WorldWideScience

Sample records for change research time

  1. Changing Conceptions of Time: Implications for Educational Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncheon, Julia C.; Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The construct of time influences student learning in and out of school and consequently pervades educational discourse. Yet the integration of information and communication technologies into contemporary society is changing how people perceive and experience time. Traditional theoretical and methodological approaches to time research no longer…

  2. Atmospheric composition change research: Time to go post-normal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes Pereira, Angela; Raes, Frank; De Sousa Pedrosa, Tiago;

    2009-01-01

    .We look towhat extent these new frameworks have taken ground within a particular research community: the ACCENT Network of Excellence which coordinates European atmospheric chemistry and physics research applicable to air pollution and climate change.We did so by stimulating a debate through a ‘‘blog’’, a...

  3. From social welfare to superstore everywhere: changing times, changing research agendas in UK big box retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Hallsworth, Alan; Jouan de Kervenoael, Ronan; Elms, Jonathan; Canning, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the changing scope of research into UK food superstores over a 30-year period. Rather than catalogue changing market shares by format, we seek instead to show how change links to national policy agendas. Academic research has evolved to address the growing complexities of the social, technological, economic and political impacts of the superstore format. We exemplify this by tracing the progression of retail change in Portsmouth, Hampshire, over 30 years. We discover th...

  4. Time change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Winkel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical operation of time-changing continuous-time stochastic processes can be regarded as a standard method for building financial models. We briefly review the theory on time-changed stochastic processes and relate them to stochastic volatility models in finance. Popular models...

  5. A course-based research experience: how benefits change with increased investment in instructional time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher D; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Bednarski, April E; Dunbar, David; Goodman, Anya L; Reinke, Catherine; Rosenwald, Anne G; Wolyniak, Michael J; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bazinet, Christopher; Beach, Dale L; Bedard, James E J; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John; Burg, Martin; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Clase, Kari; Dejong, Randall J; Diangelo, Justin R; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T; Eisler, Heather; Emerson, Julia A; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T; Hauser, Charles; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Hoopes, Laura L M; Howell, Carina E; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Silver Key, S Catherine; Kleinschmit, Adam; Kokan, Nighat P; Kopp, Olga; Kuleck, Gary; Leatherman, Judith; Lopilato, Jane; Mackinnon, Christy; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Mistry, Hemlata; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul; Paetkau, Don W; Parrish, Susan; Peterson, Celeste N; Preuss, Mary; Reed, Laura K; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Rubin, Michael R; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D; Smith, Mary A; Smith, Sheryl T; Spana, Eric; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Stamm, Joyce; Szauter, Paul; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Wawersik, Matthew; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Mardis, Elaine R; Buhler, Jeremy; Leung, Wilson; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant investment of course time is required to enable students to show gains commensurate to a summer research experience. An alumni survey revealed that time spent on a research project is also a significant factor in the value former students assign to the experience one or more years later. We conclude: 1) implementation of a bioinformatics project within the biology curriculum provides a mechanism for successfully engaging large numbers of students in undergraduate research; 2) benefits to students are achievable at a wide variety of academic institutions; and 3) successful implementation of course-based research experiences requires significant investment of instructional time for students to gain full benefit. PMID:24591510

  6. Who Studies MOOCs? Interdisciplinarity in MOOC Research and Its Changes over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veletsianos, George; Shepherdson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of digital and online education is becoming increasingly evident in the context of research into networked learning/participation. Interdisciplinary research is often proposed as a way to address complex scientific problems and enable researchers to bring novel perspectives into a field other than their own. The degree to which…

  7. Who Studies MOOCs? Interdisciplinarity in MOOC Research and its Changes over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of digital and online education is becoming increasingly evident in the context of research into networked learning/participation. Interdisciplinary research is often proposed as a way to address complex scientific problems and enable researchers to bring novel perspectives into a field other than their own. The degree to which research on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs is interdisciplinary is unknown. We apply descriptive and inferential statistics to bibliometric data to investigate interdisciplinarity in MOOC research. Results show that MOOC research published in 2013-2015 was (a mostly conducted by researchers affiliated with Education and Computer Science disciplines, (b far from monolithic, (c had a greater representation of authors from Computer Science than in the past, and (d showed a trend toward being more interdisciplinary than MOOC research published in 2008-2012. Our results also suggest that empirical research on xMOOCs may be more interdisciplinary than research on cMOOCs. Greater interdisciplinarity in xMOOC research could reflect the burgeoning interest in the field, the general familiarity with the xMOOC pedagogical model, and the hype experienced by xMOOCs. Greater interdisciplinarity in the field may also provide researchers with rich opportunities to improve our understanding and practice of digital and online learning.

  8. Does Perception of Corporate Culture Change in Time? An Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahit Erdem KÖKER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental values and belief systems in a corporation show themselves as; norms, behaviours, symbols and compose the corporate culture. When corporate culture is undertaken in terms of business management, it is seen that corporations in different fields have studies directed to culture. In studies of education science and studies that cover educational orporations, corporate culture is named as school culture. Due to the reason that schools are educational corporations, they are a subject to studies of corporate culture. Studies directed to school culture cover the subjects such as; components of school culture, its’ dimensions, structural characteristics, importance of leadership, ect. This study is directed to displaying the changes in the perceptions about school culture of Ege University Faculty of Communication students along their studentship, which is a cultural component and a sub-culture of school culture. With this purpose, data have been collected from students for four years with the same question form. These students were in 1st grade during 2009-2010 academical year. While students are in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years, it was foreseen that there were going to be meaningful changes in their perceptions about the dimensions of corporate culture. And the direction of change in their perceptions of faculty culture has been detected in their last year.

  9. Changes of blood biochemistry in the rabbit animal model in atherosclerosis research; a time- or stress-effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsantila Nektaria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research and especially as animal models in atherosclerosis studies. Blood biochemistry is used to monitor progression of disease, before final evaluation including pathology of arteries and organs. The aim of the present study was to assess the consistency of the biochemical profile of New Zealand White rabbits on standard diet from 3 to 6 months of age, during which they are often used experimentally. Methods and results Eight conventional male 3-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months later. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase activities and malondialdehyde were measured. Statistically significant time-related changes were observed in glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol, which were not correlated with aortic lesions at 6 months of age. Similarly, hepatic enzyme activity had significant time-related changes, without a corresponding liver pathology. Conclusions Age progression and stress due to single housing may be the underlying reasons for these biochemistry changes. These early changes, indicative of metabolic alterations, should be taken into account even in short-term lipid/atherosclerosis studies, where age and standard diet are not expected to have an effect on the control group of a study.

  10. Changes in clinical trials methodology over time: a systematic review of six decades of research in psychopharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R Brunoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been many changes in clinical trials methodology since the introduction of lithium and the beginning of the modern era of psychopharmacology in 1949. The nature and importance of these changes have not been fully addressed to date. As methodological flaws in trials can lead to false-negative or false-positive results, the objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of methodological changes in psychopharmacology clinical research over the past 60 years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review from 1949 to 2009 on MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic databases, and a hand search of high impact journals on studies of seven major drugs (chlorpromazine, clozapine, risperidone, lithium, fluoxetine and lamotrigine. All controlled studies published 100 months after the first trial were included. Ninety-one studies met our inclusion criteria. We analyzed the major changes in abstract reporting, study design, participants' assessment and enrollment, methodology and statistical analysis. Our results showed that the methodology of psychiatric clinical trials changed substantially, with quality gains in abstract reporting, results reporting, and statistical methodology. Recent trials use more informed consent, periods of washout, intention-to-treat approach and parametric tests. Placebo use remains high and unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical trial quality of psychopharmacological studies has changed significantly in most of the aspects we analyzed. There was significant improvement in quality reporting and internal validity. These changes have increased study efficiency; however, there is room for improvement in some aspects such as rating scales, diagnostic criteria and better trial reporting. Therefore, despite the advancements observed, there are still several areas that can be improved in psychopharmacology clinical trials.

  11. Time Out or Time Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Genan T.

    2001-01-01

    Recommends identifying elements in the physical classroom and the daily schedule that may contribute to children's aggressive behaviors. Suggests observing the child and looking at the daily routine as the basis for creating a suitable environment. Lists ways to reduce stimulation and stress, and identifies benefits of extended play time. (DLH)

  12. How emotions change time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schirmer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that emotions can both speed-up and slow-down the internal clock. Speeding-up has been observed for to-be-timed emotional stimuli that have the capacity to sustain attention, whereas slowing-down has been observed for to-be-timed neutral stimuli that are presented in the context of emotional distractors. These effects have been explained by mechanisms that involve changes in bodily arousal, attention or sentience. A review of these mechanisms suggests both merits and difficulties in the explanation of the emotion-timing link. Therefore, a hybrid mechanism involving stimulus-specific sentient representations is proposed as a candidate for mediating emotional influences on time. According to this proposal, emotional events enhance sentient representations, which in turn support temporal estimates. Emotional stimuli with a larger share in ones sentience are then perceived as longer than neutral stimuli with a smaller share.

  13. Researching participant recruitment times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Rachel; Black, Polly

    2015-11-01

    Conducting research in emergency departments is relatively new, and there are a number of ethical and practical challenges to recruiting patients in these settings. In 2008, the Emergency Medicine Research Group Edinburgh (EMERGE) was set up at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh emergency department to support researchers and encourage the growth of research in emergency medicine. As part of a review of their working methods, the group's clinical nurse researchers undertook a small study to identify participant recruitment times. The results showed a significant difference between perceived and actual recruitment times, which has implications for planning staff numbers and budgets. This article describes the evaluation process and methods of data collection, and discusses the results. PMID:26542924

  14. Revuz measures under time change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we shall study how energy functionals and Revuz measures change under time change of Markov processes and provide an intuitive and direct approach to the computation of the Levy system and jumping measure of time changed process.

  15. Contextual change after fear acquisition affects conditioned responding and the time course of extinction learning – Implications for renewal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eSjouwerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF paradigms (in particular renewal, involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g. in ABC and ABA renewal. Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e. renewal. Thus, the possibility of a general effect of a context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied.Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36 was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149, while measuring autonomic (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e. contextual switch after extinction. Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  16. Climate Change Crunch Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    CLIMATE change is a severe challenge facing humanity in the 21st century and thus the Chinese Government always attaches great importance to the problem.Actively dealing with climate change is China's important strategic policy in its social and economic development.China will make a positive contribution to the world in this regard.

  17. Forest management under changing climate conditions: Is timing a tool for Sustainable Forest Management? Relevant questions for research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; McShane, Paul; Tapper, Nigel

    2013-04-01

    Change of climate conditions influence energy fluxes applicable to forest ecosystems. These affect cycles of nutrients and materials, primary productivity of the ecosystem, biodiversity, ecological functionality and, consequently, carbon equilibria of the forest ecosystem. Temporal factors influence physical, biological, ecological, and climatic processes and functions. For example, seasonality, cycles, periodicity, and trends in climate variables; tree growth, forest growth, and forest metabolic activities (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration) are commonly known to be time-related. In tropical forests, the impacts of changing climate conditions may exceed temperature and/or precipitation thresholds critical to forest tree growth or health. Historically, forest management emphasises growth rates and financial returns as affected by species and site. Until recently, the influence of climate variability on growth dynamics has not been influential in forest planning and management. Under this system, especially in climatic and forest regions where most of species are stenoecious, periodical wood harvesting may occur in any phase of growth (increasing, decreasing, peak, and trough). This scenario presents four main situations: a) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is decreasing: future productivity is damaged; the minimum biomass capital may be altered, and CO2 storage is negatively affected; b) harvesting occurs during a trough of the rate of growth: the minimum biomass capital necessary to preserve the resilience of the forest is damaged; the damage can be temporary (decades) or permanent; CO2 storage capacity is deficient - which may be read as an indirect emission of CO2 since the balance appears negative; c) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is increasing: the planned wood mass can be used without compromising the resilience and recovery of the forest; CO2 storage remains increasing; d) harvesting occurs during a peak period of growth: the wood

  18. Information needs changing over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    For the past twenty years phrases such as “stable information needs”, “unstable information needs” or “information needs changing over time” are found in many contributions to information science. At first view these concepts seem to be easy and clearly understandable. However, after some...... considerations different questions arise: For which types of information need do we see that these needs are changing over time – for all types, or only for certain types? How do information needs relate to changes in the world, or to changes in the human understanding of the world? We will show that...... “information need changing over time” is a very complex concept and only understandable if we distinguish between changes in the world, situation/context, user, types of information need and interpretation of data. Clarity of writing is essential in scientific writing and authors using the concept “information...

  19. Change readiness research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie Balling

    2006-01-01

    interviews and direct observations. The results showed that the seven wards (one was excluded) followed the “Instructions for use” to different degrees. It was found that one instruction, in particular, seems to be especially important to follow to motivate the employees on a ward to participate in the CRR......; the management of the ward must be engaged/actively involved in the project, as they are key figures when it comes to motivating the other ward employees. The aim of this study is not to prove a causal relationship between the degree to which the “Instructions for use” are followed and the degree of...... participation – it is to suggest a qualitative relationship between the two. Neither does this study try to generalize the results, as further research on more wards would be needed to do so. This study does, however, set out themes that can be a useful tool in future CRR projects in order to maximize the...

  20. The Times They Are Changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Times They Are Changing? presents a series of readings that critically examine whether the recent financial crisis will have short-lived implications for welfare states or will usher in a new era of substantial reform and retrenchment of social policies in welfare states around the world...

  1. Memory, Space and Time: Researching Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the research approach in "Pathways through Childhood", a small qualitative study drawing on memories of childhood. The research explores how wider social arrangements and social change influence children's everyday lives. The article discusses the way that the concepts of social memory, space and time have been drawn on to…

  2. Does iris change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2013-01-01

    Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs. PMID:24244305

  3. Global change research budget frozen

    Science.gov (United States)

    For FY 1996, the interagency budget request for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) totals $2.156 billion, or a 1.8% ($39 million) increase over FY 1995. President Clinton has broadened the scope of the program to include another $358 million in reprogrammed activities in keeping with a push by the National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research (CENR) to more closely link costs and objectives. In essence, the increase for what could be considered the “traditional” global change budget would be only 1.4%, or $24 million over the FY 1995 appropriation. USGCRP now embraces the Department of Energy (DoE) research on environmental technologies, NASA launch vehicle charges, and additional Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) research for environmental issues other than global change.

  4. Undergraduate Research Summer Fellowships Undergo Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgren, Timothy E.

    2000-09-01

    At the 22nd Annual Council Meeting of Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR), held this past June at the College of Wooster, the general council voted to make fundamental changes to the Undergraduate Research Summer Fellowship Program. The most important change is that awards will no longer be made to individual students. Instead, awards will be made to individual faculty member on the basis of applications written by faculty members comprised of a curriculum vitae, a description of the proposed research project, and the role of undergraduate collaborators in the proposed research activities. This change brings the program more in line with the overall CUR objective to support faculty in their efforts to provide research experiences for undergraduate students. Faculty members selected for awards will be asked to designate a student recipient at the time the funds are awarded, a key change to the fellowship program.

  5. Practice research under changing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    research in critical psychology is based on a science of the subject – as opposed to the science of control dominating psychology. Of course, projects involve many subjects with diverse perspectives on the issues at hand. Descriptions of practices from subject positions previously considered negligible......The tradition of practice research emerged in critical psychology in Germany and Denmark about twenty-five years ago. It emphasizes the relevance of knowledge - above all knowledge for change - by researching exemplary scopes of possibilities for agents in particular kinds of situations. A key...... feature in its emergence and development was a reinvigorated alliance between psychological researchers and practitioners in the pursuit of that goal. This close alliance affected the perspectives of knowledge in the projects and it had advantages and drawbacks on their processes and outcomes. Practice...

  6. Music Education Philosophy: Changing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marie; Goble, J. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the changes in music philosophy over the past half-century. Discusses two main philosophical foundations within music education and reasons for the changes: (1) aesthetic education in the 1950s; and (2) praxial philosophy in the 1990s. Includes resources on music philosophy. (CMK)

  7. Time Series of Aerosol Column Optical Depth at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Fourth Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Flynn; AS Koontz; JH Mather

    2009-09-01

    The uncertainties in current estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are dominated by the effects of aerosols, both in relation to the direct absorption and scattering of radiation by aerosols and also with respect to aerosol-related changes in cloud formation, longevity, and microphysics (See Figure 1; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Assessment Report 4, 2008). Moreover, the Arctic region in particular is especially sensitive to changes in climate with the magnitude of temperature changes (both observed and predicted) being several times larger than global averages (Kaufman et al. 2009). Recent studies confirm that aerosol-cloud interactions in the arctic generate climatologically significant radiative effects equivalent in magnitude to that of green house gases (Lubin and Vogelmann 2006, 2007). The aerosol optical depth is the most immediate representation of the aerosol direct effect and is also important for consideration of aerosol-cloud interactions, and thus this quantity is essential for studies of aerosol radiative forcing.

  8. Climate Change Research in View of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric study of a large publication set dealing with research on climate change aims at mapping the relevant literature from a bibliometric perspective and presents a multitude of quantitative data: (1) The growth of the overall publication output as well as (2) of some major subfields, (3) the contributing journals and countries as well as their citation impact, and (4) a title word analysis aiming to illustrate the time evolution and relative importance of specific research topics. The study is based on 222,060 papers (articles and reviews only) published between 1980 and 2014. The total number of papers shows a strong increase with a doubling every 5–6 years. Continental biomass related research is the major subfield, closely followed by climate modeling. Research dealing with adaptation, mitigation, risks, and vulnerability of global warming is comparatively small, but their share of papers increased exponentially since 2005. Research on vulnerability and on adaptation published the largest proportion of very important papers (in terms of citation impact). Climate change research has become an issue also for disciplines beyond the natural sciences. The categories Engineering and Social Sciences show the strongest field-specific relative increase. The Journal of Geophysical Research, the Journal of Climate, the Geophysical Research Letters, and Climatic Change appear at the top positions in terms of the total number of papers published. Research on climate change is quantitatively dominated by the USA, followed by the UK, Germany, and Canada. The citation-based indicators exhibit consistently that the UK has produced the largest proportion of high impact papers compared to the other countries (having published more than 10,000 papers). Also, Switzerland, Denmark and also The Netherlands (with a publication output between around 3,000 and 6,000 papers) perform top—the impact of their contributions is on a high level. The title word analysis shows

  9. Climate Change Research in View of Bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric study of a large publication set dealing with research on climate change aims at mapping the relevant literature from a bibliometric perspective and presents a multitude of quantitative data: (1) The growth of the overall publication output as well as (2) of some major subfields, (3) the contributing journals and countries as well as their citation impact, and (4) a title word analysis aiming to illustrate the time evolution and relative importance of specific research topics. The study is based on 222,060 papers (articles and reviews only) published between 1980 and 2014. The total number of papers shows a strong increase with a doubling every 5-6 years. Continental biomass related research is the major subfield, closely followed by climate modeling. Research dealing with adaptation, mitigation, risks, and vulnerability of global warming is comparatively small, but their share of papers increased exponentially since 2005. Research on vulnerability and on adaptation published the largest proportion of very important papers (in terms of citation impact). Climate change research has become an issue also for disciplines beyond the natural sciences. The categories Engineering and Social Sciences show the strongest field-specific relative increase. The Journal of Geophysical Research, the Journal of Climate, the Geophysical Research Letters, and Climatic Change appear at the top positions in terms of the total number of papers published. Research on climate change is quantitatively dominated by the USA, followed by the UK, Germany, and Canada. The citation-based indicators exhibit consistently that the UK has produced the largest proportion of high impact papers compared to the other countries (having published more than 10,000 papers). Also, Switzerland, Denmark and also The Netherlands (with a publication output between around 3,000 and 6,000 papers) perform top-the impact of their contributions is on a high level. The title word analysis shows that

  10. Physician leadership in changing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jack; Kaplan, Gary S; Nesse, Robert E

    2014-03-01

    Today, hospitals and physicians are reorganizing themselves in novel ways to take advantage of payment incentives that reward shared accountability for the total health care experience. These delivery system changes will take place with our without physician leadership. To optimize change on behalf of patients, physicians must play a conscious role in shaping future health care delivery organizations. As physician leaders of three of the nation׳s largest integrated health care delivery systems - Kaiser Permanente, Virginia Mason Medical Center, and the Mayo Clinic Health System - we call on physicians to view leadership and the development of leaders as key aspects of their role as patient advocates. PMID:26250084

  11. Exploring trust relationships during times of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Von der Ohe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In the current economic climate and the resulting fast-changing global business and political environment, trust among different role players in organisations has become critical for survival.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different variables such as demographics on trust relationships in South African organisations.Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence and preliminary data collected for a national trust indicator seemed to suggest a shift in trust levels in organisations.Research design: A trust questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 307 respondents in all economic sectors. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were used to determine significant differences among economic sectors, job levels and sample periods.Main findings: No significant differences were found for job levels or the different sample periods. However, significant differences were found for the economic sectors and, specifically, between government participants and other sectors for the dimensions of change, team management, organisational trust, information sharing and credibility.Practical implications: In times of change, leadership in organisations need to be aware of the impact on trust levels. It is therefore important that leaders in government focus more on trust-enhancing behaviours needed to repair mistrust in organisations.Contribution: Although the effect of time on trust levels is inconclusive, the clearly differing levels of trust in various economic sectors point to the importance of appropriate and fitting approaches to building trust and not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ attitude.

  12. Getting African climate change research recognised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Fatima; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica

    2011-11-15

    Across Africa, programmes such as the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa initiative are investigating what it means for countries and communities to effectively adapt to climate change, and how this can be achieved in practice. But research results are not always recognised by policymakers or the global research community — in part because they are not visible within the traditional hallmark of scientific scholarship and credibility, peer-reviewed literature. Greater efforts are required to encourage African scientists to engage in the peer-review process and give their research the credibility it needs to convince decision makers that robust scientific findings support the solutions offered. At the same time, decision makers themselves must find ways of assessing and making use of robust research outside the peer-review arena.

  13. Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional Times. Conference Proceedings of the Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA) (7th, Berlin, Germany, September 4-7, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käpplinger, Bernd, Ed.; Lichte, Nina, Ed.; Haberzeth, Erik, Ed.; Kulmus, Claudia, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book assembles over 50 papers from the 7th Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA), which was held from the 4th to the 7th of September 2013 at Humboldt-University in Berlin. The title of the conference was "Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional…

  14. Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) is dedicated to understanding the problems of global climate change and their potential solutions. The Institute...

  15. Developing European Library Services in Changing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain what academic and national libraries can do to continue to offer services and facilities at a time of economic difficulties. It identifies a number of methodologies and opportunities that are open to libraries and takes the view that it is never wise to waste a good crisis, because all threats are really opportunities in disguise. The article looks at the initial economic context for European research libraries and then examines ways in which libraries can tackle the threats which the current financial crisis poses. Joint procurement is one way in which libraries can achieve value for money, and the paper examines the role of JIS C Collections in the UK. Innovation through collaboration and shared services are also ways in which libraries can innovate/make savings in a cost-effective way by sharing the burden of costs around the partnership. The paper gives two examples: one which is now well established, the DART-Europe portal for Open Access e-theses; and one which is in the early stages of being discussed — a cloud-based solution for true collaborative cataloguing amongst the UK’s research and national libraries. The European Research Area (ERA and the contributions that libraries can make to this infrastructure through innovative EU project funding are analysed in some detail by looking at LI BER’s EU project portfolio. Finally, change and growth can come through changes to legal frameworks, and the paper looks at the Hargreaves review of copyright frameworks in the UK and the launch of the new library-based EU lobbying group for copyright reform, Information Sans Frontières (IS F.

  16. How Banking Competition changed over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first detailed and world-wide investigation of the developments in banking competition during the past fiffteen years. Using the Panzar-Rosse approach, we establish significant changes over time in the competitiveness of the banking industry. The changes in competition over time ar

  17. Research for Change versus Research as Change: Lessons from a "Mujerista" Participatory Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I aim to further the discussion of engaged research in anthropology and education by examining the unique changes promoted by participatory research in contrast to policy-oriented activist research models. Drawing on my work with Latina immigrant mothers in a school reform movement, I argue for a Latina feminist view of…

  18. A Pioneer of Global Change Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ One summer's day in 1984, a meteorologist came all the way from the United States to Prof. Ye Duzheng, a CAS atmospheric scientist in Beijing, in the hope of establishing cooperative research into global climate change, a field unfamiliar to most scientists in the world at that time. His proposal immediately caught the interest of Ye, who was then president of the Chinese Meteorological Society and vice-president of CAS. Prof. Ye believed it to be an extremely important issue requiring sustained and collaborative attention. Already in his seventies, he found some young researchers to work with him in the field. Two decades later, global change is now recognized as a major science branch. As a pioneer of this branch, Prof. Ye was awarded the prestigious Prize of the World Meteorological Organization in 2003, and honored with China's National Supreme S&T Award in 2005.

  19. Organizational Change and the Meaning of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Wetzel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes into the social process of sense making in changing organizations, trying to observe how participant individuals interpret contextual events and configure their notion of time. This notion of time then interacts with the dynamics of the lives of individuals and contributes to the adaptation to the new reality they are facing. The study was conducted in eight organizations and data were collected by means of 133 in-depth interviews with participants in the change processes. Results indicate that individuals establish a reference to central events in their attempt to make sense out of changes and in their effort to adapt to the new situation. In accordance with Lewis and Weigert (1981, the results also indicate the dominance of institutional time over interaction time as well as over self time. Finally, the results suggest that such configurations of time are influenced by official organizational rhetoric and by actions in change management.

  20. Time management strategies for research productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Jo-Ana D; Topp, Robert; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Zerwic, Julie J; Benefield, Lazelle E; Anderson, Cindy M; Conn, Vicki S

    2013-02-01

    Researchers function in a complex environment and carry multiple role responsibilities. This environment is prone to various distractions that can derail productivity and decrease efficiency. Effective time management allows researchers to maintain focus on their work, contributing to research productivity. Thus, improving time management skills is essential to developing and sustaining a successful program of research. This article presents time management strategies addressing behaviors surrounding time assessment, planning, and monitoring. Herein, the Western Journal of Nursing Research editorial board recommends strategies to enhance time management, including setting realistic goals, prioritizing, and optimizing planning. Involving a team, problem-solving barriers, and early management of potential distractions can facilitate maintaining focus on a research program. Continually evaluating the effectiveness of time management strategies allows researchers to identify areas of improvement and recognize progress. PMID:22868990

  1. Occupational medicine changes with the times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the occupation health physicians also at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have experienced a change in focus over the past few decades, the causes of which are in the working environment and in work processes. The causes and conditions of diseases at work must be recognized and preventive measures instituted, but there is also need to design the working environment in terms of occupational physiology and industrial hygiene so as to meet human requirements. This includes the use of sociological and psychological concepts and methods in modern occupational medicine. This recognition necessitates the appropriate efforts to be made both in scientific research and in daily medical practive. Modern working life is determined by the joint action of physical and psychological impacts, with more and more importance attaching to psychosensoric impacts. As a result of this development, occupational health physicians spend increasingly more time and effort in medical consulting and on problems in occupational medicine, social medicine, and ergonomics. (orig./HP)

  2. Winds of change: research libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Tove; Harbo, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The article takes its starting point in new trends and paradigm shifts in scholarly research methods and discusses how research libraries must act in relation to this. Various innovative initiatives at LASB are described, especially within the areas of electronic dissemination and presentation. A line of projects on development of a software for the sharing of knowledge are in focus, a "metro map" used for navigating the electronic information resources made available in the Learning Resource...

  3. Winds of change: research libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Tove; Harbo, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The article takes its starting point in new trends and paradigm shifts in scholarly research methods and discusses how research libraries must act in relation to this. Various innovative initiatives at LASB are described, especially within the areas of electronic dissemination and presentation. A...... ASB and a software company. LASB is positive towards and will continue working with this method. Finally the investment in future library services is discussed and a tangible offer is put into perspective: electronic reference services...

  4. Psychological research and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Stern, Paul C.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda; Steg, Linda; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2015-07-01

    Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.

  5. Organizational Change and the Meaning of Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula Wetzel; José Roberto Gomes da Silva

    2007-01-01

    This paper probes into the social process of sense making in changing organizations, trying to observe how participant individuals interpret contextual events and configure their notion of time. This notion of time then interacts with the dynamics of the lives of individuals and contributes to the adaptation to the new reality they are facing. The study was conducted in eight organizations and data were collected by means of 133 in-depth interviews with participants in the change processes. R...

