We hypothesize that our results differ from previous studies of the impact of engaging in research because the students in our study are still in the early stages of their undergraduate careers. Our work builds upon the classroom-based research movement and should be viewed as encouraging to the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education movement advocated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Science Foundation, and other undergraduate education stakeholders.

  8. A history of the science and politics of climate change: the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolin, B. [University of Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    In response to growing concern about human-induced global climate change, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988. Written by its first Chairman, this book is a unique overview of the history of the IPCC. It describes and evaluates the intricate interplay between key factors in the science and politics of climate change, the strategy that has been followed, and the regretfully slow pace in getting to grips with the uncertainties that have prevented earlier action being taken. The book also highlights the emerging conflict between establishing a sustainable global energy system and preventing a serious change in global climate. Contents are: Part I. The Early History of the Climate Change Issue: 1. Nineteenth century discoveries; 2. The natural carbon cycle and life on earth; 3. Global research initiatives in meteorology and climatology; 4. Early international assessments of climate change; Part II. The Climate Change Issue Becomes One of Global Concern: 5. Setting the stage; 6. The scientific basis for a climate convention; 7. Serving the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee; 8. The Second IPP Assessment Report; 9. In the aftermath of the IPCC Second Assessment; 10. The Kyoto Protocol is agreed and a third assessment begun; 11. A decade of hesitance and slow progress; Part III. A Turning Point in Addressing Climate Change?: 12. Key scientific finding of prime political relevance; 13. Climate change and the future global energy supply system; Concluding remarks. 9 figs.

  9. Social Change and Individual Change--Developmental Science as Guide Post

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    From a biopsychosocial perspective on human development, this essay review introduces a model linking social changes at the macro level with individual development at the micro level. German unification and the globalization of economy that followed are taken as a case in point for social changes that have affected the lives of many. It is argued…

  10. Ecosystems and Climate Change. Research Priorities for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    photosynthesis ), evapotranspiration, and energy balance. 12 Climate change recommended research priorities Organic matter inputs to soils and aquatic...may be altered through changes in climate (e.g., coral reefs, seagrass ). Finally, services provided by a number of federally protected areas depend

  11. Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and Their Applications in Earth Science Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview and discussion of the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and their applications in Earth science data discovery. The GCMD Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled keywords covering the Earth science disciplines, including: science keywords, service keywords, data centers, projects, location, data resolution, instruments and platforms. Controlled vocabularies (keywords) help users accurately, consistently and comprehensively categorize their data and also allow for the precise search and subsequent retrieval of data. The GCMD Keywords are a community resource and are developed collaboratively with input from various stakeholders, including GCMD staff, keyword users and metadata providers. The GCMD Keyword Landing Page and GCMD Keyword Community Forum provide access to keyword resources and an area for discussion of topics related to the GCMD Keywords. See https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords

  12. Changing Images of the Inclined Plane: A Case Study of a Revolution in American Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steven C.

    2012-02-01

    Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National leadership in education was generally weak during this period, and the new method required significant investments by the schools, but within a few decades American science education was rapidly and completely transformed. Previous studies of this fundamental change have concentrated on the activities of organizations like the NEA, the Bureau of Education and a few major universities, but the way in which these groups were able to effect actual changes in classroom practice is not completely clear. This article attempts to broaden the existing narrative by integrating the rich and largely ignored material culture of science education—such things as textbooks, lab manuals, student notebooks, science teaching instruments and scientific instrument catalogs. Surprisingly, much of this story can be seen in changes to the depiction of a single, venerable and otherwise unremarkable teaching instrument: the inclined plane.

  13. A Sample Application for Use of Biography in Social Studies; Science, Technology and Social Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Harun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opinions of social studies teacher candidates on use of biography in science, technology and social change course given in the undergraduate program of social studies education. In this regard, convergent parallel design as a mixed research pattern was used to make use of both qualitative and quantitative…

  14. Wilderness social science responding to change in society, policy, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell

    2014-01-01

    Wilderness social science has changed over the 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act. This research was initially heavily influenced by the need to operationalize definitions contained in the Wilderness Act, the desire to report use levels, and the need for better understanding of the important values American people attached to wilderness. Over the past three...

  15. A Study of Changes in the Library and Information Science Curriculum with Evaluation of Its Practicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee; Ahn, In-Ja; Choi, Sang-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed the process of changes in Korean Library and Information Science curriculum and evaluated the courses currently available by using a perception survey of librarians in the field. It also explored a possible demand for new courses, while suggesting compulsory, core, and optional courses for Bachelor's degree curriculum…

  16. Interdisciplinarity at the journal and specialty level: the changing knowledge bases of the journal Cognitive Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Goldstone, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    Using the referencing patterns in articles in Cognitive Science over three decades, we analyze the knowledge base of this literature in terms of its changing disciplinary composition. Three periods are distinguished: (A) construction of the interdisciplinary space in the 1980s, (B) development of an

  17. Evaluation of authentic science projects on climate change in secondary schools : a focus on gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects, which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects

  18. Learning in Earth and Space Science: A Review of Conceptual Change Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the…

  19. Life Sciences Teachers Negotiating Professional Development Agency in Changing Curriculum Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Samuel, Michael Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This article probes teacher responses to three curricular reform initiatives from a South African situated contextual perspective. It focuses on Life Sciences teachers who have initially reported feeling overwhelmed by this rapidly changing curriculum environment: adopting and re-adapting to the many expected shifts. The research question posed…

  20. Connecting Psychological Science with Climate Change: A Persuasion and Social Influence Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Behlen, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Students often have little understanding of the role psychological science plays in informing us about the impact of human behavior when addressing climate change. We designed an assignment for a social psychology course based on Frantz and Mayer's use of the decision tree model of helping behavior to identify the psychological barriers that…

  1. Evaluation of Authentic Science Projects on Climate Change in Secondary Schools: A Focus on Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…

  2. Population physical activity behaviour change: A review for the European College of Sport Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biddle, S.J.H.; Brehm, W.; Verheijden, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    The academic study of sport and exercise science has expanded greatly into the arena of public health over the past 20 years or more and Europe has played a significant role in this. It is opportune to review evidence concerning ways to change population levels of physical activity for health. This

  3. Population physical activity behaviour change : A review for the European College of Sport Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biddle, S.J.H.; Brehm, W.; Verheijden, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    The academic study of sport and exercise science has expanded greatly into the arena of public health over the past 20 years or more and Europe has played a significant role in this. It is opportune to review evidence concerning ways to change population levels of physical activity for health. This

  4. Global Warning: Project-Based Science Inspired by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaianne, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Misconceptions about climate change are common, which suggests a need to effectively address the subject in the classroom. This article describes a project-based science activity in which students report on the physical basis, adaptations, and mitigation of this global problem, adapting the framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel…

  5. Online Discussion as a Mechanism of Conceptual Change among Mathematics and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebeck, Jennifer L.; Bice, Lawrence R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which conceptual change is stimulated and achieved through online discussion in the context of an online graduate course. Transcripts of discussions among 15 graduate students studying assessment issues in mathematics and science education were analyzed using an interaction analysis model developed to assess…

  6. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  7. Combining Geography, Math, and Science to Teach Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldakowski, Ray; Johnson, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of integrating geography into existing math and science curriculum to teach climate change and sea level rise. The desired outcome is to improve student performance in all three subjects. A sample of 120 fifth graders from three schools were taught the integrated curriculum over a period of two to three weeks.…

  8. An Investigation of Science Educators' View of Roles and Responsibilities for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, J. Randy; McDonald, Chris; Hestness, Emily; Breslyn, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates what science educators from differing groups (outside of higher education--informal and formal (K-12) and inside of higher education--content and pedagogy experts) believe are the roles and responsibilities (and what actions these might involve) in climate change education for: 1) their group of educators, and…

  9. Engaging Youth in Climate Change Issues with Family Science Day Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.

    2016-04-01

    Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events each fall during the months of September, October, November, and December. Activities are geared toward elementary-aged children to increase student engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities that center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change, including an emphasis on the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change in a fun, interactive environment. Climate changes in the past, present, and future were emphasized. Activities including the Farming Game, painting with soils, taking Jello "cores", creating a cloud in a jar, and making a glacier in a bag helped children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focused on climate change was also offered during the event, surrounding the kids and their parents in a fully immersive, 360-degree show that allowed them to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids could understand. Education

  10. Wilderness science in a time of change conference-Volume 1: Changing perspectives and future directions; 1999 May 23-27; Missoula, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Stephen F. McCool; Wayne A. Freimund; Jennifer O' Loughlin

    2000-01-01

    Ten papers presented as plenary talks at the conference, "Wilderness Science in a Time of Change," are included. Topics include: the influence of global change on wilderness and its management; contemporary criticisms and celebrations of the wilderness idea; the capacity of science to meet the challenges and opportunities wilderness presents; wilderness in...

  11. Evaluation of authentic science projects on climate change in secondary schools: a focus on gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Background and purpose This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from scientists about the global carbon cycle. This study focuses in particular on differences between male and female students, as female students normally like traditional school science less than male students. Sample and design Data, drawn from 1370 students from 60 secondary schools across Europe, were collected through questionnaires taken at the end of the projects. The evaluated aspects were: organization; enjoyment; difficulty; and impact of the projects. Results The findings suggest that authentic science education is appreciated very much by both male students and even more by female students. The projects had positive impacts on climate change ideas, in particular for female students. Female students felt that they had learned many new things more often than male students. Conclusions Both male and female students have positive opinions about the authentic science projects. The results further point to positive effects of activities in which students have an active role, like hands-on experiments or presentation of results. The findings are placed in the international context of science education and their implications for policy are discussed.

  12. The changing roles of science in managing Australian droughts: An agricultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Howden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the driest inhabited continent with a highly variable climate, Australia has had a long and evolving history of drought management in agriculture. This paper analyses the changing roles of science in the management of climate risk and uncertainty and how this may continue into the future. Initially science had a role in documenting the underlying nature of Australia׳s climate, and later broadening the understanding around the drivers of variability so as to provide useful climate forecasts and developing metrics to measure and compare the severity of extreme climatic events. Over time this has shifted to providing effective integrating approaches to enhance social cohesion, rural economies, environmental protection, health, and food security under drought conditions. Institutional responses initially framed drought as a natural disaster, for which State and Federal funding for farmers was distributed; however, the need for farmers to proactively manage climate risk and build adaptive capacity has resulted in climate variability being seen as a risk to be managed as part of normal practise. The formulation of a national drought policy in 1992 placed responsibility for adaptation and education in the hands of the farmers, where science played various roles, including the provision of training for strategic business planning and decision-making, methods of managing uncertainty as well as via delivery of climate data and methods to integrate this into meaningful information that is embedded into the social and institutional processes through which decisions are made. This policy continues to evolve and science inputs will evolve with this. In particular, we anticipate that ongoing and projected climate changes will impact on drought frequency and severity and will require science integrated with stakeholder input into developing climate adaptation practices and technologies and effective adoption paths particularly to deal with climate extremes

  13. The North Cascadia Adaptation Partnership: A Science-Management Collaboration for Responding to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Forest Service (USFS and National Park Service (NPS have highlighted climate change as an agency priority and issued direction to administrative units for responding to climate change. In response, the USFS and NPS initiated the North Cascadia Adaptation Partnership (NCAP in 2010. The goals of the NCAP were to build an inclusive partnership, increase climate change awareness, assess vulnerability, and develop science-based adaptation strategies to reduce these vulnerabilities. The NCAP expanded previous science-management partnerships on federal lands to a larger, more ecologically and geographically complex region and extended the approach to a broader range of stakeholders. The NCAP focused on two national forests and two national parks in the North Cascades Range, Washington (USA, a total land area of 2.4 million ha, making it the largest science-management partnership of its kind. The NCAP assessed climate change vulnerability for four resource sectors (hydrology and access; vegetation and ecological disturbance; wildlife; and fish and developed adaptation options for each sector. The NCAP process has proven to be a successful approach for implementing climate change adaptation across a region and can be emulated by other land management agencies in North America and beyond.

  14. 11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Saundry

    2012-04-17

    On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

  15. Exploring Science Teachers' Argumentation and Personal Epistemology About Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian

    2017-06-01

    This case study investigated the nature of in-service science teachers' argumentation and personal epistemology about global climate change during a 3-year professional development program on climate change education. Qualitative analysis of data from interviews and written assessments revealed that while these teachers grounded their arguments on climate issues in evidence, the evidence was often insufficient to justify their causal claims. Compared with generating arguments for their own views, teachers had more difficulties in constructing evidence-based arguments for alternative perspectives. Moreover, while these teachers shared some similarities in their epistemology about climate science, they varied in their beliefs about specific aspects such as scientists' expertise and the credibility of scientific evidence. Such similarities and distinctions were shown to relate to how teachers used evidence to justify claims in their arguments. The findings also suggested a mismatch between teachers' personal epistemology about science in general and climate science, which was revealed through their argumentation. This work helps to further the ongoing discussions in environmental education about what knowledge and skills teachers need in order to teach climate issues and prepare students for future decision making. It constitutes first steps to facilitate reasoning and argumentation in climate change education and provides important implications for future design of professional development programs.

  16. Making the transition to middle schooling: A case study of experienced science teachers coping with change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Donna Dorough

    The increasing popularity of the middle school movement necessitates a need for more interpretive research in middle level education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore science teachers' perceptions of the transition to a new middle school and the meanings they attached to this new experience. The participants were three eighth grade science teachers, each with 20 plus years of teaching experience. The primary data for analysis was a series of five interviews with each participant. Data collection also included weekly participant observation of team meetings. Findings revealed that the science teachers all had positive feelings attached to the ability to keep track of students' academic progress and behavior problems as a result of teaming. The changes associated with the first year were very stressful for all three, primarily the loss of the traditional junior high departmentalized structure. The two participants who transferred directly from the junior high school were very skeptical of any benefits from an interdisciplinary curriculum, the appropriateness of the middle school philosophy for eighth grade students, and the move to heterogeneously grouped science classes. In contrast, the former junior high teacher who had spent the past ten years teaching sixth grade at the elementary school had positive beliefs about the potential benefits of an interdisciplinary curriculum and heterogeneous grouping. Teacher stress associated with a change in the school setting and the science teachers' constraints to actualizing a meaningful middle schooling experience are illuminated. Teachers' lack of ownership in the reform decision making process, loss of time with their science teacher peers, diminished compliments from high school counterparts, and need for more empirical evidence supporting proposed changes all served as barriers to embracing the reform initiatives. The participants found taking a very slow approach to be their most useful means of

  17. Climate Odyssey: Resources for Understanding Coastal Change through Art, Science, and Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.; Holtsnider, L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate Odyssey (climateodyssey.org) is a year-long sailing expedition and continuing collaboration aimed at using overlaps in science and visual art to communicate coastal climate change impacts and solutions. We, visual artist Lucy Holtsnider and climate scientist Zion Klos, are using our complimentary skills in art, science and communication to engage audiences both intuitively and cognitively regarding the urgency of climate change through story and visualization. Over the 2015 - 2016 academic year, we embarked on the sailing portion of Climate Odyssey, beginning in Lake Michigan, continuing along the Eastern Seaboard, and concluding in the tropics. Along the way we photographed climate change impacts and adaptation strategies, interviewed stakeholders, scientists, and artists. We are now sharing our photographs and documented encounters through a tangible artist's book, interactive digital map, blog, and series of K16 lesson plans. Each of our images added to the artist's book and digital map are linked to relevant blog entries and other external scientific resources, making the map both a piece of art and an engaging education tool for sharing the science of climate change impacts and solutions. After completing the sailing component of the project, we have now finalized our multi-media resources and are working to share these with the public via libraries, galleries, and K16 classrooms in coastal communities. At AGU, we will share with our peers the completed version of the series of K16 lesson plans that provide educators an easy-to-use way to introduce and utilize the material in the artist's book, digital map, and online blog. Through this, we hope to both discuss climate-focused education and engagement strategies, as well as showcase this example of art-science outreach with the broader science education and communication community that is focused on climate literacy in the U.S. and beyond.

  18. Applying behavioral science to behavior change communication: the pathways to change tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Joseph; Galavotti, Christine; Harford, Nicola; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A; Mooki, Maungo

    2007-10-01

    Entertainment-education (EE) is a popular vehicle for behavior change communication (BCC) in many areas of public health, especially in the developing world where soap operas and other serial drama formats play a central role in encouraging people to avoid risky behavior. Yet BCC/EE developers have been largely unable to integrate behavioral theory and research systematically into storylines and scripts, depending instead on external, technical oversight of what should be an essentially local, creative process. This article describes how the Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV/AIDS project at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a set of tools through which creative writers can exercise greater control over the behavioral content of their stories. The Pathways to Change tools both guide scriptwriters as they write BCC/EE storylines and help project managers monitor BCC/EE products for theoretical fidelity and sensitivity to research.

  19. Climate Change Science Teaching through Integration of Technology in Instruction and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Ozbay, G.; Robinson, L.; Klimkowski, V.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation demonstrates the importance of collaborations between the institutions with common focus on offering the academic program on climate change science. Virginia State University (VSU) developed and established the course on climate change and adaptation, AGRI 350 for undergraduates, in cooperation with two HBCUs, Delaware State University (DSU) and Morgan State University (MSU). This program was developed to enhance the science curriculum with funding from the USDA NIFA. The hands-on research opportunities for students were supported by the NSF HBCU UP Supplement Grant at VSU. The technical guidance and lesson plans were available through the courtesy of the AMS and faculty/student team training at the NCAR. In the initial stages, the faculty members participated in faculty development workshops hosted by the AMS and NCAR. This contributed to trained faculty members developing the courses on Climate Change at VSU, DSU, and MSU. To create awareness of global climate change and exposure of students to international programs, seven students from VSU, MSU, and DSU participated in the Climate Change course (ENS 320) at the University of Sunshine Coast (USC), Australia. This international experience included faculty members in using SimCLIM for climate change data into decision-making with regard to potential changes to cropping systems and tree growth. The Climate Change program at VSU, DSU, and MSU is emerging into comprehensive academic program which includes use of case studies and exchange of students' reflections with their peers through discussion board and videoconferencing, hands-on research on water quality monitoring and mapping the study sites, and integration of geospatial technologies and i-Tree. In addition, the students' engagement in intensive research was conducted through hands-on experience with Scanning Electron Microscopy in the Marine Science Department, University of Hawaii at Hilo in summer 2015.

  20. Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program for Fiscal Year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    droughts, ice and hail, snow cover and depth), or tropical and extratropical storm frequency. Identifying recent changes and trends in such...North America and Europe are experiencing an earlier transition from winter to summer. The warmer spring temperatures produce earlier spring green-up of...sea-level rise, increased sedimentation and runoff, increased storm frequency or intensity, saltwater intrusion, and oceanic warming; and (2) warming

  1. Our Changing Planet. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program for Fiscal Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    temperature and storm intensity, or indirectly through changes in distributions of insects that carry pathogens. An example of research in this area is...suggests that the probability of heat waves such as the one that occurred in Europe in 2003 has increased significantly, and that future warming may make...Journal of Climate, 19, 723-740. Thompson, D.W.J. and J.M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation, Part I: Month-to-month

  2. Discussing Climate Change with the Public: Presenting the Science is Necessary but Insufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincelli, P.; Humble, J.

    2012-12-01

    Social science literature shows that the topic of climate change is imbued with cultural meaning for most Americans, such that sound scientific information alone is likely to be unpersuasive to people already doubtful about climate change. A current educational program on climate change emphasizes the following: *Less reliance on geophysical data *Positive messages as frequently as possible *Making the subject personal and concrete *Focusing on scientific aspects of climate change while refraining from promotion of particular policy solutions *Seeking ways to speak to core identities of diverse audiences *Assuring that communication efforts on this highly divisive topic are based on sensitivity to, and respect for, the diversity of worldviews present in citizens *To the extent possible, emphasizing optimism as well as our personal and collective capability to solve the problem of climate change. While this may seem self-evident, we also remind ourselves of the importance of avoiding criticism, blame, demonization, or arrogance in building a more inclusive community of public leaders on climate literacy.; Citing the recognition of climate-change science by trusted organizations is probably more convincing than showing reams of geophysical data. In particular, citing the Department of Defense may speak to the values of many who remain skeptical. ; This image is intended to speak to people that deeply value passing on a way of life to their descendants. Although nationalism can be carried to an extreme, this imagery can convey the notion that protecting our world from climate change is actually patriotic, something few Americans may realize.

  3. Enhanced science-stakeholder communication to improve ecosystem model performances for climate change impact assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Anna Maria; Anderbrant, Olle; Holmér, Jennie; Johansson, Jacob; Schurgers, Guy; Svensson, Glenn P; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, climate impact assessments of relevance to the agricultural and forestry sectors have received considerable attention. Current ecosystem models commonly capture the effect of a warmer climate on biomass production, but they rarely sufficiently capture potential losses caused by pests, pathogens and extreme weather events. In addition, alternative management regimes may not be integrated in the models. A way to improve the quality of climate impact assessments is to increase the science-stakeholder collaboration, and in a two-way dialog link empirical experience and impact modelling with policy and strategies for sustainable management. In this paper we give a brief overview of different ecosystem modelling methods, discuss how to include ecological and management aspects, and highlight the importance of science-stakeholder communication. By this, we hope to stimulate a discussion among the science-stakeholder communities on how to quantify the potential for climate change adaptation by improving the realism in the models.

  4. Teacher Transformation: An Exploration of Science Teachers' Changing Professional Identities, Knowledge, and Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Michelle Phillips

    This qualitative, multiple case study examines five teachers' experiences with a National Science Foundation-funded professional development (PD) program focused on science literacy. Using a three dimensional conceptual framework combining transformative learning theory, communities of practice, and sociocultural conceptions of identity it explores: the ways the "Science Literacy through Science Journalism" (SciJourn) project built professional community and influenced teacher learning; the influence of the project on participating science teachers' professional identities, knowledge, and classroom practices; and the ways teachers were or were not transformed by participation in the project. To this end, data from surveys and phenomenological interviews were analyzed through qualitative textual analysis and narrative analysis. Four of the teachers experienced a change in their stories to live by, aka, an identity shift. Three predominant themes emerged across these cases. These included a changed conceptualization of science literacy, the importance of student engagement and authenticity, and the value of SciJourn's professional development and community. The changed conceptualization of science literacy was particularly salient as it challenged these teachers' assumptions, led them to rethink how they teach science literacy, and also influenced them to re-evaluate their teaching priorities beyond the PD. Consequently, this study concludes that PD efforts should focus as much, or more, on influencing teachers' ideas regarding what and how they teach and less on teaching strategies. A close comparison between two teachers' diverging experiences with the program showed that student engagement played a significant role in teachers' perceptions of the value of project, suggesting that whether or not teachers sustain a new practice is closely tied to their students' feedback. Additionally, this analysis showed that a teacher's individualized needs and sense of efficacy

  5. Exposure science in an age of rapidly changing climate: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaKind, Judy S; Overpeck, Jonathan; Breysse, Patrick N; Backer, Lorrie; Richardson, Susan D; Sobus, Jon; Sapkota, Amir; Upperman, Crystal R; Jiang, Chengsheng; Beard, C Ben; Brunkard, J M; Bell, Jesse E; Harris, Ryan; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Peltier, Richard E; Chew, Ginger L; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in exposure and human health risk predictions. Exposure science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science—Exposures in an Evolving Environment—brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, exposure scientists have an opportunity to conduct “consequential science”—doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions. Understanding the implications of changing exposures on public health may be one of the most consequential areas of study in which exposure scientists could currently be engaged. In this paper, we use a series of case studies to identify exposure data gaps and research paths that will enable us to capture the information necessary for understanding climate change-related human exposures and consequent health impacts. We hope that paper will focus attention on under-developed areas of exposure science that will likely have broad implications for public health. PMID:27485992

  6. The Second Garnet Compendium: Collected Papers 1990-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    BELIEF Robert Goldman Russell Almond 33. Tulane University, CS 12. The MITRE Corporation THESEUS AIMI (An Intelligent Multimedia Interface) Raymond Lang...These are images of windows from the THESEUS application used by the Tulanc University Computer Science Department on guided tours of the department given...to visiting high school seniors and other interested paries. THESEUS is intended to be used as part of a presentation on what the study of computcr

  7. Fostering science communication and outreach through video production in Dartmouth's IGERT Polar Environmental Change graduate program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond Wagner, C. R.; McDavid, L. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dartmouth's NSF-supported IGERT Polar Environmental Change graduate program has focused on using video media to foster interdisciplinary thinking and to improve student skills in science communication and public outreach. Researchers, educators, and funding organizations alike recognize the value of video media for making research results more accessible and relevant to diverse audiences and across cultures. We present an affordable equipment set and the basic video training needed as well as available Dartmouth institutional support systems for students to produce outreach videos on climate change and its associated impacts on people. We highlight and discuss the successes and challenges of producing three types of video products created by graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with the Dartmouth IGERT. The video projects created include 1) graduate student profile videos, 2) a series of short student-created educational videos for Greenlandic high school students, and 3) an outreach video about women in science based on the experiences of women students conducting research during the IGERT field seminar at Summit Station and Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The 'Science in Greenland--It's a Girl Thing' video was featured on The New York Times Dot Earth blog and the Huffington Post Green blog among others and received international recognition. While producing these videos, students 1) identified an audience and created story lines, 2) worked in front of and behind the camera, 3) utilized low-cost digital editing applications, and 4) shared the videos on multiple platforms from social media to live presentations. The three video projects were designed to reach different audiences, and presented unique challenges for content presentation and dissemination. Based on student and faculty assessment, we conclude that the video projects improved student science communication skills and increased public knowledge of polar science and the effects of climate change.

  8. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghmous, James H; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-09-01

    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data .

  9. White paper on science and technology, 1998. In an era of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    As Part 1, the paper first grasps the present age as an era of change, especially for Japan. Japan is facing a hard time in economy and society, and striving for breaking-through of the stagnation. The paper discusses what is needed by the Japanese people, globe and human, and what science and technology can do for it. As the characters of the system for research community, the paper gives keys 'Look', 'Create', 'Best Use', and 'Evaluate', meaning perspective, result achieving, application of research results, and improving research evaluation systems, respectively, all leading to new creativity. As Part 2, the paper describes the current status of science and technology in Japan and other countries. The contents are R and D expenditures, research personnels, and trends related to research performance, including patents, scientific papers, technology trade, and high-tech industries. As part 3, the paper discusses policies implemented for promoting science and technology. Japan has the Science and Technology Basic Plan settled in July 1996, and is developing comprehensive and systematic policies, including researcher security and R and D system improvement, R and D infrastructure, R and D funds, private-sector R and D, international exchange, regional R and D, and science and technology education. The paper mentions also promotion of research activities. (M.M.)

  10. Facilitating long-term changes in student approaches to learning science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Brian J; Beyer, Catharine H; Peterson, Jon E; Pitre, Emile; Lalic, Nevena; Sampson, Paul D; Wakimoto, Barbara T

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates entering science curricula differ greatly in individual starting points and learning needs. The fast pace, high enrollment, and high stakes of introductory science courses, however, limit students' opportunities to self-assess and modify learning strategies. The University of Washington's Biology Fellows Program (BFP) intervenes through a 20-session, premajors course that introduces students to the rigor expected of bioscience majors and assists their development as science learners. This study uses quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess whether the 2007-2009 BFP achieved its desired short- and long-term impacts on student learning. Adjusting for differences in students' high school grade point average and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, we found that participation in the BFP was associated with higher grades in two subsequent gateway biology courses, across multiple quarters and instructors. Two to 4 yr after participating in the program, students attributed changes in how they approached learning science to BFP participation. They reported having learned to "think like a scientist" and to value active-learning strategies and learning communities. In addition, they reported having developed a sense of belonging in bioscience communities. The achievement of long-term impacts for a short-term instructional investment suggests a practical means to prepare diverse students for the rigors of science curricula.

  11. Changing the conversation: how ANS is telling a different story about nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raap, B.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text': As nuclear scientists and engineers, our focus and expertise is in science and technology that yields benefits for society. Yet, we are also often in the position of explaining what can be very complex and technical issues to individuals who are not technical, and who perhaps are guided by misinformation about nuclear science and technology. Being effective communicators, and having an effective communications program at organizations like ANS,is critical if we are to maintain support for nuclear energy. Nuclear plants have shut down in the United States over the past year largely due to economic circumstances. The low price of natural gas and other factors make it extremely challenging for some nuclear plants to be competitive right now. Although this situation will eventually change, clear communications is critical.Fostering a good understanding of nuclear science and technology is needed now more than ever to help people gain an appreciation for the benefits that nuclear energy offers. Last year, ANS created a strategic communications plan. This communications plan called for improvements in all of our communication and outreach efforts. We have many work groups actively working on those improvements, which will be highlighted during the session. We also publicly launched the Center for Nuclear Science and Technology Information, a special communications initiative of ANS. The Center allows ANS to better leverage resources while building awareness about nuclear science and technology among a variety of audiences. Through the Center, ANS seeks to improve public understanding of nuclear science and technology, inform policy makers and their staff about nuclear fundamentals,engage journalists in telling a truthful story based on science, and inspire young people to explore nuclear science and technology. The Center allows ANS to produce improved public education tools that nuclear professionals and advocates can use when doing outreach. The

  12. Changing the conversation: how ANS is telling a different story about nuclear science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raap, B. [American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text': As nuclear scientists and engineers, our focus and expertise is in science and technology that yields benefits for society. Yet, we are also often in the position of explaining what can be very complex and technical issues to individuals who are not technical, and who perhaps are guided by misinformation about nuclear science and technology. Being effective communicators, and having an effective communications program at organizations like ANS,is critical if we are to maintain support for nuclear energy. Nuclear plants have shut down in the United States over the past year largely due to economic circumstances. The low price of natural gas and other factors make it extremely challenging for some nuclear plants to be competitive right now. Although this situation will eventually change, clear communications is critical.Fostering a good understanding of nuclear science and technology is needed now more than ever to help people gain an appreciation for the benefits that nuclear energy offers. Last year, ANS created a strategic communications plan. This communications plan called for improvements in all of our communication and outreach efforts. We have many work groups actively working on those improvements, which will be highlighted during the session. We also publicly launched the Center for Nuclear Science and Technology Information, a special communications initiative of ANS. The Center allows ANS to better leverage resources while building awareness about nuclear science and technology among a variety of audiences. Through the Center, ANS seeks to improve public understanding of nuclear science and technology, inform policy makers and their staff about nuclear fundamentals,engage journalists in telling a truthful story based on science, and inspire young people to explore nuclear science and technology. The Center allows ANS to produce improved public education tools that nuclear professionals and advocates can use when doing outreach. The

  13. Prioritizing multiple health behavior change research topics: expert opinions in behavior change science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katie; Park, Eunhee; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) approaches are understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic MHBC research direction. This cross-sectional study contacted participants through the Society of Behavioral Medicine email listservs and rated the importance of 24 MHBC research topics (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) separately for general and underserved populations. Participants (n = 76) were 79 % female; 76 % White, 10 % Asian, 8 % African American, 5 % Hispanic, and 1 % Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Top MHBC research priorities were predictors of behavior change and the sustainability, long-term effects, and dissemination/translation of interventions for both populations. Recruitment and retention of participants (t(68) = 2.17, p = 0.000), multi-behavioral indices (t(68) = 3.54, p = 0.001), and measurement burden (t(67) = 5.04, p = 0.001) were important for the underserved. Results identified the same top research priorities across populations. For the underserved, research should emphasize recruitment, retention, and measurement burden.

  14. Fighting A Strong Headwind: Challenges in Communicating The Science of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Communicating science to the public is an intrinsic challenge to begin with. An effective communicator must find ways to translate often technical and complex scientific findings for consumption by an audience unfamiliar with the basic tools and lexicon that scientists themselves take for granted. The challenge is made all the more difficult still when the science has implications for public policy, and the scientists face attack by institutions who judge themselves to be at threat by the implications of scientific findings. Such areas of science include (but certainly are not limited to) evolution, stem cell research, environmental health, and the subject of this talk--climate change. In each of these areas, a highly organized, well funded effort has been mounted to attack the science and the scientists themselves. These attacks are rarely fought in legitimate scientific circles such as the peer-reviewed scientific literature or other scholarly venues, but rather through rhetorically-aimed efforts delivered by media outlets aligned with the views of the attackers, and by politicians and groups closely aligned with special interests. I will discuss various approaches to combating such attacks, drawing upon my own experiences in the public arena with regard to the scientific discourse on climate change.

  15. Research blogging: indexing and registering the change in science 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Fausto

    Full Text Available Increasing public interest in science information in a digital and 2.0 science era promotes a dramatically, rapid and deep change in science itself. The emergence and expansion of new technologies and internet-based tools is leading to new means to improve scientific methodology and communication, assessment, promotion and certification. It allows methods of acquisition, manipulation and storage, generating vast quantities of data that can further facilitate the research process. It also improves access to scientific results through information sharing and discussion. Content previously restricted only to specialists is now available to a wider audience. This context requires new management systems to make scientific knowledge more accessible and useable, including new measures to evaluate the reach of scientific information. The new science and research quality measures are strongly related to the new online technologies and services based in social media. Tools such as blogs, social bookmarks and online reference managers, Twitter and others offer alternative, transparent and more comprehensive information about the active interest, usage and reach of scientific publications. Another of these new filters is the Research Blogging platform, which was created in 2007 and now has over 1,230 active blogs, with over 26,960 entries posted about peer-reviewed research on subjects ranging from Anthropology to Zoology. This study takes a closer look at RB, in order to get insights into its contribution to the rapidly changing landscape of scientific communication.

  16. Strategic Plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Program objectives. Source: Chris Sabine , NOAA-PMEL. Chapter 15. International Research and CooperationClimate Change Science Program Strategic Plan...Laboratory Mary C. Erickson National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Jaime Esper National Aeronautics and Space Administration 181 Robert Etkins...Sweeney, C., Poison, A., Metzl, N., Tilbrook, B., Bates, N.,Wanninkhof, R., Feely, R.A., Sabine , C., Olafsson, J., and Nojiri,Y., 2002: Global sea-air

  17. Science and rhetoric in a globalizing public sphere: mediating systems of climate change knowledge and action

    OpenAIRE

    Üzelgün, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Psicologia / Classification (PsychINFO): 3000 Social Psychology 3040 Social Perception & Cognition 4070 Environmental questions e attitudes People’s knowledge and beliefs about intangible problems such as climate change rely heavily on mediated discourses of science and policy. This thesis employs a dialogical and rhetorical approach to social representations to examine how two mediating systems -the mainstream press and environmental non-governmental organizatio...

  18. Eigenmode compendium of the third harmonic module of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisgen, Thomas; Heller, Johann; Galek, Tomasz; Shi, Liangliang; Joshi, Nirav; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.; van Rienen, Ursula

    2017-04-01

    Chains of superconducting radio-frequency resonators are key components of modern particle accelerators such as the European XFEL, which is currently under construction in the north of Germany. In addition to the accelerating mode of the resonators, their beam excited higher order modes are of special interest, because they can harm the beam quality. In contrast to the accelerating mode, these modes are in general not confined within single resonators of the cavity string. For instance, eigenmodes can be localized between adjacent cavities or can be distributed along the entire chain of cavities. Therefore, the full chain has to be considered for a reasonable investigation of its resonant spectra. Accounting for such complex structures is computationally challenging and is therefore often avoided. In this article, the challenge is faced by using the so-called state-space concatenation approach, which is a combination of domain decomposition and model-order reduction. The technique allows for a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom by a factor of ≈ 1.471 ×10-4 . The method is employed to generate a compendium of eigenmodes in the chain of third harmonic cavities for the European XFEL. The results are discussed in detail and are compared with experimental measurements. The compendium serves as a reference for experiments (inter alia for diagnostics based on higher order modes) at the third harmonic cavity string of the European XFEL, it allows for qualitative understanding of resonant effects appearing in chains of cavities, and it is meant to be a proof of principle of the state-space concatenation approach to handle very long and complex radio-frequency structures. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that a modal compendium of a structure with the given complexity is generated. The article presents geometrical details of the chain, defines quantities relevant to superconducting radio-frequency cavities, and describes the employed

  19. Eigenmode compendium of the third harmonic module of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Flisgen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chains of superconducting radio-frequency resonators are key components of modern particle accelerators such as the European XFEL, which is currently under construction in the north of Germany. In addition to the accelerating mode of the resonators, their beam excited higher order modes are of special interest, because they can harm the beam quality. In contrast to the accelerating mode, these modes are in general not confined within single resonators of the cavity string. For instance, eigenmodes can be localized between adjacent cavities or can be distributed along the entire chain of cavities. Therefore, the full chain has to be considered for a reasonable investigation of its resonant spectra. Accounting for such complex structures is computationally challenging and is therefore often avoided. In this article, the challenge is faced by using the so-called state-space concatenation approach, which is a combination of domain decomposition and model-order reduction. The technique allows for a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom by a factor of ≈ 1.471×10^{-4}. The method is employed to generate a compendium of eigenmodes in the chain of third harmonic cavities for the European XFEL. The results are discussed in detail and are compared with experimental measurements. The compendium serves as a reference for experiments (inter alia for diagnostics based on higher order modes at the third harmonic cavity string of the European XFEL, it allows for qualitative understanding of resonant effects appearing in chains of cavities, and it is meant to be a proof of principle of the state-space concatenation approach to handle very long and complex radio-frequency structures. To the authors’ knowledge, it is the first time that a modal compendium of a structure with the given complexity is generated. The article presents geometrical details of the chain, defines quantities relevant to superconducting radio-frequency cavities, and describes

  20. On emergence: a neo-psychoanalytic essay on change and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clay C

    2011-01-01

    The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion.