  6. Developing European Library Services in Changing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain what academic and national libraries can do to continue to offer services and facilities at a time of economic difficulties. It identifies a number of methodologies and opportunities that are open to libraries and takes the view that it is never wise to waste a good crisis, because all threats are really opportunities in disguise. The kernel of this paper was delivered at the 10th Anniversary special EISZ Consortium Members’ Meeting on 2 December 2011, in Budapest, Hungary. It builds on an earlier talk delivered in Thessaloniki, Greece, on 14–15 November 2011 at the 20th Pan-Hellenic Academic Libraries Conference, entitled ‘Academic Libraries and Financial Crisis: Strategies for Survival’. Both these presentations are available in UCL Discovery. This article draws on themes used in both presentations, and introduces a new one on the topic of copyright reform. The article looks at the initial economic context for European research libraries and then examines ways in which libraries can tackle the threats which the current financial crisis poses. Joint procurement is one way in which libraries can achieve value for money, and the paper examines the role of JISC Collections in the UK. Innovation through collaboration and shared services are also ways in which libraries can innovate/make savings in a cost-effective way by sharing the burden of costs around the partnership. The paper gives two examples: one which is now well established, the DART-Europe portal for Open Access e-theses; and one which is in the early stages of being discussed — a cloud-based solution for true collaborative cataloguing amongst the UK’s research and national libraries. The European Research Area (ERA and the contributions that libraries can make to this infrastructure through innovative EU project funding are analysed in some detail by looking at LIBER’s EU project portfolio. Finally, change and growth can come

  7. Changes in risk perception over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper is on changes in perceptions of the risks associated with nuclear waste management over time. In particular, we are interested in the kinds of change that take place when the management programs, and those who are charged with implementing them, are subject to intensive public debate over an extended period of time. We are undertaken an over-time study of perceived risks in Colorado and New Mexico by implementing sequential random household surveys in each state, timed at six month intervals. This study employs three of these surveys, spanning the period from summer, 1990 to summer, 1991. Using these data, we examine the dynamics that may underlie variations in perceived risks over time. In particular, our analysis is focused on changes in the roles played by (1) basic political orientations (i.e. political ideology) and (2) trust in those who advocate conflicting policy positions

  8. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  9. GrainGenes: Changing Times, Changing Databases, Digital Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GrainGenes database is one of few agricultural databases that had an early start on the Internet and that has changed with the times. Initial goals were to collect a wide range of data relating to the developing maps and attributes of small grains crops, and to make them easily accessible. The ...

  10. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  11. Delayed biodiversity change: no time to waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Dullinger, S.; Rabitsch, W.; Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 7 (2015), s. 375-378. ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * global change * time lags Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 16.196, year: 2014

  12. The Research Plan: Time for the Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Dear readers, since the first number of its first volume the European Financial and Accounting Journal has been issued in the framework of research plan Development of Financial and Accounting Theory and its Application in Practice fromInterdisciplinary Point of View. Nevertheless, every research project has its prescribed time of solution, so with the last day of passed year 2011 it also terminated seven years journey full of joy and sorrow connected with this research plan. For us, investig...

  13. Exploring trust relationships during times of change

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmut Von der Ohe; Nico Martins

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: In the current economic climate and the resulting fast-changing global business and political environment, trust among different role players in organisations has become critical for survival.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different variables such as demographics on trust relationships in South African organisations.Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence and preliminary data collected for a national trust indicator seemed to sugge...

  14. Time-changed Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process is one of the most popular systems used for financial data description. However, this process has also been examined in the context of many other phenomena. In this paper we consider the so-called time-changed Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, in which time is replaced by an inverse subordinator of general infinite divisible distribution. Time-changed processes nowadays play an important role in various fields of mathematical physics, chemistry, and biology as well as in finance. In this paper we examine the main characteristics of the time-changed Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, such as the covariance function. Moreover, we also prove the formula for a generalized fractional Fokker–Planck equation that describes the one-dimensional probability density function of the analyzed system. For three cases of subordinators we show the special forms of obtained general formulas. Furthermore, we mention how to simulate the trajectory of the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process delayed by a general inverse subordinator. (paper)

  15. Global change research: Science and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  16. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  17. Some sociological ideas for conceptual change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smardon, Regina

    2008-07-01

    This review takes a critical position with regards to Treagust and Duit's article, Conceptual Change: A discussion of theoretical methodological and practical challenges for science education. It is proposed that conceptual change research in science education might benefit from borrowing concepts currently being developed in the sociology of emotions. It is further suggested that the study of social interaction within evolving emotional cultures is the most promising avenue for developing and extending theories about conceptual change.

  18. A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

    Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

  19. Climate change: Time to Do Something Different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine ePage

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is now very little, if any, doubt that the global climate is changing and that this is in some way related to human behaviour through unsustainable preferences in lifestyle and organisational practices. Despite the near conclusive evidence of the positive relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, a small proportion of people remain unconvinced. More importantly, even among the much larger number of people who accept a link between human behaviour and climate change, many are inactive, or insufficiently active, in attempting to remedy the situation. We suggest this is partly because people are unaware both of how their day-to-day behaviours connect with energy consumption and carbon emissions, and of the behavioural alternatives that are available to them. This, we believe, is a key reason why individual lifestyles and organisational practices continue in an unsustainable way. We also suggest that the psychologists and behavioural researchers who seek to develop a better understanding of people’s relationship with, and reaction to, environmental issues, might also be on track to suffer a similar blindness. They risk becoming fixed on investigating a limited range of established variables, perhaps to the detriment of alternative approaches that are more practically oriented though, so far, less well explored empirically. In this article, we present the FIT framework as an alternative perspective on the variables that might underpin pro-environmental activity and behaviour change. After briefly reviewing the related literature, we outline that framework. Then we present some early empirical data to show its relationship to a range of pro-environmental indices. We follow with a discussion of the framework’s relevance in relation to pro-environmental behaviour change and make proposals for future research.

  20. Climate change: time to Do Something Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Nadine; Page, Mike

    2014-01-01

    There is now very little, if any, doubt that the global climate is changing and that this is in some way related to human behavior through unsustainable preferences in lifestyle and organizational practices. Despite the near conclusive evidence of the positive relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, a small proportion of people remain unconvinced. More importantly, even among the much larger number of people who accept a link between human behavior and climate change, many are inactive, or insufficiently active, in attempting to remedy the situation. We suggest this is partly because people are unaware both of how their day-to-day behaviors connect with energy consumption and carbon emissions, and of the behavioral alternatives that are available to them. This, we believe, is a key reason why individual lifestyles and organizational practices continue in an unsustainable way. We also suggest that the psychologists and behavioral researchers who seek to develop a better understanding of people's relationship with, and reaction to, environmental issues, might also be on track to suffer a similar blindness. They risk becoming fixed on investigating a limited range of established variables, perhaps to the detriment of alternative approaches that are more practically oriented though, so far, less well explored empirically. In this article, we present the Framework for Internal Transformation as an alternative perspective on the variables that might underpin pro-environmental activity and behavior change. After briefly reviewing the related literature, we outline that framework. Then we present some early empirical data to show its relationship to a range of pro-environmental indices. We follow with a discussion of the framework's relevance in relation to pro-environmental behavior change and make proposals for future research. PMID:25477831

  1. Change of time methods in quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Swishchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the history of Change of Time Methods (CTM), the connections of CTM to stochastic volatilities and finance, fundamental aspects of the theory of CTM, basic concepts, and its properties. An emphasis is given on many applications of CTM in financial and energy markets, and the presented numerical examples are based on real data. The change of time method is applied to derive the well-known Black-Scholes formula for European call options, and to derive an explicit option pricing formula for a European call option for a mean-reverting model for commodity prices. Explicit formulas are also derived for variance and volatility swaps for financial markets with a stochastic volatility following a classical and delayed Heston model. The CTM is applied to price financial and energy derivatives for one-factor and multi-factor alpha-stable Levy-based models. Readers should have a basic knowledge of probability and statistics, and some familiarity with stochastic processes, such as Brownian motion, ...

  2. Defining Leadership in a Changing Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Sean M; Elikofer, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the difference between leadership and management. Leadership and management have been discussed for many years. Both are important to achieve success in health care, but what does that really mean? Strong leaders possess qualities that inspire others to follow them. This fosters team engagement, goal achievement, and ultimately drives outcomes. Managers plan, organize, and coordinate. It takes dedication, motivation, and passion to be more than a manager and be a good leader. There is not a single correct leadership style, but there are important characteristics that all leaders must demonstrate to get the desired results with the team. In a time when health care is rapidly changing, leadership is important at all levels of an organization. PMID:26574944

  3. Palm theory for random time changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakiyo Miyazawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.

  4. Free event: Impacts of climate change research

    OpenAIRE

    Blog Admin, Impact of Social Sciences,

    2012-01-01

    Impacts of Climate Change Research, a free, half-day conference hosted by the LSE’s Public Policy Group/Impact of Social Sciences project and Imperial College London, will be held on Monday, 21st May, at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

  5. Uncertainty and global climate change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weiher, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Workshop on Uncertainty and Global Climate Change Research March 22--23, 1994, in Knoxville, Tennessee. This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to examine in-depth the concept of uncertainty. From an analytical point of view, uncertainty is a central feature of global climate science, economics and decision making. The magnitude and complexity of uncertainty surrounding global climate change has made it quite difficult to answer even the most simple and important of questions-whether potentially costly action is required now to ameliorate adverse consequences of global climate change or whether delay is warranted to gain better information to reduce uncertainties. A major conclusion of the workshop is that multidisciplinary integrated assessments using decision analytic techniques as a foundation is key to addressing global change policy concerns. First, uncertainty must be dealt with explicitly and rigorously since it is and will continue to be a key feature of analysis and recommendations on policy questions for years to come. Second, key policy questions and variables need to be explicitly identified, prioritized, and their uncertainty characterized to guide the entire scientific, modeling, and policy analysis process. Multidisciplinary integrated assessment techniques and value of information methodologies are best suited for this task. In terms of timeliness and relevance of developing and applying decision analytic techniques, the global change research and policy communities are moving rapidly toward integrated approaches to research design and policy analysis.

  6. The french researches on the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists were the first to prevent decision makers on the risk of the climatic change bond to the greenhouse gases emissions. The results of the third GIEC report confirmed that the main part of the global warming of the last 50 years is due to the human activities. This document presents the major results of the french researches during the last five years: the planet observation, the climate evolution study, the simulation of the future climate, the climatic change in France, the impacts of the climatic change on the marine and earth biosphere, the climatic risks and the public policies, the health impacts, the 2003 heat and the research infrastructures. (A.L.B.)

  7. Climate change and the agenda for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for International Climate and Energy Research Oslo (CICERO), founded in 1990, is a policy research foundation of the University of Oslo - Norway's largest university. After the United Nations (UN) Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), CICERO convened a seminar to assess the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that was one of UNCED's principal legacies. The essays collected in this volume derive from the presentations at that seminar. As one might suspect, the resulting collection is diverse in subject matter and variable in quality and pertinence. Papers deals with a diverse array of topics relating to anthropogenic climate change: greenhouse gas inventories, energy policies, means for abatement of carbon dioxide emissions, and legal and economic issues. Refreshingly, a number of the papers treat these issues from the perspective of the developing countries that will play an ever-increasing role in these issues, both as villians and victims. While hardly bedside reading, the compendium as a whole is a useful contribution to the vast literature on the climate change issue. The focus of a number of the papers on problems of the developing nations is particularly welcome, contributing usefully to filling a troubling gap in the international dialogue on climate change. However, the collection falls short of the promise of its title. Although topics for research are implicit in the papers, the volume does not attempt to organize these into an explicit agenda. It is more a smorgasbord than a coordinated menu

  8. Business model innovation: Creating value in times of change

    OpenAIRE

    Amit, Raphael; Zott, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    We highlight business model innovation as a way for general managers and entrepreneurs to create and appropriate value, especially in times of economic change. Business model innovation, which involves designing a modified or new activity system, relies on recombining the existing resources of a firm and its partners, and it does not require significant investments in R&D. We offer managers and researchers a conceptual primer on business model innovation emphasizing the importance of system-l...

  9. Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymaris, K. K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.; Schwarz Ballard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. In anticipation of the 2010 campaign, Project BudBurst has developed and released innovative and exciting projects with a special focus in the field of phenology and climate change. The collaborations between Project BudBurst and other organizations are producing unique campaigns for engaging the public in environmental research. The special project foci include on-the-spot and in-the-field data reporting via mobile phones, an emphasis on urban tree phenology data, as well as monitoring of native gardens across the US National Wildlife Refuge System. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and the new special projects, and share results from 2007-2009. Project BudBurst is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Chicago Botanic Garden, and the University of Montana.

  10. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period with a....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  11. Medical Education: Changing With The Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hla Yee Yee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Lord grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannotchange, the courage to change the things I can, and thewisdom to know the difference.”– Saint Francis of AssisiNothing is static, and change comes inevitably,Medical Education being no exception. However,the degree of acceptance and pace of change varies fromcountry to country, and region to region, depending onthe leadership in teaching institutions, culture,political scene and material wealth. The theme for theInternational Medical Conference (IMEC for 2008 was“Winds of Change in Medical Education”. One of thereasons why this theme was chosen was that theOrganising Committee felt the need for a forum onwhich to exchange experiences in the region withrespect to local and global changes in educating today’shealth professionals.

  12. How Sales Promotions Change Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    MIR Editors

    2013-01-01

    In our new section, “MIR Forum”, we build a bridge between our research articles and marketing practice. Managers from successful companies discuss the relevance of the research findings and report on their own activities in specific branches of marketing.

  13. Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of authentic scientific research and its associated activities. This study describes the most commonly held preconceptions of authentic research activities among students with little or no previous research experience. Seventeen undergraduate science majors who participated in a ten week research program discussed, at various times during the program, their preconceptions of research and how these ideas changed as a result of direct participation in authentic research activities. The preconceptions included the belief that authentic research is a solitary activity which most closely resembles the type of activity associated with laboratory courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Participants' views showed slight maturation over the research program; they came to understand that authentic research is a detail-oriented activity which is rarely successfully completed alone. These findings and their implications for the teaching and research communities are discussed in the article.

  14. Global Change Research: Summaries of research in FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Global Research Program in FY 1993. This publication describes all of the projects funded by the Environmental Sciences Division of DOE under annual contracts, grants, and interagency agreements in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; its 3-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than 1 year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: climate modeling, quantitative links, global carbon cycle, vegetation research, ocean research, economics of global climate change, education, information and integration, and NIGEC. Within these categories, the descriptions are grouped alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers.

  15. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  16. Global Change Research Program releases new strategic plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Global Change Research Program releases new strategic plan A new 10-year strategic plan released by the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) on 27 April calls for the federal interagency program to focus on four key goals during 2012-2021 to coordinate federal research efforts related to global change. The goals include advancing scientific knowledge of the integrated natural and human components of the Earth system; providing the scientific basis to inform and enable timely decisions on adaptation and mitigation; building sustained assessment capacity that improves the nation's ability to understand, anticipate, and respond to global change impacts and vulnerabilities; and advancing communications and education to broaden understanding of global change and develop the scientific workforce of the future. The goals and related objectives “recognize that to respond effectively to global change will require a deep understanding of the integrated Earth system—an understanding that incorporates physical, chemical, biological and behavioral information,” the plan states. “It is no longer enough to study the isolated physical, chemical, and biological factors affecting global change,” said USGCRP executive director Tom Armstrong.

  17. Forecasting autoregressive time series under changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson

    recommendations, no matter whether a change in persistence occurs or not. Seven different forecasting strategies based on a biasedcorrected estimator are compared by means of a large-scale Monte Carlo study. The results for decreasing and increasing persistence are highly asymmetric and new to the literature. Its...... good predictive ability and its balanced performance among different settings strongly advocate the use of forecasting strategies based on the Bai-Perron procedure....

  18. Lake Chapala change detection using time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caloca, Alejandra; Tapia-Silva, Felipe-Omar; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2008-10-01

    The Lake Chapala is the largest natural lake in Mexico. It presents a hydrological imbalance problem caused by diminishing intakes from the Lerma River, pollution from said volumes, native vegetation and solid waste. This article presents a study that allows us to determine with high precision the extent of the affectation in both extension and volume reduction of the Lake Chapala in the period going from 1990 to 2007. Through satellite images this above-mentioned period was monitored. Image segmentation was achieved through a Markov Random Field model, extending the application towards edge detection. This allows adequately defining the lake's limits as well as determining new zones within the lake, both changes pertaining the Lake Chapala. Detected changes are related to a hydrological balance study based on measuring variables such as storage volumes, evapotranspiration and water balance. Results show that the changes in the Lake Chapala establish frail conditions which pose a future risk situation. Rehabilitation of the lake requires a hydrologic balance in its banks and aquifers.

  19. The economic approach to the time research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kendyuhov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with category of time from economic point of view. Dependence of economic systems from economic time is analyzed. Based on analysis of economic time definition its features are improved.

  20. The computational future for climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of climate models has a long history starting with the building of atmospheric models and later ocean models. The early researchers were very aware of the goal of building climate models which could integrate our knowledge of complex physical interactions between atmospheric, land-vegetation, hydrology, ocean, cryospheric processes, and sea ice. The transition from climate models to earth system models is already underway with coupling of active biochemical cycles. Progress is limited by present computer capability which is needed for increasingly more complex and higher resolution climate models versions. It would be a mistake to make models too complex or too high resolution. Arriving at a 'feasible' and useful model is the challenge for the climate model community. Some of the climate change history, scientific successes, and difficulties encountered with supercomputers will be presented

  1. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate

  2. Changes in River Organic Matter Through Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, N.; Baker, A.; Ward, D.

    2006-12-01

    Samples of river water from central England were collected during the summer base-flow period. They were analysed for BOD and filtered at 1.2μm and 0.1μm increments to obtain i) the colloidal and dissolved, and ii) dissolved filter sterilized fractions. Each filtered fraction was plated up for microbiological cell counts and the agar plates and water samples were stored under a range of environmental conditions (4° C dark, 11° C light/ dark, 11° C dark, and 20° C dark) for 26 days. Absorbance, fluorescence, pH, conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured and colony forming units (CFU) counted on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 19 and 26. The fluorescence intensity was recorded for 5 commonly studied regions: protein like fluorescence, indicative of microbial activity, represented by the fluorescent amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan (which has two clear fluorescence regions) and humic and fulvic acids derived from the break down of terrestrial and aquatic plant material. Humic and fulvic-like fluorescence increased in all samples under all storage conditions suggesting that peaks A and C probably include a microbial element, either a product of the living community or as dead cell material in all fraction sizes including <0.1μm. Tryptophan and tyrosine-like fluorescence intensities demonstrated less clear trends which may be reflective of the intrinsic variation in natural samples. Tryptophan-like fluorescence generally decreased or showed minimal change, except in samples exposed to light in which an increase was observed in line with algal growth. A decrease in intensity may relate to the use of the tryptophan-like material as a microbial substrate. The increase in tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity suggests that this fluorescent material is being produced, either by algae, or bacterial activity associated with algal growth. It may also occur as a result of changing water chemistry causing a change in molecular conformation, and resulting

  3. Mackenzie River Delta morphological change based on Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Gustafsson, David; Arheimer, Berit; Isberg, Kristina

    2015-04-01

    Arctic rivers are sensitive and yet quite unexplored river systems to which the climate change will impact on. Research has not focused in detail on the fluvial geomorphology of the Arctic rivers mainly due to the remoteness and wideness of the watersheds, problems with data availability and difficult accessibility. Nowadays wide collaborative spatial databases in hydrology as well as extensive remote sensing datasets over the Arctic are available and they enable improved investigation of the Arctic watersheds. Thereby, it is also important to develop and improve methods that enable detecting the fluvio-morphological processes based on the available data. Furthermore, it is essential to reconstruct and improve the understanding of the past fluvial processes in order to better understand prevailing and future fluvial processes. In this study we sum up the fluvial geomorphological change in the Mackenzie River Delta during the last ~30 years. The Mackenzie River Delta (~13 000 km2) is situated in the North Western Territories, Canada where the Mackenzie River enters to the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean near the city of Inuvik. Mackenzie River Delta is lake-rich, productive ecosystem and ecologically sensitive environment. Research objective is achieved through two sub-objectives: 1) Interpretation of the deltaic river channel planform change by applying Landsat time series. 2) Definition of the variables that have impacted the most on detected changes by applying statistics and long hydrological time series derived from Arctic-HYPE model (HYdrologic Predictions for Environment) developed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. According to our satellite interpretation, field observations and statistical analyses, notable spatio-temporal changes have occurred in the morphology of the river channel and delta during the past 30 years. For example, the channels have been developing in braiding and sinuosity. In addition, various linkages between the studied

  4. Effects of Age on Time-Dependent Cognitive Change

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Interpretation of cognitive change has been complicated because different influences on change are not easily distinguished. In this study, longitudinal cognitive change was decomposed into a component related to the length of the interval between test occasions (i.e., time-dependent change) and a component unrelated to the test-retest interval (i.e., time-independent change). Influences of age on the two hypothesized components were investigated in a sample of more than 1,500 adults for whom...

  5. Stable isotopes in global change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    future decline) of CO2 in the atmosphere, all sources and sinks of this gas must be considered and quantified over space and time. Due to natural fractionation processes, stable isotopes of carbon and also - to a lesser degree - of oxygen have proven to be one of the most valuable tools in understanding the fate of CO2 during photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. The isotopes ratios 13C/12C and 18O/16O must, however, be measured with very high precision over long time periods in the atmosphere and in fossil proxies of ancient atmosphere. Such proxies are for instance the large ice shields over Greenland and Antarctica. From measuring stable isotopes of oxygen in ice at the Vostok station we have complete record of the climate changes of the last 440000 years with dramatic changes of the global temperature through several ice ages. From such studies we have learned that the current warm period that started about 10600 years ago is unusually stable. Most of the time, The earth was colder than today, interrupting by shorter warm periods. CO2 concentration has remained below 300 ppm during the whole time frame covered, compared to 380 ppm today. The presentation will focus on the role of stable isotopes measurements or measurement techniques in our understanding of the changes of the global biogeochemical cycles, in particular the carbon cycle that we are witnessing at present. (author)

  6. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  7. U.S. Global Change Research Program Budget Crosscut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — U.S. Global Change Research Program budget authority for Agency activities in which the primary focus is on:Observations, research, and analysis of climate change...

  8. Assemblage time series reveal biodiversity change but not systematic loss

    OpenAIRE

    Dornelas, Maria; Nicholas J. Gotelli; McGill, Brian; Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Moyes, Faye; Sievers, Caya; Magurran, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which biodiversity change in local assemblages contributes to global biodiversity loss is poorly understood. We analyzed 100 time series from biomes across Earth to ask how diversity within assemblages is changing through time. We quantified patterns of temporal α diversity, measured as change in local diversity, and temporal β diversity, measured as change in community composition. Contrary to our expectations, we did not detect systematic loss of α diversity. However, communit...

  9. Changing Climate Science Communication, One Month at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, R.; fiondella, F.

    2013-12-01

    Many people, even those who are climate-science savvy, do not understand how scientists collect climate data, measure change in the environment over time and analyze this information to understand past, present and future climate. Most of what the public knows about climate science comes from distillations of scientific papers. The people behind these papers, their passion and their everyday working environments are rarely seen. Our 2014 Climate Models Calendar features powerful and compelling portraits of Columbia University climate researchers shared in a unique and accessible format. The calendar features a year's worth of climate scientists and information about their work, and brings climate research into the public realm. The photographs in the calendar break barriers between scientists and non-scientists, literally bringing a face to this important research. The goal of the calendar is to increase awareness of climate change and its impacts by engaging the public with scientists and what they're learning about our warming climate. The project facilitates understanding of current climate research: Who's doing it? Why? Where? And what are they learning? The calendar has paved the way for a discussion of creative methods (including the visual arts, new media and creative nonfiction) that can be used to better communicate climate science to the public. In this presentation we'll discuss the impetus for the calendar, how we're sharing the project with students and the public, why scientists were interested in participating and what they learned from sharing their work in an innovative format, how the public has responsed to the calendar and the long-term impacts of the project.

  10. Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craufurd, P Q; Wheeler, T R

    2009-01-01

    higher apparent optimum temperature and less variability in the time of tassel initiation. Given the importance of changes in plant development for crop yield under climate change, the effects of photoperiod and temperature on development rates above the optimum temperature clearly merit further research, and some of the knowledge gaps are identified herein. PMID:19505929

  11. Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes from West

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159440.html Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes From West Professional teams traveling from later to earlier time zones win more, study finds To use the ...

  12. Academic Librarians' Perceptions of Teamwork and Organizational Structure in a Time of Rapid Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of academic librarians on two topics: the delivery of services to students and faculty in a time of rapid technological changes and an organizational structure appropriate for delivering services to students in a time of rapid technological changes. Several researchers agree that to…

  13. U.S. Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Do Agencies Global search Enter your keywords Climate Change a Growing Threat to Human Health New USGCRP Report available now, "The Impacts of ... News & Updates Engage Connect & Participate Latest News Update Climate Change a Growing Threat to Human Health: New USGCRP Report Read more Join the USGCRP ...

  14. The effect of display timing on change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Davis, Eva T

    2016-01-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious changes in a visual scene may go unnoticed. Recent research has indicated that this phenomenon may not be exclusive to humans. Two experiments investigated change blindness in pigeons, using a variant of the widely-used flicker task to investigate the influence of display timing on change blindness. Results indicate that the duration of time during which a stimulus display is visible influences change detection accuracy, with the effect due to additional search time. The results are discussed in relation to the value of comparative cognition and cross-species investigations of behavior. PMID:26609796

  15. "Teachers' Voices for School Change": An Introduction to Educative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mary-Ellen

    1993-01-01

    Reviews a book, "Teachers' Voices for School Change" by Andrew Gitlin, on educative research and teacher voice, examining the educative research process which grounds reflection in the life histories of teacher researchers, presenting four case studies on educative research, and reflecting on the educative research process itself. Teacher voice…

  16. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  17. Researchers, elites, and people in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, J

    1983-01-01

    The paper locates the problem of research ethics in a "value-free" science that has made researchers value-blind, insufficiently able to foresee possible negative consequences of what they do, but very able to design strategies to agree to structures that protect them. The intellectual style of a given research community enters as a key variable, and most intellectual styles are seen as ways of making scientific findings less threatening by focusing on data with little interpretation or speculation with little documentation. The famous Wilkes/Gleditsch case in Norway is cited as an example of research that offered both data (obtained from open sources) and interpretation, and was met with disapproval and sentence. The moral problem of value conflicts can best be understood by studying researchers in a social setting, together with elites and people. Only if researchers were on top and truth were the supreme value would the researchers' situation be unproblematic. But philosopher-kings, however omniscient and omnipotent, are rarely benevolent, and the very fact of concentrating so much on top leads to highly unacceptable societies, by demobilizing the rest, turning them into clients. Hence, researchers will live with their problems of being tempted into sins of commission--to pursue destructive knowledge--and sins of omission--not to pursue constructive knowledge, and not to pursue unpleasant truths, not because they want this, but because the structure leads them in that direction. Most researchers probably want security, academic freedom, and relevance, and the problem is this: Elites offer security and relevance, not academic freedom; universities offer security and academic freedom, not relevance; people may offer relevance, but neither security, nor freedom. In a rapidly changing world the interconnections and possibly destructive effects of research far away in space and time have become more evident, at the same time as formerly rich and dominating countries

  18. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  19. Leadership in academic and public libraries a time of change

    CERN Document Server

    Düren, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In a time when libraries have to face constant change, this book provides examples and advises on how to lead when change is needed (for example, when quality management is implemented or when libraries have to merge or to relocate). Engaging with how constant change affects leadership in libraries and how leaders in libraries act in times of change, this book is aimed at practitioners and students of Library and Information Science (LIS) alike, and is based on both theory and expert interviews from leaders in academic and public libraries that are in the midst, or are now coming out of a proc

  20. Changing emphasis at the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major objectives of the Office of Research is to ensure availability of sound technical information for timely decision making in support of the NRC's safety mission. The Office of Research is changing some of its emphasis to better meet the expected needs of the NRC's regulatory offices. Long-standing programs in support of operating reactors are nearing completion. These programs include plant aging and severe accident research for currently operating plants. This meeting will also address the new challenges faced by the NRC in its review of the advanced light water and non-light water reactors. As plant aging and severe accident research programs are nearing completion, the research activities are coming to focus on the emerging technologies, for example, digital instrumentation and control systems, both as replacement equipment for operating plants and as the technology of choice and necessity for the advanced reactors. Necessity, because analog equipment is becoming obsolete. Other examples include the use of new materials in operating plants, human factors considerations in the design and operation of the advanced plants, thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the advanced reactors, and new construction techniques

  1. Change detection in polarimetric SAR data over several time points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution is introduced. The test statistic is applied successfully to detect change in C-band EMISAR polarimetric SAR data over four time points....