  1. Determination of the energy dose of a neutron beam using a ionization chamber. A compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, H.; Alberts, W.G.; Brede, H.; Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.; Doerschel, B.; Heinzelmann, M.; Hess, A.; Hoefert, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report is addressed to scientists and technicians, who are engaged in dosimetry of fast neutrons, especially for purposes of percutaneous radiation therapy. The range of mean energies of the radiation sources may be approximately between 1 MeV and 50 MeV. The report exhibits a compendium, which describes the basic methods and procedures for the determination of energy dose in tissue in a phantom or free-in-air, where applicable. Furthermore, requirements for monitor, test devices and phantom materials are described. The calculation methods are comprehensibly derived and supplemented with numerical data. A detailed analysis of experimental uncertainties is completed with practical examples. (orig.) [de

  2. Radium remediation - History and Present Day. A Worldwide Overview Compendium (DVD) first Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelmer, Robert; Ouzounian, Gerald; Cochard, Guillaume; Huchette, Nathalie; Fowlie, Glenna

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impact of radium remains even today. The legacy of radio-luminescent paints, radium therapy needles, mining and processing and associated contamination has long been pursued in France, Belgium, Canada, the USA and other countries. The management of these tasks provides a rich and fascinating history as well as successes and lessons learned in environmental remediation. This Compendium provides an immediate resource to those who wish to investigate these subjects further and a means of adding to the resource. It contains links, movies, documents and references

  3. Introduction and user's information for the fixed site physical protection upgrade rule guidance compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.J. Jr.; Allen, T.

    1980-06-01

    Licensees at fixed sites who possess, use, process, or handle strategic special nuclear material are required to design a physical security system to protect this material. This report suggests an orderly process for using guidance, with special emphasis on two regulatory guides and two NUREG series documents that comprise a compendium, to aid in the design of a physical security system that meets the requirements of the final Physical Protection Upgrade Rule. The rule was published November 28, 1979 (44 FR 68184), and became effective March 25, 1980

  4. Gauss-Vanicek Spectral Analysis of the Sepkoski Compendium: No New Life Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Omerbashich, M.

    2006-01-01

    New periods can emerge from data as a byproduct of incorrect processing or even the method applied. In one such recent instance, a new life cycle with a 62+-3 Myr period was reportedly found (about trend) in genus variations from the Sepkoski compendium, the world most complete fossil record. The approach that led to reporting this period was based on Fourier method of spectral analysis. I show here that no such period is found when the original data set is considered rigorously and processed...

  5. Earth's Climate: Informing and Invoking Change Through Three Streams of Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Waller, J. L.; DeMuynck, E.; Weglarz, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    When art and science exhibitions "Layers: Places in Peril" and `small problems, BIG TROUBLE" premiered, gallery visitors were drawn into the show through a series of features including the size, color and dramatic narrative of the paintings and by their own sentiments for the depicted cities, places and topics of each show. Inside the gallery, people read accompanying essays based on the geoscience, physics, biology and chemistry related to each of the depicted subjects. The result: hearts and minds engaged. Since the art and text dialogues were consciously and carefully crafted to have broad appeal to those without formal backgrounds in art and science, and to people of a range of ages, visitors did not feel they were preached to but rather, that they were a part of a conversation. This approach of producing art and science exhibitions for a wide diversity of gallery visitors and students, reaches a different audience than in discipline-specific classrooms or professional conferences and can inspire people to know and take action on a number of issues, including those related to climate change. As long-time educators of Art and Science, we are fully aware of the importance of those emotional connections in learning and we embraced that approach in our first two shows. Working on a third exhibition, we wish to expand on those deep connections for long-reaching reactions from gallery visitors. Entitled "River Bookends: Headwaters, Delta and the Volume of Stories In Between", our focus is on the multi-disciplinary stories of selected world rivers of the past, present and future. Presented concurrently in a gallery and a planetarium and weaving elements of art, science, music, dance, poetry, technology and interactive opportunities that engage memory and initiate problem solving through the exhibition experience, we stress both the art and science of rivers, their complexity, power and vulnerability to factors including climate change. Through these multisensory

  6. What is motivating middle-school science teachers to teach climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Peggy; Petcovic, Heather; Reeves, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Adoption of science content standards that include anthropogenic climate change has prompted widespread instruction in climate change for the first time. However, the controversial nature of the topic can be daunting and many teachers share misconceptions that lead to weak treatment of climate change in classrooms. Nevertheless, numerous teachers have embraced the topic and are providing illustrations of deliberate climate change education. In this study we investigated teacher motivation using focus groups with middle school teachers who currently teach climate change. Qualitative analysis of the collective teacher voices yielded underlying motivations. Our findings suggest that these teachers' interest in environmentalism naturally translates to climate change advocacy and motivates teaching the topic. Their knowledge and expertise gives them confidence to teach it. These teachers see themselves as scientists, therefore their views align with the scientific consensus. They practice authentic scientific research with their students, thus confirming valued characteristics of their scientist identity. Finally, our findings suggest that teaching climate change gives these teachers a sense of hope as they impact the future through their students. This study contrasts with skepticism over the state of climate change education and contributes to an understanding of how climate change education is motivated in teachers.

  7. Improving Public Engagement With Climate Change: Five "Best Practice" Insights From Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sander; Maibach, Edward; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Despite being one of the most important societal challenges of the 21st century, public engagement with climate change currently remains low in the United States. Mounting evidence from across the behavioral sciences has found that most people regard climate change as a nonurgent and psychologically distant risk-spatially, temporally, and socially-which has led to deferred public decision making about mitigation and adaptation responses. In this article, we advance five simple but important "best practice" insights from psychological science that can help governments improve public policymaking about climate change. Particularly, instead of a future, distant, global, nonpersonal, and analytical risk that is often framed as an overt loss for society, we argue that policymakers should (a) emphasize climate change as a present, local, and personal risk; (b) facilitate more affective and experiential engagement; (c) leverage relevant social group norms; (d) frame policy solutions in terms of what can be gained from immediate action; and (e) appeal to intrinsically valued long-term environmental goals and outcomes. With practical examples we illustrate how these key psychological principles can be applied to support societal engagement and climate change policymaking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. SEA Change: Bringing together Science, Engineering and the Arts at the University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfit, M. R.; Mertz, M. S.; Lavelli, L.

    2014-12-01

    A group of interested and multifaceted faculty, administrators and students created the Science, Engineering, Arts Committee (SEA Change) two years ago at the University of Florida (UF). Recognizing that innovative ideas arise from the convergence of divergent thinkers, the committee seeks to bring together faculty in Science, Engineering, the Arts and others across campus to develop and disseminate innovative ideas for research, teaching and service that will enhance the campus intellectual environment. We meet regularly throughout the year as faculty with graduate and undergraduate students to catalyze ideas that could lead to collaborative or interdisciplinary projects and make recommendations to support innovative, critical and creative work. As an example, the Department of Geological Sciences and the School of Art and Art History collaborated on a competition among UF undergraduate painting students to create artistic works that related to geoscience. Each student gathered information from Geological Sciences faculty members to use for inspiration in creating paintings along with site-specific proposals to compete for a commission. The winning work was three-story high painting representing rock strata and the Florida environment entitled "Prairie Horizontals" that is now installed in the Geoscience building entrance atrium. Two smaller paintings of the second place winner, depicting geologists in the field were also purchased and displayed in a main hallway. Other activities supported by SEA Change have included a collaborative work of UF engineering and dance professors who partnered for the Creative Storytelling and Choreography Lab, to introduce basic storytelling tools to engineering students. A campus-wide gathering of UF faculty and graduate students titled Creative Practices: The Art & Science of Discovery featured guest speakers Steven Tepper, Victoria Vesna and Benjamin Knapp in spring 2014. The Committee plans to develop and foster ideas that will

  9. Time for Change? Climate Science Reconsidered: Report of the UCL Policy Commission on Communicating Climate Science, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Rapley, C. G.; De Meyer, K.; Carney, J.; Clarke, R.; Howarth, C.; Smith, N.; Stilgoe, J.; Youngs, S.; Brierley, C.; Haugvaldstad, A.; Lotto, B.; Michie, S.; Shipworth, M.; Tuckett, D.

    2014-01-01

    The UCL Policy Commission on the Communication of Climate Science, chaired by Professor Chris Rapley comprises a cross-disciplinary project group of researchers from psychology, neuroscience, science and technology studies, earth sciences and energy research. The Commission examined the challenges faced in communicating climate science effectively to policy-makers and the public, and the role of climate scientists in communication. / The Commission explored the role of climate scientists in c...

  10. Choices in higher education: Majoring in and changing from the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Nancy Ann

    This dissertation addresses patterns of retention of undergraduate science, engineering and mathematics (SEM) students, with special attention paid to female and under represented minority students. As such, the study is focused on issues related to academic discipline and institutional retention, rather than the retention of students in the overall system of higher education. While previous retention studies have little to say about rates of retention that are specific to the sciences (or any other specific area of study) or employ models that rely on students' performance at the college level, this work address both points by identifying the post secondary academic performance characteristics of persisters and non-persisters in the sciences by gender, ethnicity and matriculating major as well as identifying introductory SEM course requirements that prevent students from persisting in sciencegender, ethnicity and matriculating major as well as identifying introductory SEM course requirements that prevent students from persisting in science majors. A secondary goal of investigating the usefulness of institutional records for retention research is addressed. Models produced for the entire population and selected subpopulations consistently classified higher-performing (both SEM and non-SEM grade point averages) students into Bachelor of Science categories using the number of Introductory Chemistry courses attempted at the university. For lower performing students, those with more introductory chemistry courses were classified as changing majors out of the sciences, and in general as completing a Bachelor of Arts degree. Performance in gatekeeper courses as a predictor of terminal academic status was limited to Introductory Physics for a small number of cases. Performance in Introductory Calculus and Introductory Chemistry were not consistently utilized as predictor variables. The models produced for various subpopulations (women, ethnic groups and matriculation

  11. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  12. Participation in a Multi-Institutional Curriculum Development Project Changed Science Faculty Knowledge and Beliefs about Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Deborah A.; Borda, Emily J.; Hanley, Daniel M.; Landel, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant pressure to reform science teaching and learning in K12 schools, and a concurrent call to reform undergraduate courses, higher education science content courses have remained relatively static. Higher education science faculty have few opportunities to explore research on how people learn, examine state or national science…

  13. Our Changing Climate: A Brand New Way to Study Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Kauffman, C.; Geer, I.; Nugnes, K. A.; Mills, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's climate is inherently variable, but is currently changing at rates unprecedented in recent Earth history. Human activity plays a major role in this change and is projected to do so well into the future. This is the stance taken in Our Changing Climate, the brand new climate science ebook from the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Our Changing Climate investigates Earth's climate system, explores humans' impact on it, and identifies actions needed in response to climate change. Released in August 2014, Our Changing Climate is the result of a year's worth of intensive research and writing, incorporating the latest scientific understandings of Earth's climate system from reports such as IPCC AR5 and the Third National Climate Assessment. To encourage additional exploration of climate science information, scientific literature, from which chapter content was derived, is cited at the conclusion of each chapter. In addition, Topic In Depth sections appear throughout each chapter and lead to more extensive information related to various topics. For example, a Topic In Depth in Chapter 11 describes the effect of climate extremes on ranching enterprises in Nebraska. Climate science is multi-disciplinary and therefore Our Changing Climate covers a breadth of topics. From understanding basic statistics and geospatial tools used to investigate Earth's climate system to examining the psychological and financial reasons behind climate change denial, the AMS believes that a multi-disciplinary approach is the most effective way to increase climate literacy. Our Changing Climate is part of the AMS Climate Studies course which is intended for undergraduate-level students. Other course materials include an eInvestigations Manual and access to the RealTime Climate Portal, both of which provide weekly activities corresponding to that week's chapter content. The RealTime Climate Portal also has links to climate data as well as societal interactions and climate policy

  14. Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Redman; J. Morgan Grove; Lauren H. Kuby; Lauren H. Kuby

    2004-01-01

    The integration of the social sciences into long-term ecological research is an urgent priority. To address this need, a group of social, earth, and life scientists associated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have articulated a conceptual framework for understanding the human dimensions of ecological change...

  15. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  16. Linking Student Achievement and Teacher Science Content Knowledge about Climate Change: Ensuring the Nations 3 Million Teachers Understand the Science through an Electronic Professional Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Byers, A.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific complexities of global climate change, with wide-ranging economic and social significance, create an intellectual challenge that mandates greater public understanding of climate change research and the concurrent ability to make informed decisions. The critical need for an engaged, science literate public has been repeatedly emphasized by multi-disciplinary entities like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the National Academies (Rising Above the Gathering Storm report), and the interagency group responsible for the recently updated Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. There is a clear need for an American public that is climate literate and for K-12 teachers confident in teaching relevant science content. A key goal in the creation of a climate literate society is to enhance teachers’ knowledge of global climate change through a national, scalable, and sustainable professional development system, using compelling climate science data and resources to stimulate inquiry-based student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This session will explore innovative e-learning technologies to address the limitations of one-time, face-to-face workshops, thereby adding significant sustainability and scalability. The resources developed will help teachers sift through the vast volume of global climate change information and provide research-based, high-quality science content and pedagogical information to help teachers effectively teach their students about the complex issues surrounding global climate change. The Learning Center is NSTA's e-professional development portal to help the nations teachers and informal educators learn about the scientific complexities of global climate change through research-based techniques and is proven to significantly improve teacher science content knowledge.

  17. The nature of science and the preservice elementary teacher: Changes in understanding and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Michael Gerald

    This action research project studies preservice elementary teachers in a science methods course. The purpose of this research project was to enhance preservice teachers' understanding of specific nature of science (NOS) tenets so as to promote equity and access within the elementary science classroom. In particular, I chose five NOS tenets that were listed in the first chapter of the AAAS (1989) document titled, "The Nature of Science," and connected them to equitable educational goals and practices. The theoretical framework guiding this study came from bodies of scholarship relating to the NOS, social constructivism, and action research. This study addressed the following three questions: (1) What opportunities were provided the preservice teachers so that they could enhance their understandings of the NOS? (2) What were the changes in preservice teachers' understanding of the NOS as a result? (3) How did the prospective teachers' understandings of the NOS translate into their classroom practice? The analysis revealed that the science methods course's operational curriculum consisted of implicit and explicit teaching of the NOS, as well as intended and untended NOS tenets. The prospective teachers initially held a limited view of the NOS, but by the end of the course their view had been enhanced. In addition, the participants made direct connections between their new understandings of the NOS and equity and access in the science classroom. In their teaching, the preservice teachers as a group implicitly taught all five of the NOS tenets. In fact, a majority taught three of the five intended tenets. Explicitly, only one tenet was taught, but it was taught with a direct connection to making the science classroom more inclusive. The findings of this study indicate that preservice teachers can have their views of the NOS enhanced even though they may have experienced years of deficient science instruction. They pointed out that this enhanced view of the NOS can be

  18. High school student's motivation to engage in conceptual change-learning in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlia, Lily

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated motivational factors that are related to engaging in conceptual change learning. While previous studies have recognized the resistance of students' scientific conception to change, few have investigated the role that non-cognitive factors might play when students are exposed to conceptual change instruction. Three research questions were examined: (a) What instructional strategies did the teacher use to both promote students' learning for conceptual change and increase their motivation in learning science? (b) What are the patterns of students' motivation to engage in conceptual change learning? And (c) what individual profiles can be constructed from the four motivational factors (i.e., goals, values, self-efficacy, and control beliefs) and how are these profiles linked to engagement (i.e., behavioral and cognitive engagement) in conceptual change learning of science? Eleven twelfth grade students (senior students) and the teacher in which conceptual change approach to teaching was used in daily activities were selected. Data collection for this study included student's self-reported responses to the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), classroom observation of students and the teacher, and structured interviews. Analysis of these data resulted in a motivational factor profile for each student and cross case analysis for entire group. Results from this study indicate that each student has different motivation factors that are mostly influenced individual student to learn science. Among these motivation factors, task value and control beliefs were most important for students. The implication of these findings are that teachers need to encourage students to find learning for conceptual change a valuable task, and that students need to find applications for their new conceptions within their everyday lives. In addition, teachers need to encourage students to develop learning strategies for conceptual understanding

  19. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  20. Does Reality Matter? Social and Science Bases of Public Beliefs about Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Schaeffer, K. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Hamilton, L.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of public perceptions about trends in Arctic sea ice find that over two-thirds are aware of the multi-decade decrease. This awareness differs sharply across ideological and educational subgroups, however. It does not appear to shift in response to scientific and media discussion following a September with unusually low (2012) or somewhat higher (2013) sea ice extent. Other perceptions about Arctic change, such as impacts on mid-latitude weather, follow similar patterns with sharp ideological difference and limited response to external events, including science reports. On the other hand, public accuracy on basic factual questions that do not by themselves imply directional change (such as location of the North Pole) may be very low, and among some subgroups accurate knowledge shows an oddly negative correlation with self-confidence about understanding of climate change. These results from 13 surveys over 2011-2015 suggest that biased assimilation filters the acceptance of information about Arctic change, with implications for science communication.

  1. Global Change science in Latin America: How can we get more scientists doing it at home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Pineiro, G.

    2007-05-01

    The need for a stronger research community in Latin America (LA) is increasingly acknowledged by most countries in the region. Tools to cope with natural and social shifts as well as novel scientific knowledge of international value are being demanded. What are the main challenges and opportunities to feel these needs? Although funding is traditionally pointed out as the main barrier for (global change) science development in LA, we propose that some aspects of the prevailing scientific culture are also of fundamental importance. We define them as a) "inferiority complex", yielding low expectation on the potential impact of LA science at the international level, pushing researchers seeking success to look for it outside LA, and making many home-based researchers to create a self-defensive attitude against returning colleagues; b) "disciplinary and hierarchical focus" shaping national agencies, universities, and scientific unions along structured traditional fields that make the acceptance and development of cross-cutting Earth System science difficult; and c) "academic isolation", stemming from a mutual distrust between scientist and policy makers. The often overlooked opportunities of global change science in LA include d) a "complementary perspective" on global change issues in LA among southern and northern researchers, derived from their different cultural context, e) a "complementary global change laboratory" in LA hosting a dynamic and often unique set of land use changes; f) "highly efficient research systems" capable of training student and publish paper at very low costs. We argue that creative capacity building programs should tackle a-b-c and take advantage of d-e-f by propitiating teams that develop effective North-South and regional links to train new young scientist doing global change research in their own countries. In addition, capacity building in the continent needs to go beyond formal training and deal with the process of young scientist

  2. Novel Tools for Climate Change Learning and Responding in Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Brunacini, Jessica; Pfirman, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Several innovative, polar focused activities and tools including a polar hub website (http://thepolarhub.org) have been developed for use in formal and informal earth science or STEM education by the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership (consisting of climate scientists, experts in the learning sciences and education practitioners). In seeking to inform understanding of and response to climate change, these tools and activities range from increasing awareness to informing decisions about climate change, from being used in classrooms (by undergraduate students as well as by pre-college students or by teachers taking online climate graduate courses) to being used in the public arena (by stakeholders, community members and the general public), and from using low technology (card games such as EcoChains- Arctic Crisis, a food web game or SMARTIC - Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change, an Arctic marine spatial planning game) to high technology (Greenify Network - a mobile real world action game that fosters sustainability and allows players to meaningfully address climate change in their daily lives, or the Polar Explorer Data Visualization Tablet App that allows individuals to explore data collected by scientists and presented for the everyday user through interactive maps and visualizations, to ask questions and go on an individualized tour of polar regions and their connections to the rest of the world). Games are useful tools in integrative and applied learning, in gaining practical and intellectual skills, and in systems thinking. Also, as part of the PoLAR Partnership, a Signs of the Land Climate Change Camp was collaboratively developed and conducted, that can be used as a model for engaging and representing indigenous communities in the co-production of climate change knowledge, communication tools and solutions building. Future camps are planned with Alaska Native Elders, educators including classroom

  3. Collaborative Projects Weaving Indigenous and Western Science, Knowledge and Perspectives in Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Chase, M.; Brunacini, J.; Spellman, K.

    2017-12-01

    The "Reaching Arctic Communities Facing Climate Change" and "Feedbacks and Impacts of A Warming Arctic: Engaging Learners in STEM Using GLOBE and NASA Assets" projects are examples of Indigenous and western science communities' collaborative efforts in braiding multiple perspectives and methods in climate change education. Lessons being learned and applied in these projects include the need to invite and engage members of the indigenous and scientific communities in the beginning as a project is being proposed or formulated; the need for negotiated space in the project and activities where opportunity to present and access both knowledge systems is equitable, recognizes and validates each knowledge and method, and considers the use of pedagogical practices including pace/rhythm and instructional approach most suitable to the target audience. For example with Indigenous audiences/participants, it is important to follow local Indigenous protocol to start an event and/or use a resource that highlights the current experience or voices of Indigenous people with climate change. For mixed audience groups, it is critical to have personal introductions at the beginning of an event so that each participant is given an opportunity and encouraged to voice their ideas and opinions starting with how they want to introduce themselves and thus begin to establish a welcoming and collegial atmosphere for dialog. It is also important to communicate climate science in humanistic terms, that people and communities are affected not just the environment or economies. These collaborative partnerships produce mutual benefits including increased awareness and understanding of personal connections to climate change impacts; opportunities for cultural enrichment; opportunities for accessing elder knowledge which is highly valued as well as science, education and communication tools that are needed in working together in addressing issues and making communities resilient and adaptive.

  4. A compendium of strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoe, Deborah S; Anderson, Deverick J; Berenholtz, Sean M; Calfee, David P; Dubberke, Erik R; Ellingson, Katherine D; Gerding, Dale N; Haas, Janet P; Kaye, Keith S; Klompas, Michael; Lo, Evelyn; Marschall, Jonas; Mermel, Leonard A; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Salgado, Cassandra D; Bryant, Kristina; Classen, David; Crist, Katrina; Deloney, Valerie M; Fishman, Neil O; Foster, Nancy; Goldmann, Donald A; Humphreys, Eve; Jernigan, John A; Padberg, Jennifer; Perl, Trish M; Podgorny, Kelly; Septimus, Edward J; VanAmringe, Margaret; Weaver, Tom; Weinstein, Robert A; Wise, Robert; Maragakis, Lisa L

    2014-08-01

    Since the publication of "A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals" in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).

  5. Adaptation of Australia’s Marine Ecosystems to Climate Change: Using Science to Inform Conservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that climate change poses for marine ecosystems are already manifesting in impacts at the species, population, and community levels in Australia, particularly in Tasmania and tropical northern Australia. Many species and habitats are already under threat as a result of human activities, and the additional pressure from climate change significantly increases the challenge for marine conservation and management. Climate change impacts are expected to magnify as sea surface temperatures, ocean chemistry, ocean circulation, sea level, rainfall, and storm patterns continue to change this century. In particular, keystone species that form the foundation of marine habitats, such as coral reefs, kelp beds, and temperate rocky reefs, are projected to pass thresholds with subsequent implications for communities and ecosystems. This review synthesises recent science in this field: the observed impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change, ecological thresholds of change, and strategies for marine conservation to promote adaptation. Increasing observations of climate-related impacts on Australia’s marine ecosystems—both temperate and tropical—are making adaptive management more important than ever before. Our increased understanding of the impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change provides a focus for “no-regrets” adaptations that can be implemented now and refined as knowledge improves.

  6. Compendium of structure and collision data in the first 12 issues of the international bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    This document is a compendium of the structure, spectra and collision data in the first 12 issues of the International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. The Bulletin is issued quarterly by the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist the development of fusion research and technology. Not included in this compendium are those parts of the Bulletin concerned with Surface Effects, Work in Progress, Contributed Numerical Data, and Data Requests. Where necessary, corrections have been made to the data previously published to make the compendium as accurate as possible. The editors would appreciate any information on errors, duplications or omissions which would make future compendia more accurate and useful. (author)

  7. A Compendium of Social-Behavioral Research Funded by NCER and NCSER: 2002-2013. NCER 2016-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Hall, Adam; Stapleton, Katina; Doolittle, Emily; Buckley, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this compendium is to catalog NCER's and NCSER's contributions to social-behavioral research. Research undertaken as part of these projects is contributing to a knowledge base that ultimately aims to improve academic outcomes for students via improvements in students' social-behavioral competencies, teachers' practices, and the…

  8. The learning of sciences: a gradual change in the way of learning. The case of vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Bravo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning the scientific way of knowledge implies a change in the most implicit principles that guide comprehension, interpretation and explanation of scientific phenomena as well as a change in the type of associated reasoning. With the aim of favouring this type of learning, a teaching programme was developed in relation to vision and implemented with a group of secondary school students. The way of learning of these students was observed at different teaching stages. Findings suggest that during the learning process the way students learn seems to change gradually and that students construct “intermediate” models (right but incomplete that become the basis for the construction of a systemic model proposed by school science.

  9. The Science of Sustaining Health Behavior Change: The Health Maintenance Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Mier, Nelda; Wernicke, Meghan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Health Maintenance Consortium (HMC) is a multisite Grantee Consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health from 2004–2009. The goal of HMC is to enhance understanding of the long-term maintenance of behavior change, as well as effective strategies for achieving sustainable health promotion and disease prevention. Methods This introductory research synthesis prepared by the Resource Center gives context to this theme issue by providing an overview of the HMC and the articles in this journal. Results It explores the contributions to our conceptualization of behavior change processes and intervention strategies, the trajectory of effectiveness of behavioral and social interventions, and factors influencing the long-term maintenance of behavioral and social interventions. Conclusions Future directions for furthering the science of maintaining behavior change and reducing the gaps between research and practice are recommended. PMID:20604691

  10. Tracking global change at local scales: Phenology for science, outreach, conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharron, Ed; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-01

    A Workshop Exploring the Use of Phenology Studies for Public Engagement; New Orleans, Louisiana, 14 March 2011 ; During a George Wright Society Conference session that was led by the USA National Phenology Network (USANPN; http://www.usanpn.org) and the National Park Service (NPS), professionals from government organizations, nonprofits, and higher-education institutions came together to explore the possibilities of using phenology monitoring to engage the public. One of the most visible effects of global change on ecosystems is shifts in phenology: the timing of biological events such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. These shifts are already occurring and reflect biological responses to climate change at local to regional scales. Changes in phenology have important implications for species ecology and resource management and, because they are place-based and tangible, serve as an ideal platform for education, outreach, and citizen science.

  11. A Model for Teaching a Climate Change Elective Science Course at the Community College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of global climate change is far-reaching, both for humanity and for the environment. It is essential that our students be provided a strong scientific background for the role of natural and human caused climate change so that they are better prepared to become involved in the discussion. Here the author reveals a successful model designed for use with a diverse student body at the community college level. Teaching strategies beyond the traditional lecture and exam style include: web-based resources such as static websites along with dynamic blogging tools, post-lecture cooperative learning review sessions, weekly current event research projects, use of rubrics to assist students in their own project evaluation before submission, and a research paper utilizing the Skeptical Science website to examine the validity of the most common climate change myths.

  12. Optimal climate change: economics and climate science policy histories (from heuristic to normative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randalls, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Historical accounts of climate change science and policy have reflected rather infrequently upon the debates, discussions, and policy advice proffered by economists in the 1980s. While there are many forms of economic analysis, this article focuses upon cost-benefit analysis, especially as adopted in the work of William Nordhaus. The article addresses the way in which climate change economics subtly altered debates about climate policy from the late 1970s through the 1990s. These debates are often technical and complex, but the argument in this article is that the development of a philosophy of climate change as an issue for cost-benefit analysis has had consequences for how climate policy is made today.

  13. A New Compendium of Soil Respiration Data for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present to the scientific community a new dataset derived from existing literature on soil respiration in Africa. The data has thus been obtained by searching for records in peer review papers and grey literature. The main search engines used are: Scientific Citation Index (SCI database, ISI Science web and Google scholar. This data description paper has greatly advanced the number of data points on soil respiration in Africa from 4 in 2010 to 62 in 2014. The new data points are culled from 47 peer review publications and grey literature reports. The data lends its self to a lot of possible analytical methods such as correlation analysis, multiple linear regressions, artificial neural network analysis and process base modeling. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that this paper has greatly advanced the availability of soil respiration data in Africa by presenting all the available records that before now were only reported in different studies.

  14. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Sivapalan, M.; Harman, C. J.; Srinivasan, V.; Hipsey, M. R.; Reed, P.; Montanari, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy- and infrastructure-based responses. Yet responsible decision-making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal- to century-long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle - a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges from the perspectives of hydrologic science research. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management. Fully realizing the potential of this approach will ultimately require detailed integration of social science and physical science

  15. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014: Practicing 'Citizen-Science' in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.

  16. Recognizing lexical and semantic change patterns in evolving life science ontologies to inform mapping adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Dinh, Duy; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Mappings established between life science ontologies require significant efforts to maintain them up to date due to the size and frequent evolution of these ontologies. In consequence, automatic methods for applying modifications on mappings are highly demanded. The accuracy of such methods relies on the available description about the evolution of ontologies, especially regarding concepts involved in mappings. However, from one ontology version to another, a further understanding of ontology changes relevant for supporting mapping adaptation is typically lacking. This research work defines a set of change patterns at the level of concept attributes, and proposes original methods to automatically recognize instances of these patterns based on the similarity between attributes denoting the evolving concepts. This investigation evaluates the benefits of the proposed methods and the influence of the recognized change patterns to select the strategies for mapping adaptation. The summary of the findings is as follows: (1) the Precision (>60%) and Recall (>35%) achieved by comparing manually identified change patterns with the automatic ones; (2) a set of potential impact of recognized change patterns on the way mappings is adapted. We found that the detected correlations cover ∼66% of the mapping adaptation actions with a positive impact; and (3) the influence of the similarity coefficient calculated between concept attributes on the performance of the recognition algorithms. The experimental evaluations conducted with real life science ontologies showed the effectiveness of our approach to accurately characterize ontology evolution at the level of concept attributes. This investigation confirmed the relevance of the proposed change patterns to support decisions on mapping adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How Blogging on Earth and Environmental Science Changed One Student's Passion, Perception, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, I started a WordPress blog to engage more with my undergraduate education field of study - communications. Starting out with blog posts about social media, this blog's initial goal was to showcase my interest in the media as well as to blog about my first conference attendance and presentations. However, blogging turned into more than that for me. As I was pursuing a minor in Environmental Inquiry and therefore taking more Earth and environmental science classes, I learned that I love to write about environmental issues, particularly about how issues can be addressed and resolved. Because of this shift in my personal and professional interests, I began to blog about global topics such as global water consumption, environmental conservation and arctic sea ice. This change in direction was unprecedented, but helped define my online presence. Over the two years I have been writing my blog, the science posts have been the most successful, with WordPress.com users liking and reading the posts. Readers from all over the globe are brought to my blog from search engines, as shown through the analytics on the WordPress dashboard. However, the impact of my blog on others is challenging to quantify apart from the analytics, because most people do not comment on the posts. Regardless, and most importantly, my blog has changed MY perception of science. Before I started blogging about science topics, I was unaware of how complicated and connected Earth's processes are, including climate change, natural disasters, human actions and pollution. Overall, this blog has been important to me because it helped define my interests academically, leading me to apply and be accepted to a Masters program at the University of Montana starting in August 2013. The program in Environmental Science and Natural Resource Journalism umbrellas over both my training in communications and my love for the environment. Because of my personal growth through my blog, I am also motivated to create

  18. Unquestioned answers or unanswered questions: beliefs about science guide responses to uncertainty in climate change risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A

    2012-06-01

    In two experimental studies we investigated the effect of beliefs about the nature and purpose of science (classical vs. Kuhnian models of science) on responses to uncertainty in scientific messages about climate change risk. The results revealed a significant interaction between both measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) beliefs about science and the level of communicated uncertainty on willingness to act in line with the message. Specifically, messages that communicated high uncertainty were more persuasive for participants who shared an understanding of science as debate than for those who believed that science is a search for absolute truth. In addition, participants who had a concept of science as debate were more motivated by higher (rather than lower) uncertainty in climate change messages. The results suggest that achieving alignment between the general public's beliefs about science and the style of the scientific messages is crucial for successful risk communication in science. Accordingly, rather than uncertainty always undermining the effectiveness of science communication, uncertainty can enhance message effects when it fits the audience's understanding of what science is. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Peter; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Conley, Andrew; Vertenstein, Mariana; Craig, Anthony

    2013-02-13

    The objective of this award was to build a scalable and extensible Earth System Model that can be used to study climate change science. That objective has been achieved with the public release of the Community Earth System Model, version 1 (CESM1). In particular, the development of the CESM1 atmospheric chemistry component was substantially funded by this award, as was the development of the significantly improved coupler component. The CESM1 allows new climate change science in areas such as future air quality in very large cities, the effects of recovery of the southern hemisphere ozone hole, and effects of runoff from ice melt in the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Results from a whole series of future climate projections using the CESM1 are also freely available via the web from the CMIP5 archive at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Many research papers using these results have now been published, and will form part of the 5th Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which is to be published late in 2013.

  20. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  1. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çibik, Ayse Sert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  2. Metaconceptually-Enhanced Simulation-Based Inquiry: Effects on Eighth Grade Students' Conceptual Change and Science Epistemic Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Ge, Xun; Eseryel, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of metaconceptually-enhanced, simulation-based inquiry learning on eighth grade students' conceptual change in science and their development of science epistemic beliefs. Two experimental groups studied the topics of motion and force using the same computer simulations but with different simulation guides: one…

  3. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  4. Cool Science: Year 2 of Using Children's Artwork about Climate Change to Engage Riders on Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on the second year of an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) conducts a statewide art competition for K-12 students in the fall challenging them to express climate science understanding through the visual arts. An inter-disciplinary panel of judges evaluates entries and identifies the top 24 works of art. The best six student works of art are then put on public display throughout the spring on the Lowell Regional Transit Authority (LRTA). Displaying student artwork in Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) such as bus placards and posters is intended to engage riders with opportunities to learn informally. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general public and k-12 students/teachers. The goals of CS are: 1) Engage teachers, students, and parents in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Display the winning 6 artworks from K-12 students throughout the LRTA. 3) Assess the impact of Cool Science on the teaching and learning of climate science in K-12 formal education. 4) Assess the impact of Cool Science artwork on attitudes, awareness, and understanding of climate change among adult bus riders. A naturalistic inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design. The evaluation focuses on providing feedback regarding the potential learning outcomes for the K-12 students who create the media for the project and the general riding public who engage with the student artwork. To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, interviews, and online analytics. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The Cool Science (CS) project is an opportunity

  5. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A statistical compendium

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Nelgen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Until very recently, most grape-based wine was consumed close to where it was produced, and mostly that was in Europe. Barely one-tenth of the world’s wine production was exported prior to the 1970s, even counting intra-European trade. The latest wave of globalization has changed that forever. Now more than one-third of all wine consumed globally is produced in another country, and Europe’s dominance of global wine trade has been greatly diminished by the surge of exports from ‘New World’ pro...

  6. Facing climate change in forests and fields: U.S. Forest Service taps into science-management partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Daniels; Nancy Shaw; Dave Peterson; Keith Nislow; Monica Tomosy; Mary Rowland

    2014-01-01

    As a growing body of science shows, climate change impacts on wildlife are already profound—from shifting species’ ranges and altering the synchronicity of food sources to changing the availability of water. Such impacts are only expected to increase in the coming decades. As climate change shapes complex, interwoven ecological processes, novel conditions and...

  7. Mars in Motion: An online Citizen Science platform looking for changes on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinks, James Christopher; Wardlaw, Jessica; Houghton, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    The European FP7 iMars project has developed tools and 3D models of the Martian surface through the co-registration of NASA and ESA mission data dating from the Viking missions of the 1970s to the present day, for a much more comprehensive interpretation of the geomorphological and climatic processes that have taken and do take place. We present the Citizen Science component of the project, 'Mars in Motion', created through the Zooniverse's Panoptes framework to allow volunteers to look for and identify changes on the surface of Mars over time. 'Mars in Motion', as with many other current citizen science platforms of a planetary or other disciplinary focus, has been developed to compliment the results of automated data mining analysis software, both by validation through the creation of training data and by adding context - gathering more in-depth data on the type and metrics of change initially detected.Through the analysis of initial volunteer results collected in the second half of 2016, the accuracy and ability of untrained participants to identify geomorphological changes is considered, as well as the impact of their position in the system. Volunteer contribution, either as a filter for poor quality imagery pre-algorithm, validation of algorithmic analysis, or adding context to pre-detected change, and their awareness and interpretation of its importance, can directly influence engagement with the platform and therefore ultimately its success. Understanding the effect of the volunteer and software's role in the system on both the results of and engagement with planetary science citizen science platforms will be an important lesson for the future, especially as the next generation of planetary missions will likely collect data orders of magnitude greater in volume. To deal with the data overload, it is likely that human or software solutions alone will not be sufficient, and that a combination of the two working together in a complimentary system that combines

  8. The impact of an intensive yearlong staff development program on science teachers' perceptions of pedagogical change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueni, Joneen A. Stone

    The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of how teachers perceive their implementation of pedagogical change during and after their involvement in a yearlong staff development project in the Rice Model Lab (RML). The following questions were used to guide the inquiry: (1) How do participants of the RML describe their involvement with pedagogical change? (2) How do participants of the RML perceive their ability to handle a different pedagogical approach to classroom instruction? (3) How do participants describe their usage of different pedagogical approaches once they leave the RML and return to their own classrooms? The RML is a joint venture between Rice University and the Houston Independent School District. Annually, eight middle school science teachers spend a year's sabbatical in the RML engaged in learning about educational research and pedagogy. The teachers have opportunities to prepare and teach lessons to one class using their new knowledge and skills. Operational for seven years, the RML was chosen as the context and provided the fifteen participants. Participants chosen included previous and current RML program members with varying amounts of teaching experience. This inquiry was an ethnographic study in which the participants responded to open-ended questions about their experiences with pedagogical change. Data, collected during the 1997--1998 school year, included formal and informal interviews; portfolio and reflective journal entries; and observations of group interactions during meetings, social events, workshops, and activities at the RML. The collected data were analyzed by the qualitative procedures of unitization and constant comparative methods to reveal categories of similarity. The categories of collaboration, learner-centered instruction, grounding in classroom practice, feelings of stress, time, support, and increased content knowledge emerged from the analysis of unitized data. The emergent categories interlocked with

  9. Decentralized energy studies: Compendium of international studies and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    With efficient use of energy, renewable energy sources can supply the majority, if not the totality, of energy supplies in developed nations at real energy prices that double or triple by 2025 (1975 prices). This appears true even in harsh climates with oil dependent industrial economies. Large increases in end-use energy efficiency are cost effective at present prices. Some reports show that cost effective end-use efficiency improvements can reduce energy consumption (per capita, per unit of amenity, or per unit of output) to as much as 90 percent. This was demonstrated by highly disaggregated analyses of end-uses. Such analyses consistently show larger potential for efficiency improvements than can be detected from conventional analyses of more aggregated data. As energy use demands decline due to end use efficiency improvements, energy supply problems subsequently decrease. Lifestyle changes, influenced by social factors, and rising energy prices can substantially reduce demands for energy. Such changes are already discernible in end-use energy studies. When energy efficient capital stock is in place, many end-users of energy will be able to provide a substantial portion of their own energy needs from renewable energy sources that are directly available to them.