  2. Climate change and Finland. Summary of the Finnish research programme on climate change (SILMU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the Earth's atmosphere are expected to cause significant global climate changes during the next few decades. These changes will have many consequences both in nature and on human activities. In order to investigate the implications of such changes in Finland, a six-year multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change, the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), was initiated in 1990. The key research areas were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climate changes, (2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies

  3. Time-Dependent Changes in a Shampoo Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2000-10-01

    This article demonstrates the fascinating phenomenon of time evolution of a shampoo bubble through experiments that can be performed by undergraduate students. The changes in thickness of the bubble films with time are followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The change in chemical composition as a bubble film evolves is monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. It is observed that the change in thickness of a typical shampoo bubble film enclosed in a container is gradual and slow, and the hydrocarbon components of the bubble drain from the bubble much more slowly than water. An additional agent, such as acetonitrile, strikingly alters the dynamics of evolution of such a bubble.

  4. Climate Change and Rural Sociology: Broadening the Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is the preeminent environmental problem of this time, and Joseph Molnar's call for greater attention to it by rural sociologists is both welcome and timely. The agenda he lays out for rural sociology's engagement with climate change, however, seems rather narrow and restrictive. Examining the potential impacts of climate change,…

  5. Understanding Evolutionary Change within the Framework of Geological Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on a learning strategy designed to overcome students' difficulty in understanding evolutionary change within the framework of geological time. Incorporated into the learning program "From Dinosaurs to Darwin: Evolution from the Perspective of Time," this strategy consists of four scaffolded investigations in which students…

  6. In a Time of Change: Integrating the Arts and Humanities with Climate Change Science in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M.; Golux, S.; Franzen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The arts and humanities have a powerful capacity to create lines of communication between the public, policy and scientific spheres. A growing network of visual and performing artists, writers and scientists has been actively working together since 2007 to integrate scientific and artistic perspectives on climate change in interior Alaska. These efforts have involved field workshops and collaborative creative processes culminating in public performances and a visual art exhibit. The most recent multimedia event was entitled In a Time of Change: Envisioning the Future, and challenged artists and scientists to consider future scenarios of climate change. This event included a public performance featuring original theatre, modern dance, Alaska Native Dance, poetry and music that was presented concurrently with an art exhibit featuring original works by 24 Alaskan visual artists. A related effort targeted K12 students, through an early college course entitled Climate Change and Creative Expression, which was offered to high school students at a predominantly Alaska Native charter school and integrated climate change science, creative writing, theatre and dance. Our program at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is just one of many successful efforts to integrate arts and humanities with science within and beyond the NSF LTER Program. The efforts of various LTER sites to engage the arts and humanities with science, the public and policymakers have successfully generated excitement, facilitated mutual understanding, and promoted meaningful dialogue on issues facing science and society. The future outlook for integration of arts and humanities with science appears promising, with increasing interest from artists, scientists and scientific funding agencies.

  7. Decomposing the Change in Labour Force Indicators over Time.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Fent; Vegard Skirbekk; Barbara Zagaglia; Alexia Prskawetz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study changes in the size and the composition of the labour force in five OECD countries from 1983 through 2000. We apply a recent decomposition method to quantify the components of the change over time in the crude labour force rate and the mean age of the labour force. Our results show that the change in the crude labour force rate was dominated by the change in age-specific labour force participation rates. For the mean age of the labour force we find that for males the ch...

  8. Meta-analysis and its application in global change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI XiangDong; PENG ChangHui; TIAN DaLun; SUN JianFeng

    2007-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a quantitative synthetic research method that statistically integrates results from individual studies to find common trends and differences. With increasing concern over global change, meta-analysis has been rapidly adopted in global change research. Here, we introduce the methodologies, advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis, and review its application in global climate change research, including the responses of ecosystems to global warming and rising CO2 and O3 concentrations, the effects of land use and management on climate change and the effects of disturbances on biogeochemistry cycles of ecosystem. Despite limitation and potential misapplication, meta-analysis has been demonstrated to be a much better tool than traditional narrative review in synthesizing results from multiple studies. Several methodological developments for research synthesis have not yet been widely used in global climate change researches such as cumulative meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis. It is necessary to update the results of meta-analysis on a given topic at regular intervals by including newly published studies. Emphasis should be put on multi-factor interaction and long-term experiments. There is great potential to apply meta-analysis to global climate change research in China because research and observation networks have been established (e.g. ChinaFlux and CERN), which create the need for combining these data and results to provide support for governments' decision making on climate change. It is expected that meta-analysis will be widely adopted in future climate change research.

  9. How I Have Changed Over Time as a Psychotherapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Stanley B

    2015-11-01

    Reflecting on my career as a psychotherapist has led me to consider 3 major areas that have affected the way I practice, namely, assimilative integration, the visions of reality, and brief psychodynamic therapy. Although starting out as a traditional psychoanalytic therapist, I became more integrative as I was exposed to other approaches and to patients with a variety of needs. As a result I developed a mode of integration, which I call assimilative. After applying the literary genres of tragedy, comedy, romance, and irony to psychoanalytic, behavioral, and humanistic psychotherapies, I found that they also could be used to describe any patient's multiple facets and psychological challenges. I demonstrate here how such visions helped in the treatment of a case of bipolar disorder. Upon recognizing the need for briefer forms of treatment, I developed an interest in conducting, conceptualizing, and researching brief psychodynamic therapy. I conclude the article by answering questions posed by the editors regarding how I have changed over time in conducting psychotherapy. PMID:26361285

  10. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  11. The changing face of HIV vaccine research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Nabel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been remarkable progress in understanding the biology of HIV-1 and its recognition by the human immune system, we have not yet developed an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccine challenges include the genetic diversity and mutability of HIV-1 which create a plethora of constantly changing antigens, the structural features of the viral envelope glycoprotein that disguise conserved receptor-binding sites from the immune system, and the presence of carbohydrate moieties that shield potential epitopes from antibodies. Despite these challenges, there has been significant scientific progress in recent years. In 2009, a large-scale clinical trial known as RV144 demonstrated that a HIV-1 vaccine could modestly reduce the incidence of HIV-1 infection. Further, the identification of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (such as VRC01, a human monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing over 90% of natural HIV-1 isolates, as well as PG and PGT antibodies that recognize conserved glycopeptide epitopes has revealed new opportunities for vaccine design. Our ability to understand HIV-1 structure and antibody epitopes at the atomic level, the rapid advance of computational and bioinformatics approaches to immunogen design, and our newly acquired knowledge that it is possible for a vaccine to reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection, have all opened up new and promising pathways towards the development of an urgently needed effective HIV-1 vaccine. This article summarizes challenges to the development of an HIV-1 vaccine, lessons learned from scientific investigation and completed vaccine trials, and promising developments in HIV-1 vaccine design.

  12. Vulnerability in Climate Change Research: A Comprehensive Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Füssel, Hans–Martin

    2005-01-01

    Vulnerability is a central concept in climate change research as well as in a number of other research contexts. However, the term is conceptualized in many different ways by the various scientific communities that use it. Widespread disagreement about the appropriate definition of vulnerability is a frequent cause for misunderstanding in interdisciplinary research on vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. This paper attempts to ameliorate this confusion by presenting a comprehensive...

  13. Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration: evolutionary versus plastic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Charmantier, A; Gienapp, P.

    2013-01-01

    There are multiple observations around the globe showing that in many avian species, both the timing of migration and breeding have advanced, due to warmer springs. Here, we review the literature to disentangle the actions of evolutionary changes in response to selection induced by climate change versus changes due to individual plasticity, that is, the capacity of an individual to adjust its phenology to environmental variables. Within the abundant literature on climate change effects on bir...

  14. Time simulation of flutter with large stiffness changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, Mordechay; Wieseman, Carol D.

    1992-01-01

    Time simulation of flutter, involving large local structural changes, is formulated with a state-space model that is based on a relatively small number of generalized coordinates. Free-free vibration modes are first calculated for a nominal finite-element model with relatively large fictitious masses located at the area of structural changes. A low-frequency subset of these modes is then transformed into a set of structural modal coordinates with which the entire simulation is performed. These generalized coordinates and the associated oscillatory aerodynamic force coefficient matrices are used to construct an efficient time-domain, state-space model for a basic aeroelastic case. The time simulation can then be performed by simply changing the mass, stiffness, and damping coupling terms when structural changes occur. It is shown that the size of the aeroelastic model required for time simulation with large structural changes at a few apriori known locations is similar to that required for direct analysis of a single structural case. The method is applied to the simulation of an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. The diverging oscillations are followed by the activation of a tip-ballast decoupling mechanism that stabilizes the system but may cause significant transient overshoots.

  15. Cool storage time of phase change wallboard room in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国会; 陈其针; 黄凯良; 牛润萍; 王琳

    2009-01-01

    More and more attention was paid to phase change energy storage in air conditioning domain and construction energy conservation,and became the focus of the international research. Through the test and analysis of the parameters of the indoor thermal property in phase change wallboard room and ordinary room,the effects of using phase change wallboards on indoor temperature in summer and air conditioning are obtained. The combination of construct enclosure and phase change materials can stabilize indoor temperature,improve indoor thermal comfort,reduce the frequency of the operation of air conditioning facility,cut the initial investment and operation expense,and meanwhile play an practical role in "the power balancing between the peak period and the valley period" policy. Through the experiment and the test of the effects exerted by phase change wallboard room and ordinary room on the indoor thermal environment,it is obtained that the phase change wallboard can reduce the fluctuation range of indoor temperature and the heat flow from the outside into indoor environment in summer. According to the study,it is found that the effect of cool-storing for 5 h is obvious. Through the analysis of the phase change wallboard without air conditioning in daytime,it is obtained that the frequency of the operation of air conditioning in phase change wallboard room is smaller than that in the ordinary room,which can prolong the lifetime of the facility and reduce operation expense.

  16. Change detection in a time series of polarimetric SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    a certain point can be used to detect at which points changes occur in the time series. [1] T. W. Anderson, An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis, John Wiley, New York, third edition, 2003. [2] K. Conradsen, A. A. Nielsen, J. Schou, and H. Skriver, “A test statistic in the complex...... to the complex Wishart distribution and demonstrate its application to change detection in truly multi-temporal, polarimetric SAR data. Results will be shown that demonstrate the difference between applying to time series of polarimetric SAR images, pairwise comparisons or the new omnibus test...

  17. Real-time change detection in data streams with FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Automatic recognition of changes in data streams of multidimensional signals. • Detection algorithm based on testing exchangeability on-line. • Real-time and off-line applicability. • Real-time implementation in FPGAs. - Abstract: The automatic recognition of changes in data streams is useful in both real-time and off-line data analyses. This article shows several effective change-detecting algorithms (based on martingales) and describes their real-time applicability in the data acquisition systems through the use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). The automatic event recognition system is absolutely general and it does not depend on either the particular event to detect or the specific data representation (waveforms, images or multidimensional signals). The developed approach provides good results for change detection in both the temporal evolution of profiles and the two-dimensional spatial distribution of volume emission intensity. The average computation time in the FPGA is 210 μs per profile

  18. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing......The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal...... increased with increasing mean annual temperature of the location, indicating that varieties are well adapted to given conditions. The responses of wheat and oats were largest for the period from flowering to maturity. Changes in timing of cereal phenology by 2040 were assessed for two climate model...

  19. TIME-2, Radioactive Waste Disposal Climatic Change Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: TIME2 simulates the long-term evolution burial facilities for radioactive waste disposal, and forms part of a development programme in time-dependent probabilistic risk analysis. Environmental change in the model is essentially driven by changes in climatic conditions based on the geological record of climate changes and the astronomical or 'Milankovitch' theory of climates. The environment is modelled up to the first glaciation from the present. Processes brought on by climatic change such as glacial advance, sea-level changes, water budget, and erosion effects are considered, as well as human intrusion effects, each as a separate sub-model within the overall framework of the model. 2 - Method of solution: TIME2 is a Monte Carlo simulation code which models environmental change by random sampling of the parameters which are anticipated to vary with time within quantifiable limits. Probabilistic distribution functions for these parameters are provided by the user as input, and values are then sampled during each simulation of the code. Sampling occurs several times within each defined climate state type into which the changing climatic conditions from the present to the next Ice Age are divided (Temperate, Boreal, Tundra and Glacial). In addition a Savannah climate is modelled in the near future (500-1500 years) if the 'greenhouse effect' is to be simulated). The sampling of these environmental parameters occurs at specific time steps during a simulation which correspond either to the times of transition from one climate state to another, or to fixed user-specified times. The climate state durations are themselves sampled at the start of each simulation. Occurrences of human intrusion events are sampled separately for each time step and their effects assessed. A particular case involving input values which simulate conditions for example for a given site and repository, would typically include several thousand simulations so

  20. Inference for stochastic volatility model using time change transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogeropoulos, Konstantinos; Roberts, Gareth O.; Dellaportas, Petros

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation for diffusion driven stochastic volatility models through Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). To avoid degeneracy issues we introduce an innovative reparametrisation defined through transformations that operate on the time scale of the diffusion. A novel MCMC scheme which overcomes the inherent difficulties of time change transformations is also presented. The algorithm is fast to implement and applies to models with stochastic volatility. The me...

  1. Changing Words: Time and Space in Electronic Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Di Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Printed literature and electronic literature, especially hypertexts, bring into play diverse issues of time and space. When approaching them, we should use different critical frameworks, at least in one respect: the analysis of a hypertext cannot forget considerations about time and space in the act of reading – or performing – the text. Hypertexts generate many different possible readings thanks to the changing and shifting links which move in hyperspace. Therefore, if in considering these i...

  2. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  3. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations. PMID:26284021

  4. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia: the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons’ effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.

  5. A review of real-time EEG sonification research

    OpenAIRE

    Väljamäe, A.; Steffert, T.; Holland, S; Marimon, X.; Benitez, R.; Mealla, S.; Oliveira, A.; Jordà, S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been steady growth in research that addresses the real-time sonification of electroencephalographic (EEG) data. Diverse application areas include medical data screening, Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI), neurofeedback, affective computing and applications in the arts. The present paper presents an overview and critical review of the principal research to date in EEG data sonification. Firstly, we identify several sub-domains of real-time EEG sonification and...

  6. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  7. 12 CFR 308.13 - Change of time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the case to the Board of Directors pursuant to § 308.38, the Board of Directors may grant extensions... Board of Directors after notice and opportunity to respond is afforded all non-moving parties, or on the... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change of time limits. 308.13 Section...

  8. Change of Time and Universal Laws in Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    turbulent velocity increments obtained from widely different experiments, covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, collapse after applying a deterministic time change in terms of the variances of velocity increments. Moreover, the conditional distributions of velocity increments also collapse in terms of...

  9. Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional Times - Conference Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Käpplinger, Bernd; Lichte, Nina; Haberzeth, Erik; Kulmus, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This book assembles almost 50 papers from the 7th Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA), which was held from the 4th to the 7th of September 2013 at Humboldt-University in Berlin. The title of the conference was “Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional Times”. Many authors within this volume refer to this title and the thematic outline within the call for papers. Furthermore, conferences are also a g...

  10. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available

  11. Integrating climate change into agricultural research for development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon

    2011-09-15

    African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.

  12. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  13. Changes in the timing and magnitude of floods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the global climate change will have significant impacts on the regime of hydrologic extremes. An increase in both the frequency and magnitude of hydrologic extremes is anticipated in the near future. As a consequence, the design and operation of water resource systems will have to adapt to the changing regime of hydrologic extremes. This study explores trends in the timing and magnitude of floods in natural streamflow gauging stations in Canada. The seasonality of floods is analyzed and the selected streamflow stations grouped into five flood seasonality regions. A common 30-year long observation period from 1974 to 2003 is used in the analysis to eliminate the effect of hydro-climatic variability in the timing and magnitude of floods resulting from different observation periods. The timing of floods is described in terms of directional statistics. A method is developed for analyzing trends in directional dates of flood occurrence that is not affected by the choice of zero direction. The magnitude of floods is analyzed by the annual maximum and peak-over-threshold methods. Trends in the timing and magnitude of floods are identified in each flood seasonality region using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test, with a modification for auto-correlated data. The results show a good correspondence between the identified flood seasonality regions and the main terrestrial zones in Canada. Significant changes in the timing and magnitude of floods are found in the flood seasonality regions. (author)

  14. Research on climate effects. Effects of climate changes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global changes affecting the earth are at the forefront of public interest, possibly caused by climate alterations amongst other things. The public expects appropriate measures from politics to successfully adapt to unavoidable climate changes. As well as an investigation into the causes of climatic changes and the corollaries between the different scientific phenomena, the effects on the economy and society must also be examined. The Federal Minister for Research and Technology aims to make a valuable German contribution to international Global Change Research with the focal point ''Effects of Climate Changes on the Ecological and Civil System''. The aim of the workshop was to give an outline of current scientific knowledge, sketch out research requirements and give recommendations on the focal point with regard to the BMFT. (orig.)

  15. Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration: evolutionary versus plastic changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charmantier, A.; Gienapp, P.

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple observations around the globe showing that in many avian species, both the timing of migration and breeding have advanced, due to warmer springs. Here, we review the literature to disentangle the actions of evolutionary changes in response to selection induced by climate change ve

  16. Equol production changes over time in pre-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Pagano, Ian; Morimoto, Yukiko; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-04-01

    Equol (EQ) is a metabolite produced by gut bacteria through the chemical reduction of the soya isoflavone daidzein (DE), but only by 30-60% of the population. EQ is believed to provide benefits derived from soya intake and its production is widely viewed as a relatively stable phenomenon. In a randomised, cross-over intervention with soya foods, seventy-nine pre-menopausal women were challenged with a high-soya and a low-soya diet each for 6 months, separated by a 1-month washout period. Overnight urine was collected at three time points during each diet period and analysed for DE and EQ by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Remaining an EQ producer (EP) or non-producer (NP) or changing towards an EP or NP was assessed using an EQ:DE ratio of ≥0·018 combined with a DE threshold of ≥2 nmol/mg creatinine as a cut-off point. We observed 19 and 24% EP during the low-soya and high-soya diet periods, respectively, and found that 6-11% of our subjects changed EQ status 'within' each study period (on an average of 1·2 times), while 16% changed 'between' the two diet periods. The present finding challenges the widely held conviction that EQ production within an individual remains stable over time. The precise factors contributing to changes in EQ status, however, remain elusive and warrant further investigation. PMID:21920062

  17. Change Management and Complexity: The Case for Narrative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxelaar, Lucia; Paine, Mark; Beilin, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference.…

  18. Higher Education Change and Social Networks: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

  19. Using prospect theory to investigate the low marginal value of travel time for small time changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    A common finding in stated preference studies that measure the value of travel time (VTT) is that the measured VTT increases with the size of the time change considered, in conflict with standard neoclassical economic theory. We present a new test of a possible explanation for the phenomenon that builds on the diminishing or constant sensitivity of the value functions in prospect theory. We use stated preference data with trade-offs between travel time and money that provide separate identifi...

  20. Ostracod Body Size Change Across Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, L.; Llarena, L. A.; Saux, J.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors drive evolution, although it is not always clear which factors are more influential. Miller et al. (2009) found that there is a change in geographic disparity in diversity in marine biotas over time. We tested if there was also geographic disparity in body size during different epochs. We used marine ostracods, which are tiny crustaceans, as a study group for this analysis. We also studied which factor is more influential in body size change: distance or time. We compared the mean body size from different geologic time intervals as well as the mean body size from different locations for each epoch. We grouped ostracod occurrences from the Paleobiology Database into 10º x 10º grid cells on a paleogeographic map. Then we calculated the difference in mean size and the distance between the grid cells containing specimens. Our size data came from the Ellis & Messina"Catalogue of Ostracod" as well as the"Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology". Sizes were calculated by applying the formula for the volume of an ellipsoid to three linear dimensions of the ostracod carapace (anteroposterior, dorsoventral, and right-left lengths). Throughout this analysis we have come to the realization that there is a trend in ostracods towards smaller size over time. Therefore there is also a trend through time of decreasing difference in size between occurrences in different grid cells. However, if time is not taken into account, there is no correlation between size and geographic distance. This may be attributed to the fact that one might not expect a big size difference between locations that are far apart but still at a similar latitude (for example, at the equator). This analysis suggests that distance alone is not the main factor in driving changes in ostracod size over time.

  1. Testing for Changes in the Rank Correlation of Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Dehling, Herold; Vogel, Daniel; Wendler, Martin; Wied, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    For a bivariate time series $((X_i,Y_i))_{i=1,...,n}$ we want to detect whether the correlation between $X_i$ and $Y_i$ stays constant for all $i = 1,...,n$. We propose a nonparametric change-point test statistic based on Kendall's tau and derive its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis of no change by means a new U-statistic invariance principle for dependent processes. The asymptotic distribution depends on the long run variance of Kendall's tau, for which we propose an estimat...

  2. Research in the Management of Learning, Change and Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Nooteboom, Bart

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis note sketches opportunities for interdisciplinary research in management, and the distinctive contribution that might be made from a European perspective. It highlights a few major domains of research, conceptual issues, disciplines, and specific opportunities and needs in Europe. The domains of research considered are: - the management of learning, innovation and change in organisations and, related to that: - the management of inter-organisational relations, alliances, soci...

  3. Research misconduct: time for a re-think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, K J

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of research misconduct appears to be increasing, drawing attention in the general media and academic literature. Concerns have been expressed about probable under-reporting, harms arising, lack of an agreed international definition, welfare of whistleblowers and the adequacy of the investigation processes and any subsequent sanctions. A fully satisfactory approach to prevention, detection, investigation and adjudication has yet to emerge. While the definition of research misconduct contained in the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research is comprehensive, universities and other research institutions at times struggle in their task of investigating and adjudicating allegations of research misconduct. A more centralised, independent process of oversight and monitoring of this role played by the universities and institutions would help support those institutions and help maintain community confidence in the research endeavour. PMID:27257149

  4. Modeling the time-changing dependence in stock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-changing dependence in stock markets is investigated by assuming the multifractional process with random exponent (MPRE) as model for actual log price dynamics. By modeling its functional parameter S(t, ω) via the square root process (S.R.) a twofold aim is obtained. From one hand both the main financial and statistical properties shown by the estimated S(t) are captured by surrogates, on the other hand this capability reveals able to model the time-changing dependence shown by stocks or indexes. In particular, a new dynamical approach to interpreter market mechanisms is given. Empirical evidences are offered by analysing the behaviour of the daily closing prices of a very known index, the Industrial Average Dow Jones (DJIA), beginning on March,1990 and ending on February, 2005.

  5. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  6. The Stumbling-blocks of Economics: Complexity, Time and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Neva

    1991-01-01

    This is Chapter 6 from Social Economics: An Alternative Theory (St. Martin's Press, 1991) There were issues of complexity, time and change which Alfred Marshall recognized as essential aspects of his subject but which were not readily dealt with by the 'scientific' techniques which he was helping to develop. As he feared, the forces which he helped to put in motion have in fact resulted in a situation wherein these bothersome but crucial issues have been pushed aside by techniques which are p...

  7. Using prospect theory to investigate the low marginal value of travel time for small time changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    A common finding in stated preference studies that measure the value of travel time (VTT) is that the measured VTT increases with the size of the time change considered, in conflict with standard neoclassical economic theory. We present a new test of a possible explanation for the phenomenon that...... builds on the diminishing or constant sensitivity of the value functions in prospect theory.We use stated preference data with trade-offs between travel time and money that provide separate identification of the degrees of diminishing sensitivity for time and money gains and losses. This enables us to...

  8. European network for research in global change (ENRICH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium). DG XII/JRC

    1995-12-31

    While approaching the beginning of the twenty first century, the scientific community is faced with the formidable tasks of monitoring and detecting, understanding and predicting changes in the Earth System and its interactions with human beings. A crucial challenge is to make scientific research results accessible and usable for those involved in the decision making process related to the concept of Sustainable Development. Major international scientific programmes under the umbrella of ICSU, such as the IGBP and WCRP, are dealing with these issues. Although there exist many well developed global change research programmes in several European countries and effective collaboration networks between research institutes, there is an urgent need for overall communication with a view to promoting wider international links ensuring complementarity, synergy and coherence. Recognizing the importance of promoting coherence in research and utilising research results for various European Union (EU) policies, the European Commissioner responsible for Science, Research and Development wrote in March 1992 to all the EU Research Ministers to propose an initiative in this domain. In a rapid response, a group of Senior Experts from the EU Member States was set up in April 1992. This Group established a Task Force to develop the concept of the European Network for Research In Global CHange (ENRICH) which was approved in July 1993

  9. Assessment of Driver's Reaction Times in Diverisified Research Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Marek; Lozia, Zbigniew; Zdanowicz, Piotr; Jurecki, Rafał S.; Stańczyk, Tomasz L.; Pieniążek, Wiesław

    2012-06-01

    Reaction time is one of the basic parameters that characterize the driver and very important in the analysis of accident situations in road traffic. This paper describes research studies on the reaction time evaluation as conducted in three environments: on a typical device used in the transport psychology labs (the so-called reflexometer), in the driving simulator (autoPW) and on the driving test track (the Kielce Test Track). In all environments, the tests were performed for the same group of drivers. The article presents the characteristics of research in each environment as well as shows and compares exemplary results.

  10. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  11. Changing Words: Time and Space in Electronic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Gennaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Printed literature and electronic literature, especially hypertexts, bring into play diverse issues of time and space. When approaching them, we should use different critical frameworks, at least in one respect: the analysis of a hypertext cannot forget considerations about time and space in the act of reading – or performing – the text. Hypertexts generate many different possible readings thanks to the changing and shifting links which move in hyperspace. Therefore, if in considering these issues in electronic literature we can obviously apply all the critical categories we use with printed works, here we cannot avoid considering the time and the space that are not “inside” the text but “outside” the text. This essay tries to explain the relationship between these external and internal time-space issues in electronic literature, how they interlink and mutually change, and how the act of reading both modifies and is modified by them. In particular, we will consider the web-based poetry When the Sea Stands Still (1997, by John Cayley and Yang Lian, and Rice (1998, by the artist known as Geniwate, basing the analysis on the studies by Espen Aarseth, Wolfgang Iser, Frank Kermode, Ted Nelson, and Edward Said.

  12. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Hua-Dong; ZHANG; Li; ZHU; Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development,especially through providing biological,physical,and chemical parameters on a global scale.Earth observation data has the 4V features(volume,variety,veracity,and velocity) of big data that are suitable for climate change research.Moreover,the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role.This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research,such as synchronous satelliteeaerialeground observation experiments,which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors(e.g.,glaciers,lakes,vegetation,radiation,and urbanization); and global environmental change information and simulation systems.With the era of global environment change dawning,Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking.Inevitably,Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  13. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Dong Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development, especially through providing biological, physical, and chemical parameters on a global scale. Earth observation data has the 4V features (volume, variety, veracity, and velocity of big data that are suitable for climate change research. Moreover, the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role. This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research, such as synchronous satellite–aerial–ground observation experiments, which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors (e.g., glaciers, lakes, vegetation, radiation, and urbanization; and global environmental change information and simulation systems. With the era of global environment change dawning, Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking. Inevitably, Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  14. Real-Time Culture Change Improves Lean Success: Sequenced Culture Change Gets Failing Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, Mitchell; Diamond, Marty; Vrchota, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Success with the Lean management system is rooted in a culture of stakeholder engagement and commitment. Unfortunately, many leaders view Lean as an "add-on" tool instead of one that requires a new way of thinking and approaching culture. This article addresses the "why, how, and what" to promote a Lean culture that works. We present a five-phased approach grounded in evidence-based practices of real-time culture change. We further help healthcare leaders understand the differences between traditional "sequenced" approaches to culture change and "real-time" methods--and why these real-time practices are more sustainable and ultimately more successful than traditional culture change methods. PMID:26399034

  15. The Evolution of the Literature on Technological Change over time : A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the emergence and evolution of major topics in economics of innovation. Throughout the paper, particular attention is devoted to the analysis of the cumulative aspects and complementarities between di_erent paths of research over time. Moreover, this survey highlights the crucial relationship between technological change (TC) and economic growth, and the way in which economics literature has dealt with this issue over time. The structure of this survey distinguishes between...