  10. Evaluation of Changes in Ghanaian Students' Attitudes Towards Science Following Neuroscience Outreach Activities: A Means to Identify Effective Ways to Inspire Interest in Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Nat Ato; Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; Tali, Bernice; Shang, Velma Owusua; Batu, Emmanuella Nsenbah; Asiemoah, Kwame; Fuseini, Ahmed Denkeri; Tene, Louis Nana; Angaandi, Leticia; Blewusi, Isaac; Borbi, Makafui; Aduku, Linda Nana Esi; Badu, Pheonah; Abbey, Henrietta; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    The scientific capacity in many African countries is low. Ghana, for example, is estimated to have approximately twenty-three researchers per a million inhabitants. In order to improve interest in science among future professionals, appropriate techniques should be developed and employed to identify barriers and correlates of science education among pre-university students. Young students' attitudes towards science may affect their future career choices. However, these attitudes may change with new experiences. It is, therefore, important to evaluate potential changes in students' attitudes towards science after their exposure to experiences such as science outreach activities. Through this, more effective means of inspiring and mentoring young students to choose science subjects can be developed. This approach would be particularly beneficial in countries such as Ghana, where: (i) documented impacts of outreach activities are lacking; and (ii) effective means to develop scientist-school educational partnerships are needed. We have established an outreach scheme, aimed at helping to improve interaction between scientists and pre-university students (and their teachers). Outreach activities are designed and implemented by undergraduate students and graduate teaching assistants, with support from faculty members and technical staff. Through this, we aim to build a team of trainee scientists and graduates who will become ambassadors of science in their future professional endeavors. Here, we describe an approach for assessing changes in junior high school students' attitudes towards science following classroom neuroscience outreach activities. We show that while students tended to agree more with questions concerning their perceptions about science learning after the delivery of outreach activities, significant improvements were obtained for only two questions, namely "I enjoy science lessons" and "I want to be a scientist in the future." Furthermore, there was a

  11. Teaching for Conceptual Change in Elementary and Secondary Science Methods Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Robin; Hewson, Peter W.; Tabachnick, B. Robert; Blomker, Kathryn B.

    1999-01-01

    Describes and analyzes two science methods courses at the elementary and secondary levels for how they addressed four ideas: (1) how students learn science; (2) how teachers teach science to students; (3) how prospective science teachers learn about the first two ideas; and (4) how methods instructors teach prospective science teachers about the…

  12. Increasing Scientific Literacy about Global Climate Change through a Laboratory-Based Feminist Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Linda A.; Brenner, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    The authors have developed and implemented a novel general education science course that examines scientific knowledge, laboratory experimentation, and science-related public policy through the lens of feminist science studies. They argue that this approach to teaching general science education is useful for improving science literacy. Goals for…

  13. Uncertainty As a Trigger for a Paradigm Change in Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, the need to communicate uncertainty increased. Climate sciences and environmental sciences have faced massive propaganda campaigns by global industry and astroturf organizations. These organizations use the deep societal mistrust in uncertainty to point out alleged unethical and intentional delusion of decision makers and the public by scientists and their consultatory function. Scientists, who openly communicate uncertainty of climate model calculations, earthquake occurrence frequencies, or possible side effects of genetic manipulated semen have to face massive campaigns against their research, and sometimes against their person and live as well. Hence, new strategies to communicate uncertainty have to face the societal roots of the misunderstanding of the concept of uncertainty itself. Evolutionary biology has shown, that human mind is well suited for practical decision making by its sensory structures. Therefore, many of the irrational concepts about uncertainty are mitigated if data is presented in formats the brain is adapted to understand. At the end, the impact of uncertainty to the decision-making process is finally dominantly driven by preconceptions about terms such as uncertainty, vagueness or probabilities. Parallel to the increasing role of scientific uncertainty in strategic communication, science communicators for example at the Research and Development Program GEOTECHNOLOGIEN developed a number of techniques to master the challenge of putting uncertainty in the focus. By raising the awareness of scientific uncertainty as a driving force for scientific development and evolution, the public perspective on uncertainty is changing. While first steps to implement this process are under way, the value of uncertainty still is underestimated in the public and in politics. Therefore, science communicators are in need for new and innovative ways to talk about scientific uncertainty.

  14. Taming Typhon: Advancing Climate Literacy by Coordinating Federal Earth System Science Education Investments Through the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, J. L.; Niepold, F.; Wei, M.; Waple, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    Thirteen Federal agencies in the United States invest in research, communication, and education activities related to climate and global change. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) works to integrate the research activities of these different agencies, with oversight from the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Council on Environmental Quality, the National Economic Council and the Office of Management and Budget. The CCSP is the result of a Presidential initative in 2001 to build on the Global Change Research Program, which exists as a result of the Global Change Research Act of 1990. This initiative was to shift the focus of the Program from 'discovery and characterization' to 'differentiation and strategy investigation.' With this shift, CCSP's focus is now on evaluating optimal strategies for addressing climate change risks, improving coordination among the Federal agencies, communicating research results to all stakeholders (including national policy leaders and local resource managers), and improving public debate and decision-making related to global change. Implicit to these activities is the need to educate the general public about the science of climate change and its consequences, as well as coordinate Federal investments related to climate change education. This is no small task, given the variety of missions and approaches of the participating agencies. Recognizing that its Communications Interagency Working Group (CIWG) does not have the expertise or focus to adequately address issues related to science education, the CCSP recently established an ad-hoc Education Interagency Working Group (EIWG), comprising representatives from all 13 agencies, that will work closely with the CIWG to enhance education goals. Its mission is to advance literacy in climate and related sciences and increase informed decision making for the Nation. The EIWG envisions that its primary activities in the near-term will be focused on establishing: (1) a

  15. Political science. When contact changes minds: an experiment on transmission of support for gay equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCour, Michael J; Green, Donald P

    2014-12-12

    Can a single conversation change minds on divisive social issues, such as same-sex marriage? A randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed whether gay (n = 22) or straight (n = 19) messengers were effective at encouraging voters (n = 972) to support same-sex marriage and whether attitude change persisted and spread to others in voters' social networks. The results, measured by an unrelated panel survey, show that both gay and straight canvassers produced large effects initially, but only gay canvassers' effects persisted in 3-week, 6-week, and 9-month follow-ups. We also find strong evidence of within-household transmission of opinion change, but only in the wake of conversations with gay canvassers. Contact with gay canvassers further caused substantial change in the ratings of gay men and lesbians more generally. These large, persistent, and contagious effects were confirmed by a follow-up experiment. Contact with minorities coupled with discussion of issues pertinent to them is capable of producing a cascade of opinion change. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs

  17. [The role of science and technology in Canada's implementation strategy for climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific-technical challenge facing Canada in meeting its Kyoto target was the subject of this discourse. It was suggested that in order to meet the six per cent reduction target we need to introduce new technology into the economy, but just as importantly, we need to change how people use energy and how they use things that emit greenhouse gases. The role that climate change experts can and must play in defining what needs to be done and how to do it, and the crucial contribution that science, analysis and modelling can make to the process, were discussed at length. The question of federal leadership, the role of the Climate Change Secretariat, the role of the Climate Change Action Fund, early action initiatives, the performance of the voluntary action initiative and its future role, federal-provincial cooperation in formulating and implementing climate change policy, and the question of whether or not to impose common greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables on all nations were some of the other major points touched upon. With regard to developing countries, this author put forth the view that developing countries would benefit most from a differentiated system of targets

  18. Opening science the evolving guide on how the Internet is changing research, collaboration and scholarly publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Friesike, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Modern information and communication technologies, together with a cultural upheaval within the research community, have profoundly changed research in nearly every aspect. Ranging from sharing and discussing ideas in social networks for scientists to new collaborative environments and novel publication formats, knowledge creation and dissemination as we know it is experiencing a vigorous shift towards increased transparency, collaboration and accessibility. Many assume that research workflows will change more in the next 20 years than they have in the last 200. This book provides researchers, decision makers, and other scientific stakeholders with a snapshot of the basics, the tools, and the underlying visions that drive the current scientific (r)evolution, often called ‘Open Science.’

  19. Teacher change in beliefs and practices in science and literacy instruction with English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of change in beliefs and practices as elementary teachers learned to establish instructional congruence, a process of mediating academic disciplines with linguistic and cultural experiences of diverse student groups. The study focused on six bilingual Hispanic teachers working with fourth-grade, mostly Hispanic students. The results indicated that teacher learning and change occurred in different ways in the areas of science instruction, students' language and culture, English language and literacy instruction, and integration of these areas in establishing instructional congruence. The results also indicated that establishing instructional congruence was a gradual and demanding process requiring teacher reflection and insight, formal training, and extensive support and sharing. Implications for further research in promoting achievement for all students are discussed.

  20. Towards a pluralist epistemological approach in studies on communication and change: humanism, science and environmentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pedro Carañana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a pluralistic epistemological approach to the investigation of the relationships between communication and social change. To this end, it draws on the proposal of epistemological merger posed by Johan Galtung for Peace Studies and takes into account the specifics of the communication phenomenon. According to Galtung, the combination of Cartesianism, the verum-factum (Vico and Taoism would counter the risks of epistemological monism and overcome its limitations. In this sense, the article proposes to extend each of these epistemologies in a more general and encompassing level (science, humanities, holistic-dialectical environmentalism and describes its historical trajectory to identify the possibilities of complementarity and its value for the study of communication and change.

  1. Cognitive and psychological science insights to improve climate change data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Jordan; Lorenzoni, Irene; Shipley, Thomas F.; Coventry, Kenny R.

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of climate data plays an integral role in the communication of climate change findings to both expert and non-expert audiences. The cognitive and psychological sciences can provide valuable insights into how to improve visualization of climate data based on knowledge of how the human brain processes visual and linguistic information. We review four key research areas to demonstrate their potential to make data more accessible to diverse audiences: directing visual attention, visual complexity, making inferences from visuals, and the mapping between visuals and language. We present evidence-informed guidelines to help climate scientists increase the accessibility of graphics to non-experts, and illustrate how the guidelines can work in practice in the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change graphics.

  2. Investigating Changes in Student Attitudes and Understanding of Science through Participation in Citizen Science Projects in College Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Carolin; Cobb, Bethany E.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, web-based “citizen science” projects such as the Zooniverse have allowed volunteers and professional scientists to work together for the advancement of science. While much attention has been paid to the benefits to science from these new projects, less attention has been paid to their impact on the participants and, in particular, to the projects’ potential to impact students who might engage in these projects through coursework. We report on a study engaging students in introductory astronomy classes at the George Washington University and Wheelock College in an assignment in which each student individually contributed to a “physics” or “space” citizen science project of their choice, and groups of students worked together to understand and articulate the scientific purpose of a citizen science project to which they all contributed. Over the course of approximately four weeks, the students kept logs of their individual contributions to the project, and recorded a brief reflection on each of their visits (noting, for example, interesting or confusing things they might encounter along the way). The project culminated with each group delivering a creative presentation that demonstrated their understanding of both the science goals of the project and the value of their own contributions to the project. In this talk, we report on the experience of the students with the project and on an assessment of the students’ attitudes toward science and knowledge of the process of science completed before the introduction of the assignment and again at its conclusion.

  3. Feasibility planning study for a behavior database. Volume III Appendix B, Compendium of survey questions on drinking and driving and occupant restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The general objective of the project was to determine the feasibility of and the general requirements for a centralized database on driver behavior and attitudes related to drunk driving and occupant restraints. Volume III is a compendium of question...

  4. Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human health when used in food and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    In April 2009, EFSA published on its website a Compendium of botanicals reported to contain toxic, addictive, psychotropic or other substances of concern. The purpose of the Compendium is to assist risk assessors responsible for the evaluation of specific ingredients in food supplements, in more...... one lists botanicals for which, although some data were available, the Scientific Committee could not identify substances of concern, or other reasons for the inclusion in the compendium. This new “Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human...... health” replaces the first version published in 2009; it lists in alphabetical order botanicals without any judgment on whether they are suitable or not suitable for food applications in Europe; it has no legal or regulatory force pertaining to the legal classification of products or substances....

  5. Challenges and Changes: Developing Teachers' and Initial Teacher Education Students' Understandings of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Gillian; Haigh, Mavis

    2017-12-01

    Teachers need an understanding of the nature of science (NOS) to enable them to incorporate NOS into their teaching of science. The current study examines the usefulness of a strategy for challenging or changing teachers' understandings of NOS. The teachers who participated in this study were 10 initial teacher education chemistry students and six experienced teachers from secondary and primary schools who were introduced to an explicit and reflective activity, a dramatic reading about a historical scientific development. Concept maps were used before and after the activity to assess teachers' knowledge of NOS. The participants also took part in a focus group interview to establish whether they perceived the activity as useful in developing their own understanding of NOS. Initial analysis led us to ask another group, comprising seven initial teacher education chemistry students, to take part in a modified study. These participants not only completed the same tasks as the previous participants but also completed a written reflection commenting on whether the activity and focus group discussion enhanced their understanding of NOS. Both Lederman et al.'s (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497-521, 2002) concepts of NOS and notions of "naive" and "informed" understandings of NOS and Hay's (Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 39-57, 2007) notions of "surface" and "deep" learning were used as frameworks to examine the participants' specific understandings of NOS and the depth of their learning. The ways in which participants' understandings of NOS were broadened or changed by taking part in the dramatic reading are presented. The impact of the data-gathering tools on the participants' professional learning is also discussed.

  6. Developments in Education for Library and Information Science and Curriculum Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tonta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The first university-level library schools were opened during the last quarter of the 19th century. The number of such schools has gradually increased during the first half of the 20th century, especially after the Second World War, both in the USA and elsewhere. The first department of librarianship in Turkey was opened in 1954. As information has gained further importance in scientific endeavors and social life, librarianship became a more interdisciplinary field and library schools were renamed as schools of library and information science/information studies/information management/information to better reflect the range of education provided. The departments of librarianship in Turkey, too, have revised their curricula and changed their names. In this paper, we review the major developments in education for library and information science (LIS in the world as well as in Turkey, and the impact of these developments on the curricula of LIS schools along with subsequent changes under three historicalperiods. We discuss some of the external and internal factors that should be dealt with in revising the curricula of LIS schools.

  7. Landsat-8: Science and product vision for terrestrial global change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, David P.; Wulder, M.A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Woodcock, C.E.; Allen, R. G.; Anderson, M. C.; Helder, D.; Irons, J.R.; Johnson, D.M.; Kennedy, R.; Scambos, T.A.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, J.R.; Sheng, Y.; Vermote, E. F.; Belward, A.S.; Bindschadler, R.; Cohen, W.B.; Gao, F.; Hipple, J. D.; Hostert, Patrick; Huntington, J.; Justice, C.O.; Kilic, A.; Kovalskyy, Valeriy; Lee, Z. P.; Lymburner, Leo; Masek, J.G.; McCorkel, J.; Shuai, Y.; Trezza, R.; Vogelmann, James; Wynne, R.H.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Landsat 8, a NASA and USGS collaboration, acquires global moderate-resolution measurements of the Earth's terrestrial and polar regions in the visible, near-infrared, short wave, and thermal infrared. Landsat 8 extends the remarkable 40 year Landsat record and has enhanced capabilities including new spectral bands in the blue and cirrus cloud-detection portion of the spectrum, two thermal bands, improved sensor signal-to-noise performance and associated improvements in radiometric resolution, and an improved duty cycle that allows collection of a significantly greater number of images per day. This paper introduces the current (2012–2017) Landsat Science Team's efforts to establish an initial understanding of Landsat 8 capabilities and the steps ahead in support of priorities identified by the team. Preliminary evaluation of Landsat 8 capabilities and identification of new science and applications opportunities are described with respect to calibration and radiometric characterization; surface reflectance; surface albedo; surface temperature, evapotranspiration and drought; agriculture; land cover, condition, disturbance and change; fresh and coastal water; and snow and ice. Insights into the development of derived ‘higher-level’ Landsat products are provided in recognition of the growing need for consistently processed, moderate spatial resolution, large area, long-term terrestrial data records for resource management and for climate and global change studies. The paper concludes with future prospects, emphasizing the opportunities for land imaging constellations by combining Landsat data with data collected from other international sensing systems, and consideration of successor Landsat mission requirements.

  8. The Teaching of Anthropogenic Climate Change and Earth Science via Technology-Enabled Inquiry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A gap has existed between the tools and processes of scientists working on anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) and the technologies and curricula available to educators teaching the subject through student inquiry. Designing realistic scientific inquiry into AGCC poses a challenge because research on it relies on complex computer models, globally distributed data sets, and complex laboratory and data collection procedures. Here we examine efforts by the scientific community and educational researchers to design new curricula and technology that close this gap and impart robust AGCC and Earth Science understanding. We find technology-based teaching shows promise in promoting robust AGCC understandings if associated curricula address mitigating factors such as time constraints in incorporating technology and the need to support teachers implementing AGCC and Earth Science inquiry. We recommend the scientific community continue to collaborate with educational researchers to focus on developing those inquiry technologies and curricula that use realistic scientific processes from AGCC research and/or the methods for determining how human society should respond to global change.