  16. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Kelly Elder; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  17. Towards a research agenda for adapting to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The views, publications and research related to building design and climate change are reviewed in generic terms at the outset of this paper in order to identify a number of questions and potential research avenues. In particular, the links between the roles of building design and its implications for occupant behaviour are addressed in the context of the environmental performance of buildings and climate change. The emphasis is on the integration of adaptation with energy-efficient design, both in terms of how buildings can be designed to increase their adaptive potential and of the significance of occupant adaptive opportunities. (author)

  18. USDA forest service global change research: Monitored ecosystems, northern linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foresters and natural resource managers have traditionally based long-term plans (i.e., 100+ year harvest cycles) on the assumption of stable landscapes and climate. Global climate change undercuts these assumptions and may alter or invalidate some accepted natural resource management practices and paradigms. Possible changes in biomass productivity, shifting of forest species' latitudinal or elevational limits, and rapid changes in forest community species and age class composition, all have major implications for management of the nation's forests. The USDA Forest Service is undertaking a national research program to assess rates, significant processes, and management implications of possible climatic change for the nation's forests and related resources. Pacific Region Forest Service global change research places major emphasis on understanding and monitoring forest processes in the northern boreal forest and the sub-arctic taiga of Alaska, which is potentially sensitive to climatic warming and to shifts in precipitation regime. A major terrestrial carbon pool, taiga forests and organic soils may also be important in the flux of greenhouse gases between landscape and atmosphere. Forest Service research emphasizes an ecosystem approach, incorporating landscape- and watershed-level field research with smaller-scale studies of forest ecosystem response mechanisms. Ecological monitoring is critical, and includes establishment of a monitoring mega-transect from northern latitudinal tree line to mediterranean/dry temperate forest/shrublands. Emphasis is placed on the most critical Pacific Region ecosystems: northern boreal forest (taiga), moist temperate forest, and mediterranean/dry temperate forest (chaparral/southern Ponderosa pine)

  19. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  20. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  1. The Changing Cost of Performing Agricultural Research: An Index Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Joseph W.; Kaldor, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Inflation erodes the purchasing power of dollars in every budget in our society. Budgets of agricultural research organizations have been no exception. Inflation has been defined as an increase in the average of prices {I}. A popular indicator of the rate of inflation is the annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index (cpr) {2}, The CPI is intended to apply to consumer purchases, yet the concept implies that a similar indicator of the annual percentage change in prices of inputs purc...

  2. A New Scenario Framework for Climate Change Research

    OpenAIRE

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; KRIEGLER Elmar; O’Neill, Brian C.; Kristie L. Ebi; Riahi, Keywan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the scenario matrix architecture that underlies a framework for developing new scenarios for climate change research. The matrix architecture facilitates addressing key questions related to current climate research and policy-making: identifying the effectiveness of different adaptation and mitigation strategies (in terms of their costs, risks and other consequences) and the possible trade-offs and synergies. The two main axes of the matrix are: 1) the level of radiative ...

  3. Changing Times: Findings from the First Longitudinal Study of Later High School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, medical research found that teenagers have biologically different sleep and wake patterns than the preadolescent or adult population. On the basis of that information, in 1997 the seven comprehensive high schools in the Minneapolis Public School District shifted the school start time from 7:15 a.m. to 8:40 a.m. This article…

  4. Forelimb-hindlimb developmental timing changes across tetrapod phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwood Lynne

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrapods exhibit great diversity in limb structures among species and also between forelimbs and hindlimbs within species, diversity which frequently correlates with locomotor modes and life history. We aim to examine the potential relation of changes in developmental timing (heterochrony to the origin of limb morphological diversity in an explicit comparative and quantitative framework. In particular, we studied the relative time sequence of development of the forelimbs versus the hindlimbs in 138 embryos of 14 tetrapod species spanning a diverse taxonomic, ecomorphological and life-history breadth. Whole-mounts and histological sections were used to code the appearance of 10 developmental events comprising landmarks of development from the early bud stage to late chondrogenesis in the forelimb and the corresponding serial homologues in the hindlimb. Results An overall pattern of change across tetrapods can be discerned and appears to be relatively clade-specific. In the primitive condition, as seen in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, the forelimb/pectoral fin develops earlier than the hindlimb/pelvic fin. This pattern is either retained or re-evolved in eulipotyphlan insectivores (= shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and solenodons and taken to its extreme in marsupials. Although exceptions are known, the two anurans we examined reversed the pattern and displayed a significant advance in hindlimb development. All other species examined, including a bat with its greatly enlarged forelimbs modified as wings in the adult, showed near synchrony in the development of the fore and hindlimbs. Conclusion Major heterochronic changes in early limb development and chondrogenesis were absent within major clades except Lissamphibia, and their presence across vertebrate phylogeny are not easily correlated with adaptive phenomena related to morphological differences in the adult fore- and hindlimbs. The apparently conservative nature of this

  5. A novel trauma leadership model reflective of changing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼHuyvetter, Cecile; Cogbill, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    As a result of generational changes in the health care workforce, we sought to evaluate our current Trauma Medical Director Leadership model. We assessed the responsibilities, accountability, time requirements, cost, and provider satisfaction with the current leadership model. Three new providers who had recently completed fellowship training were hired, each with unique professional desires, skill sets, and experience. Our goal was to establish a comprehensive, cost-effective, accountable leadership model that enabled provider satisfaction and equalized leadership responsibilities. A 3-pronged team model was established with a Medical Director title and responsibilities rotating per the American College of Surgeons verification cycle to develop leadership skills and lessen hierarchical differences. PMID:24828770

  6. Stochastic optimal control and time changed Lévy noises

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    List of papers. Paper 1 / Chapter 2: On chaos representation and orthogonal polynomials for the doubly stochastic Poisson process, together with Giulia Di Nunno. Published in Seminar on stochastic analysis, random fields and applications VII, R. Daland, M. Dozzi and F. Russo (eds), vol 67 of Progress in Probability, Springer Basel 2013. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-0545-2_2 The final publication is available at Springer. Paper 2 / Chapter 3: BSDEs for time-changed Lévy processes and applic...

  7. The Dutch Disability Insurance Act (WAO) and the role of research in policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Gier, de, J.-W.; Henke, R.; Vijgen, J

    2003-01-01

    In the Dutch welfare state social policy research always has been an essential tool in policy development. Much public money has been spent on explanatory research and research that has to be supportive to policy design, policy improvement and the evaluation of social policies. A significant field in this respect is social security and more in particular the Dutch disability problem. Since the onset of the at the time fundamentally changed public disability insurance legislation in the second...

  8. The Timing of Change Detection and Change Perception in Complex Acoustic Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaunmahomed, Zahrah; Chait, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how listeners perceive the temporal relationship of a light flash and a complex acoustic signal. The stimulus mimics ubiquitous events in busy scenes which are manifested as a change in the pattern of on-going fluctuation. Detecting pattern emergence inherently requires integration over time; resulting in such events being detected later than when they occurred. How does delayed detection time affect the perception of such events relative to other events in the scene? To model...

  9. Using prospect theory to investigate the low value of travel time for small time changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    A common finding in stated preference studies that measure the value of travel time (VTT), is that the measured per-minute VTT increases with the size of the time change considered, in conflict with standard neoclassical theory. The current paper tests prospect theory as a possible explanation......: More specifically, whether the phenomenon is generated by preferences being reference-dependent and exhibiting diminishing sensitivity for gains and losses, with a stronger degree of diminishing sensitivity for money than for travel time. We use stated preference data with trade-offs between travel...... time and money that pro- vide identification of the degrees of diminishing sensitivity for time and money gains and losses, thus enabling us to test and potentially falsify the prospect theory explanation. We apply a discrete choice model, in which choice depends on a reference-free value of travel...

  10. Managing Information Technology as a Catalyst of Change. Track I: Leadership during Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers are presented from the 1993 CAUSE conference track on leadership challenges facing managers of information technology during times of change at colleges and universities. Papers include: (1) "ASURITE: How To Avoid Creating a Distributed Computing 'Tower of Babel'!" (Neil Armann and others), which discusses the Arizona State University…

  11. MOTIVATION IN TIMES OF CHANGE: WOMEN AND EDUCATIONAL PROFESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Rumentha Simanjuntak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a complex issue, in which theorists have tried to approach. Among the classifications are content theories, process theories and integrated theories. Womens world is also complex, where multiple roles involve motivations and lead to different actions. This makes women perfect examples for management in times of change. Article discusses examples of motivation and management in times of change. Subjects of this study primarily are women lecturers and middle managers in educational field of professions. This study also involves qualitative means of data collection with two questions to lead discussions: What has driven you to be lecturers/educators?; What will make you continue become lecturers/educators? Analysis were conducted based on the studies done by Coleman, Ninomiya & Okato, and. Mwamwenda. It is concluded that women have multiple rather than single factors to motivate them in the profession. It is also agreed that leaders with feminine qualities as well as sensitive to culture are more preferable than those who are absent with them.

  12. Robust real-time change detection in high jitter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, Katherine Mary; Ma, Tian J.

    2009-08-01

    A new method is introduced for real-time detection of transient change in scenes observed by staring sensors that are subject to platform jitter, pixel defects, variable focus, and other real-world challenges. The approach uses flexible statistical models for the scene background and its variability, which are continually updated to track gradual drift in the sensor's performance and the scene under observation. Two separate models represent temporal and spatial variations in pixel intensity. For the temporal model, each new frame is projected into a low-dimensional subspace designed to capture the behavior of the frame data over a recent observation window. Per-pixel temporal standard deviation estimates are based on projection residuals. The second approach employs a simple representation of jitter to generate pixelwise moment estimates from a single frame. These estimates rely on spatial characteristics of the scene, and are used gauge each pixel's susceptibility to jitter. The temporal model handles pixels that are naturally variable due to sensor noise or moving scene elements, along with jitter displacements comparable to those observed in the recent past. The spatial model captures jitter-induced changes that may not have been seen previously. Change is declared in pixels whose current values are inconsistent with both models.

  13. A Better understanding of Interdisciplinary research in Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Dorothy Sutherland; Borlaug, Siri Brorstad; KLITKOU Antje; Lyall, Catherine; Yearley, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This paper is divided into two main parts, the first of which reviews some of the literature on interdisciplinary research collaboration and categorises articles according to their contribution. The second part of the paper reviews the development of the field of climate change and examines the increasing importance of collaboration both between scientific disciplines, between physical and social scientists and with other stakeholders.

  14. Change ΔS of the entropy in natural time under time reversal: Complexity measures upon change of scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Bemplidaki, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The entropy S in natural time as well as the entropy in natural time under time reversal S- have already found useful applications in the physics of complex systems, e.g., in the analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs). Here, we focus on the complexity measures Λl which result upon considering how the statistics of the time series Δ S≤ft[\\equiv S- S-\\right] changes upon varying the scale l. These scale-specific measures are ratios of the standard deviations σ(Δ S_l) and hence independent of the mean value and the standard deviation of the data. They focus on the different dynamics that appear on different scales. For this reason, they can be considered complementary to other standard measures of heart rate variability in ECG, like SDNN, as well as other complexity measures already defined in natural time. An application to the analysis of ECG —when solely using NN intervals— is presented: We show how Λl can be used to separate ECG of healthy individuals from those suffering from congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death.

  15. Extreme Drought-induced Trend Changes in MODIS EVI Time Series in Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme climatic events triggered by global climate change are expected to increase significantly hence research into vegetation response is crucial to evaluate environmental risk. Yunnan province, locating in southwest China, experienced an extreme drought event (from autumn of 2009 to spring of 2010), with the lowest percentage rainfall anomaly and the longest non-rain days in the past 50 years. This study aimed to explore the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of four land cover types in Yunnan province, including forest, grassland, shrub, and cropland during the period 2001-2011. We used remote sensing data, MODIS-derived EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to study the vegetation responses to this extreme drought event. The EVI time series were decomposed into trend, seasonal and remainder components using BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) which accounts for seasonality and enables the detection of trend changes within the time series. The preliminary results showed that: (1) BFAST proved to be capable of detecting drought-induced trend changes in EVI time series. (2) Changes in the trend component over time consisted of both gradual and abrupt changes. (3) Different spatial patterns were found for abrupt and gradual changes. (4) Cropland exhibited an abrupt change, due to its sensitivity to severe drought, while the forest seemed least affected by the extreme drought

  16. Our changing planet: The FY 1994 US Global Change Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach of the US Global Change Research Program recognizes the profound economic and social implications of responding to global envirorunental changes and advances US leadership on this issue. The report outlines a careful blend of ground- and space-based efforts in research, data gathering, and modeling activities, as well as economic research, with both near- and long-term scientific and public policy benefits. In FY 1994, the Program will add an explicit focus on assessment, seeking to improve our understanding of the state of scientific knowledge and the implications of that knowledge for national and international policymaking activities

  17. Our changing planet: The FY 1994 US Global Change Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The approach of the US Global Change Research Program recognizes the profound economic and social implications of responding to global envirorunental changes and advances US leadership on this issue. The report outlines a careful blend of ground- and space-based efforts in research, data gathering, and modeling activities, as well as economic research, with both near- and long-term scientific and public policy benefits. In FY 1994, the Program will add an explicit focus on assessment, seeking to improve our understanding of the state of scientific knowledge and the implications of that knowledge for national and international policymaking activities.

  18. Research in Review: Driving Critical Care Practice Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth; McNeill, Margaret; Munro, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    During the past year, studies were published that will lead to practice change, address challenges at the bedside, and introduce new care strategies. This article summarizes some of this important work and considers it in the context of previous research and practice. Examples of research-based practice changes include the performance and assessment of septic shock resuscitation, and the integration of tourniquets and massive transfusions in civilian trauma. Care challenges addressed include ethical considerations in light of the Ebola epidemic, infection prevention associated with chlorhexidine bathing, bedside alarm management, evidence to enhance moral courage, and interventions to mitigate thirst in critically ill patients. Research that portends future care includes a discussion of fecal microbiota transplant for patients with refractory infection with refractory infection with Clostridium difficile. PMID:26724298

  19. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  20. Statistical methods in longitudinal research principles and structuring change

    CERN Document Server

    von Eye, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    These edited volumes present new statistical methods in a way that bridges the gap between theoretical and applied statistics. The volumes cover general problems and issues and more specific topics concerning the structuring of change, the analysis of time series, and the analysis of categorical longitudinal data. The book targets students of development and change in a variety of fields - psychology, sociology, anthropology, education, medicine, psychiatry, economics, behavioural sciences, developmental psychology, ecology, plant physiology, and biometry - with basic training in statistics an

  1. Real-time oriented image analysis in microcirculatory research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Axel R.; Eriksson, S. E.; Jepsen, H.

    1990-11-01

    A digital video image analysis system is presented which consists of a personal computer equipped with a real-time video digitizer and a graphic tablet controlled by a modular set of programs aimed at performing a number of real-time oriented measuring tasks in microcirculatory research. Such tasks comprize the continuous recording of vessel diameters flow velocities or light intensity profiles from video recordings obtained during intravital microscopy of the terminal vascular bed either in research animals or in human beings. Two outstanding features of the presented systems are (A) the spatial correlation module for velocity measurement and (B) the automatic background movement correction. A: The spatial correlation velocity measurement module combined with an asymmetric illumination or gating process for image generation allows measurement of flow velocities from video microscopic images up to 20 mm/sec. This is about 10 to 20 times faster than the maximum. velocities which can be measured using conventional video based techniques. B: The automatic background movement correction is designed to track translational movements of background image structures in a reference window in real time (with respect to the video system). The translational vector of the image background is then used to adjust the position of the individual measuring lines or windows used in the different application modules to their original position relative to the tissue structures which are investigated. Such an automatic real-time tracking system isvery often a

  2. Changes in the representation of space and time while listening to music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchäfer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Music is known to alter people’s ordinary experience of space and time. Not only does this challenge the concept of invariant space and time tacitly assumed in psychology but it may also help us understand how music works and how music can be understood as an embodied experience. Yet research about these alterations is in its infancy. This review is intended to delineate a future research agenda. We review experimental evidence and subjective reports of the influence of music on the representation of space and time and present prominent approaches to explaining these effects. We discuss the role of absorption and altered states of consciousness and their associated changes in attention and neurophysiological processes, as well as prominent models of human time processing and time experience. After integrating the reviewed research, we conclude that research on the influence of music on the representation of space and time is still quite inconclusive but that integrating the different approaches could lead to a better understanding of the observed effects. We also provide a working model that integrates a large part of the evidence and theories. Several suggestions for further research in both music psychology and cognitive psychology are outlined.

  3. Changes in the representation of space and time while listening to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg; Smukalla, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to alter people's ordinary experience of space and time. Not only does this challenge the concept of invariant space and time tacitly assumed in psychology but it may also help us understand how music works and how music can be understood as an embodied experience. Yet research about these alterations is in its infancy. This review is intended to delineate a future research agenda. We review experimental evidence and subjective reports of the influence of music on the representation of space and time and present prominent approaches to explaining these effects. We discuss the role of absorption and altered states of consciousness and their associated changes in attention and neurophysiological processes, as well as prominent models of human time processing and time experience. After integrating the reviewed research, we conclude that research on the influence of music on the representation of space and time is still quite inconclusive but that integrating the different approaches could lead to a better understanding of the observed effects. We also provide a working model that integrates a large part of the evidence and theories. Several suggestions for further research in both music psychology and cognitive psychology are outlined. PMID:23964254

  4. Anatomy of an organizational change effort at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, James R.; Dali, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    By 1979, after a long decline following the end of the Apollo program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew J. Stofan applied a program of strategic planning, participative management, and consensus decision making. A corporate-cultural change was effected which enabled Lewis to commit itself to four fundable research and development projects. Morale-building and training programs which were essential to this change are described.

  5. Inventory of Research on the Impacts of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats for the global environment today. Global mean temperature has risen by about 0.6C during the 20th century, greater than during any other century in the last 1000 years. Subsequently, climate change is likely to have detrimental effects on all global natural and anthropogenic systems. Climate change will have consequences for the structure and function of ecosystems and all the major global biomes. Also agricultural production and productivity will alter, and physical effects will take place on the environment affecting those that inhabit it. For example, sea level rise and climatic variations will have implications for human health, land use and coastal infrastructure. This report aims to identify the current and proposed research and assessments being undertaken by international organizations as well as the major national research groups regarding climate change and its effects on ecosystems, on agriculture (including fisheries and forestry) and on the economy and human society. The report also identifies possible gaps in this research

  6. Radionuclide time-scales and recent environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North America and European lakes have been used to monitor environmental changes such as land-use activities, acidification and chemical pollution specially heavy metals, halogenated organic substances and radioactive waste. In such studies radioactive dating using various combinations of low-level counting and spectrometry allows reconstruction of high resolution chronologies of recent sediments. Modelling recent environmental changes due to natural processes and man-made activities on regional and global scales and related consequences on the quality of aquatic life could be followed through systematic studies of lakes from different geographic and climatic regions. Isotope dilution alpha spectrometry using PIPS detectors, radon emanation using ionization chambers and sensitive Ge-gamma spectrometers are utilized to measure Pb-210,Ra-226, Cs-137,Cs-134, K-40 as well as other radionuclides. The mentioned nuclides are used to determine accumulation rates in protected lakes and to evaluate erosion from soils in connection with land-use activities. In such studies Pb-210 and Cs-137 fluxes give additional information on atmospheric and non-atmospheric inputs to lakes. The constructed time-scales (0 - 150 Yrs) allowed us to monitor the evolution of anthropogenic pollution and related loads in various regions. 1 tab.; 12 refs. (author)

  7. Recent Cycle Time Reduction at Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been engaged in an effort to reduce wind tunnel test cycle time in support of Agency goals and to satisfy the wind tunnel testing needs of the commercial and military aerospace communities. LaRC has established the Wind Tunnel Enterprise (WTE), with goals of reducing wind tunnel test cycle time by an order of magnitude by 2002, and by two orders of magnitude by 2010. The WTE also plans to meet customer expectations for schedule integrity, as well as data accuracy and quality assurance. The WTE has made progress towards these goals over the last year with a focused effort on technological developments balanced by attention to process improvements. This paper presents a summary of several of the WTE activities over the last year that are related to test cycle time reductions at the Center. Reducing wind tunnel test cycle time, defined here as the time between the freezing of loft lines and delivery of test data, requires that the relationship between high productivity and data quality assurance be considered. The efforts have focused on all of the drivers for test cycle time reduction, including process centered improvements, facility upgrades, technological improvements to enhance facility readiness and productivity, as well as advanced measurement techniques. The application of internet tools and computer modeling of facilities to allow a virtual presence of the customer team is also presented.

  8. Changing Arctic ecosystems--research to understand and project changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselman, Joy; DeGange, Anthony R.; Oakley, Karen; Derksen, Dirk; Whalen, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems and their wildlife communities are not static; they change and evolve over time due to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A period of rapid change is occurring in the Arctic for which our current understanding of potential ecosystem and wildlife responses is limited. Changes to the physical environment include warming temperatures, diminishing sea ice, increasing coastal erosion, deteriorating permafrost, and changing water regimes. These changes influence biological communities and the ways in which human communities interact with them. Through the new initiative Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to (1) understand the potential suite of wildlife population responses to these physical changes to inform key resource management decisions such as those related to the Endangered Species Act, and (2) provide unique insights into how Arctic ecosystems are responding under new stressors. Our studies examine how and why changes in the ice-dominated ecosystems of the Arctic are affecting wildlife and will provide a better foundation for understanding the degree and manner in which wildlife species respond and adapt to rapid environmental change. Changes to Arctic ecosystems will be felt broadly because the Arctic is a production zone for hundreds of species that migrate south for the winter. The CAE initiative includes three major research themes that span Arctic ice-dominated ecosystems and that are structured to identify and understand the linkages between physical processes, ecosystems, and wildlife populations. The USGS is applying knowledge-based modeling structures such as Bayesian Networks to integrate the work.

  9. Climate Change and Impacts Research Experiences for Urban Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, P.; Carlson, B. E.; Rosenzweig, C.; Austin, S. A.; Peteet, D. M.; Druyan, L.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Scalzo, F.; Frost, J.; Moshary, F.; Greenbaum, S.; Cheung, T. K.; Howard, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Johnson, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and impacts research for undergraduate urban students is the focus of the Center for Global Climate Research (CGCR). We describe student research and significant results obtained during the Summer 2011. The NSF REU site, is a collaboration between the City University of New York (CUNY) and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The research teams are mentored by NASA scientists and CUNY faculty. Student projects include: Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin; Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth and Angstrom Exponent Retrieved by AERONET, MISR, and MODIS Measurements; White Roofs to the Rescue: Combating the Urban Heat Island Effect; Tropospheric Ozone Investigations in New York City; Carbon Sequestration with Climate Change in Alaskan Peatlands; Validating Regional Climate Models for Western Sub-Sahara Africa; Bio-Remediation of Toxic Waste Sites: Mineral Characteristics of Cyanide-Treated Mining Waste; Assessment of an Ocean Mixing Parameterization for Climate Studies; Comparative Wind Speed through Doppler Sounding with Pulsed Infrared LIDAR; and Satellite Telemetry and Communications. The CGCR also partners with the New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) at GISS. The center is supported by NSF ATM-0851932 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA).

  10. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  11. Research frontiers in the economics of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Academic and policy debates over climate change risks and policies have stimulated economic research in a variety of fields. In this article eight overlapping areas of current research in which further effort is particularly warranted are briefly discussed. These areas include decision criteria for policy; risk assessment and adaptation; uncertainty and learning; abatement cost and the innovation and diffusion of technology; and the credibility of policies and international agreements. Further analysis in these areas not only will advance academic understanding but also will provide insights of considerable importance to policymakers. 120 refs

  12. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Terry

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition. The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Results Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Conclusion Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results.

  13. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE CYNICISM: A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYEES TOWARDS CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Oytun Boran SEZGİN; Ebru TOLAY; Olca SÜRGEVİL

    2016-01-01

    This study focus on the phenomenon of “organizational change cynicism” that can be defined as “neg- ative or pessimistic perspective towards organizational change” and how to manage this phenomenon. For the study which designed as descriptive and subjective qualitative research, data is collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Emic approach is adopted ro determine the characteristics of organizational change cynicism in Turkish work life context. In this regard, focu...

  14. Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (5–20 Pa). In the spectrometer, the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed

  15. Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yuyushkov@gmail.com; Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K. P. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (5–20 Pa). In the spectrometer, the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed.

  16. Audiotactile interaction can change over time in cochlear implant users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pierre Landry

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent results suggest that audiotactile interactions are disturbed in cochlear implant (CI users. However, further exploration regarding the factors responsible for such abnormal sensory processing is still required. Considering the temporal nature of a previously used multisensory task, it remains unclear whether any aberrant results were caused by the specificity of the interaction studied or rather if it reflects an overall abnormal interaction. Moreover, although duration of experience with a CI has often been linked with the recovery of auditory functions, its impact on multisensory performance remains uncertain. In the present study, we used the parchment-skin illusion, a robust illustration of sound-biased perception of touch based on changes in auditory frequencies, to investigate the specificities of audiotactile interactions in CI users. Whereas individuals with relatively little experience with the CI performed similarly to the control group, experienced CI users showed a significantly greater illusory percept. The overall results suggest that despite being able to ignore auditory distractors in a temporal audiotactile task, CI users develop to become greatly influenced by auditory input in a spectral audiotactile task. When considered with the existing body of research, these results confirm that normal sensory interaction processing can be compromised in CI users.

  17. Application of transition metal isotope tracers in global change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jinming; Thomas F. Pedersen

    2005-01-01

    High-precision isotope composition determinations using multicollector, magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) have recently revealed that some transition metal isotopes such as those of Mo, Fe, Cu, Zn etc. can be used as biogeochemical tracers in global change research.The Mo isotope system may be useful in paleoredox investigations indicating that δ 97/95Mo in seawater may co-vary with changes in the relative proportions of anoxic and oxic sedimentation in the ocean, and that this variation may be recorded in δ 97/95Mo of anoxic sediments. The Mo continental flux into the oceans and the global Mo isotope budget can be estimated fromδ 97/95MO values. The Fe isotope composition in seawater is an important issue because Fe plays a controlling role in biological productivity in the oceans and its abundance in seawater may have substantial effect on climate changes. Iron isotope fractionations could result from bio- and abio-processes and have about 0.1% variation (δ 56/54Fe), so Fe isotopes considered alone cannot be used to distinguish the products of abiotic and biotic Fe processing in geological records. Cu and Zn isotopes are also used as biogeochemical tracers, but the researches are relatively less. This review mainly focuses on the methods for preparation, purification and determination of new isotope tracer samples, and on isotope applications in marine environmental changes.

  18. Acquisition of changed pattern of injuries in two spaces of time by comparision

    OpenAIRE

    Tischer, Anja

    2010-01-01

    To protect the least of outside traffic participants, the pedestrians, were technological innovations done to expand the passive safety of automobiles in last decades. On the basis of available paper a contribution to the question on changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians that were killed in an accident was made. For this urban frontal collisions of two spaces of time between passenger cars and adult, erectly walking or standing pedestrians were compared. The selection of researched space...

  19. Participatory research and participation in research : a look between times and spaces from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Brandão, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    "We acknowledge that participatory research existed in the past, and exists today within different traditions. We acknowledge the gestation of a “Latin American tradition” based on the pioneering experience of Orlando Fals Borda and Paulo Freire. This tradition of participatory research can only be understood in its origins and its currentness, referenced to the social and political contexts of the time when it was instituted in Latin America, between the 1970s and 1980s. It...

  20. #YesYouCanHazPDF: How Social Media and Networking Are Changing the Research Process

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Gabriel; Gardner, Carolyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Social media is being used by libraries and archives in several innovative ways to drive users to unique collections and other content. At the same time, social networking (broadly understood) is changing online research, mainly by people circumventing libraries (on one end of a transaction) in order to obtain copyrighted information via crowd-sourcing. Finally, social media is changing the conception of a "good" or "influential" article - the rise of alternative metrics to citation counting,...

  1. Changing times: DNA resequencing and the "nearly normal autopsy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Steven B

    2007-10-01

    No matter how meticulous the autopsy, non-traumatic deaths in the young go unexplained from 5-10% of the time. The percentage is higher in children and young adults. Advances in molecular biology and DNA technology now make it possible to explain many of those deaths. This development is not without irony. At the same time that many clinicians are expressing frustration about the lack of tangible gains provided by the Human Genome Project [Greenhalgh T. The Human Genome Project. J R Soc Med. Dec 2005;98(12):545], and pathologists are wondering about the viability of their field, DNA technology is about to reshape the field of forensic pathology. Emerging evidence suggests that the underlying cause of death in many is genetic, and that both the heart and liver abnormalities can both play a role. The problem is that death from a wide variety of genetic defects may leave no histological markers. The ability to identify these "invisible diseases" with postmortem genetic testing has become a reality far more quickly than anyone had ever imagined. The US Food and Drug Administration is about to place "black box" warnings on warfarin advising doctors screen potential recipients for the ability to metabolize that drug and the American Heart Association has recently editorialized that because of genetic-induced variations in electrical conduction that all newborns should have a screening electrocardiogram before they leave the hospital. The introduction of large-scale genetic screening will have an enormous effect on the practice of forensic pathology, far beyond anything seen in our lifetimes. It will also change the practice of medicine as we know it. This paper reviews the current status of the problem. PMID:17720589

  2. Assessment of Landscape Changes: Theoretical Starting Points for Study and the Research Reality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Trnka, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2008), s. 2-15. ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : criteria of landscape changes * landscape structures * space-time - dynamics Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  3. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary of Dutch research on global climate change was compiled from a survey of the major research organisations in the Netherlands. The scope and structure of the survey and this report were based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organisation for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP) held (from 14 to 16 April 1993). The WMO request emphasized activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. To extend the usefulness of the exercise, an attempt has been made to broaden the focus to give additional attention to the Intergovernmental Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the Human Dimensions Programme (HDP). This was the first attempt to inventory the research projects on global climate change underway in the Netherlands - both inside and outside the National Research Programme. Other surveys on Dutch climate-related research have been conducted. The most extensive effort was a cataloging of publications from climate research in the Netherlands from 1981 to 1991, which was conducted by the Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). That inventory is being updated to include publications through 1992. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations sponsoring and conducting global climate change research in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and promote coordination among research groups in the Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating Dutch organisations as well as research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1 with a list of projects

  4. E-Infrastructure and Data Management for Global Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Gurney, R. J.; Cesar, R.; Cossu, R.; Gemeinholzer, B.; Koike, T.; Mokrane, M.; Peters, D.; Nativi, S.; Samors, R.; Treloar, A.; Vilotte, J. P.; Visbeck, M.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum, a coalition of science funding agencies from 15 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to assess the state of international of e-infrastructures and data management so that global change data and information can be more easily and efficiently exchanged internationally and across domains. Ultimately, this project aims to address the Belmont "Challenge" to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid and adapt to detrimental environmental change, including extreme hazardous events. This effort emerged from conclusions by the Belmont Forum that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields, and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. The project will deliver a Community Strategy and Implementation Plan to prioritize international funding opportunities and long-term policy recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to funding and supporting global change research. The Plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum funding calls for proposals in support of research science goals as well as to establish long term e-infrastructure. More than 120 scientists, technologists, legal experts, social scientists, and other experts are participating in six Work Packages to develop the Plan by spring, 2015, under the broad rubrics of Architecture/Interoperability and Governance: Data Integration for Multidisciplinary Research; Improved Interface between Computation & Data Infrastructures; Harmonization of Global Data Infrastructure; Data Sharing; Open Data; and Capacity Building. Recommendations could lead to a more coordinated approach to policies, procedures and funding mechanisms to support e-infrastructures in a more sustainable way.

  5. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, Christine M.; Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we p...

  6. Monitoring for global change in Alaska research natural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospect of a significant shift in climatic equilibria and changes in atmospheric composition raises concerns about the potential decline of important natural resources and threats to the survival of the complete range of natural diversity. Three elements are needed in any program with a focus on such concerns: (1) a network of sites containing examples of all or most of the diversity; (2) testable hypotheses of mechanisms by which global change effects will occur in real ecosystems; and (3) a monitoring program robust enough to detect the changes at the sites. With such a program, hypotheses of global change effects can be accepted, rejected, or modified. The Alaska Research Natural Area (RNA) network has been selected to encompass natural diversity. It contains sites and some modest data sets that offer insights into possible effects and outcomes of global warming. Geothermally heated soils at Clear Creek Hot Springs and Big Windy Hot Springs RNAs offer a possible model of forest growth under a warmer climate. On the other hand, a warmer climate may allow greater winter survival of forest insects and increase in forest mortality, similar to that which killed 19% of the trees in a forest reference monitoring plot in 1989 in a mature white spruce stand in the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research site. Even if global warming proves to be modest, the program of selecting and monitoring natural diversity according to global change hypotheses is justified because it will contribute greatly to an improved understanding of functioning and linkages among earth systems and because widespread, human-caused reductions in biological diversity have already occurred and are accelerating

  7. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  8. Overview of a new scenario framework for climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes; the risks these could pose to human and natural systems, particularly how these changes could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce the risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. Developing new scenarios for use in impacts, adaptation, and mitigation research requires more than emissions of greenhouse gases and resulting climate change. Scenarios also require assumptions about socioeconomic development, including a narrative, and qualitative and quantitative assumptions about development patterns. An insight recently gained is that the magnitude and extent of greenhouse gas emissions is relatively independent of demographic and socioeconomic development; that is, multiple demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can lead to any particular emission scenario. A relatively wealthy world with high population density could have low greenhouse gas emissions because of policies that encourage energy efficiency and sufficient low emission technology. The opposite also is plausible. Therefore, demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can be described separately from the Representative Concentration Pathways and then combined using a matrix architecture into a broader range of scenarios than was possible with the SRES. Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) define the state of human and natural societies at a macro scale. To encompass a wide range of possible development pathways, five SSPs are defined along two axes describing worlds with increasing socioeconomic challenges to mitigation (y-axis) and adaptation (x

  9. The timing of change detection and change perception in complex acoustic scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaChait

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how listeners perceive the temporal relationship of a light-flash and a complex acoustic signal. The stimulus mimics ubiquitous events in busy scenes which are manifested as a change in the pattern of on-going fluctuation. Detecting pattern emergence inherently requires integration over time; resulting in such events being detected later than when they occurred. How does delayed detection-time affect the perception of such events relative to other events in the scene? To model these situations, we use rapid sequences of tone-pips with a time-frequency pattern that changes from random to regular (‘REG-RAND’ or vice versa (‘RAND-REG’. REG-RAND transitions are detected rapidly, but RAND-REG take longer to detect (~880ms post nominal-transition. Using a Temporal Order Judgment task, we instructed subjects to indicate whether the flash appeared before or after the acoustic transition. The point of subjective simultaneity between the flash and RAND-REG does not occur at the point of detection (~880ms post nominal-transition but ~470ms closer to the nominal acoustic-transition. In a second experiment we halved the tone-pip duration. The resulting pattern of performance was qualitatively similar to that in Experiment 1, but scaled by half. Our results indicates that the brain possesses mechanisms that survey the proximal history of an on-going stimulus and automatically adjust perception so as to compensate for prolonged detection time, thus producing more accurate representations of scene dynamics. However, this re-adjustment is not complete.

  10. Multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity: Fundamental research and strategic research for exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel

  11. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  12. Hepatitis E Virus: Time to Change the Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Harry R; Webb, Glynn W; Norton, Ben C; Woolson, Kathy L

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hepatitis E virus (HEV) was thought not to occur in developed countries. It is now clear that locally acquired HEV is common in such settings. HEV infection acquired in these areas differs from that in developing countries in a number of important aspects: it is caused by genotype 3 (and 4 in China and Japan), it mainly affects middle-aged/elderly males and it is zoonotic with a porcine primary host. Pig herds worldwide are infected with HEV genotype 3 and HEV has been found in the human food chain in a number of developed countries. However, the route of transmission is not fully understood, since most cases are not obviously associated with pigs/pig products. HEV can be transmitted by blood transfusion and surprisingly high numbers of asymptomatic blood donors are viremic at the time of donation: Germany 1:1,200, Netherlands 1:2,671, England 1:2,848. Our understanding of the clinical phenotype of HEV infection in humans has undergone a sea-change in recent years. Previously, HEV was thought to cause only acute self-limiting hepatitis. However, HEV may cause persistent disease in the immunocompromised. Patients with chronic HEV infection have no symptoms, but some develop rapidly progressive liver cirrhosis. The full clinical spectrum of HEV is still emerging. HEV has important extra-hepatic manifestations, which deserve further investigation. For example, HEV can cause a wide range of neurological illness. In particular, very recent data suggest that Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuralgic amyotrophy are associated with locally acquired HEV in approximately 5 and 10% of the cases, respectively. PMID:27170383

  13. Configuration management issues and objectives for a real-time research flight test support facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergensen, Stephen; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are some of the critical issues and objectives pertaining to configuration management for the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of Ames Research Center. The primary mission of the WATR is to provide a capability for the conduct of aeronautical research flight test through real-time processing and display, tracking, and communications systems. In providing this capability, the WATR must maintain and enforce a configuration management plan which is independent of, but complimentary to, various research flight test project configuration management systems. A primary WATR objective is the continued development of generic research flight test project support capability, wherein the reliability of WATR support provided to all project users is a constant priority. Therefore, the processing of configuration change requests for specific research flight test project requirements must be evaluated within a perspective that maintains this primary objective.

  14. The role of lidars in global change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has solidified a view of the Earth as a global scale interactive system with complex chemical, physical, biological, and dynamical processes that link the ocean, atmosphere, land, and marine terrestrial living organisms. An important aspect of Earth System Science studies in the future is the need to observe simultaneously the physical, chemical, biological, and dynamical processes involved in highly coupled phenomena such as those mentioned. Lidars operating from the surface, aircraft, and satellites provide a powerful observational technique to study the processes and observe trends important to global change. Lidar observations have already played important roles in helping understand processes controlling stratospheric ozone and aerosols, tropospheric clouds, water vapor, ozone, gaseous pollutants, and aerosols, and winds and temperatures throughout the atmosphere. In this paper the author reviews the science of global change and highlights the potential roles for lidar in studying the Earth system

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE CYNICISM: A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYEES TOWARDS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oytun Boran SEZGİN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focus on the phenomenon of “organizational change cynicism” that can be defined as “neg- ative or pessimistic perspective towards organizational change” and how to manage this phenomenon. For the study which designed as descriptive and subjective qualitative research, data is collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Emic approach is adopted ro determine the characteristics of organizational change cynicism in Turkish work life context. In this regard, focus group discussion is performed with eight people from different industries and in-depth interviews are conducted with sev- en people to determine the cynical attitude towards organizational change. As a result of data analysis, basic dimensions of organizational change cynicism is identified as “experiential”, “administrative” and “acquiring”.

  16. Assessing Change in High School Student Information Literacy Using the Tool for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Cindy L.; Yutzey, Susan D.; Piazza, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Change in high school student information literacy (IL) knowledge and skills, from freshman year to senior year in high school was the focus of this quasi-experimental research project. Researchers used a free information literacy skills assessment tool entitled TRAILS (Tool for Real-time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills) to measure…

  17. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Badyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day′s drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.

  18. Collaborative decision process support tools from global change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, D.G. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station; Faber, B.G. [CIESIN/TERRA, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Global change research attempts to develop a predictive understanding of ecosystems, especially their response to a host of anthropogenic stressors. In particular, the forest Service component of this program is concerned with how forest and related ecosystems should be managed in view of this understanding. Collaboration among scientists, managers and resource stakeholders is a key requirement for achieving improved management. This paper discusses a set of tools currently under development, that are capable of assisting people in conducting collaborative decision processes. It reviews recent advances in collaborative GIS techniques, describes an application of collaborative GIS with the Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, and discusses future development efforts.

  19. Women, work, and poverty women centered research for policy change

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Heidi I

    2003-01-01

    Find out how welfare reform has affected women living at the poverty levelWomen, Work, and Poverty presents the latest information on women living at or below the poverty level and the changes that need to be made in public policy to allow them to rise above their economic hardships. Using a wide range of research methods, including in-depth interviews, focus groups, small-scale surveys, and analysis of personnel records, the book explores different aspects of women's poverty since the passage of the 1986 welfare reform bill. Anthropologists, economists, political scientists, socio

  20. Histological assessment of cellular changes in postmortem gingival specimens for estimation of time since death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Achla Bharti; Angadi, Punnya V; Kale, Alka D; Yadav, Sumit Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Estimating the time after death is an important aspect of the role of a forensic expert. After death, the body undergoes substantial changes in its chemical and physical composition which can prove useful in providing an indication of the post-mortem interval. The most accurate estimate of the time of death is best achieved early in the post-mortem interval before the many environmental variables are able to affect the result. Whilst dependence on macroscopic observations was the foundation of the past practice, the application of histological techniques is proving to be an increasingly valuable tool in forensic research. The present study was conducted to evaluate the histologic post-mortem changes that take place in human gingival tissues and to correlate these changes with the time interval after death. Thirty one samples of post-mortem human gingival tissues were obtained from a pool of decedents at varied post-mortem intervals (0-8 hrs, 8-16 hrs, 16-24 hrs). Ante-mortem samples of gingival tissues for comparison were obtained from patients undergoing crown lengthening procedure. Histological changes in the epithelium (cytoplasmic and nuclear) and connective tissue were assessed. The initial epithelial changes observed were homogenization and eosinophilia while cytoplasmic vacuolation and other alterations, including shredding of the epithelium, ballooning, loss of nuclei and suprabasilar split were noticed in late post-mortem interval (16-24 hrs). Nuclear changes such as vacuolation, karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis became increasingly apparent with lengthening post-mortem intervals. Homogenizations of collagen and fibroblast vacuolation were also observed. To conclude; the initiation of decomposition at cellular level appeared within 24 hours of death and other features of decomposition were observed subsequently. Against this background, histological changes in the gingival tissues may be useful in estimating the time of death in the early post

  1. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief descriptions of research projects in the field of global climate change, performed both within and outside the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The descriptions result from a survey of the major research institutions in The Netherlands, conducted by two consultancies (Science and Policy Associates, SPA and Holland Consulting Group, HCG) at the request of the NRP. The inventory had to be completed within a relatively brief period; it is thus unavoidable that one or more projects may sometimes contain inaccuracies. Taken as a whole, this report presents a good picture of the Dutch research activities in this area. The scope and structure of this survey and the contents of this report are based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP), held on 14-16 April 1993. The WMO request emphasised activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations which sponsor and conduct research into global climate change in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and to promote coordination between the research groups in The Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating organisations in The Netherlands, as well as to research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1, a list of projects being provided in Annex 3. The projects are presented according to the themes and subthemes which are used in the NRP

  2. Change in global aerosol composition since preindustrial times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Krol, M.C.; Dentener, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Lathiere, J.; Metzger, S.; Hauglustaine, D.; Kanakidou, M.

    2006-01-01

    To elucidate human induced changes of aerosol load and composition in the atmosphere, a coupled aerosol and gas-phase chemistry transport model of the troposphere and lower stratosphere has been used. The present 3-D modeling study focuses on aerosol chemical composition change since preindustrial t

  3. Arctic climate change with a 2C global warming. Timing, climate patterns and vegetation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signatories to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are charged with stabilizing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous interference with the climate system. A number of nations, organizations and scientists have suggested that global mean temperature should not rise over 2C above preindustrial levels. However, even a relatively moderate target of 2C has serious implications for the Arctic, where temperatures are predicted to increase at least 1.5 to 2 times as fast as global temperatures. High latitude vegetation plays a significant role in the lives of humans and animals, and in the global energy balance and carbon budget. These ecosystems are expected to be among the most strongly impacted by climate change over the next century. To investigate the potential impact of stabilization of global temperature at 2C, we performed a study using data from six Global Climate Models (GCMs) forced by four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, the BIOME4 biogeochemistry-biogeography model, and remote sensing data. GCM data were used to predict the timing and patterns of Arctic climate change under a global mean warming of 2C. A unified circumpolar classification recognizing five types of tundra and six forest biomes was used to develop a map of observed Arctic vegetation. BIOME4 was used to simulate the vegetation distributions over the Arctic at the present and for a range of 2C global warming scenarios. The GCMs simulations indicate that the earth will have warmed by 2C relative to preindustrial temperatures by between 2026 and 2060, by which stage the area-mean annual temperature over the Arctic (60-90N) will have increased by between 3.2 and 6.6C. Forest extent is predicted by BIOME4 to increase in the Arctic on the order of 3 x 106 km2 or 55% with a corresponding 42% reduction in tundra area. Tundra types generally also shift north with the largest reductions in the prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra

  4. 'Frozen' media subsidies during a time of media change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    documents and secondary sources, I show that media subsidies have largely remained frozen in their late-20th century form. The absence of major reform means that media subsidies are increasingly subject to policy drift, a process by which the operations and effectiveness of policies change not because of......Media systems around the world have changed in significant ways in the early 21st century. In this article, I analyse how various forms of media subsidies have changed in response to these transformations in a sample of six different affluent democracies. On the basis of interviews, official...... perceived shortage of desirable, cost-effective, and governable alternatives to existing policies....

  5. Improving environmental change research with systematic techniques for qualitative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios are key tools in analyses of global environmental change. Often they consist of quantitative and qualitative components, where the qualitative aspects are expressed in narrative, or storyline, form. Fundamental challenges in scenario development and use include identifying a small set of compelling storylines that span a broad range of policy-relevant futures, documenting that the assumptions embodied in the storylines are internally consistent, and ensuring that the selected storylines are sufficiently comprehensive, that is, that descriptions of important kinds of future developments are not left out. The dominant approach to scenario design for environmental change research has been criticized for lacking sufficient means of ensuring that storylines are internally consistent. A consequence of this shortcoming could be an artificial constraint on the range of plausible futures considered. We demonstrate the application of a more systematic technique for the development of storylines called the cross-impact balance (CIB) method. We perform a case study on the scenarios published in the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), which are widely used. CIB analysis scores scenarios in terms of internal consistency. It can also construct a very large number of scenarios consisting of combinations of assumptions about individual scenario elements and rank these combinations in terms of internal consistency. Using this method, we find that the four principal storylines employed in the SRES scenarios vary widely in internal consistency. One type of storyline involving highly carbon-intensive development is underrepresented in the SRES scenario set. We conclude that systematic techniques like CIB analysis hold promise for improving scenario development in global change research. (letter)

  6. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  7. The Impact of Changing Snowmelt Timing on Non-Irrigated Crop Yield in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, E. M.; Cobourn, K.; Flores, A. N.; Pierce, J. L.; Kunkel, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    significantly lower in years with early snowmelt timing, on average (P exercise indicates that the trend toward earlier snowmelt date may positively impact non-irrigated crop yield in some regions of Idaho, while negatively impacting yield in other areas. Additional research is necessary to identify spatial controls on the variable relationship between snowmelt timing and yield. Regional variability in the response of crops to changes in snowmelt timing may indicate that external factors (e.g. higher amounts of summer rain in northern vs. southern Idaho) may play an important role in crop yield. This study indicates that targeted regional analysis is necessary to determine the influence of climate change on agriculture, as local variability can cause the same forcing to produce opposite results.

  8. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  9. Land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saldaña, Gerardo; Quaife, Tristan; Clifford, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    MELODIES is an FP7 funded project to develop innovative and sustainable services, based upon Open Data, for users in research, government, industry and the general public in a broad range of societal and environmental benefit areas. Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A land cover product was created for 2003 to 2015 and a bayesian approach was created to identified land cover changes. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the land cover and land cover changes products.

  10. The Use of Communication During Times of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Helstam, Anne Kristine Als; Torbensen, Alexandra Cecilie Gjøl; Ravn, Katrine; Michelsen, Ann-Sofie Lervik; Holm, Marie-Louise Keck

    2016-01-01

    The project aims to look at the internal communication within the case study of Care Centre Skovhuset, which has gone through a change process in implementing a new welfare technology, a sensor floor. Through empirical data, the project has investigated the course of the process by looking at communication strategies and technology, and further, the importance of these. The project aims to examine the implementation process through communication theory, organisation theory and change manageme...

  11. Growing Diversity in Space Weather and Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Ng, C.; Marchese, P.; Austin, S.; Frost, J.; Cheung, T. D.; Robbins, I.; Carlson, B. E.; Steiner, J. C.; Tremberger, G.; Paglione, T.; Damas, C.; Howard, A.; Scalzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather and Global Climate Impacts are critical items on the present national and international science agendas. Understanding and forecasting solar activity is increasingly important for manned space flight, unmanned missions (including communications satellites, satellites that monitor the space and earth environment), and regional power grids. The ability to predict the effects of forcings and feedback mechanisms on global and local climate is critical to survival of the inhabitants of planet Earth. It is therefore important to motivate students to continue their studies via advanced degrees and pursue careers related to these areas. This CUNY-based initiative, supported by NASA and NSF, provided undergraduate research experience for more than 70 students in topics ranging from urban impacts of global climate change to magnetic rope structure, solar flares and CMEs. Other research topics included investigations of the ionosphere using a CubeSat, stratospheric aerosols in Jupiter's atmosphere, and ocean climate modeling. Mentors for the primarily summer research experiences included CUNY faculty, GISS and GSFC scientists. Students were recruited from CUNY colleges as well as other colleges including Spelman, Cornell, Rutgers and SUNY colleges. Fifty-eight percent of the undergraduate students were under-represented minorities and thirty-four percent were female. Many of the research teams included high school teachers and students as well as graduate students. Supporting workshops for students included data analysis and visualization tools, space weather, planetary energy balance and BalloonSats. The project is supported by NASA awards NNX10AE72G and NNX09AL77G, and NSF REU Site award 0851932.

  12. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing

    OpenAIRE

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with ...

  13. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia): the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, wi...

  14. Time Change and Universality in Turbulence and Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Schmiegel, Jürgen; Shephard, Neil

    Empirical time series of turbulent flows and financial markets reveal some common basic stylized features. In particular, the densities of velocity increments and log returns are well fitted within the class of Normal inverse Gaussian distributions and show a similar evolution across time scales ...

  15. High School Students' Understanding of Change over Time and System Complexity: A Focus on the Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Guthrie, C.

    2010-12-01

    Most students have difficulty articulating processes that are key for Earth’s changes and may have limited ability to understand Earth system science and think across spatial and temporal dimensions. The cryosphere, a complex and dynamic Earth system that exhibits change over time (e.g., seasonal, yearly, decadal, and millennial), can be difficult for students to reason about. The presented research assesses the effectiveness of the project developed on-line modules on high school students’ cryosphere content knowledge and skill development, including their: (1) conceptual understanding of ice, thermodynamics, climate, changes in ice cover over time, Earth system interactions, and complexity, and (2) use and interpretation of data and graphs about the cryosphere. Pre- and post- student assessments, classroom observations, and teacher interviews were collected from four high school classrooms in Texas to determine the effectiveness of the Earthlabs cryosphere modules in reaching the specified learning goals. Preliminary analysis of pre-and post-test data revealed a number of interesting changes where students displayed an increase in their awareness of the cryosphere, increase in confidence about cryosphere knowledge, and an increase in their ability to read and interpret graphs. Furthermore, classroom observations made for 25 minutes during a class period illustrated that for over 84% of the class period the students were engaged with the Earthlabs materials and spent the majority (>50%) of their time either discussing (31%) or working on the on-line Earthlabs cryosphere materials (29%). Finally, forty-five minute individual telephone interviews conducted with the four implementing cryosphere teachers revealed that teachers overwhelmingly reflected that the materials supported students’ ability to learn about the (i) nature and importance of the cryosphere, (ii) manipulation, analysis, interpretation of data, (iii) physical changes over multiple time scales

  16. Changes in plant availability of 238Pu with time as indications of changes in speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short description is given of the changes observed in the plant availability of Pu-238 in eight soils during a nine-year experimental period. It was found that during the first 4-year period with clover as test crop the plant uptake of Pu-238 was reduced with availability half-times ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 years. The reduction rate seemed proportional to the initial uptake levels except for lime rich clay soils, where the reduction rate was high regardless of the uptake level. The availability half-time was reduced from 2.0 years in the control to 0.8 years when the nuclide was placed at 10 and 20 cm depth. In 1980, when the test crop clover was replaced by spring wheat the necessary soil management operations caused intense aeration and drying in one block of the replicates. As a consequence, the Pu-uptake in that block became considerably higher than in the others. This event can be interpreted as an indirect evidence for the reversibility of that process in soil, which caused the reduction of the plant availability of Pu-238. (author)

  17. Changes in plant availability of /sup 238/Pu with time as indications of changes in speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short description is given of the changes observed in the plant availability of Pu-238 in eight soils during a nine-year experimental period. It was found that during the first 4-year period with clover as test crop the plant uptake of Pu-238 was reduced with availability half-times ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 years. The reduction rate seemed proportional to the initial uptake levels except for lime rich clay soils, where the reduction rate was high regardless of the uptake level. The availability half-time was reduced from 2.0 years in the control to 0.8 years when the nuclide was placed at 10 and 20 cm depth. In 1980, when the test crop clover was replaced by spring wheat the necessary soil management operations caused intense aeration and drying in one block of the replicates. As a consequence, the Pu-uptake in that block became considerably higher than in the others. This event can be interpreted as an indirect evidence for the reversibility of that process in soil, which caused the reduction of the plant availability of Pu-238

  18. AVHRR, MODIS and Landsat Time Series for the Monitoring of Vegetation Changes Around the World (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Julian, J.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    A confluence of computing power, cost of storage, ease of access to data, and ease of product delivery make it possible to harness the power of multiple remote sensing data streams to monitor land surface dynamics. Change detection has always been a fundamental remote sensing task, and there are myriad ways to perceive differences. From a statistical viewpoint, image time series of the vegetated land surface are complicated data to analyze. The time series are often seasonal and have high temporal autocorrelation. These characteristics result in the failure of the data to meet the assumption of most standard parametric statistical tests. Failure of statistical assumptions is not trivial and the use of inappropriate statistical methods may lead to the detection of spurious trends, while any actual trends and/or step changes might be overlooked. While the analysis of messy data, which can be influenced by discontinuity, missing observation, non-linearity and seasonality, is still developing within the remote sensing community, other scientific research areas routinely encounter similar problems and have developed statistically appropriate ways to deal with them. In this talk we describe the process of change analysis as a sequence of tasks: (1) detection of changes; (2) quantification of changes; (3) assessment of changes; (4) attribution of changes; and (5) projection of the potential consequences of changes. To detect, quantify, and assess the significance of broad scale land surface changes, we will first apply the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test corrected for first-order temporal autocorrelation to MODIS image time series. We will then discuss three case studies, situated in the USA, Russia, and New Zealand in which we combine or fuse satellite data at two spatial resolutions (30m Landsat and 500m MODIS) to assess and attribute changes at fine spatial and temporal scales. In the USA we will investigate changes as a result of urban development, in

  19. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  20. How Do Adolescents' Perceptions of Television Reality Change over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James

    1992-01-01

    Finds that middle and high school students change their views of television watching along three ways of evaluating television: as a "magic window" to reality; as a utility route to information; and as an identity source of almost real people. Concludes that views of television reality are complex and dynamic. (SR)

  1. Montessori Botany Studies: Why It Is Time for a Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Elisabeth; Spears, Priscilla

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need to change the Montessori botany nomenclature cards to reflect the progress of the field over the past 55 years. Maintains that the materials used should reflect the goals of botany study for children. Provides a sample outline of lessons and nomenclature for the flowering plants. Discusses the need to use available reference…

  2. Changing Times in Adult Literacy Provision: Competition or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhela, Baljit

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of Australian national and state policies and reports on adult literacy identified themes and issues: (1) movement from volunteerism to marketization to globalization; (2) fluctuations and reductions in funding; (3) changes in the role of professional associations due to political and educational agendas; and (4) increased ties to…

  3. Geography Teachers and Curriculum Making in "Changing Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the controls and influences over geography teachers' curriculum making. A tension is identified between the teacher's agency to "make" a geography curriculum and a controlling social-economic climate of accountability, performance pressure and technological change which limits the teacher's agency. The paper argues…

  4. Operation Smile "Changing Lives, One Smile at a Time."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Although many young people are concerned about acne and dieting, there are some children who retreat from social contact because of facial deformities that can be changed only through surgery. Operation Smile is an organization dedicated to giving young people suffering from physical disfigurement an opportunity to come out of hiding and become…

  5. Developmental Education Students in Texas Community Colleges: Changes over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, D. Patrick; Slate, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, we analyzed student enrollment data from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board accountability website for all Texas community colleges from 2000 through 2011. The numbers and percentages of community college students who were developmental education students were calculated and analyzed to determine changes over…

  6. History Is Alive: Teaching Young Children about Changes over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Janet; Brophy, Jere

    2003-01-01

    History is alive! That is one of the important messages that teacher Barbara Knighton communicates to her students as she develops engaging stories about changes in farming, government, clothing, or transportation, using timelines as her basis. In this article, the authors describe how Knighton constructs social studies units for her first and…

  7. Organizational Behavior Research in Transition Time of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Kan

    2004-01-01

    The article is to introduce author's research results in recent years in the field of leadership behavior. The main researches conducted in this field include competency model of senior executives in communication industry and family firms; transformational leadership and its relationship with leadership effectiveness, the impact of supervisor's feedback on employees' behavior and the cross-culture study of supervisor's feedback. Theoretical and practical contributions of these researches are explained. Directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Risk informed decision making for the allowed outage times changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods for risk informed evaluation of the allowed outage times. Applications of the methods are also provided for the safety related equipment of the J. Bohunice V2 NPP. (author)

  9. Risk informed decision making for the allowed outage times changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods for risk informed evaluation of the allowed outage times. Applications of the methods are also provided for the safety related equipment of the J.Bohunice V2 NPP. (author)

  10. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  11. New Faculty Experience in Times of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Michelle; Bennett, Deb; McNichol, Jane Stoneman; Merkley, Cari

    2015-01-01

    Many post-secondary institutions in Canada over the past decade have made the transition from college to university status. The researchers on this team were hired in the midst of such a transition at one western Canadian institution. As new faculty we were navigating the normal tides of adjusting to a new faculty position, but our induction…

  12. Efficacy, effectiveness, and behavior change trials in exercise research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courneya Kerry S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread incorporation of behavioral support interventions into exercise trials has sometimes caused confusion concerning the primary purpose of a trial. The purpose of the present paper is to offer some conceptual and methodological distinctions among three types of exercise trials with a view towards improving their design, conduct, reporting, and interpretation. Discussion Exercise trials can be divided into "health outcome trials" or "behavior change trials" based on their primary outcome. Health outcome trials can be further divided into efficacy and effectiveness trials based on their potential for dissemination into practice. Exercise efficacy trials may achieve high levels of exercise adherence by supervising the exercise over a short intervention period ("traditional" exercise efficacy trials or by the adoption of an extensive behavioral support intervention designed to accommodate unsupervised exercise and/or an extended intervention period ("contemporary" exercise efficacy trials. Exercise effectiveness trials may emanate from the desire to test exercise interventions with proven efficacy ("traditional" exercise effectiveness trials or the desire to test behavioral support interventions with proven feasibility ("contemporary" exercise effectiveness trials. Efficacy, effectiveness, and behavior change trials often differ in terms of their primary and secondary outcomes, theoretical models adopted, selection of participants, nature of the exercise and comparison interventions, nature of the behavioral support intervention, sample size calculation, and interpretation of trial results. Summary Exercise researchers are encouraged to clarify the primary purpose of their trial to facilitate its design, conduct, and interpretation.