  9. EDITORIAL: Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    Three decades ago, with a tiny tip of platinum, the scientific world saw the real space imaging of single atoms with unprecedented spatial resolution. This signalled the birth of one of the most versatile surface probes, based on the physics of quantum mechanical tunnelling: the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Invented in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM, Zurich, it led to their award of the 1986 Nobel Prize. Atoms, once speculated to be abstract entities used by theoreticians for mere calculations, can be seen to exist for real with the nano-eye of an STM tip that also gives real-space images of molecules and adsorbed complexes on surfaces. From a very fundamental perspective, the STM changed the course of surface science and engineering. STM also emerged as a powerful tool to study various fundamental phenomena relevant to the properties of surfaces in technological applications such as tribology, medical implants, catalysis, sensors and biology—besides elucidating the importance of local bonding geometries and defects, non-periodic structures and the co-existence of nano-scale phases. Atom-level probing, once considered a dream, has seen the light with the evolution of STM. An important off-shoot of STM was the atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface mapping of insulating samples. Then followed the development of a flurry of techniques under the general name of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These techniques (STM, AFM, MFM, PFM etc) designed for atomic-scale-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, have led to brand new developments in surface analysis. All of these novel methods enabled researchers in recent years to image and analyse complex surfaces on microscopic and nanoscopic scales. All of them utilize a small probe for sensing the surface. The invention of AFM by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christopher Gerber opened up new opportunities for characterization of a variety of materials, and various industrial applications could be

  10. Environmental Management Science Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    This program summary book is a compendium of project summaries submitted by principal investigators in the Environmental Management Science Program and Environmental Management/Energy Research Pilot Collaborative Research Program (Wolf-Broido Program). These summaries provide information about the most recent project activities and accomplishments. All projects will be represented at the workshop poster sessions, so you will have an opportunity to meet with the researchers. The projects will be presented in the same order at the poster session as they are presented in this summary book. Detailed questions about an individual project may be directed to the investigators involved.

  11. Engaging Students in Climate Change Science and Communication through a Multi-disciplinary Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, L. A.; Polk, J.; Strenecky, B.

    2014-12-01

    The implications of the climate change phenomenon are far-reaching, and will impact every person on Earth. These problems will be complex, and will require leaders well-versed in interdisciplinary learning and international understanding. To employ a multi-disciplinary approach to studying the impact climate change is having in the world in which we live, a team of 57 Western Kentucky University (WKU) faculty, staff, and students participated in a study abroad program to seven ports in the North Sea and North Atlantic, including three ports in Iceland, onboard the Semester at Sea ship, MV Explorer. This program combined interdisciplinary learning, service learning, and international understanding toward the goal of preparing the leaders of tomorrow with the skills to address climate change challenges. Together, the group learned how climate change affects the world from varied academic perspectives, and how more often than not these perspectives are closely interrelated. Courses taught during the experience related to climate change science and communication, economics, future trends, and K-12 education. Each student also participated in a The $100 Solution™ service-learning course. While in port, each class engaged in a discipline-specific activities related to the climate change topic, while at sea students participated in class lectures, engaged in shipboard lectures by international experts in their respective fields, and participated in conversations with lifelong learners onboard the ship. A culminating point of the study abroad experience was a presentation by the WKU students to over 100 persons from the University of Akureyri in Akureyri, Iceland, representatives of neighboring Icelandic communities, environmental agencies, and tourism bureaus about what they had learned about climate change during their travels. By forging this relationship, students were able to share their knowledge, which in turn gave them a deeper understanding of the issues they

  12. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  13. U.S. Geological Survey climate and land use change science strategy: a framework for understanding and responding to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Kirtland, David A.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; ,; ,; ,; Robert, S.; Maule, Alec G.; McMahon, Gerard; Striegl, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a nonregulatory Federal science agency with national scope and responsibilities, is uniquely positioned to serve the Nation’s needs in understanding and responding to global change, including changes in climate, water availability, sea level, land use and land cover, ecosystems, and global biogeochemical cycles. Global change is among the most challenging and formidable issues confronting our Nation and society. Scientists agree that global environmental changes during this century will have far-reaching societal implications (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007; U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009). In the face of these challenges, the Nation can benefit greatly by using natural science information in decisionmaking.

  14. Challenges Confronting Career-Changing Beginning Teachers: A Qualitative Study of Professional Scientists Becoming Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, James J.; Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2015-03-01

    Recruitment of highly qualified science and mathematics graduates has become a widespread strategy to enhance the quality of education in the field of STEM. However, attrition rates are very high suggesting preservice education programs are not preparing them well for the career change. We analyse the experiences of professionals who are scientists and have decided to change careers to become teachers. The study followed a group of professionals who undertook a 1-year preservice teacher education course and were employed by secondary schools on graduation. We examined these teachers' experiences through the lens of self-determination theory, which posits autonomy, confidence and relatedness are important in achieving job satisfaction. The findings indicated that the successful teachers were able to achieve a sense of autonomy and confidence and, in particular, had established strong relationships with colleagues. However, the unique challenges facing career-change professionals were often overlooked by administrators and colleagues. Opportunities to build a sense of relatedness in their new profession were often absent. The failure to establish supportive relationships was decisive in some teachers leaving the profession. The findings have implications for both preservice and professional in-service programs and the role that administrators play in supporting career-change teachers.

  15. JPL's Role in Advancing Earth System Science to Meet the Challenges of Climate and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Objective 2.1.1: Improve understanding of and improve the predictive capability for changes in the ozone layer, climate forcing, and air quality associated with changes in atmospheric composition. Objective 2.1.2: Enable improved predictive capability for weather and extreme weather events. Objective 2.1.3: Quantify, understand, and predict changes in Earth s ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity. Objective 2.1.4: Quantify the key reservoirs and fluxes in the global water cycle and assess water cycle change and water quality. Objective 2.1.5: Improve understanding of the roles of the ocean, atmosphere, land and ice in the climate system and improve predictive capability for its future evolution. Objective 2.1.6: Characterize the dynamics of Earth s surface and interior and form the scientific basis for the assessment and mitigation of natural hazards and response to rare and extreme events. Objective 2.1.7: Enable the broad use of Earth system science observations and results in decision-making activities for societal benefits.

  16. Mid-term evaluation of the Climate Change Action Fund: Science, Impacts and Adaptation (SIA) block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    In 1998, the Climate Change Action Fund was established by the Government of Canada. Its budget represented 150 million dollars over a three year period, and was an additional 625 million dollars in the federal budget of February 2000 was allocated for climate change initiatives, of which 150 million dollars were earmarked over a three year period to the Climate Change Action Fund. To provide input for Treasury Board Submissions looking for funding approval in the future, it was necessary to conduct a mid-term evaluation focused on program performance to date. The period covered by the evaluation was September 2000 to the end of January 2001. This report examined the performance of the Science, Impact and Adaptation Block (SIA). Based on a series of interviews with representatives of Block managers, Technical and Executive Policy Committees, successful applicants, unsuccessful applicants and peer reviewers, as well as a review of the documentation maintained by SIA, it addressed the following issues: Block relevance, progress/success to date, and effectiveness in meeting the objectives. It was determined that the objectives displayed relevance to the climate change agenda of the federal government, progress to date was considered satisfactory, and most of the objectives should be met in a timely fashion. A summary of the findings was included in this document along with recommendations pertaining to the findings. 3 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Polar Voices: Relaying the Science and Story of Polar Climate Change through Podcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, M.; Quinney, A.; Murray, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The resurgence of audio programming with the advent of podcasting in the early 2000's spawned a new medium for communicating advances in science, research, and technology. To capitalize on this informal educational outlet, the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA) partnered with the International Arctic Research Center, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the UA Museum of the North to develop a podcast series called PoLAR Voices for the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership. Now entering its third season of production, PoLAR Voices has facilitated the communication of scientific knowledge regarding the impact of climate change on the Arctic and Antarctic from the perspectives of both scientific researchers and Arctic indigenous peoples. We present a holistic program detailing both data and research related to climate change in addition to personal stories from those people and communities most affected. An evaluation of the program has been conducted by the Goodman Research Group to assess the effectiveness of the program for relaying the whole story of climate change to the public. The results of this assessment will be used to further develop the program to effectively reach larger and more diverse audiences. The series is currently available on thepolarhub.org and iTunes, and we are exploring opportunities to air the program on radio to reach as many people as possible.

  18. Visions of the Future - the Changing Role of Actors in Data-Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, L.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Around the world scientific disciplines are increasingly facing the challenge of a burgeoning volume of research data. This data avalanche consists of a stream of information generated from sensors and scientific instruments, digital recordings, social-science surveys or drawn from the World Wide Web. All areas of the scientific economy are affected by this rapid growth in data, from the logging of digs in Archaeology, telescope data with observations of distant galaxies in Astrophysics or data from polls and surveys in the Social Sciences. The challenge for science is not only to process the data through analysis, reduction and visualization, but also to set up infrastructures for provisioning and storing the data. The rise of new technologies and developments also poses new challenges for the actors in the area of research data infrastructures. Libraries, as one of the actors, enable access to digital media and support the publication of research data and its long-term archiving. Digital media and research data, however, introduce new aspects into the libraries' range of activities. How are we to imagine the library of the future? The library as an interface to the computer centers? Will library and computer center fuse into a new service unit? What role will scientific publishers play in future? Currently the traditional form of publication still carry greater weight - articles for conferences and journals. But will this still be the case in future? New forms of publication are already making their presence felt. The tasks of the computer centers may also change. Yesterday their remit was provisioning of rapid hardware, whereas now everything revolves around the topic of data and services. Finally, how about the researchers themselves? Not such a long time ago, Geoscience was not necessarily seen as linked to Computer Science. Nowadays, modern Geoscience relies heavily on IT and its techniques. Thus, in how far will the profile of the modern geoscientist change

  19. Interdisciplinary Climate Change Curriculum Materials based on the Next Generation Science Standards and The Earth Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A.; Robertson, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2012, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies' reported that one of the major issues associated with the development of climate change curriculum was the lack of interdisciplinary materials that also promoted a correlation between science standards and content. Therefore, in order to respond to this need, our group has developed an interdisciplinary climate change curriculum that has had as its fundamental basis the alignment with the guidelines presented by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the ones presented by the international document entitled The Earth Charter. In this regards, while the alignment with NGSS disciplinary core ideas, cross-concepts and students' expectations intended to fulfill the need for the development of climate change curriculum activities that were directly associated with the appropriate set of NGSS guidelines, the alignment with The Earth Charter document intended to reinforce the need the for the integration of sociological, philosophical and intercultural analysis of the theme 'climate change'. Additionally, our curriculum was also developed as part of a collaborative project between climate scientists and engineers, who are responsible for the development of a Regional Arctic Simulation Model (RASM). Hence, another important curriculum constituent was the feedback, suggestions and reviews provided by these professionals, who have also contributed to these pedagogical materials' scientific accuracy by facilitating the integration of datasets and visualizations developed by RASM. Furthermore, our group has developed a climate change curriculum for two types of audience: high school and early undergraduate students. Each curriculum unit is divided into modules and each module contains a set of lesson plans. The topics selected to compose each unit and module were designated according to the surveys conducted with scientists and engineers involved with the development of the climate change

  20. Teaching science for conceptual change: Toward a proposed taxonomy of diagnostic teaching strategies to gauge students' personal science conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Richard Edwin, III

    Science instruction aims to ensure that students properly construct scientific knowledge so that each individual may play a role as a science literate citizen or as part of the science workforce (National Research Council, 1996, 2000). Students enter the classroom with a wide range of personal conceptions regarding science phenomena, often at variance with prevailing scientific views (Duschl, Hamilton, & Grandy, 1992; Hewson, 1992). The extensive misconceptions research literature emphasizes the importance of diagnosing students' initial understandings in order to gauge the accuracy and depth of what each student knows prior to instruction and then to use that information to adapt the teaching to address student needs. (Ausubel, 1968; Carey, 2000; Driver et al., 1985; Karplus & Thier, 1967; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Osborne & Freyberg, 1985; Project 2061, 1993; Strike & Posner, 1982, 1992; Vygotsky, 1934/1987). To gain such insight, teachers diagnose not only the content of the students' personal conceptions but also the thinking processes that produced them (Strike and Posner, 1992). Indeed, when teachers design opportunities for students to express their understanding, there is strong evidence that such diagnostic assessment also enhances science teaching and learning (Black & William, 1998). The functional knowledge of effective science teaching practice resides in the professional practitioners at the front lines---the science teachers in the classroom. Nevertheless, how teachers actually engage in the practice of diagnosis is not well documented. To help fill this gap, the researcher conducted a study of 16 sixth grade science classrooms in four Los Angeles area middle schools. Diagnostic teaching strategies were observed in action and then followed up by interviews with each teacher. Results showed that teachers use strategies that vary by the complexity of active student involvement, including pretests, strategic questions, interactive discussion

  1. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories

  2. Astronomy at high angular resolution a compendium of techniques in the visible and near-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Gaitee; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Schmidtobreick, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an essential compendium of astronomical high-resolution techniques. Recent years have seen considerable developments in such techniques, which are critical to advances in many areas of astronomy. As reflected in the book, these techniques can be divided into direct methods, interferometry, and reconstruction methods, and can be applied to a huge variety of astrophysical systems, ranging from planets, single stars and binaries to active galactic nuclei, providing angular resolution in the micro- to tens of milliarcsecond scales. Written by experts in their fields, the chapters cover adaptive optics, aperture masking imaging, spectra disentangling, interferometry, lucky imaging, Roche tomography, imaging with interferometry, interferometry of AGN, AGN reverberation mapping, Doppler- and magnetic imaging of stellar surfaces, Doppler tomography, eclipse mapping, Stokes imaging, and stellar tomography. This book is intended to enable a next generation of astronomers to apply high-resolution techni...

  3. Citizen science reveals unexpected continental-scale evolutionary change in a model organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Silvertown

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms provide some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change and evolutionary responses are becoming apparent in species with short generation times. Large datasets on genetic polymorphism that can provide an historical benchmark against which to test for recent evolutionary responses are very rare, but an exception is found in the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis. This species is sensitive to its thermal environment and exhibits several polymorphisms of shell colour and banding pattern affecting shell albedo in the majority of populations within its native range in Europe. We tested for evolutionary changes in shell albedo that might have been driven by the warming of the climate in Europe over the last half century by compiling an historical dataset for 6,515 native populations of C. nemoralis and comparing this with new data on nearly 3,000 populations. The new data were sampled mainly in 2009 through the Evolution MegaLab, a citizen science project that engaged thousands of volunteers in 15 countries throughout Europe in the biggest such exercise ever undertaken. A known geographic cline in the frequency of the colour phenotype with the highest albedo (yellow was shown to have persisted and a difference in colour frequency between woodland and more open habitats was confirmed, but there was no general increase in the frequency of yellow shells. This may have been because snails adapted to a warming climate through behavioural thermoregulation. By contrast, we detected an unexpected decrease in the frequency of Unbanded shells and an increase in the Mid-banded morph. Neither of these evolutionary changes appears to be a direct response to climate change, indicating that the influence of other selective agents, possibly related to changing predation pressure and habitat change with effects on micro-climate.

  4. Becoming the Change: A Critical Evaluation of the Changing Face of Life Science, as Reflected in the NGSS

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Jr., Larry L; Govett, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Tennessee is one of the 26 lead state partners that volunteered to provide leadership and guidance to states for the purpose of adoption of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS. As stated in the Tennessee Vision for STEM Education (2009), "Tennessee recognizes the importance of science and aims to commit to this understanding by becoming involved in the development, and eventual adoption and implementation of NGSS." The present study correlates the Tennessee State Science Standards to the ...

  5. Climate change in the classroom: Reaching out to middle school students through science and math suitcase lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo, A. C.; Collay, R.; Harris, R. N.; de Silva, L.

    2011-12-01

    We have formed a link between the Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences (IDES) program with the Science and Math Investigative Learning Experiences (SMILE) program, both at Oregon State University. The IDES mission is to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population and the SMILE mission is to provide science and math enrichment for underrepresented and other educationally underserved students in grades 4-12. Traditionally, underserved schools do not have enough time or resources to spend on science and mathematics. Furthermore, numerous budget cuts in many Oregon school districts have negatively impacted math and science cirriculum. To combat this trend we have designed suitcase lessons in climate change that can be carried to a number of classrooms. These lesson plans are scientifically rich and economically attractive. These lessons are designed to engage students in math and science through climate change presentations, group discussions, and hands-on activities. Over the past year we have familiarized ourselves with the academic ability of sixth and seventh graders through in-class observation in Salem Oregon. One of the suit case lessons we developed focuses on climate change by exploring the plight of polar bears in the face of diminishing sea ice. Our presentation will report the results of this activity.

  6. Changes in Science Teaching Self-Efficacy among Primary Teacher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Many preservice primary teachers have low self-efficacy for science teaching. Although science methods courses have often been shown to enhance self-efficacy, science content courses have been relatively ineffective in this respect. This study investigated whether a tailored science content course would enhance self-efficacy. The participants were…

  7. Changes in Primary School Pupils' Conceptions of Water in the Context of Science, Technology, and Society (STS) Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Keinonen, Tuula

    2018-01-01

    Pupils' conceptual change processes that have led to long-term changes in learning processes can be very challenging and interwoven with several issues. Meanwhile, school learning is often determined as fragmented, without providing connections to pupils' different life and societal contexts. In this study, Science, Technology, and Society (STS)…

  8. 75 FR 43944 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security will meet in closed session...

  9. 75 FR 34438 - Defense Science Board Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board Task Force on Trends and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... and Implications of Climate Change for National and International Security will meet in closed session...

  10. Developing a common strategy for integrative global change research and outreach: the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, R.; Asrar, G.; Canadell, J.G.; Ingram, J.; Larigauderie, A.; Mooney, H.; Nobre, C.; Patwardhan, A.; Rice, M.; Schmidt, F.; Seitzinger, S.; Virji, H.; Vörösmarthy, C.; Yuoung, O.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) was established in 2001 by four global environmental change (GEC) research programmes: DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. ESSP facilitates the study of the Earth's environment as an integrated system in order to understand how and why it is changing, and to

  11. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  12. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  13. The Impact of the 5E Teaching Model on Changes in Neuroscience, Drug Addiction, and Research Methods Knowledge of Science Teachers Attending California's ARISE Professional Development Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Rosa D.; Whent, Linda; Liets, Lauren; de la Torre, Adela; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how science teachers' knowledge of research methods, neuroscience and drug addiction changed through their participation in a 5-day summer science institute. The data for this study evolved from a four-year NIH funded science education project called Addiction Research and Investigation for Science Educators (ARISE). Findings…

  14. Factors which deter potential science/math teachers from teaching; changes necessary to ameliorate their concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert H.