  13. Hydrochemical changes associated with construction of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has undertaken the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project at Gifu Pref., central Japan. The aims of the project are to establish methodologies for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop engineering techniques for deep-underground applications. The MIU consists of two vertical shafts and a number of horizontal tunnels connecting the two shafts. In this study, hydrochemical properties were monitored continuously to evaluate the hydrochemical changes during the MIU construction. The study demonstrated that groundwater salinity changed in relation to the variation of groundwater-flow conditions as a result of the shaft construction. In particular, “up-coning” of the salinity profile was observed at the bottom of the shafts owing to the upward movement of deeper groundwater. The intensity of up-coning was irregular, and depended on the hydrogeological heterogeneity of the groundwater system. Although pH rose to around 12 due to interaction with the concrete lining the shafts and with the grout injected into the adjacent host rock, it decreased to below 10 in less than 2 years. The redox condition remained reducing, which is considered to be controlled by Fe2+/Fe(OH)3(am) and/or SO42-/FeS2 couples. These findings can be summarized in a conceptual model. (author)

  14. The physics of global climate change: challenges for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m2. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

  15. facing the challenges of climate change and food security : the role of research, extension and communication for development

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwis, C.; Hall, A; Weperen, van, W.; Preissing, J.

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) this study defines climate change as any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. This report is a shortened version of the final study report, produced on request of FAO. The purpose of the shortened report is twofold: (1) to serve as a planning document to sharpen the climate change focus of research, extension and communication for development institutions (including F...

  16. Changes in Physical Activity over Time in Young Children: A Longitudinal Study Using Accelerometers

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M.; Victoria L Farmer; Taylor, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that marked declines in physical activity occur during the preschool years, and across the transition into school. However, longitudinal studies using objective measures of activity have been limited by sample size and length of follow-up. The aims of this study were to determine how overall activity and time in different intensities of activity change in children followed from 3 to 7 years. Children (n = 242) wore Actical accelerometers at 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6.5 an...

  17. Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

    2007-01-01

    If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

  18. Changes in accountability mechanism in times of crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    of strengthening political, administrative and professional accountability mechanisms focused on the aspect of financial conduct. This is done by introducing a budgetary law increasing the surveillance of financial conduct by establishing new hierarchical and diagonal accountability relations. The......As other countries Denmark has been hit by the global financial, economic and fiscal crisis. Denmark has experienced a housing market bubble, several banks have been closed, stock prices have been falling, unemployment has increased, private consumption has weakened and the estimated GDP growth has...... been adjusted downwards. As a result the pressure on the public finances has increased and public sector reforms are launched. This paper analyses how public sector accountability mechanisms are changed as part of crisis responses. The analysis shows that accountability dynamics are changing in favour...

  19. Screening Panels for Monoclonal Gammopathies: Time to Change

    OpenAIRE

    Katzmann, Jerry A.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of quantitative assays for serum free light chains (FLC) has changed the approach to screening for monoclonal gammopathies. Recent guidelines from the International Myeloma Working Group have recommended the use of serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) and FLC as the screening panel unless primary amyloidosis (AL) is suspected. If screening for AL, then urine IFE should also be performed. We discuss the background for these recommendations...

  20. The time has changed: Middle Triassic climate changes revealed by carbon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S.; Worden, R.; Fisher, Q.

    2003-04-01

    The Middle Triassic stratigraphy in Europe can be subdivided into a marine section of the Germanic and Paris Basin and a continental red-bed succession of Western Europe (Irish Basin, Wessex Basin). The link between the marine and continental is uncertain due to a lack of biostratigraphic information but recent palaeomagnetic studies have given a better understanding of the two environments (Hounslow et. al, 2001). In this study we have produced geochemical evidence which emphasize the implications of the palaeomagnetic data. We show that the marine and continental strata can be correlated using carbon isotopes. Throughout Europe the Middle Triassic is characterized by limestone deposits of the Muschelkalk Formation that contain evidence of a hiatus in sedimentation due to sea-level fall in the Middle Muschelkalk with the consequent deposition of evaporites. The Sherwood Sandstone Group (SSG) characterizes the Middle Triassic of Western Europe. The SSG is dominated by fluvial deposits with intercalated floodplain deposits, sand-flats and playas, which are penetrated by dolocretes and calcretes. The abundance of fluvial channels and sandflats are dependent on the fluvial activity and the water table height. In both depositional environments water plays a major role in the type of sediment. The volume of water is controlled by the prevalent climate. Climate signals are stored in carbon isotopes in both the marine Muschelkalk and the continental SSG. Carbon isotopes from the SSG from the Corrib Field, Slyne Basin, west of Ireland and from the Muschelkalk of the Germanic Basin have thus been interpreted in terms of climate change linked to stratigraphy. The continental sediments show a distinct positive carbon isotope excursion (taken from dolocretes), which is interpreted to present a more arid climate. In contrast the marine limestones exhibit a negative carbon isotopes excursion from a sea level low stand for the same time interval. The plot of both carbon isotopes

  1. A method for estimating vegetation change over time and space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIMaihe; NorbertKraeuchi

    2003-01-01

    Plant diversity is used as an indicator of the well-being of vegetation and ecological systems. Human activities and global change drive vegetation change in composition and competition of species through plant invasions and replacement of existing species on a given scale. However, species diversity indices do not consider the effects of invasions on the diversity value and on the functions of ecosystems. On the other hand, the existing methods for diversity index can not be used directly for cross-scale evaluation of vegetation data. Therefore, we proposed a 3-dimensional model derived from the logistic equation for estimating vegetation change, using native and non-native plant diversity. The two variables, based on the current and the theoretical maximum diversity of native plants on a given scale, and the result of the model are relative values without units, and are therefore scale-independent. Hence, this method developed can be used directly for cross-scale evaluations nf vegetation data, and indirectly for estimatinu ecosvstem or environmental chanue.

  2. Development of Matched (migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) Method for Satellite-Tracked Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko, Tomoko; Chen, Wenbo; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Satellite tracking technology has been used to reveal the migration patterns and flyways of migratory birds. In general, bird migration can be classified according to migration status. These statuses include the wintering period, spring migration, breeding period, and autumn migration. To determine the migration status, periods of these statuses should be individually determined, but there is no objective method to define 'a threshold date' for when an individual bird changes its status. The research objective is to develop an effective and objective method to determine threshold dates of migration status based on satellite-tracked data. The developed method was named the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method". In order to demonstrate the method, data acquired from satellite-tracked Tundra Swans were used. MATCHED method is composed by six steps: 1) dataset preparation, 2) time frame creation, 3) automatic identification, 4) visualization of change points, 5) interpretation, and 6) manual correction. Accuracy was tested. In general, MATCHED method was proved powerful to identify the change points between migration status as well as stopovers. Nevertheless, identifying "exact" threshold dates is still challenging. Limitation and application of this method was discussed.

  3. Building Change Detection in Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Image Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Qin, R.; Cerra, D.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing demand for robust methods on urban sprawl monitoring. The steadily increasing number of high resolution and multi-view sensors allows producing datasets with high temporal and spatial resolution; however, less effort has been dedicated to employ very high resolution (VHR) satellite image time series (SITS) to monitor the changes in buildings with higher accuracy. In addition, these VHR data are often acquired from different sensors. The objective of this research is to propose a robust time-series data analysis method for VHR stereo imagery. Firstly, the spatial-temporal information of the stereo imagery and the Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generated from them are combined, and building probability maps (BPM) are calculated for all acquisition dates. In the second step, an object-based change analysis is performed based on the derivative features of the BPM sets. The change consistence between object-level and pixel-level are checked to remove any outlier pixels. Results are assessed on six pairs of VHR satellite images acquired within a time span of 7 years. The evaluation results have proved the efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. TIME TO CHANGE: the foreseeable future for water planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segrave, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The decisions people make, and the actions they take, depend on how they conceptualize and experience time. This fundamental and influential factor is seldom acknowledged, little understood, and rarely considered explicitly in planning; be that for the material systems or the knowledge systems in th

  5. 12 CFR 908.28 - Change of time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part. After the referral of the case to the Board of Directors pursuant to § 908.63, the Board of Directors may grant extensions of the time limits for good cause shown. Extensions may be granted on the... Board of Directors' or the presiding officer's own motion....

  6. Changes in Pitch with a Cochlear Implant Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Lina A.J.; Turner, Christopher W.; Erenberg, Sheryl R.; Gantz, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    In the normal auditory system, the perceived pitch of a tone is closely linked to the cochlear place of vibration. It has generally been assumed that high-rate electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant electrode also evokes a pitch sensation corresponding to the electrode’s cochlear place (“place” code) and stimulation rate (“temporal” code). However, other factors may affect electric pitch sensation, such as a substantial loss of nearby nerve fibers or even higher-level perceptual changes...

  7. Change and Chisungu in Zambia's Time of AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Through an examination of amafunde – a Bemba word meaning ‘instruction’, which refers to the training given to a young woman before her marriage – this article explores the social changes that have followed widespread HIV infection on the Zambian Copperbelt. Amafunde today are marked by openness between senior women and those they train for marriage, an openness that they encourage their charges to adopt in married life. This emphasis on direct or ‘straight’ speech stands in stark contrast to...

  8. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  9. Hospitalisation patterns change over time in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup Qvist, Janne; Høgh Sørensen, Pernille; Dixen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac epidemic. In this study, we aimed to describe the causes of hospital-isation in an AF population over time and to study how different AF treatment strategies affected hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an observational study in which...... hospitalisations were evaluated. RESULTS: The causes of hospitalisation shifted over time. We observed a lower proportion of admissions due to AF in OP2 (63%) than in OP1 (87%) and a higher proportion of admissions due to congestive heart failure (16% versus 3%) and of days of inpatient care due to ischaemic...... causes of hospitalisation in an AF population shifted from AF relapse to the most frequent complications of AF, ischaemic stroke and congestive heart failure. In this observational study, patients treated with rhythm control were more frequently hospitalised than patients treated with rate control...

  10. Has the management of shoulder dislocation changed over time?

    OpenAIRE

    Chalidis, Byron; Sachinis, Nick; Dimitriou, Christos; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Samoladas, Efthimios; Pournaras, John

    2006-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocation is a disabling injury affecting all ages, young and old alike. Recently, the treatment of traumatic shoulder dislocation has included immobilisation for varying periods of time followed by physiotherapy. This study is the first in this country to address the demographic data and recurrence rates of shoulder dislocation. Three hundred and eight patients (170 men and 138 women) were followed up for an average of 5.9 years. The most frequent mechanism of injury was ...

  11. Change of Measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cosmological distances is approached using a method based on the propagation of light in an expanding Universe. From the chan ge of measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances, a formula is deri ved to compute distances as a function of redshift. This formula is identical to Matti g’s formula (with q 0 = 1 / 2 which is based on Friedmann’s equations of general relativi ty.

  12. Correlation structure of time-changed Pearson diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    Mijena, Jebessa B.; Nane, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic solution to diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients is called a Pearson diffusion. If the time derivative is replaced by a distributed fractional derivative, the stochastic solution is called a fractional Pearson diffusion. This paper develops a formula for the covariance function of a fractional Pearson diffusion in steady state, in terms of generalized Mittag-Leffler functions. That formula shows that fractional Pearson diffusions are long-range dependent, with a cor...

  13. Real-time imaging of action potentials in nerves using changes in birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Ali H; Jordan, Tomas; Bigio, Irving J

    2016-05-01

    Polarized light can be used to measure the electrical activity associated with action potential propagation in nerves, as manifested in simultaneous dynamic changes in their intrinsic optical birefringence. These signals may serve as a tool for minimally invasive neuroimaging in various types of neuroscience research, including the study of neuronal activation patterns with high spatiotemporal resolution. A fast linear photodiode array was used to image propagating action potentials in an excised portion of the lobster walking leg nerve. We show that the crossed-polarized signal (XPS) can be reliably imaged over a ≥2 cm span in our custom nerve chamber, by averaging multiple-stimulation signals, and also in single-scan real-time "movies". This demonstration paves the way toward utilizing changes in the optical birefringence to image more complex neuronal activity in nerve fibers and other organized neuronal tissue. PMID:27231635

  14. A robust anomaly based change detection method for time-series remote sensing images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-series remote sensing images record changes happening on the earth surface, which include not only abnormal changes like human activities and emergencies (e.g. fire, drought, insect pest etc.), but also changes caused by vegetation phenology and climate changes. Yet, challenges occur in analyzing global environment changes and even the internal forces. This paper proposes a robust Anomaly Based Change Detection method (ABCD) for time-series images analysis by detecting abnormal points in data sets, which do not need to follow a normal distribution. With ABCD we can detect when and where changes occur, which is the prerequisite condition of global change studies. ABCD was tested initially with 10-day SPOT VGT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) times series tracking land cover type changes, seasonality and noise, then validated to real data in a large area in Jiangxi, south of China. Initial results show that ABCD can precisely detect spatial and temporal changes from long time series images rapidly

  15. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  16. Biofuels, times are changing. Notification effect or real progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This well-documented book analyses the implications relative to the recent decisions taken for the development of biofuels. The history of alcohol-based biofuels, in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, shows why the present day 'opportunity window' makes these fuels more 'sustainable' today than in the past: the common agricultural policy, the oil crisis, the global warming and its expected impacts have led governments to develop biofuels. The authors stress on the fragile equilibrium between agriculture and energy markets and on the fact that the viability/sustainability of biofuels-related decisions will depend on the economic scales (from micro- to macro-economy) and on the agronomic environmental scales (from the rural area to the global environment). Many researches remain to be carried out on biofuels, in particular with respect to their potential toxicity and to their conformability with recent regulations. (J.S.)

  17. Dental Informatics in India: Time to Embrace the Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Salma H.; Deolia, Shravani Govind; Chhabra, Chaya; Singh, Jagjeet; Marwaha, Baldeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Dental informatics is comparatively a juvenile and new field that has noteworthy potential for supporting clinical care, research, education and management. This field utilizes computer science, information sciences and the application of same to espouse dentistry. However, in the under-developed and developing countries almost most of the dentists are unacquainted about dental informatics, its goals, what it is capable of achieving and by what means they can get involved into it. Despite of emerging advances, certain conflicts also go along with it such as, professional under representation, security issues of the stored information due to universal access to computers high speed internet connections. Endnote software was used as resource material to collect literature which was carefully arranged in a synchronized way. Hence, the purpose of this review was to give an overall scenario of dental informatics, its applications, challenges and recommendations for further enhancement in this area. PMID:27135022

  18. Dental Informatics in India: Time to Embrace the Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Mulla, Salma H; Deolia, Shravani Govind; Chhabra, Chaya; Singh, Jagjeet; Marwaha, Baldeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    Dental informatics is comparatively a juvenile and new field that has noteworthy potential for supporting clinical care, research, education and management. This field utilizes computer science, information sciences and the application of same to espouse dentistry. However, in the under-developed and developing countries almost most of the dentists are unacquainted about dental informatics, its goals, what it is capable of achieving and by what means they can get involved into it. Despite of emerging advances, certain conflicts also go along with it such as, professional under representation, security issues of the stored information due to universal access to computers high speed internet connections. Endnote software was used as resource material to collect literature which was carefully arranged in a synchronized way. Hence, the purpose of this review was to give an overall scenario of dental informatics, its applications, challenges and recommendations for further enhancement in this area. PMID:27135022

  19. Prayer Beliefs and Change in Life Satisfaction over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have focused on the relationship between prayer, health, and well-being. But the influence of some types of prayer (e.g., petitionary prayer) has received more attention than others. The purpose of this study is to examine an overlooked aspect of prayer: trust-based prayer beliefs. People with this orientation believe that God knows that best way to answer a prayer and He selects the best time to provide an answer. Three main findings emerge from data that wer...

  20. Life events and change in leisure time physical activity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Elina; Alen, Markku; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Peltonen, Juha E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Pekkarinen, Heikki

    2012-05-01

    The global epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases is closely related to changes in lifestyle, including decreasing leisure time physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major public health challenge. To respond to that challenge, it is essential to know which personal and environmental factors affect PA behaviour. Certain life events may be one contributing factor, by creating emotional distress and disrupting a person's daily routine. The aim was to examine the literature concerning the effects of life events on changes in PA. A systematic literature search was performed on studies that assessed at least one major change in life circumstances and a change in PA. To be included, studies had to assess PA at two timepoints at least (before and after the event). Diseases as life events were excluded from this review. Thirty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies examined the following life-change events: transition to university; change in employment status; marital transitions and changes in relationships; pregnancy/having a child; experiencing harassment at work, violence or disaster; and moving into an institution. The studies reviewed showed statistically significant changes in leisure PA associated with certain life events. In men and women, transition to university, having a child, remarriage and mass urban disaster decreased PA levels, while retirement increased PA. In young women, beginning work, changing work conditions, changing from being single to cohabiting, getting married, pregnancy, divorce/separation and reduced income decreased PA. In contrast, starting a new personal relationship, returning to study and harassment at work increased PA. In middle-aged women, changing work conditions, reduced income, personal achievement and death of a spouse/partner increased PA, while experiencing violence and a family member being arrested or jailed decreased PA. In older women, moving into an institution and interpersonal loss

  1. Progress in Research on Climatic Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xuedu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Global climatic change caused by human factors has become a major issue of increasing international concern. Climatic change may lead to irreversible change to the climatic system on the global scale, and thus result in immeasurable change to the living environment of mankind.

  2. Time changes of vertical profile of neutron fluence rate in LVR-15 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LVR-15 reactor is a light water research type reactor, which is situated, in Nuclear Research Institute, Rez near Prague. The reactor is used as a multipurpose facility. For some experiments and material productions, e.g. for homogeneity of silicon resistance in production of radiation doped silicon, the time changes of vertical profile of neutron fluence rate are particularly important. The assembly used for silicon irradiation has two self-powered neutron detectors installed in a vertical irradiation channel in LVR-15 reactor. Vertical profile of thermal neutron fluence rate was automatically scanned during reactor operation. The results of measurements made in 2002 and 2003 with these detectors are presented. A set of vertical profile measurements was made during two 21-days reactor cycles. During the cycle the vertical profile slightly changes both in the position of its maximum and in the shape. The time dependences of the position of profile maximum and the profile width at half maximum during the cycle are given. (author)

  3. Low perinatal autopsy rate in Malaysia: time for a change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Geok Chin; Hayati, Abdul Rahman; Khong, Teck Yee

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine the perinatal autopsy rate in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and to quantify the value of the perinatal autopsy. All stillbirths, miscarriages, therapeutic abortions, and neonatal deaths between January 1, 2004, and August 31, 2009, were identified from the archives. The autopsy findings were compared with the clinical diagnoses. The autopsy reports were also reviewed to determine if it would be possible to improve the quality of the autopsies. There were 807 perinatal deaths, of which 36 (4.5%) included an autopsy. There were ethnic differences in the rate of autopsy, with the lowest rate among the Malays. The autopsy provided the diagnosis, changed the clinical diagnosis, or revealed additional findings in 58.3% of cases. Ancillary testing, such as microbiology, chromosomal analysis, and biochemistry, could improve the quality of the autopsy. This study provides further data on the perinatal autopsy rate from an emerging and developing country. It reaffirms the value of the perinatal autopsy. Attempts must be made to improve on the low autopsy rate while recognizing that the performance of autopsies can be enhanced through the use of ancillary testing. PMID:20367214

  4. Time course of haemodynamic changes after maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isea, J E; Piepoli, M; Adamopoulos, S; Pannarale, G; Sleight, P; Coats, A J

    1994-12-01

    The haemodynamic changes during 4 h following maximal upright bicycle exercise were evaluated in six normals in a randomized controlled crossover design. Total peripheral resistance was reduced to 2 h (-6.7 mmHg min l-1, P < 0.05); exercising and non-exercising vascular beds were vasodilated for 2 h (-24.1 and -23.8 mmHg min ml-1 100 ml-1 tissue, respectively, P < 0.05), associated with reductions in systolic (-5.8 mmHg, P < 0.05) and diastolic pressure (-8.3 mmHg, P < 0.05). Rise in cardiac index for 1 h (+0.51 min-1 m-2, P < 0.05) was accounted for by an elevated heart rate (+14.4 beats min-1, P < 0.01) as stroke volume was unchanged. Body temperature was elevated until 40 min (+0.20 degrees C, P < 0.05). The return of all haemodynamic variables to control by 3 h suggests a 3 h limit for a hypotensive effect of exercise. Rise in body temperature is not the only factor responsible for the hypotension. PMID:7705377

  5. Research for time-temperature equivalence effect of rock(Ⅱ):Experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yuan-guang; LIU Quan-sheng

    2011-01-01

    With the creep test data of granite taken from Three Gorges,the existence of time-temperature equivalence effect(TTEE) of granite is investigated.Based on the creep test data at different temperatures,which are 20℃,60℃,80℃,100℃,200℃,300℃,four-component viscoelastic Burgers model iS presented to characterize the creep curves.The parameters of elasticity modulus and viscosity coefficient in the constitutive model at different temperatures and their functional dependences on temperature are obtained.Then,according to the basic theory of TTEE presented in research(Ⅰ),the TTEE of granite is investigated through modifying the compliance curves with vertical shift function and checking the coincidence of the modified curves with horizontal shift functions.It is concluded that:①Burgers model could appropriately characterize the creep property of granite in a short time scale.②Both elastic modulus and viscosity coefficient in the Burgers model decay exponentially with temperature.③The coincidence of the curves at different temperatures after vertical shift modification and horizontal shift is fine,which indicates the existence of TTEE of granite.④The master curves which reflect the long time scale test data at temperatures 20℃,100℃,200℃ are obtained.

  6. Research of Manufacture Time Management System Based on PLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ni; Juan, Zhu; Liangwei, Zhong

    This system is targeted by enterprises manufacturing machine shop, analyzes their business needs and builds the plant management information system of Manufacture time and Manufacture time information management. for manufacturing process Combined with WEB technology, based on EXCEL VBA development of methods, constructs a hybrid model based on PLM workshop Manufacture time management information system framework, discusses the functionality of the system architecture, database structure.

  7. A field guide to real-time culture change: just "rolling out" a training program won't cut it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, Mitchell; Holloway, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Presented as a representative case of how to handle the disruptive behaviors of professionals in healthcare, this article describes the strategies of a systems approach with a five-phase model for culture change. The "large-scale, real-time" culture change process, based on our own evidence-based research on toxic behaviors and the research of others, has been demonstrated to be more effective than one-on-one feedback to change these behaviors. The real-time approach has been applied to other organizational situations--strategy formulation, change management, or service improvement--with more sustainable effects than simply training alone. This article will help your organization with four outcomes: understanding the rationale for a five-phase model for cultural change, describing the advantages of a real-time versus nonreal-time approach to change, identifying the how-to's for application within a systems approach, and articulating a clear evaluation process to sustain successful organizational culture change. PMID:24873126

  8. Acinetobacter peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: a changing landscape over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ter Chao

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter species are assuming an increasingly important role in modern medicine, with their persistent presence in health-care settings and antibiotic resistance. However, clinical reports addressing this issue in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD peritonitis are rare.All PD peritonitis episodes caused by Acinetobacter that occurred between 1985 and 2012 at a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes were analysed, with stratifications based upon temporal periods (before and after 2000.Acinetobacter species were responsible for 26 PD peritonitis episodes (3.5% of all episodes in 25 patients. A. baumannii was the most common pathogen (54%, followed by A. iwoffii (35%, with the former being predominant after 2000. Significantly more episodes resulted from breaks in exchange sterility after 2000, while those from exit site infections decreased (P = 0.01. The interval between the last and current peritonitis episodes lengthened significantly after 2000 (5 vs. 13.6 months; P = 0.05. All the isolates were susceptible to cefepime, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides, with a low ceftazidime resistance rate (16%. Nearly half of the patients (46% required hospitalisation for their Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis, and 27% required an antibiotic switch. The overall outcome was fair, with no mortality and a 12% technique failure rate, without obvious interval differences.The temporal change in the microbiology and origin of Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis in our cohort suggested an important evolutional trend. Appropriate measures, including technique re-education and sterility maintenance, should be taken to decrease the Acinetobacter peritonitis incidence in PD patients.

  9. Climate change risk : evaluating potential impacts in uncertain times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels from 2008 to 2012. This represents an absolute reduction requirement of 240 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year from 2008 to 2012. Industry is faced with the challenge of deciding whether or not to invest in emissions reduction practices and technologies right away, or wait until there is more policy certainty. The preferred approach by industry would be to have harmonized environmental policies across both federal and provincial jurisdictions in the next few years, but that is unlikely to occur. Alberta, Ontario and some individual states in the U.S. have already taken regulatory action to limit greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The federal plan includes energy efficiency measures for transportation and buildings. The plan also includes emission reduction targets for large emitters under the domestic emissions trading system, investment for innovations, and regulation of fugitive emissions. There will also be consultations on whether landfill gas emissions will be regulated or integrated into an offset program. This paper also outlined some of the key features of: Alberta Bill 32 and Alberta's Climate Change Action Plan; Alberta and Ontario mandatory provincial reporting of greenhouse gas emissions; Alberta Energy and Utilities Board decisions for new electric generation and oil sands facilities; Alberta's covenanting process; the U.S. federal and state action plans; multi pollutant policies; Canada's new source emission guidelines for thermal electricity generation; and, Ontario, federal and state legislation for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Wendy R; Shipp, Abbie J; Payne, Stephanie C; Culbertson, Satoris S

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors contribute insight into the temporal nature of work attitudes, examining how job satisfaction changes across the 1st year of employment for a sample of organizational newcomers. The authors examined factors related to job change (i.e., voluntary turnover, prior job satisfaction) and newcomer experiences (i.e., fulfillment of commitments, extent of socialization) that may strengthen or weaken the job satisfaction pattern. Results of a study of 132 newcomers with data collected at 4 unique time periods show a complex curvilinear pattern of job satisfaction, such that satisfaction reached a peak following organizational entry and decreased thereafter. However, examination of moderating factors revealed that individuals who reported less satisfaction with their prior job and those having more positive experiences on the new job, such as greater fulfilled commitments and a higher degree of socialization, were most likely to experience this pattern. Findings from this study offer important implications for theory and research on changes in newcomer attitudes over time as well as practical insight on key factors that shape the pattern of job attitudes as individuals enter and experience a new workplace. PMID:19594229

  11. 47 CFR 51.331 - Notice of network changes: Timing of notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of network changes: Timing of notice. 51... Notice of network changes: Timing of notice. (a) An incumbent LEC shall give public notice of planned... procure from another entity, any product the design of which affects or relies on a new or changed...

  12. Real-time high resolution laser speckle imaging of cerebral vascular changes in a rodent photothrombosis model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Hongyang LU; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-01-01

    The study of hemodynamic and vascular changes following ischemic stroke is of great importance in the understanding of physiological and pathological processes during the thrombus formation. The photothrombosis model is preferred by researchers in stroke study for its minimal invasiveness, controllable infarct volume and lesion location. Nevertheless, there is a lack in high spatiotemporal resolution techniques for real time monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in 2D-profile. In th...

  13. The effects of working time in the organization and job change frequency of employees on the organizational commitment levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Derya

    2012-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of working time in the organization and the job change frequency on organizational commitment levels of employees working in hotel establishments. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees working in 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. In order to point out employees' organizational commitment, “Organizational Commitment Scale” has been used as a means of data collection. Employees' organizational commitment has been ...

  14. Electricity transmission arrangements in Great Britain: Time for change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Great Britain (GB) and across Europe significant investment in electricity transmission is expected over the coming years as decarbonisation and market integration efforts are intensified. However, there is also significant uncertainty with the amount, location and timing of new generation connection, which in turn will drive the transmission investment needs. Given the absence of efficient market design, we identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission investment arrangements: (i) a mis-aligned incentives framework for transmission investment and operation; (ii) lack of coordination of investment and operation; and (iii) conflicts of interest. We then propose three options for future evolution of transmission regimes, which cover the full spectrum of institutional arrangements with respect to transmission planning and delivery, i.e. how and who plans, owns, builds and operates the transmission system. For each option we present: key characteristics; evolution of the current regimes; the ability of the option to address the concerns; and key strengths and weaknesses. Overall, we conclude in the case of GB (this conclusion could be extended to other European countries) that the most appropriate option would be that of an Independent System Operator (ISO) who would be responsible for planning and operating the transmission system. - Highlights: • We identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission arrangements. • We then propose three options for transmission network planning and delivery. • Key strengths and weaknesses of each above option are identified and studied. • We conclude that the most appropriate option for GB would be that of an ISO

  15. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Serono Symposia International convened an expert panel to review the impact of environmental influences on the regulation of pubertal onset and progression while identifying critical data gaps and future research priorities. An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine-disrupting chemicals...... initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development, and......-onset disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  16. 77 FR 1708 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Technology To Provide Wireless Precise Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Technology To Provide Wireless Precise... one alternative to Global Positioning Systems (GPS) as a means of providing precise time....

  17. Modeling Floods under Climate Change Condition in Otava River, Czech Republic: A Time Scale Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhelka, J.; Krejci, J.; Vlasak, T.

    2009-04-01

    While modeling of climate change (CC) impact on low flow and water balance is commonly done using daily time series of Global Circulation models (GCM) outputs, assessing CC impact on rare events as floods demands for special methodology. Paper demonstrates methodology, results and its sensitivity to the length of simulation in meso-scale basin. Multiple regional projection of temperature and precipitation under A2, A1B a B1 scenarios for 2040-2069 were evaluated in study of Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Charles University (Pretel et al. 2008) for the Czech Republic. Daily time series of length of 30 years and 100 years (precipitation, Tmax, Tmin) were generated using LARS-WG (Semenov, 2008) based on expected monthly change of temperature and precipitation amount and variability for upper Otava river basin in mountainous region in SW Bohemia. Daily precipitation data were distributed into 6h time step using three step random generator. Spatial distribution of precipitation was based on random sampling of relevant historical analogues while temperature was distributed using simple vertical gradient rule. Derived time series of A2, A1B, B1 and recent climate (RC) scenarios inputted calibrated hydrological modeling system AquaLog (using SAC-SMA for rainfall-runoff modeling). Correction of SAC-SMA parameter defining potential evapotranspiration for changed climate was applied. Evaluation was made for Susice profile (534.5 km2), representing the mountainous part of the basin, and downstream Katovice profile (1133.4 km2). Results proved expected decrease of annual flow by 5-10 % (10-15 % in summer, 0-5 % in winter) for all modeled CC scenarios (for period 2040-2069) compared to recent climate. Design flows were computed based on yearly peaks using standard methodology. Decrease in design flow curves was observed for Katovice while no change (A1B, B1) or increase (A2) was found for Susice in 100 years time series. Estimates of 100y floods based on 30 or 100 years

  18. Methods for assessment of climate variability and climate changes in different time-space scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main problem of hydrology and design support for water projects connects with modern climate change and its impact on hydrological characteristics as observed as well as designed. There are three main stages of this problem: - how to extract a climate variability and climate change from complex hydrological records; - how to assess the contribution of climate change and its significance for the point and area; - how to use the detected climate change for computation of design hydrological characteristics. Design hydrological characteristic is the main generalized information, which is used for water management and design support. First step of a research is a choice of hydrological characteristic, which can be as a traditional one (annual runoff for assessment of water resources, maxima, minima runoff, etc) as well as a new one, which characterizes an intra-annual function or intra-annual runoff distribution. For this aim a linear model has been developed which has two coefficients connected with an amplitude and level (initial conditions) of seasonal function and one parameter, which characterizes an intensity of synoptic and macro-synoptic fluctuations inside a year. Effective statistical methods have been developed for a separation of climate variability and climate change and extraction of homogeneous components of three time scales from observed long-term time series: intra annual, decadal and centural. The first two are connected with climate variability and the last (centural) with climate change. Efficiency of new methods of decomposition and smoothing has been estimated by stochastic modeling and well as on the synthetic examples. For an assessment of contribution and statistical significance of modern climate change components statistical criteria and methods have been used. Next step has been connected with a generalization of the results of detected climate changes over the area and spatial modeling. For determination of homogeneous region with the same

  19. Quantifying loss and damage from anthropogenic climate change - Bridging the gap between two research communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F. E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The science of attribution of meteorological events to anthropogenic causes has for the first time been included in the latest assessment of the Physical Science Basis of the Climate, (WGI), of the Fifth IPCC Assessment Report AR5 (Stocker et al., 2013). At the same time there is a very rapidly growing body of literature on climate change and its impact on economy, society and environment but apart from very few exemptions no link is made to the causes of these changes. Observed changes in hydrological variables, agriculture, biodiversity and the built environment have been attributed to a changing climate, whether these changes are the result of natural variability or external forcings (Cramer et al., 2014). While the research community represented in WGI assesses whether, and to what extent, recent extreme weather events can be attributed to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, the research community of impact specialists asks how climatic changes lead to different impacts largely independent of the causes of such changes. This distinction becomes potentially very relevant with respect to the 2013 established the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) to address loss and damage from the impacts of climate change in developing countries under the UNFCCC climate change negotiations. Currently there is no discussion what consists of loss and damage and the reasons for this inexistence of a definition are not primarily scientific but political however, the absence of a definition could potentially lead to absurd consequences if funds in the context of loss and damage would be redistributed, as e.g. suggested, for all low risk high impact events. Here we present the implications of discussed definitions of loss and damage (Huggel et al. 2015) and how scientific evidence could be included. Cramer et al. (2014) Detection and Attribution of Observed Impacts. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Contribution of WG 2 to AR5 of

  20. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. PMID:25936272

  1. New content in digital repositories the changing research landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Research institutions are under pressure to make their outputs more accessible in order to meet funding requirements and policy guidelines. Libraries have traditionally played an important role by exposing research output through a predominantly institution-based digital repository, with an emphasis on storing published works. New publishing paradigms are emerging that include research data, huge volumes of which are being generated globally. Repositories are the natural home for managing, storing and describing institutional research content. New Content in Digital Repositories explores the diversity of content types being stored in digital repositories with a focus on research data, creative works, and the interesting challenges they pose.

  2. Temporal Change in Fur Color in Museum Specimens of Mammals: Reddish-Brown Species Get Redder with Storage Time

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.; Natalie Woodall; Jake P. Moskowitz; Nikole Castleberry; Freeman, Byron J.

    2013-01-01

    Museum collections have great value for zoological research, but despite careful preservation, over time specimens can show subtle changes in color. We examined the effect of storage time on fur color of two reddish-brown species, golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) and eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus). Using image analysis, we obtained color data (hue, saturation, and density) on 91 golden mice and 49 chipmunks from Georgia, USA. Analyses that considered body size, gender, and collection yea...

  3. Time allocation to energy resource collection in rural Ethiopia: Gender-disaggregated household responses to changes in firewood availability:

    OpenAIRE

    Scheurlen, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on rural Ethiopian households’ time allocation to different activities, especially fuel collection work, and examines the effect of changes in the availability of firewood resources on households’ time allocation to fuel collection and on- and off-farm income generation. Based on firsthand insights from focus group discussions conducted with farmers in three rural villages of Ethiopia and data from an IFPRI-CIMMYT (International Food Policy Research Institute/Inte...

  4. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment…

  5. Making decisions in an ever-changing environment - A research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Pataki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Simon recognized the limitations of the classical normative decision theory and established descriptive theory. His concept of bounded rationality and administrative behavior was a big step ahead, but the world has changed dramatically since then. Multiple, continuous changes have become normal, which brings up new problems on the decision maker’s and on the organization’s level as well. It became usual that the decision maker is not able to define preferences for lack of knowledge and have to learn or delegate much more frequently than before. In the same time the organization should be more resilient or nimble in this ever-changing environment. The authors outline a research agenda on both levels: some about the continuous learning and frequent delegating, and some about the HRM and IT-management issues of organizational nimbleness.

  6. Inventory of Research on the Impacts of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar, H. (eds.); O. Linden; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats for the global environment today. Global mean temperature has risen by about 0.6 degrees C during the 20th century, greater than during any other century in the last 1000 years. Subsequently, climate change is likely to have detrimental effects on all global natural and anthropogenic systems. Climate change will have consequences for the structure and function of ecosystems and all the major global biomes. Also agricultural production and producti...

  7. Supporting Quality Timely PhD Completions: Delivering Research Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The case study used a three-phase organising process to explain how design and implementation of an accessible and interactive electronic thesis submission form streamlined quality assurance of theses and their timely dissemination via an online thesis repository. The quality of the theses submitted is assured by key academics in their final sign…

  8. Critical Media Literacy: Research, Theory, and Practice in "New Times."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvermann, Donna E.; Hagood, Margaret C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature on critical media literacy, producing a framework for exploring its implications for educators teaching literacy skills in "New Times." The article examines work on critical theory, popular culture, and mass media in various fields, arguing that the present discourse of schooling is unable to support the incorporation of…

  9. SCALABLE TIME SERIES CHANGE DETECTION FOR BIOMASS MONITORING USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCALABLE TIME SERIES CHANGE DETECTION FOR BIOMASS MONITORING USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS VARUN CHANDOLA AND RANGA RAJU VATSAVAI Abstract. Biomass monitoring,...

  10. Management Accounting Change and ERP, an Assessment of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Aernoudts, R.H.R.M.; Boom, T. van der; Vosselman, E.G.J.; van der Pijl, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Extant accounting literature shows that there is increasing research interest into effects of ERP systems on management accounting and control practices (c.f. Granlund, Mouritsen, 2003). This paper provides a review of the literature and identifies knowledge gaps and shows opportunities for research. The review reveals that there are two main streams of research. The first uses a structural approach, while the second uses a process approach. The structural stream adopts a functional approach ...

  11. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh K Badyal; Chetna Desai

    2014-01-01

    The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day′s drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being sub...

  12. Determining the physiochemical changes and time of chilling injury incidence during cold storage of pomegranate fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Leila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent warming (IW is a good postharvest technique to prevent or alleviate chilling injuries during cold storage. Performing the warming treatment at the period of time before chilling injury is irreversible during storage, and it is the first prerequisite for a successful IW treatment. In order to determine the fruit physiochemical changes and time of irreversible chilling injury incidence during cold storage of pomegranate fruit (cv. Rabab-e-Neyriz, this research was conducted. Fruits were stored at 2 ± 0.5°C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity for 90 days. At 15-day intervals, 40 fruits (four replicates and 10 fruits in each replicate were sampled and further stored at 20°C for 3 days (shelf life. Chilling injury (CI index and weight loss (WL in intact fruits, electrolyte leakage (EL and K leakage (KL in peel samples, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio and pH in fruit juice were measured. With respect to quality parameters, TSS did not change significantly under cold storage. According to TA changes, the TSS/TA ratio was decreased up to 30 days but subsequently increased and the highest ratio was detected at the end of storage, which was significantly higher than the TSS/TA ratio at the harvest time. Results related to CI index, WL, EL and KL showed that pomegranate fruits could be stored cold without significant chilling damages up to 30 days. It was suggested that performing the IW treatment during this period could be concomitant with desired effects in long-term storage of this commercial cultivar.

  13. Materials research for passive solar systems: solid-state phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Webb, J.D.; Burrows, R.W.; McFadden, J.D.O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 4/), pentaglycerinve (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 3/), and neopentyl glycol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 2/). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature betweeen 25/sup 0/C and 188/sup 0/C, and have latent heats of transformation between 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier. Nevertheless, a higher cost of the phase-change materials (approx. =$0.70 per pound) is likely to limit their applicability in passive solar systems unless their performance can be significantly improved through further research.

  14. Climate change research in Massachusetts, U.S.A.: searching for phenology in the historical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, R.; Miller-Rushing, A.

    2009-04-01

    The United States does not have as many large, well-researched sets of phenological records as can be found in Europe. Such phenological research is important both scientifically to investigate the effects of climate change and, just as importantly, for convincing the public that climate change is really happening and is already affecting our environment. Scientists in the United States are currently uncovering a wealth of data from a variety of unconventional sources on the effects of climate on the phenology of a wide range of organisms, with many studies being published on birds and plants. For the past six years, we have been investigating the impact of climate change in Massachusetts, a region with a particularly strong tradition of science and natural history. We are able to use combinations of herbarium specimens, photographs, diaries of individual naturalists, records from research stations, and current observations of our own to document the effects of climate change. Each of these data sources has certain limitations, but the overall message is the same: a warming climate is causing plants to flower earlier and certain migratory birds to arrive earlier. Such data has to be interpreted carefully due to issues of changing population sizes and changing sampling methods and intensity. The single most valuable source of data for our research has been the observations of flowering times of hundreds of plant species from 1852 to 1858 in Concord, Massachusetts, made by Henry David Thoreau. Thoreau is the most famous environmental philosopher in the United States, and most students read his book Walden. Later botanists also recorded flowering times and the abundance of plant species in Concord, and we recorded flowering times and species abundances in Concord starting in 2004. The project has shown that spring flowering species are the most responsive to temperatures, and that these plant species are now flowering seven days earlier than they were in the 1850s

  15. Modelling changes in sleep timing and duration across the lifespan: Changes in circadian rhythmicity or sleep homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, Anne C; Derks, Gianne; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2016-08-01

    Sleep changes across the lifespan, with a delay in sleep timing and a reduction in slow wave sleep seen in adolescence, followed by further reductions in slow wave sleep but a gradual drift to earlier timing during healthy ageing. The mechanisms underlying changes in sleep timing are unclear: are they primarily related to changes in circadian processes, or to a reduction in the neural activity dependent build up of homeostatic sleep pressure during wake, or both? We review existing studies of age-related changes to sleep and explore how mathematical models can explain observed changes. Model simulations show that typical changes in sleep timing and duration, from adolesence to old age, can be understood in two ways: either as a consequence of a simultaneous reduction in the amplitude of the circadian wake-propensity rhythm and the neural activity dependent build-up of homeostatic sleep pressure during wake; or as a consequence of reduced homeostatic sleep pressure alone. A reduction in the homeostatic pressure also explains greater vulnerability of sleep to disruption and reduced daytime sleep-propensity in healthy ageing. This review highlights the important role of sleep homeostasis in sleep timing. It shows that the same phenotypic response may have multiple underlying causes, and identifies aspects of sleep to target to correct delayed sleep in adolescents and advanced sleep in later life. PMID:26545247

  16. Climate engineering research : A precautionary response to climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.; Fleurke, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the face of dire forecasts for anthropogenic climate change, climate engineering is increasingly discussed as a possible additional set of responses to reduce climate change’s threat. These proposals have been controversial, in part because they – like climate change itself – pose uncertain risks

  17. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olesen, J. E.; Borgesen, C. D.; Elsgaard, L.; Palosuo, T.; Rotter, R.; Skjelvag, A. O.; Peltonen-Sainio, P.; Borjesson, T.; Trnka, Miroslav; Ewert, F.; Siebert, S.; Brisson, N.; Eitzinger, J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Oberforster, M.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2012), s. 1527-1542. ISSN 1944-0049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : phenology * wheat * oats * maize * climate change * temperature Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.220, year: 2012

  18. [Complementary and alternative medicine--time for research and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    The usage of complementary and alternative medicine [CAM] is increasing in popularity in the modern world. In this issue of Harefuah, seven articles relate to various aspects of CAM: the use of various modalities of CAM in four community clinics in Northern Israel, an assessment of the needs and expectations of patients on chemotherapy from the integration of CAM in palliative oncological care, a description of a series of quality research studies relating to CAM in hemato-oncological disorders and autoimmune diseases and a discussion of ethical dilemmas and issues relating to Jewish law. Other authors review the history of clinical studies with an emphasis on mind-body connection and the placebo effect. The conclusion that may be derived about CAM from this compilation of articles is that, despite the ltack of scientific evidence to support the paradigm underlying most CAM modalities and the scarcity of evidence to support its efficacy, the increasing popularity of CAM should lead us to expand research into CAM and to teach our medical students about CAM. We should do so for the sake of proper doctor-patient relationships and to prevent improper use of CAM by the general public. The diversity of CAM modalities and the heterogeneity of training patterns among those who practice CAM call for the prompt regulation of training and licensing of all CAM practitioners. PMID:21939117

  19. Asymptotic results and statistical procedures for time-changed L\\'evy processes sampled at hitting times

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    We provide asymptotic results and develop high frequency statistical procedures for time-changed L\\'evy processes sampled at random instants. The sampling times are given by first hitting times of symmetric barriers whose distance with respect to the starting point is equal to $\\varepsilon$. This setting can be seen as a first step towards a model for tick-by-tick financial data allowing for large jumps. For a wide class of L\\'evy processes, we introduce a renormalization depending on $\\varepsilon$, under which the L\\'evy process converges in law to an $\\alpha$-stable process as $\\varepsilon$ goes to $0$. The convergence is extended to moments of hitting times and overshoots. In particular, these results allow us to construct consistent estimators of the time change and of the Blumenthal-Getoor index of the underlying L\\'evy process. Convergence rates and a central limit theorem are established under additional assumptions.

  20. Multimethod research into policy changes in the pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explain the nature of multimethod studies and to illustrate their role in pharmaceutical policy research. In the field of pharmaceutical policy research, methodological and theoretically sound evaluation is the main goal. Reflexive learning is required in order to address and...

  1. Education Research Australia: A Changing Ecology of Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Terri; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Harrison, Neil; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Processes of national research assessment, such as Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) are a type of audit technology that confronts and steers established institutional identities and traditions. This nexus between policy and practice drives boundary work that diffracts prevailing policy logics, organisational practices, and habits of…

  2. [Research on greenhouse-gas-induced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M.

    1995-12-31

    This climate research focuses on the following topics: model development and testing; climate simulations and analyses; analyses of observed climate; development of analysis methods; global warming: physics, economics and policy; and participation in international research efforts. Also summarized are six projects that are proposed for the next five years.

  3. The Effects of the Price Change, on the Demand of Agricultural Products During Summer Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudi SULI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A fall in the price of a good has two effects. First, consumers enjoy an increase in realpurchasing power, they are better of because can buy the same amount of the good forless money, and thus have money left overfor additional purchases. The will tend toconsume more of the good that has became cheaper and less of those goods that are nowrelatively more expensive. Both effects happen simultaneously, but it will be useful todistinguish between them in our analysis. The Demand Functionand Slutsky Equationduring the summer time in our products,tomato and cucumber confirms the economictheory of chain effect in the agricultural products. Our research is based to the face-to-face questions about the prices that consumersreceive, and to the theoretical approach toidentify these effects. The demand function for this product gives us the solution of howindividual’s utility-maximizing choices respondto changes in income and in the prices oftomatoes and cucumbers.

  4. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  5. Informed Consent in the Changing Landscape of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2016-09-01

    The history of informed consent dates back as early as the 16th century (Selek, 2010). The current tenets of informed consent pertaining to the ethical conduct of research on human participants predominately stems from the 1947 Nuremberg Code (National Institutes of Health, 2016), which was created following the Nuremberg trials at the end of World War II. The unethical conduct of research on human participants during the Holocaust, coupled with experiments (e.g., the Tuskegee syphilis study), prompted a more formalized structure for ensuring the well-being and autonomy of human participants in research studies. The World Medical Association (2013) created the Declaration of Geneva in 1948 (Fischer, 2006), followed by the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964, to apply ethical principles to medical research involving human participants (Fischer, 2006; Rickham, 1964). A decade later, on July 12, 1974, the National Research Act was signed into law (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 1979). Through this act, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was formed and charged with developing guidelines for the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research. The guidelines were established in the Belmont Report (HHS, 1979; U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1979), which continues to be periodically updated. The Belmont Report describes the general principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and it outlines the process of obtaining informed consent to ensure that these principles are followed (HHS, 1979). In 1998, an informed consent checklist was instituted (HHS, 1998). Although clearly outlined, defined, and described in consent forms, it is beneficial to revisit how informed participants are when they enter research studies, particularly for patients undergoing treatment for cancer. This article will provide an overview of several areas for consideration. 
. PMID

  6. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation

  7. Seeing Change in Time: Video Games to Teach about Temporal Change in Scientific Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Javier; Gaydos, Matthew; Squire, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how learning biological concepts can be facilitated by playing a video game that depicts interactions and processes at the subcellular level. Particularly, this article reviews the effects of a real-time strategy game that requires players to control the behavior of a virus and interact with cell structures in a way that…

  8. Changing Boundaries--Shifting Identities: Strategic Interventions to Enhance the Future of Educational Research in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil; Bennett, Sue; Bennett, Dawn; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Seddon, Terri; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the geography of Australian educational research in the context of the ERA 2010 and 2012 assessments results. These results reflect significant changes to the nature of educational research over the past decades, where this research is conducted and by whom. We recap the historical changes to the formation of educational…

  9. How Does Motivation Develop and Why Does It Change? Reframing Motivation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Julianne C.; Patrick, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we argue for a change in how researchers study motivation to learn. We believe that research can provide better explanations of the origins and outcomes of behavior, and thus be more useful, if we focus on how motivation develops and why it changes. We suggest reframing motivation research in education by extending the current…

  10. Fast reactor parameter optimization taking into account changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formulation and solution of optimization problem for parameters determining the layout of the central part of sodium cooled power reactor taking into account possible changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time are performed. The losses under change of fuel composition type for two reactor modifications providing for minimum doubling time for oxide and carbide fuels respectively, are estimated

  11. Exploring the Effects of Changes in Future Time Perspective and Perceived Instrumentality on Graded Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the possible changes in the Future Time Perspective (FTP) and Perceived Instrumentality (PI) over time as long as one academic semester, as well as to explore whether those changes in FTP and PI explained students' Graded Performance (GP) with regard to a specific course; educational psychology. Method: A…

  12. Research on time series mining based on shape concept time warping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁颖钧; 朱仲英

    2004-01-01

    Time series is an important kind of complex data, while a growing attention has been paid to mining time series knowledge recently. Typically Euclidean distance measure is used for comparing time series. However, it may be a brittle distance measure because of less robustness. Dynamic time warp is a pattern matching algorithm based on nonlinear dynamic programming technique, however it is computationally expensive and suffered from the local shape variance. A modification algorithm named by shape DTW is presented, which uses linguistic variable concept to describe the slope feather of time series. The concept tree is developed by cloud models theory which integrates randomness and probability of uncertainty, so that it makes conversion between qualitative and quantitive knowledge. Experiments about cluster analysis on the basis of this algorithm, compared with Euclidean measure, are implemented on synthetic control chart time series. The results show that this method has strong robustness to loss of feature data due to piecewise segment preprocessing. Moreover, after the construction of shape concept tree, we can discovery knowledge of time series on different time granularity.

  13. Changes in physical activity over time in young children: a longitudinal study using accelerometers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael W Taylor

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that marked declines in physical activity occur during the preschool years, and across the transition into school. However, longitudinal studies using objective measures of activity have been limited by sample size and length of follow-up. The aims of this study were to determine how overall activity and time in different intensities of activity change in children followed from 3 to 7 years. Children (n = 242 wore Actical accelerometers at 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6.5 and 7 years of age during all waking and sleeping hours for a minimum of 5 days. Time in sedentary (S, light (L, moderate (M, and vigorous (V physical activity was determined using available cut points. Data were analyzed using a mixed model and expressed as counts per minute (cpm, overall activity and the ratio of active time to sedentary time (LMV:S, adjusted for multiple confounders including sex, age, time worn, and weather. At 5 years, physical activity had declined substantially to around half that observed at 3 years. Although starting school was associated with a further short-term (6-month decline in activity (cpm in both boys (difference; 95% CI: -98; -149, -46 and girls (-124; -174, -74, both P<0.001, this proved to be relatively transient; activity levels were similar at 6-7 years as they were just prior to starting school. Boys were more physically active than girls as indicated by an overall 12% (95% CI: 2, 22% higher ratio of active to sedentary time (P = 0.014, but the pattern of this difference did not change from 3 to 7 years. Time worn and weather variables were significant predictors of activity. In conclusion, both boys and girls show a marked decline in activity from 3 to 4 years of age, a decrease that is essentially maintained through to 7 years of age. Factors driving this marked decrease need to be determined to enable the development of targeted interventions.

  14. Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

  15. Changes in Condom Use Over Time Among Female Sex Workers and Their Male Noncommercial Partners and Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2016-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926

  16. Changes in spatiotemporal gait variables over time during a test of functional capacity after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Ada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait dysfunction and fatigue are common post-stroke, though it is unclear how extended walking activity, as would be performed during activities of daily living, may change over time. The purpose of this study was to examine if spatial and temporal gait variables deteriorate during an extended bout of walking in a test of functional capacity after stroke. Methods 24 community dwelling, independently ambulating individuals greater than 3 months after stroke performed the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT. Participants walked over a pressure-sensitive mat on each pass of the 30 m course which recorded spatial and temporal parameters of gait. Mean gait speed and temporal symmetry ratio during each two-minute interval of the 6MWT were examined. Additional post hoc analyses examined the incidence of rests during the 6MWT and changes in gait speed and symmetry. Results On average, participants demonstrated a 3.4 ± 6.5 cm/s decrease in speed over time (p= 0.02. Participants who rested were also characterized by increased asymmetry in the final two minutes (p= 0.05. 30% of participants rested at some point during the test, and if a rest was taken, duration increased in the final two minutes (p= 0.001. Examination of factors which may have been associated with resting indicated that resters had poorer balance (p= 0.006 than non-resting participants. Conclusion This study supports previous findings establishing that walking performance after stroke declines over relatively short bouts of functionally-relevant ambulation. Such changes may be associated with both cardiorespiratory and muscular fatigue mechanisms that influence performance. The findings also indicate that rest duration should be routinely quantified during the 6MWT after stroke, and consequently, further research is necessary to determine how to interpret 6MWT scores when resting occurs.

  17. Advances in ocean modeling for climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, William R.; Capotondi, Antonietta; Holland, Marika M.

    1995-07-01

    An adequate understanding of climate variability and the eventual prediction of climate change are among the most urgent and far-reaching efforts of the scientific community. The climate system is in an ever-changing state with vast impact on mankind in all his activities. Both short and long-term aspects of climate variability are of concern, and the unravelling of "natural" variability from "man-induced" climate change is required to prepare for and ameliorate, if possible, the potentially devastating aspects of such change. In terms of scientific effort, the climate community can be thought of as the union of the disciplinary sciences of meteorology, oceanography, sea ice and glaciology, and land surface processes. Since models are based upon mathematical and numerical constructs, mathematics and computer sciences are also directly involved. In addition, some of the problems of man-induced climate change (release of greenhouse gases, the ozone-hole problem, etc.) are basically chemical in nature, and the expertise of the atmospheric and oceanic chemist is also required. In addition, some part of the response to climate perturbations will arise in the biological world, due to upsetting the balance in the great food web that binds communities together on both the land and the sea. Thus, the problems to be solved are extraordinarily complex and require the efforts of many kinds of scientist.