    In light of the perceived national need for more science and math teachers, this study was conceived to:1.Identify teaching oriented students among freshmen at a mid-western engineering school, who have chosen NOT to become teachers;2.Find out what reasons these potential science and math teachers have for deciding not to pursue teaching careers;3.Determine what amelioration of these problems would be necessary for them to no longer be factors which would inhibit students from becoming teachers.Of a random sample of 110 students drawn from a freshman class, 98 participated fully in the study. Each participant took Holland's Self-Directed Search to determine teaching orientation and author-constructed instruments to assess their concerns about teaching.Results showed teaching oriented students avoided teaching due to low starting salaries, lack of job security, low maximum salaries, not wanting to do the work teacher's do, poor job availability and discouragement by family and friends. Starting salaries of 21,693 and salaries of 32,600 for a teacher with a B.A. and 10 years experience were among the changes deemed necessary to make teaching attractive.

  15. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  16. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and

  18. Reconstructing recent environmental change in the Carpathian Basin; advocating an interdisciplinary approach for 2020 environmental science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HUTCHINSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to environmental science is particularly important in the field of palaeoenvironmental research. Indeed, while the majority of such studies employ a range of proxies in their investigation, the more innovative studies tend to truly cross discipline boundaries. The investigation of depositional environments (e.g., lake sediments and mires as archives of environmental history has a long tradition in the Carpathian region. However, glacial lakes across the region have also been described as under-investigated despite their potential for palaeolimnological study (Buczko et al. 2009. Studies have also largely focused on relatively early (Late Glacial and Early Holocene environmental change.  Nevertheless, there is an increasing interest in the reconstruction of more human-driven impacts on the environment and events in the very recent past on a century to decade timescale e.g., post Industrial Revolution and following political change from the mid 1940s and in the late 1980s. Furthermore, efforts have are also being made to inform the debate about future climate and environmental changes linking palaeoenvironmental records to predictive computer modelling.

  19. Humboldtian science, Creole meteorology, and the discovery of human-caused climate change in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Gregory T

    2011-01-01

    The belief that human land use is capable of causing large-scale climatic change lies at the root of modern conservation thought and policy. The origins and popularization of this belief were deeply politicized. Alexander von Humboldt's treatment of the Lake Valencia basin in Venezuela and the desert coast of Peru as natural laboratories for observing the interaction between geophysical and cultural forces was central to this discovery, as was Humboldt's belief that European colonialism was especially destructive to the land. Humboldt's overt cultivation of disciples was critical to building the prestige of this discovery and popularizing the Humboldtian scientific program, which depended fundamentally on local observers, but willfully marginalized chorographic knowledge systems. In creating new, global forms of environmental understanding, Humboldtian science also generated new forms of ignorance.

  20. Teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: Analyzing the impact of a teacher enhancement program in changing attitudes and perceptions of science and scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govett, Aimee Lee

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a residential science research experience in changing participants' attitudes and understanding of the nature of science and their view of themselves as science researchers. Data from interviews, journal writings, classroom observations and two pre-post instruments were used in the evaluation plan. As participants of this study, 16 inservice teachers (K--16) attended a two-week residential institute at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. The format of the institute featured a scientific research experience designed to arm its participants with the skills needed to model their classroom teaching after scientific research. The program included lessons on the fundamentals of radio astronomy, science talks and interactions with practicing scientists, in-depth tours of the NRAO facilities, and pedagogical instruction for implementing research in the classroom. The WVU College of Education staff and the NRAO staff stressed the importance of the nature of the research experience offered to these teachers. In the Education Sessions the WVU science education staff guided participants through the steps required to turn their experience around, in order to develop student research projects for their classrooms. The results from the Research Self Assessment instrument show significant gains for all participants in being more comfortable doing research. For the Nature of Science and Science Teaching instrument there were only three items that showed significant gains for all participants both in understanding the nature of science and in their views on implementing the Green Bank constructivist learning philosophy. The women, especially the elementary teacher group, showed the greatest change in their understanding of the nature of science as reflected in the interviews as well as in their personal journals. The seven men, who were all in the secondary field, made no significant

  1. U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers and U.S. Geological Survey National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center—Annual report for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Sarah R.; Varela Minder, Elda; Padgett, Holly A.

    2017-05-19

    Introduction2016 was an exciting year for the Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC). In recognition of our ongoing efforts to raise awareness and provide the scientific data and tools needed to address the impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, ecosystems, and people, NCCWSC and the CSCs received an honorable mention in the first ever Climate Adaptation Leadership Award for Natural Resources sponsored by the National Fish, Wildlife, and Plant Climate Adaptation Strategy’s Joint Implementation Working Group. The recognition is a reflection of our contribution to numerous scientific workshops and publications, provision of training for students and early career professionals, and work with Tribes and indigenous communities to improve climate change resilience across the Nation. In this report, we highlight some of the activities that took place throughout the NCCWSC and CSC network in 2016.

  2. Evaluating the effects of ideology on public understanding of climate change science: how to improve communication across ideological divides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Asim; Todd, Anne Marie

    2010-11-01

    While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H1] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H2] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H3] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H1 and H3, but reject H2. Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.

  3. The Blueprint for Change: A National Strategy to Enhance Access to Earth and Space Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, E. E.; Barstow, D.

    2001-12-01

    Enhancing access to high quality science education resources for teachers, students, and the general public is a high priority for the earth and space science education communities. However, to significantly increase access to these resources and promote their effective use will require a coordinated effort between content developers, publishers, professional developers, policy makers, and users in both formal and informal education settings. Federal agencies, academic institutions, professional societies, informal science centers, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, and other National SMETE Digital Library Projects are anticipated to play key roles in this effort. As a first step to developing a coordinated, national strategy for developing and delivering high quality earth and space science education resources to students, teachers, and the general public, 65 science educators, scientists, teachers, administrators, policy makers, and business leaders met this June in Snowmass, Colorado to create "Earth and Space Science Education 2010: A Blueprint for Change". The Blueprint is a strategy document that will be used to guide Earth and space science education reform efforts in grades K-12 during the next decade. The Blueprint contains specific goals, recommendations, and strategies for coordinating action in the areas of: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development, Curriculum and Materials, Equity and Diversity, Assessment and Evaluation, Public Policy and Systemic Reform, Public and Informal Education, Partnerships and Collaborations, and Technology. If you develop, disseminate, or use exemplary earth and space science education resources, we invite you to review the Blueprint for Change, share it with your colleagues and local science educators, and join as we work to revolutionize earth and space science education in grades K-12.

  4. Big Science comes of age talk of the demise of Big Science is premature. But its characteristics have changed significantly

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Large scale science research facilities are now not only multi-user and multi-experimental, they are also used by scientists from different scientific areas. This demonstrates a significant trend - the growing collaboration between separate scientific disciplines and hence a real interdisciplinary approach to scientific questions (1/2 page).

  5. Teachers' perceptions of effective science, technology, and mathematics professional development and changes in classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriack, Anna Christine

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' perceptions of professional development and changes in classroom practice. A proposed conceptual framework for effective professional development that results in changes in classroom practices was developed. Data from two programs that provided professional development to teachers in the areas of technology, mathematics, and science was used to inform the conceptual framework. These two programs were Target Technology in Texas (T3) and Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Preparation Academies (MSTTPA). This dissertation used a multiple article format to explore each program separately, yet the proposed conceptual framework allowed for comparisons to be made between the two programs. The first study investigated teachers' perceptions of technology-related professional development after their districts had received a T3 grant. An online survey was administrated to all teachers to determine their perceptions of technology-related professional development along with technology self-efficacy. Classroom observations were conducted to determine if teachers were implementing technology. The results indicated that teachers did not perceive professional development as being effective and were not implementing technology in their classrooms. Teachers did have high technology self-efficacy and perceived adequate school support, which implies that effective professional development may be a large factor in whether or not teachers implement technology in their classrooms. The second study evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of mathematics and science professional development offered through a MSTTP academy. Current and former participants completed an online survey which measured their perceptions of academy activities and school environment. Participants also self-reported classroom implementation of technology. Interviews and open-ended survey questions were used to provide further insight into

  6. A Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) Meteorite Compendium: Summarizing Samples of ASteroid 4 Vesta in Preparation for the Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, J. M.; Righter, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) suite of achondritic meteorites, thought to originate from asteroid 4 Vesta, has recently been summarized into a meteorite compendium. This compendium will serve as a guide for researchers interested in further analysis of HEDs, and we expect that interest in these samples will greatly increase with the planned arrival of the Dawn Mission at Vesta in August 2011. The focus of this abstract/poster is to (1) introduce and describe HED samples from both historical falls and Antarctic finds, and (2) provide information on unique HED samples available for study from the Antarctic Meteorite Collection at JSC, including the vesicular eucrite PCA91007, the olivine diogenite EETA79002, and the paired ALH polymict eucrites.

  7. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  8. Picture This: The Art of Using Museum and Science Collaborations to Teach about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiondella, F.; Fowler, R.; Davi, N. K.; Gawthrop, E.

    2015-12-01

    Connecting scientists and their research to photography galleries and museums is an effective way to promote climate literacy among a new, diverse audience. This approach requires creativity and a willingness to reach out to and work with staff unfamiliar with scientific institutions, but can result in broad exposure and understanding of the impacts of climate change. In this presentation we highlight the successful science-art collaboration among the International Center of Photography, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society. The collaboration revolved around ICP's 2014-2015 exhibition of renowned photographer Sebastiao Salgado's Genesis, an eight-year worldwide survey of wildlife, landscapes, seascapes and indigenous peoples. Salgado's photographs acted as a springboard for a unique public education program based at ICP and aimed at raising awareness of the urgent issue of climate change. Over the course of six months, Lamont and IRI scientists with expertise in climatology, dendrochronology, seismology and glaciology led gallery tours for the public, making links between their research and the places and people of Salgado's photography. Lamont and IRI staff also gave talks throughout the exhibition period on topics ranging from climate change adaptation to the use of photography to help the public visualize the impacts of Earth's changing climate. The research institutions also took over ICP's Instagram feed for a week, showcasing the climate-related field work of more than a dozen scientists. All three institutions, the participating scientists and program attendees deemed the collaboration a success. We'll explain what made this collaboration successful and provide tips on how scientists and their institutes can form similar collaborations with museums and other arts-based organizations.

  9. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  10. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  11. Teacher change and professional development: A case study of teachers engaged in an innovative constructivist science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akura, Okong'o. Gabriel

    This study examined both the changes that elementary school teachers experienced when they implemented a reform-based science curriculum and the impact of professional development on this transformation. The research involved a case study of three purposefully selected teachers implementing the Linking Food and the Environment (LIFE) program during the 2002--2003 school year. The LIFE program is a curriculum designed to enhance science literacy among learners from high poverty urban environments. While the study was grounded in the tradition of critical theory (Carspecken, 1996), the theoretical perspective of hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990) guided data collection and analysis. Extensive observations of the teachers were made in order to capture and record the teacher change phenomenon. Data were recorded by means of field notes, audio and videotapes, semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and video Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews. Emerging themes relating to teacher change, knowledge interests, constructivist pedagogy, and professional development illustrated how teachers grapple with various aspects of implementing a reform-based science curriculum. The teachers in this study were similar to those in earlier investigations, which found that sustained professional development programs involving mentoring and constant reflection enable elementary science teachers to change their instructional strategies from the technical-realist orientation towards the practical-hermeneutic and emancipatory-liberatory orientations. The study has implications for science curriculum developers and designers of professional development programs.

  12. Development of a New Research Data Infrastructure for Collaboration in Earth Observation and Global Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Briese, Christian

    2017-04-01

    With the global population having surpassed 7 billion people in 2012, the impacts of human activities on the environment have started to be noticeable almost everywhere on our planet. Yet, while pressing social problems such as mass migration may be at least be partly a consequence of these impacts, many are still elusive, particularly when trying to quantify them on larger scales. Therefore, it is essential to collect verifiable observations that allow tracing environmental changes from a local to global scale over several decades. Complementing in situ networks, this task is increasingly fulfilled by earth observation satellites which have been acquiring measurements of the land, atmosphere and oceans since the beginning of the 1970s. While many multi-decadal data sets are already available, the major limitation hindering their effective exploitation in global change studies is the lack of dedicated data centres offering the high performance processing capabilities needed to process multi-year global data sets at a fine spatial resolution (Wagner, 2015). Essentially the only platform which currently offers these capabilities is Google's Earth Engine. From a scientific perspective there is undoubtedly a high need to build up independent science-driven platforms that are transparent for their users and offer a higher diversity and flexibility in terms of the data sets and algorithms used. Recognizing this need, TU Wien founded the EODC Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring together with other Austrian partners in May 2014 as a public-private partnership (Wagner et al. 2014). Thanks to its integrative governance approach, EODC has succeeded of quickly developing an international cooperation consisting of scientific institutions, public organisations and several private partners. Making best use of their existing infrastructures, the EODC partners have already created the first elements of a federated IT infrastructure capable of storing and

  13. Changes in the Perceptions of the Nature of Science and Religious Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflalo, Ester

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS) is one of the challenging objectives in science education due, in part, to the complex relationship between religion and science. This study examines how NOS teaching affects the perception of the NOS amongst religious, as compared to secular, students. The participants included 205 religious and secular…

  14. Trained in Science-Base Field: Change of Specialization among Educated Women in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Suhaida Mohd; Satar, Nurulhuda Mohd; Yap, Su Fei

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical model for economic development states that development in science and technology is the key to increased productivity. Upon realizing this, the Malaysian government has targeted 60 to 40 per cent of students for Science to Arts field at the tertiary level of education. However the rate of participation in science-based programs…

  15. Changing trends and persisting biases in three decades of conservation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Di Marco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation science is a rapidly developing discipline, and the knowledge base it generates is relevant for practical applications. It is therefore crucial to monitor biases and trends in conservation literature, to track the progress of the discipline and re-align efforts where needed. We evaluated past and present trends in the focus of the conservation literature, and how they relate to conservation needs. We defined the focus of the past literature from 13 published reviews referring to 18,369 article classifications, and the focus of the current literature by analysing 2553 articles published between 2011–2015. We found that some of the historically under-studied biodiversity elements are receiving significantly more attention today, despite being still under-represented. The total proportion of articles on invertebrates, genetic diversity, or aquatic systems is 50%–60% higher today than it was before 2010. However, a disconnect between scientific focus and conservation needs is still present, with greater attention devoted to areas or taxa less rich in biodiversity and threatened biodiversity. In particular, a strong geographical bias persists, with 40% of studies carried out in USA, Australia or the UK, and only 10% and 6% respectively in Africa or South East Asia. Despite some changing trends, global conservation science is still poorly aligned with biodiversity distribution and conservation priorities, especially in relation to threatened species. To overcome the biases identified here, scientists, funding agencies and journals must prioritise research adaptively, based on biodiversity conservation needs. Conservation depends on policy makers and practitioners for success, and scientists should actively provide those who make decisions with the knowledge that best addresses their needs.

  16. Climate for women in climate science: Women scientists and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Antaki, Miriam; Liverman, Diana

    2018-02-27

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an authoritative and influential source of reports on climate change. The lead authors of IPCC reports include scientists from around the world, but questions have been raised about the dominance of specific disciplines in the report and the disproportionate number of scholars from the Global North. In this paper, we analyze the as-yet-unexamined issue of gender and IPCC authorship, looking at changes in gender balance over time and analyzing women's views about their experience and barriers to full participation, not only as women but also at the intersection of nationality, race, command of English, and discipline. Over time, we show that the proportion of female IPCC authors has seen a modest increase from less than 5% in 1990 to more than 20% in the most recent assessment reports. Based on responses from over 100 women IPCC authors, we find that many women report a positive experience in the way in which they are treated and in their ability to influence the report, although others report that some women were poorly represented and heard. We suggest that an intersectional lens is important: not all women experience the same obstacles: they face multiple and diverse barriers associated with social identifiers such as race, nationality, command of English, and disciplinary affiliation. The scientific community benefits from including all scientists, including women and those from the Global South. This paper documents barriers to participation and identifies opportunities to diversify climate science. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Co-production and modeling landscape change - successes and challenges in developing useful climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Reynolds, J.; Littell, J. S.; Murphy, K.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Breen, A. L.; Gray, S. T.; McGuire, A. D.; Rupp, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Responding to the impacts of climate change and generating information that helps inform resource management requires exceptional communication and collaboration among researchers, managers, and other stakeholders. However, there is relatively little guidance on how to practically develop, facilitate, and evaluate this process given the highly specific and localized nature of many co-production efforts in terms of information needs, research questions, partners, and associated institutions. The Integrated Ecosystem Model (IEM) for Alaska and Northwest Canada was developed to understand how climate change influences interactions among disturbance (e.g. wildfire, thermokarst), permafrost, hydrology, and vegetation and identify how these changes affect valuable ecosystem services. The IEM was a unique co-production effort in that it was driven by broad management interests (rather than one research question), and because of the landscape-scale outputs, much broader engagement was warranted. Communication between the research team and the broader community of resource managers was facilitated by the Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperatives and the Alaska Climate Science Center. Team members' reflections on the project confirm the importance of deliberate approaches to collaboration, where everyone has frequent opportunities to discuss goals, assumptions, and presumed outcomes of the project itself, as well as the elements of the process (i.e. meetings, reports, etc.). However, managing these activities requires significant time, resources, and perhaps more dedicated personnel. The lessons learned from the design and application of the IEM are highly relevant to researchers and land managers in other regions that are considering the development of a similar tool or an undertaking of similar magnitude, scale, and complexity.

  18. Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: Climate Change Curriculum Developed Through a Collaboration Between Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Weiss, E. L.; Pedemonte, S.

    2016-02-01

    Today's youth have been tasked with the overwhelming job of addressing the world's climate future. The students who will become the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow must gain a robust understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as possible adaptation strategies. Currently, few high quality curriculum materials exist that address climate change in a developmentally appropriate manner. The NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: The Ocean-Atmosphere Connection and Climate Change (OSS) addresses this gap by providing teachers with scientifically accurate climate change curriculum that hits on some of the most salient points in climate science, while simultaneously developing students' science process skills. OSS was developed through a collaboration between some of the nation's leading ocean and climate scientists and the Lawrence Hall of Science's highly qualified curriculum development team. Scientists were active partners throughout the entire development process, from initial brainstorming of key concepts and creating the conceptual storyline for the curriculum to final review of the content and activities. The goal was to focus strategically and effectively on core concepts within ocean and climate sciences that students should understand. OSS was designed in accordance with the latest research from the learning sciences and provides numerous opportunities for students to develop facility with science practices by "doing" science.Through hands-on activities, technology, informational readings, and embedded assessments, OSS deeply addresses a significant number of standards from the Next Generation Science Standards and is being used by many teachers as they explore the shifts required by NGSS. It also aligns with the Ocean Literacy and Climate Literacy Frameworks. OSS comprises 33 45-minute sessions organized into three thematic units, each driven by an exploratory question: (1) How do the ocean and atmosphere

  19. Joint sciences academies statement: global response to climate change; Declaration commune des Academies des sciences sur la reponse globale au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    Taking into account that there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring, the Joint Science Academies, urge, by this statement, all nations in the line with the UNFCCC principles, to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change, adapt to its impacts and ensure that the issue is included in all relevant national and international strategies. Some recommendations are also given. (A.L.B.)

  20. Secrets of the Sediments: Using ANDRILL's Scientific Adventure on Ice to Transfer Climate Change Science to K-12 Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, L. T.; Dahlman, L.; Frisch-Gleason, R.; Harwood, D.; Pound, K.; Rack, F.; Riesselman, C.; Trummel, E.; Tuzzi, E.; Winter, D.

    2008-12-01

    Antarctica's harsh environment and the compelling story of living and working there, provides the backdrop for hooking the interest of young learners on science research and the nature of science. By using the adventure stories of today's researcher-explorers, teachers accompanying the ANDRILL team have taken the technical science of drilling rock cores to understand the history of climate change and the advance and retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet, and translated it for non-technical audiences from K-12 school children, to adult community groups. In order to understand the important issues surrounding global climate change, members of the public need access to accurate and relevant information, high quality educational materials, and a variety of learning opportunities in different learning environments. By taking lessons learned from early virtual polar adventure learning expeditions like Will Steger's Trans-Antarctic Expedition, coupled with educators-in-the-field programs like TEA (Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic), ARMADA and Polar Trec, ANDRILL's Education and Outreach Program has evolved into successful and far-reaching integrated education projects including 1) the ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators) Program, 2) Climate Change Student Summits, 3) the development of Flexhibit (flexible exhibit) teaching resources, 4) virtual online learning communities, and 5) partnering young researchers with teachers and classrooms. Formal evaluations indicate lasting interest in science studies on the part of students and an increase in teachers' scientific background knowledge.

  1. Water Cycle Dynamics in a Changing Environment: Advancing Hydrologic Science through Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.; Kumar, P.; Rhoads, B. L.; Wuebbles, D.

    2007-12-01

    synthesis through research efforts aimed at "improving predictability of water cycle dynamics in a changing environment." The synthesis activities have brought together inter-disciplinary scientific teams to address specific open problems such as: (i) human-nature interactions and adaptations; (ii) role of the biosphere in water cycle dynamics; (iii) human induced changes to water cycle dynamics; and (iv) structure of landscapes and their evolution through time. All synthesis activities will be underpinned by common unifying themes: (a) hydrology as the science of interacting processes; (b) variability as the driver of interactions and ecosystem functioning; (c) search for emergent behavior and organizing principles; and (d) complexity theory and non- equilibrium thermodynamics.

  2. Crisis, change and creativity in science and technology: chemistry in the aftermath of twentieth-century global wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the organising ideas behind the symposium "Chemistry in the Aftermath of World Wars," held at the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, Budapest, 2009, whose theme was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context." After first recounting the origins of the notion of "crisis" as a decisive turning point in general history as well as in the history of science, the paper presents war and its aftermath as a form of crisis that may affect science and technology, including chemistry, in a variety of contexts and leading to a variety of types of change. The twentieth-century world wars were exemplary forms of crisis, whose aftermaths shaped the contexts for decisive changes in modern chemistry, which continue to offer challenging opportunities for historical research. In discussing these, the paper cites selected current literature and briefly describes how the individual papers of the symposium, including the three papers published in this volume, approached these challenges.

  3. Enabling Long-Term Earth Science Research: Changing Data Practices (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Data stewardship plans are shaped by our shared experiences. As a result, community engagement and collaborative activities are central to the stewardship of data. Since modes and mechanisms of engagement have changed, we benefit from asking anew: ';Who are the communities?' and ';What are the lessons learned?'. Data stewardship with its long-term care perspective, is enriched by reflection on community experience. This presentation draws on data management issues and strategies originating from within long-term research communities as well as on recent studies informed by library and information science. Ethnographic case studies that capture project activities and histories are presented as resources for comparative analysis. Agency requirements and funding opportunities are stimulating collaborative endeavors focused on data re-use and archiving. Research groups including earth scientists, information professionals, and data systems designers are recognizing the possibilities for new ways of thinking about data in the digital arena. Together, these groups are re-conceptualizing and reconfiguring for data management and data curation. A differentiation between managing data for local use and production of data for re-use remotely in locations and fields remote from the data origin is just one example of the concepts emerging to facilitate development of data management. While earth scientists as data generators have the responsibility to plan new workflows and documentation practices, data and information specialists have responsibility to promote best practices as well as to facilitate the development of community resources such as controlled vocabularies and data dictionaries. With data-centric activities and changing data practices, the potential for creating dynamic community information environments in conjunction with development of data facilities exists but remains elusive.

  4. Changes in Aleut concerns following the stakeholder-driven Amchitka independent science assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2009-08-01

    There is widespread agreement that stakeholders should be included in the problem-formulation phase of addressing environment problems and, more recently, there have been attempts to include stakeholders in other phases of environmental research. However, there are few studies that evaluate the effects of including stakeholders in all phases of research aimed at solving environmental problems. Three underground nuclear blasts were detonated on Amchitka Island from 1965 to 1971. Considerable controversy developed when the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to "close" Amchitka. Concerns were voiced by subsistence Aleuts living in the region, resource trustees, and the State of Alaska, among others. This article evaluates perceptions of residents of three Aleutian village before (2003) and after (2005) the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation's (CRESP) Amchitka Independent Science Assessment (AISA). The CRESP AISA provided technical information on radionuclide levels in biota to inform questions of seafood safety and food chain health. CRESP used the questions asked at public meetings in the Aleut communities of Atka, Nikolski, and Unalaska to evaluate attitudes and perceptions before and after the AISA. Major concerns before the AISA were credibility/trust of CRESP and the DOE, and information about biological methodology of the study. Following the AISA, people were most concerned about health effects and risk reduction, and trust issues with CRESP declined while those for the DOE remained stable. People's relative concerns about radionuclides declined, while their concerns about mercury (not addressed in the AISA) increased, and interest in ecological issues (population changes of local species) and the future (continued biomonitoring) increased from 2003 to 2005. These results suggest that questions posed at public meetings can be used to evaluate changes in attitudes and perceptions following environmental research, and the results are

  5. Science-based Forest Management in an Era of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.; Brandt, L.; Butler, P.; Handler, S.; Shannon, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing the need to provide climate adaptation information, training, and tools to forest managers, the Forest Service joined with partners in 2009 to launch a comprehensive effort called the Climate Change Response Framework (www.forestadaptation.org). The Framework provides a structured approach to help managers integrate climate considerations into forest management plans and then implement adaptation actions on the ground. A planning tool, the Adaptation Workbook, is used in conjunction with vulnerability assessments and a diverse "menu" of adaptation approaches to generate site-specific adaptation actions that meet explicit management objectives. Additionally, a training course, designed around the Adaptation Workbook, leads management organizations through this process of designing on-the-ground adaptation tactics for their management projects. The Framework is now being actively pursued in 20 states in the Northwoods, Central Hardwoods, Central Appalachians, Mid-Atlantic, and New England. The Framework community includes over 100 science and management groups, dozens of whom have worked together to complete six ecoregional vulnerability assessments covering nearly 135 million acres. More than 75 forest and urban forest adaptation strategies and approaches were synthesized from peer-reviewed and gray literature, expert solicitation, and on-the-ground adaptation projects. These are being linked through the Adaptation Workbook process to on-the-ground adaptation tactics being planned and employed in more than 50 adaptation "demonstrations". This presentation will touch on the scientific and professional basis of the vulnerability assessments, and showcase efforts where adaptation actions are currently being implemented in forests.

  6. History of Science and Conceptual Change: The Formation of Shadows by Extended Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, Christos; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a teaching conflict procedure whose purpose was the transformation of the representations of 12-16-year-old pupils in Greece concerning light emission and shadow formation by extended light sources. The changes observed during the children’s effort to destabilize and reorganise their representations towards a model that was compatible with the respective scientific model were studied using three groups of pupils belonging to different age groups. The methodological plan implemented was based on input from the History of Science, while the parameters of the geometrical optics model were derived from Kepler’s relevant historic experiment. The effectiveness of the teaching procedure was evaluated 2 weeks after the intervention. The results showed that the majority of the subjects accepted the model of geometrical optics, i.e. the pupils were able to correctly predict and adequately justify the experimental results based on the principle of punctiform light emission. Educational and research implications are discussed.

  7. Changes in Critical Thinking Skills Following a Course on Science and Pseudoscience: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P.; Miller, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed changes in paranormal beliefs and general critical thinking skills among students (n = 23) enrolled in an experimental course designed to teach distinguishing science from pseudoscience and a comparison group of students (n = 30) in an advanced research methods course. On average, both courses were successful in reducing paranormal…

  8. Science, Technology and Social Change Course's Effects on Technological Literacy Levels of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, E. Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…

  9. The re-emergence of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science and the testing of theories of scientific change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Larry; Laudan, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    A basic premise of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science is that theories of scientific change have to be based on empirical evidence derived from carefully constructed historical case studies. This paper analyses one such systematic attempt to test philosophical claims, describing its historical context, rationale, execution, and limited impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inspiring Instructional Change in Elementary School Science: The Relationship Between Enhanced Self-efficacy and Teacher Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2014-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which teachers' participation in a 3-year professional development program enhanced their self-efficacy and prompted changes in science instruction in the early elementary grades. The study used a mixed-methods design, and included 39 teachers who taught in kindergarten, first grade, or second grade classrooms in rural school districts. Data sources, administered pre-program and at the end of each year, included a self-efficacy assessment and teacher survey. Interviews and classroom observations provided corroborating data about teachers' beliefs and science instruction. Results showed significant increases in teachers' overall self-efficacy in teaching science, personal efficacy, and outcome expectancy efficacy during the 3 years. Gains in self-efficacy were correlated with changes in reported instructional practices, particularly student participation activities. However, changes in self-efficacy tended not to be correlated with changes in instructional time. Contextual factors beyond teachers' direct control, such as curricular and testing requirements in mathematics and language arts influenced time allotted to science instruction.

  11. Exploring Students' Epistemological Knowledge of Models and Modelling in Science: Results from a Teaching/Learning Experience on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasquier, Giulia; Levrini, Olivia; Dillon, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has been debating climate change for over two decades. In the light of certain arguments put forward by the aforesaid community, the EU has recommended a set of innovative reforms to science teaching such as incorporating environmental issues into the scientific curriculum, thereby helping to make schools a place of civic…

  12. Assessing Student Knowledge of Chemistry and Climate Science Concepts Associated with Climate Change: Resources to Inform Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley; Zabih, Adam; Holme, Thomas A.; McKenzie, Lallie; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian; Towns, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most critical problems facing citizens today. Chemistry faculty are presented with the problem of making general chemistry content simultaneously relevant and interesting. Using climate science to teach chemistry allows faculty to help students learn chemistry content in a rich context. Concepts related to…

  13. Climate Change, Capitalism, and Citizen Science: Developing a dialectical framework for examining volunteer participation in climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixom, Joshua A.

    This dissertation discusses the complex social relations that link citizen science, scientific literacy, and the dissemination of information to the public. Scientific information is not produced in value-neutral settings by people removed from their social context. Instead, science is a social pursuit and the scientist's social context is embedded in the knowledge produced. Additionally, the dissemination of this information via numerous media outlets is filtered through institutional lenses and subject to journalistic norms. As a result, the general public must be able to recognize the inherent biases in this information. Yet, the rates of scientific literacy in the U.S. are quite low, which suggests that people may not be capable of fully understanding the biases present. Furthermore, people tend to seek out sources that reinforce their values and personal perspectives, thus reinforcing their own biases. Improving scientific literacy allows people to see past these biases and translate media narratives in order to comprehend the facts and evidence presented to them. Citizen science is both an epistemological tool used by scientists to collect and interpret scientific data and a means to improve the scientific literacy of participants. Citizen science programs have the ability to generate real knowledge and improve the critical thinking skills necessary for the general public to interpret scientific information.

  14. Science ethics education part II: changes in attitude toward scientific fraud among medical researchers after a short course in science ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic-Dekic, L; Gavrilovic, D; Kezic, I; Bogdanovic, G; Brkic, S

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of the short science ethics courses on the knowledge of basic principles of responsible conduct of research (RCR), and on the attitude toward scientific fraud among young biomedical researchers. A total of 361 attendees of the course on science ethics answered a specially designed anonymous multiple- choice questionnaire before and after a one-day course in science ethics. The educational course consisted of 10 lectures: 1) Good scientific practice - basic principles; 2) Publication ethics; 3) Scientific fraud - fabrication, falsification, plagiarism; 4) Conflict of interests; 5) Underpublishing; 6) Mentorship; 7) Authorship; 8) Coauthorship; 9) False authorship; 10) Good scientific practice - ethical codex of science. In comparison to their answers before the course, a significantly higher (pscience ethics as sufficient after the course was completed. That the wrongdoers deserve severe punishment for all types of scientific fraud, including false authorship, thought significantly (pscience ethics had a great impact on the attendees, enlarging their knowledge of responsible conduct of research and changing their previous, somewhat opportunistic, behavior regarding the reluctance to react publicly and punish the wrongdoers.

  15. The Climate Science Special Report: Arctic Changes and their Effect on Alaska and the Rest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid and visible climate change is happening across the Arctic, outpacing global change. Annual average near-surface air temperatures across the Arctic are increasing at more than twice the rate of global average surface temperature. In addition to surface temperature, all components of the Arctic climate system are responding in kind, including sea ice, mountain glaciers and the Greenland Ice sheet, snow cover, and permafrost. Many of these changes with a discernable anthropogenic imprint. While Arctic climate change may seem physically remote to those living in other regions of the planet, Arctic climate change can affect the global climate influencing sea level, the carbon cycle, and potentially atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. As an Arctic nation, United States' adaptation, mitigation, and policy decisions depend on projections of future Alaskan and Arctic climate. This chapter of the Climate Science Special Report documents significant scientific progress and knowledge about how the Alaskan and Arctic climate has changed and will continue to change.

  16. Principles of cobalt-60 teletherapy including an introduction to the compendium. Definitions and conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Mitchell, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The convention used in the display of the transverse sections of the human body in the plans for radiotherapy follows the editorial policy of the Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. For the purpose of this Compendium the convention is defined as: The ''seen from above'' convention is used for the head and upper neck, in which is included the oropharynx. This is the 'anatomical convention' now used with the computed tomography (CT) head scanner and is accepted generally by neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons and neurologists. This convention is also employed in the display of isotope scans of the head. The ''seen from below'' convention is used for the rest of the body, i.e. below the level of the lower border of the third cervical vertebral body; this includes the hypopharynx, larynx and thyroid. This is the usual 'radiological convention', i.e. the patient's right is on the observer's left. This is the convention generally used in total body CT scanning of the thorax and abdomen; the same convention is used in isotope and ultrasonic imaging

  17. Energy Cost Expression for a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities: Rationale for Using Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Karin A; Watson, Kathleen B; McMurray, Robert G; Bassett, David R; Butte, Nancy F; Crouter, Scott E; Herrmann, Stephen D; Trost, Stewart G; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Fulton, Janet E; Berrigan, David

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the accuracy of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) prediction using 2 methods of accounting for age dependency versus 1 standard (single) value across all ages. PAEE estimates were derived by pooling data from 5 studies. Participants, 6-18 years (n = 929), engaged in 14 activities while in a room calorimeter or wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. Linear regression was used to estimate the measurement error in PAEE (expressed as youth metabolic equivalent) associated with using age groups (6-9, 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 y) and age-in-years [each year of chronological age (eg, 12 = 12.0-12.99 y)] versus the standard (a single value across all ages). Age groups and age-in-years showed similar error, and both showed less error than the standard method for cycling, skilled, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities. For sedentary and light activities, the standard had similar error to the other 2 methods. Mean values for root mean square error ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 youth metabolic equivalent across all activities. Error reduction ranged from -0.2% to 21.7% for age groups and -0.23% to 18.2% for age-in-years compared with the standard. Accounting for age showed lower errors than a standard (single) value; using an age-dependent model in the Youth Compendium is recommended.

  18. Computer codes for particle accelerator design and analysis: A compendium. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaven, H.S.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1990-05-01

    The design of the next generation of high-energy accelerators will probably be done as an international collaborative efforts and it would make sense to establish, either formally or informally, an international center for accelerator codes with branches for maintenance, distribution, and consultation at strategically located accelerator centers around the world. This arrangement could have at least three beneficial effects. It would cut down duplication of effort, provide long-term support for the best codes, and provide a stimulating atmosphere for the evolution of new codes. It does not take much foresight to see that the natural evolution of accelerator design codes is toward the development of so-called Expert Systems, systems capable of taking design specifications of future accelerators and producing specifications for optimized magnetic transport and acceleration components, making a layout, and giving a fairly impartial cost estimate. Such an expert program would use present-day programs such as TRANSPORT, POISSON, and SUPERFISH as tools in the optimization process. Such a program would also serve to codify the experience of two generations of accelerator designers before it is lost as these designers reach retirement age. This document describes 203 codes that originate from 10 countries and are currently in use. The authors feel that this compendium will contribute to the dialogue supporting the international collaborative effort that is taking place in the field of accelerator physics today

  19. COMPENDIUM OF COMPLETED TESTING IN SUPPORT OF ROTARY MICROFILTRATION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ

    2011-05-24

    This report presents a chronological summary of previous technology development efforts concerning the rotary microfiltration (RMF) unit from SpinTek{trademark}. Rotary microfiltration has been developed for high radiation application over the last decades as one of the optional filtration techniques for supplemental treatment. Supplemental treatment includes a near- or in-tank solids separation and subsequent cesium removal unit, followed by an immobilization technique; this includes options such as steam reforming, bulk vitrification or cast stone (grout). The main difference between RMF and standard cross flow filtration (CFF) is the disconnection of filtrate flux from feed velocity; i.e., filtrate flux is only dependent on transmembrane pressure, filter fouling and temperature. These efforts have been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Cleanup Technologies since the 1990s by their Environmental Management Program (currently EM-31). In order to appropriately address future testing needs, a compilation of the relevant previous testing reports was essential. This compendium does not intend to cover all of the presentations/reports that were produced over the last decades but focuses on those of relevance for developing an RMF unit fit for deployment at the Hanford site. The report is split into three parts: (1) an introductory overview, (2) Figure 1 graphically covering the main development steps and its key players and (3) a more detailed table of the citations and brief descriptions of results and recommendations.

  20. Compendium of computer codes for the researcher in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    This is a compendium of computer codes, which are available to the fusion researcher. It is intended to be a document that permits a quick evaluation of the tools available to the experimenter who wants to both analyze his data, and compare the results of his analysis with the predictions of available theories. This document will be updated frequently to maintain its usefulness. I would appreciate receiving further information about codes not included here from anyone who has used them. The information required includes a brief description of the code (including any special features), a bibliography of the documentation available for the code and/or the underlying physics, a list of people to contact for help in running the code, instructions on how to access the code, and a description of the output from the code. Wherever possible, the code contacts should include people from each of the fusion facilities so that the novice can talk to someone ''down the hall'' when he first tries to use a code. I would also appreciate any comments about possible additions and improvements in the index. I encourage any additional criticism of this document. 137 refs