  18. [Stabilometric features of vertical stability in healthy individuals by short-time bite change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogabalo, I V; Kubriak, O V; Grokhovskiĭ, S S; Kopetskiĭ, I S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate vertical stability changes according to stabilometric findings under artificial short-time disturbed occlusion. Twelve individuals were included in the study and vertical stability was assessed in stability platform before and under short-time bite change. The registered changes might be connected with an approximate reaction and random reasons. There is a possibility of bias by mechanical transfer of the stabilometric study results on the diagnosis of dental status. PMID:25588344

  19. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  20. INCREASE - an Integrated Network on Climate Change REsearch Activities on Shrubland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel Schmidt, Inger; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Beier, Claus; Tietema, Albert; Emmett, Bridget; De Angelis, Paolo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla; Spano, Donatella; Kroel-Dulay, Gyuri; Jones, Davey

    2013-04-01

    Climate change poses a serious challenge for the scientific communities to develop new concepts for research and modeling to provide better and more realistic answers and predictions of what the impact will be. INCREASE is an EU-funded research infrastructure based upon large scale field experiments with non-intrusive manipulations of temperature and precipitation since 1999. The experiments are placed in vulnerable scrubland ecosystems across Europe. Shrubland ecosystems were chosen because they represent an important natural resource, which are known to be sensitive to observed changes in environmental pressures. The experiments combine 2 different approaches to study climate effects on ecosystems. The first approach is known as "space for time" substitution, where the long term effect of a pressure on an ecosystem at any particular site is studied by moving to another site along temperature and precipitation gradients. This was done by carrying out the same studies in comparable ecosystems in UK, Denmark, the Netherlands, Hungary, Spain and Italy - which are naturally exposed to large differences in the climatic conditions. The other approach applied is "ecosystem manipulations", which means that the ecosystem is exposed to the changes in the field by realistic manipulations of temperature and water and in one experiment in combination with CO2. This combination of gradients and experimental manipulation increases the potential for evaluating the generality of the observed responses to the changes in the climatic drivers. Within INCREASE we improve the technology and methodology for studies of climate change effects on European shrublands and stimulate collaboration within the scientific community around climate manipulation experiments. In addition, data and results from the research infrastructures were collected into an integrated database (INCREASE DB) with the aim to improve capacities in the protection, management and storage of data and to provide a web

  1. Research reactors and radiochemistry. Partners in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The raison d'etre of research reactors is based on their role in a number of research fields, including radiochemistry. Inversely, it is in the interest of a healthy development of radiochemistry that a sufficient number of reactors will remain in operation and that the downward trend is in this reversed. In this paper, directions for further developments in reactor based radiochemistry are discussed, taking into account also relevant developments in competing fields. The discussion is focused on neutron activation analysis as well as tracer applications and environmental radiochemistry. Moreover, the consequences for reactor operations will be indicated. (author)

  2. GIS and crop simulation modelling applications in climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenges that climate change presents humanity require an unprecedented ability to predict the responses of crops to environment and management. Geographic information systems (GIS) and crop simulation models are two powerful and highly complementary tools that are increasingly used for such p...

  3. Land use change modelling: current practice and research priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Schot, P.; Dijst, M.J.; Veldkamp, A.

    2004-01-01

    Land use change models are tools to support the analysis of the causes and consequences of land use dynamics. Scenario analysis with land use models can support land use planning and policy. Numerous land use models are available, developed from different disciplinary backgrounds. This paper reviews

  4. Integrating Biopsychosocial Intervention Research in a Changing Health Care Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Oh, Hyunsung; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Safety net care systems are experiencing unprecedented change from the "Affordable Care Act," Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) uptake, health information technology application, and growing of mental health care integration within primary care. This article provides a review of previous and current efforts in which social…

  5. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim;

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  6. Preface: Joint researches are benefiting the Chang'E-1 comprehensive lunar scientific studies which probe ever deeper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING JinSong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Payloads of the first Chinese lunar mission Chang'E-1 obtained fruitful scientific data which cover a wide range of disci plines and fields.From 2007, many domestic research teams have been working hard on calibrating and validating these data cautiously and carefully.

  7. Changes in Genital Injury Patterns over Time in Women after Consensual Intercourse

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sarah L.; Parker, Barbara J.; Bourguignon, Cheryl M.

    2008-01-01

    To date, there are no studies in the literature addressing whether or not microscopic genital injuries change over time or change in appearance during the 72 hours time period following intercourse. In this study, women (n=35) had two evidentiary type pelvic examinations to document injuries after consensual intercourse. At Time 1 (within 48 hours of consensual intercourse) a: larger total surface area of injury (p =.02); larger surface area of injury to the posterior fourchette (p =.02); lar...

  8. Note on future Global Change research in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations are given with respect to continuation and association of high-quality, multi-disciplinary research programmes in the Netherlands on the subjects climate systems; interactions between biosphere, geosphere and atmosphere; institutions and control mechanisms in the fields of environment and climate; and sustainable use of land and water

  9. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  10. Construction of an 8-mm time-lapse camera for biological research

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the construction of an 8mm camera for biological research. A time-lapse camera for use in biological research can be constructed from a super...

  11. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCC AR4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  12. Multi-Scale Change Detection Research of Remotely Sensed Big Data in CyberGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, J.; Sieber, R.

    2015-12-01

    Big remotely sensed data, the heterogeneity of satellite platforms and file formats along with increasing volumes and velocities, offers new types of analyses. This makes big remotely sensed data a good candidate for CyberGIS, the aim of which is to enable knowledge discovery of big data in the cloud. We apply CyberGIS to feature-based multi-scale land use/cover change (LUCC) detection. There have been attempts to do multi-scale LUCC. However, studies were done with small data and could not consider the mismatch between multi-scale analysis and computational scale. They have yet to consider the possibilities for scalar research across numerous temporal and spatial scales afforded by big data, especially if we want to advance beyond pixel-based analysis and also reduce preprocessing requirements. We create a geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) to handle multi-spatio-temporal scale change detection. We first clarify different meanings of scale in CyberGIS and LUCC to derive a feature scope layer in the GCI based on Stommel modelling. Our analysis layer contains a multi-scale segmentation-based method based on normalized cut image segmentation and wavelet-based image scaling algorithms. Our computer resource utilization layer uses Wang and Armstrong's (2009) method for mainly for memory, I/O and CPU time. Our case is urban-rural change detection in the Greater Montreal Area (5 time periods, 2006-2012, 100 virtual machines), 36,000km2 and varying from 0.6m to 38m resolution. We present a ground truthed accuracy assessment of a change matrix that is composed of 6 feature classes at 12 different spatio-temporal scales, and the performance of the change detection GCI for multi-scale LUCC study. The GCI allows us to extract and coordinate different types of changes by varying spatio-temporal scales from the big imagery datasets.

  13. Historical time in the age of big data: Cultural psychology, historical change, and the Google Books Ngram Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Launched in 2010, the Google Books Ngram Viewer offers a novel means of tracing cultural change over time. This digital tool offers exciting possibilities for cultural psychology by rendering questions about variation across historical time more quantitative. Psychologists have begun to use the viewer to bolster theories about a historical shift in the United States from a more collectivist to individualist form of selfhood and society. I raise 4 methodological cautions about the Ngram Viewer's use among psychologists: (a) the extent to which print culture can be taken to represent culture as a whole, (b) the difference between viewing the past in terms of trends versus events, (c) assumptions about the stability of a word's meaning over time, and (d) inconsistencies in the scales and ranges used to measure change over time. The aim is to foster discussion about the standards of evidence needed for incorporating historical big data into empirical research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100927

  14. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia, Kukarenko

    2011-01-01

    Background Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health. Objective To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main...

  15. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research

    OpenAIRE

    Kukarenko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women’s and men’s well-being and health. Objective: To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The ma...

  16. Climate change and health: Research challenges for health in the developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harshal T Pandve

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the most important environmental issues ever to confront humanity. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change, and health hazards are a major concern. Research pertaining to the effects of climate change on human health is the need of the hour. This paper discusses the broad challenges in health research in developing countries with specific reference to climate change.

  17. Climate change and health: Research challenges for health in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandve Harshal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has emerged as one of the most important environmental issues ever to confront humanity. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change, and health hazards are a major concern. Research pertaining to the effects of climate change on human health is the need of the hour. This paper discusses the broad challenges in health research in developing countries with specific reference to climate change.

  18. Time regained: when people stop a physical activity program, how does their time use change? A randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjaan Gomersall

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how previously inactive adults who had participated in a structured, partly supervised 6-week exercise program restructured their time budgets when the program ended. Using a randomised controlled trial design, 129 previously inactive adults were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three groups: a Moderate or Extensive six-week physical activity intervention (150 and 300 additional minutes of exercise per week, respectively or a Control group. Additional physical activity was accumulated through both group and individual exercise sessions with a wide range of activities. Use of time and time spent in energy expenditure zones was measured using a computerised 24-h self-report recall instrument, the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults, and accelerometry at baseline, mid- and end-program and at 3- and 6-months follow up. At final follow up, all significant changes in time use domains had returned to within 20 minutes of baseline levels (Physical Activity 1-2 min/d, Active Transport 3-9 min/d, Self-Care 0-2 min/d, Television/Videogames 13-18 min/d in the Moderate and Extensive group, relative to Controls, respectively, p > 0.05. Similarly, all significant changes in time spent in the moderate energy expenditure zone had returned to within 1-3 min/d baseline levels (p > 0.05, however time spent in vigorous physical activity according to accelerometry estimates remained elevated, although the changes were small in magnitude (1 min/d in the Moderate and Extensive groups, relative to Controls, p = 0.01. The results of this study demonstrate strong recidivist patterns in physical activity, but also in other aspects of time use. In designing and determining the effectiveness of exercise interventions, future studies would benefit from considering the whole profile of time use, rather than focusing on individual activities,Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000248066.

  19. Efficacy, effectiveness, and behavior change trials in exercise research

    OpenAIRE

    Courneya Kerry S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The widespread incorporation of behavioral support interventions into exercise trials has sometimes caused confusion concerning the primary purpose of a trial. The purpose of the present paper is to offer some conceptual and methodological distinctions among three types of exercise trials with a view towards improving their design, conduct, reporting, and interpretation. Discussion Exercise trials can be divided into "health outcome trials" or "behavior change trials" base...

  20. Changes in stroke research productivity: A global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Daniel S.; Hauptman, Jason S.; Wong, Tony T.; Gonzalez, Nestor R.; Martin, Neil A; Lignelli, Angella A.; Itagaki, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, little work has been done to quantify the growth and progress of stroke publications. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze trends in the stroke literature over the past 12 years, specifically examining changes in worldwide productivity and study methodology. Methods: The study was a retrospective bibliometric analysis of all stroke articles published between 1996 and 2008 indexed in MEDLINE. Country of ...

  1. A 3-year longitudinal analysis of changes in fitness, physical activity, fatness and screen time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aires, L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mendonça, D;

    2010-01-01

    in fitness. METHODS: This is a 3-year longitudinal study of 345 high school students aged 11-19 years. Students performed curl-ups, push-ups and 20-m shuttle run tests from Fitnessgram. PA and ST were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Standardized scores of fitness tests were summed. Changes...... over time were calculated as Delta(1) (2007 minus 2006), Delta(2) (2008 minus 2007) and Delta(3) (2008 minus 2006). RESULTS: Changes in PAI were positively and independently associated with changes in fitness in Delta(1), Delta(2) and Delta(3). Changes in BMI were negatively associated with changes in...... fitness in Delta(3). Participants highly fit at baseline were those who showed positive changes in PAI over Delta(3), decreased changes in ST and had the lowest increase in BMI over 3 years compared with those low-fit at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in BMI were associated with changes in fitness over 3...

  2. Pricing European option under the time-changed mixed Brownian-fractional Brownian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhidong; Yuan, Hongjun

    2014-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by a mixed Brownian-fractional subdiffusive Black-Scholes model. Under the assumption that the price of the underlying stock follows a time-changed mixed Brownian-fractional Brownian motion, we derive a pricing formula for the European call option in a discrete time setting.

  3. Time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion and option pricing with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui; Liang, Jin-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Xiu

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by a fractional subdiffusive Black-Scholes model. The price of the underlying stock follows a time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion. By a mean self-financing delta-hedging argument, the pricing formula for the European call option in discrete time setting is obtained.

  4. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  5. About Skinner and Time: Behavior-Analytic Contributions to Research on Animal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Helga; Richelle, Marc; Wearden, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses two important influences of B. F. Skinner, and later workers in the behavior-analytic tradition, on the study of animal timing. The first influence is methodological, and is traced from the invention of schedules imposing temporal constraints or periodicities on animals in "The Behavior of Organisms," through the rate…

  6. Seeing Change in Time: Video Games to Teach about Temporal Change in Scientific Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Javier; Gaydos, Matthew; Squire, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    This article explores how learning biological concepts can be facilitated by playing a video game that depicts interactions and processes at the subcellular level. Particularly, this article reviews the effects of a real-time strategy game that requires players to control the behavior of a virus and interact with cell structures in a way that resembles the actual behavior of biological agents. The evaluation of the video game presented here aims at showing that video games have representational advantages that facilitate the construction of dynamic mental models. Ultimately, the article shows that when video game's characteristics come in contact with expert knowledge during game design, the game becomes an excellent medium for supporting the learning of disciplinary content related to dynamic processes. In particular, results show that students who participated in a game-based intervention aimed at teaching biology described a higher number of temporal-dependent interactions as measured by the coding of verbal protocols and drawings than students who used texts and diagrams to learn the same topic.

  7. Determinants of changes in sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time among 9 and 12 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Janssen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to identify the determinants of objectively measured changes in sedentary time and sedentary fragmentation from age 9- to age 12 years. Data were collected as part of the Gateshead Millennium Birth Cohort study from September 2008 to August 2009 and from January 2012 to November 2012. Participants were 9.3 (±0.4 years at baseline (n = 508 and 12.5 (±0.3 years at follow-up (n = 427. Sedentary behaviour was measured using an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Twenty potential determinants were measured, within a socio-ecological model, and tested for their association with changes in sedentary time and the extent to which sedentary behaviour is prolonged or interrupted (fragmentation index. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. Measurements taken during winter and a greater decrease in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA over time were associated with larger increases in sedentary time (seasonality β: −3.03; 95% CI: −4.52, −1.54; and change in MVPA β: −1.68; 95% CI: −1.94, −1.41. Attendance at sport clubs was associated with smaller increases in sedentary time (−1.99; −3.44, −0.54. Girls showed larger decreases in fragmentation index (−0.52; −1.01, −0.02. Interventions aimed at decreasing the decline in MVPA and increasing/maintaining sport club attendance may prevent the rise in sedentary time as children grow older. In addition, winter could be targeted to prevent an increase in sedentary time and reduction in sedentary fragmentation during this season.

  8. Access and the Changing Mission of Research Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Wätjen

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The session of this morning deals with the coming century. But I am not a prophet foreseeing the future. I agree with the economist Edgar Fiedler who said in his Law of Prediction, „Forecasting is very difficult, especially if it’s about the future.” And Mirjam Foot is on the right side too. In the afternoon she will talk about change as the only certainty. Or in other words: today we live in an age of uncertainty and it will increase in the future!

  9. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Glenn; Schütte, Stefanie; Knop, Juliane; Sankoh, Osman; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. Design We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. We investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. We compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact. Results The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively) until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively), which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014). However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), predominantly in Europe and North America. Conclusions There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly. Raising the interest

  10. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Verner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. Design: We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. We investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. We compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact. Results: The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively, which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014. However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, predominantly in Europe and North America. Conclusions: There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly

  11. Mycorrhizas and global environmental change: Research at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staddon, P.L.; Heinemeyer, A.; Fitter, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    ubiquitous mycorrhizal fungal root symbionts has received limited attention. Most of the research on the effects of GEC on mycorrhizal fungi has been pot-based with a few field (especially monoculture) studies. A major question that arises in all these studies is whether the GEC effects on the mycorrhizal...... fungi are independent of the effects on their plant hosts. We evaluate the current knowledge on the effects of elevated CO2 and increased temperature on mycorrhizal fungi and focus on the few available field examples. The value of using long-term and large-scale field experiments is emphasised. We...

  12. Precision Medicine and the Changing Landscape of Research Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2016-03-01

    President Barack Obama announced the launch of the National Institutes of Health Precision Medicine Initiative® (PMI) in January 2015. Precision medicine includes the concept of individualized or personalized medicine at a more exact level through advances in science and technology, such as genetics and genomics sequencing. Although many disease processes will be investigated through the precision medicine lens for greater understanding and improved treatment responses, oncology research and translation to practice is leading the initiative's debut, referred to as the near-term focus. PMID:26906126

  13. A Changing Research and Publication Landscape for Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Mocz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory editorial hopes to convey three points to its audience. First, it provides an overview of the new, peer-reviewed, open access journal Biochemistry Insights published by Libertas Academica. Second, it summarizes the benefits of open access publishing concepts to the biochemistry community. And third, it takes a brief look at the near future of biochemistry as a fundamental molecular science whose continued advances and latest developments will be the focus of the new journal. Biochemistry Insights looks forward to receiving research articles, review papers, commentaries and letters from all disciplines and specialties of the field.

  14. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  15. Step change approaches in coal technology and fugitive emissions research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminossadati S.M.; Amanzadeh M.; Prochon E.; Kok J.; Adam S.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-factor productivity (MFP) in underground coal mining has been on the decline for the last decade. The mining industry requires a viable and sustainable approach to overcome the current downtrend. This is only possible by concurrently focussing on productivity improvement and operating costs reduction, delivered through both incremental and step change technology development. Four technologies are pre-sented in this paper:fibre optic borehole sensing has been demonstrated to reveal detailed information about gas flow influx, water level and borehole blockage events occurring along the length of a surface-to-inseam lateral. Fibre optic gas sensing has also been investigated, and this technology promises a remote, intrinsically safe, distributed solution. Recent developments in continuous water jet drilling tech-nology have demonstrated a step change increase in drilling rates and flexibility for coal seam degassing, applicable in both surface-to-inseam and underground in-seam applications. The application of water jet technology to the cable bolt drilling problem offers potential to address a serious health and safety and productivity issue in the roadway development process.

  16. Methods for detecting change in hydrochemical time series in response to targeted pollutant mitigation in river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Freer, J. E.; Collins, A. L.; Johnes, P. J.; Jones, J. I.

    2014-06-01

    Detecting changes in catchment hydrochemistry driven by targeted pollutant mitigation is high on the scientific agenda, following the introduction of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Previous research has shown that understanding natural variability in hydrochemistry time series is vital if changes due to mitigation are to be detected. In order for change to be detected in a statistically robust manner, the data analysis methods need careful consideration. Previous work has shown that erroneous results have often been obtained when statistical analyses have been carried out despite the associated test assumptions not being met. This paper discusses the principal data issues which must be considered when analysing hydrochemical datasets, including non-normality and non-stationarity. A range of statistical techniques is discussed which could be used to detect gradual or abrupt changes in hydrochemistry, including parametric, non-parametric and signal decomposition methods. The statistical power of these techniques as well as their suitability for identifying change is discussed. Using the uniquely detailed hydrochemical datasets generated under the Demonstration Test Catchments programme in England, the efficacy and robustness of change detection methods for hydrochemical data series is assessed. A conceptual framework for choosing a change detection method is proposed, based on this analysis, in order to raise awareness of the types of questions a researcher should consider in order to perform robust statistical analyses, for informing river catchment management and policy support decisions.

  17. Embedding Climate Research. The National Research Program for Global Air Pollution and Climate Change and embedding Climate Research in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an evaluation of the embedding of climate research conducted under the National Research Programme for Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) in the Netherlands. The evaluation was based on interviews and document analysis. The term climate research is used in a broad sense, embracing impacts, sustainable solutions and integrated assessment. 82 refs

  18. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J; Foppen, Ruud; Voříšek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys. PMID:26486804

  19. Reflective (Ac) Counting: Institutional Research, Evaluation, & Assessment in a Time of Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Walter F.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional researchers (IR) and assessment professionals in higher education are living in interesting and challenging times, one might say in times of crisis. As federal and state coffers have shrunk in a time of rising costs of higher education, university budgets are tightening while at the same time calls for accountability are increasing…

  20. National inventory of Global Change relevant research in Norway; Nasjonal kartlegging av global change-relevant forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The Norwegian Global Change Committee has made an inventory of global change research (GCR) projects funded by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) in 2001. In lack of a rigid definition, GCR was defined as research that can be considered relevant to the science agenda of the four major international global change programmes DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. Relevance was judged based on the objectives stated for each of the international programmes and their core projects. It was not attempted to check whether the projects had any kind of link to the programmes they were considered relevant for. The grants provided by the RCN in 2001 to GCR as defined above amounts to about 77 mill. NOK. Based on a recent survey on climate change research it is reasonable to estimate that the RCN finances between 30 and 40 % of all GCR in Norway. Accordingly, the total value of Norwegian research relevant to the four international global change programmes in 2001 can be estimated to 192 - 254 mill. NOK.

  1. Patterns of change in timing of spring migration in North European songbird populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders Peter; Thorup, Kasper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    likely to be important for our understanding of population-dynamic changes in relation to climate change. These differences may also have long-term evolutionary consequences. Migration distance seems to affect the degree of change in arrival time, but we found no difference between species wintering in......From 1976 to 1997 passerines were mist-netted and ringed on the island of Christiansø, in the Baltic Sea. Here we present analyses of phenological changes (i.e. time of arrival) for 25 species based on the entire populations of mist-netted songbirds during spring migration. We used two approaches...... (least square and quantile regression) to test for changes in arrival time of first individuals and three different parts of the songbird populations (i.e. first 5%, 50% and 95% of the total number of trapped individuals corrected for trapping effort). Our results generally confirm earlier spring arrival...

  2. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    OpenAIRE

    Jeehyun Lee; Delores Chambers; Edgar Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be br...

  3. Statistical Inference for Time-changed Brownian Motion Credit Risk Models

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Hurd; Zhuowei Zhou

    2011-01-01

    We consider structural credit modeling in the important special case where the log-leverage ratio of the firm is a time-changed Brownian motion (TCBM) with the time-change taken to be an independent increasing process. Following the approach of Black and Cox, one defines the time of default to be the first passage time for the log-leverage ratio to cross the level zero. Rather than adopt the classical notion of first passage, with its associated numerical challenges, we accept an alternative ...

  4. Changing approaches towards open education and research in tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liburd, Janne J.; Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2010-01-01

    support the above-mentioned assumption. Accordingly, the puposes of this article are to, first, discuss the challenges in tourism education and address in brief the declining role of universities as learning monopolies and their emerging role as knowledge mediators. Second, to present open innovation......There is a widely held assumption that the Internet provides opportunities to rethink and reorganise the knowledge ineraction and dissemination between industry, education and research. Web 2.0 technologies are emerging as teaching and learning tools, but there is still no striking evidence to...... paradigms and address issues of knowledge accumulation and dissemination in tourism and the new role of the university. Third, INNOTOUR, an experimental Web 2.0 innovation hub for tourism, is presented. Preliminary learning experiences using the INNOTOUR platform as an advanced tool for collaborative, open...

  5. Research of Engineering Change Management in PDM based on WINDCHILL system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min-song

    2009-01-01

    Engineering Changes are ineluctable in the enterprise's product development process.To research engmeenng ehange management in PDM based on WINDCHILL system,to analyse the current bottleneck of the Engineering Change,to introduce the basic engineering change management process and its management model based on WINDCHILL,and to explain the correct data transmission and evolution of change in WINDCHILL system with a example.Given the realization model and transacting flow of engineering change manage in enterprise information system.

  6. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as par t of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual? , I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early - and mid - career academics to navigate throug h this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human - scale approach to early - and mid - career mentoring through the establishment of small team - based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issue s and provide s new insight into teaching and learning in high er education .

  7. Conceptual Metaphor and the Study of Conceptual Change: Research Synthesis and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the goals of research on conceptual metaphor in science education overlap with the goals of research on conceptual change. The relevance of a conceptual metaphor perspective to the study of conceptual change has already been discussed. However, a substantial body of literature on conceptual metaphor in science education has now emerged.…

  8. Research of real-time performance based on VxWorks embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the research of mechanism and heating efficiency of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, data acquisition system with high real-time performance needed. By the means of system logic analyzer, SPY and other relevant software on VxWorks embedded operating system for real-time testing gives real-time data of the system. Real-time level to achieve balances used time and processor idle time, real-time data acquisition, and minimize the interference of external to the system, ensure the system work in its own set of scheduling trajectory. Interrupt switching time and task context switching time meet the system requirements. (authors)

  9. Option Pricing for Time-Change Exponential Levy Model Under Memm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the rational evaluation of European options price when the underlying price process is described by a time-change Levy process. European option pricing formula is obtained under the minimal entropy martingale measure (MEMM) and applied to several examples of particular time-change Levy processes. It can be seen that the framework in this paper encompasses the Black-Scholes model and almost all of the models proposed in the subordinated market.

  10. Testing for Change in Mean of Independent Multivariate Observations with Time Varying Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Boutahar

    2012-01-01

    We consider a nonparametric CUSUM test for change in the mean of multivariate time series with time varying covariance. We prove that under the null, the test statistic has a Kolmogorov limiting distribution. The asymptotic consistency of the test against a large class of alternatives which contains abrupt, smooth and continuous changes is established. We also perform a simulation study to analyze the size distortion and the power of the proposed test.

  11. Detecting dynamical complexity changes in time series using the base-scale entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Ning Xin-Bao; Wu Wei; Ma Xiao-Fei

    2005-01-01

    Timely detection of dynamical complexity changes in natural and man-made systems has deep scientific and practical meanings. We introduce a complexity measure for time series: the base-scale entropy. The definition directly applies to arbitrary real-word data. We illustrate our method on a practical speech signal and in a theoretical chaotic system. The results show that the simple and easily calculated measure of base-scale entropy can be effectively used to detect qualitative and quantitative dynamical changes.

  12. Analysis of time-dependent changes in Bitemarks on Styrofoam sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Djeapragassam Parimala; Mariappan Jonathan Daniel; Subramanian Vasudevan Srinivasan; Jimsha Vannathan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Context: The scope of Bitemarks in forensic dentistry is widening as they help the forensic expert in identifying the perpetuator in medicolegal cases. The greatest challenge in Bitemarks analysis is the time-dependent changes produced in Bitemark patterns on various substrates at the scene of the crime. Aims: To analyze the time-dependent changes in Bitemarks on Styrofoam sheets. Settings and Design: Single centered prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five subjects were randomly...

  13. Real time change-point detection in a nonlinear quantile model

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuperca, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Most studies in real time change-point detection either focus on the linear model or use the CUSUM method under classical assumptions on model errors. This paper considers the sequential change-point detection in a nonlinear quantile model. A test statistic based on the CUSUM of the quantile process subgradient is proposed and studied. Under null hypothesis that the model does not change, the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is determined. Under alternative hypothesis that at som...

  14. Research on Climate Change and Its Impacts Needs Freedom of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Mölders

    2013-01-01

    Climate change captured my interest as a teenager when, at the dining table, my dad talked about potential anthropogenic climate changes. He brought up subjects such as “climate could change if the Siberian Rivers were to be deviated to the South for irrigation of the (semi) arid areas of the former Soviet Union”. Other subjects were afforestation in the Sahel to enhance precipitation recycling, deforestation in the Tropics that could have worldwide impacts on climate, the local climate impac...

  15. Changes in sleep time and sleep quality across the ovulatory cycle as a function of fertility and partner attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke N Gentle

    Full Text Available Research suggests that near ovulation women tend to consume fewer calories and engage in more physical activity; they are judged to be more attractive, express greater preferences for masculine and symmetrical men, and experience increases in sexual desire for men other than their primary partners. Some of these cycle phase shifts are moderated by partner attractiveness and interpreted as strategic responses to women's current reproductive context. The present study investigated changes in sleep across the ovulatory cycle, based on the hypothesis that changes in sleep may reflect ancestral strategic shifts of time and energy toward reproductive activities. Participants completed a 32-day daily diary in which they recorded their sleep time and quality for each day, yielding over 1,000 observations of sleep time and quality. Results indicated that, when the probability of conception was high, women partnered with less attractive men slept more, while women with more attractive partners slept less.

  16. The Health Effects of Climate Change: A Survey of Recent Quantitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Markandya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a large scientific and public debate on climate change and its direct as well as indirect effects on human health. In particular, a large amount of research on the effects of climate changes on human health has addressed two fundamental questions. First, can historical data be of some help in revealing how short-run or long-run climate variations affect the occurrence of infectious diseases? Second, is it possible to build more accurate quantitative models which are capable of predicting the future effects of different climate conditions on the transmissibility of particularly dangerous infectious diseases? The primary goal of this paper is to review the most relevant contributions which have directly tackled those questions, both with respect to the effects of climate changes on the diffusion of non-infectious and infectious diseases, with malaria as a case study. Specific attention will be drawn on the methodological aspects of each study, which will be classified according to the type of quantitative model considered, namely time series models, panel data and spatial models, and non-statistical approaches. Since many different disciplines and approaches are involved, a broader view is necessary in order to provide a better understanding of the interactions between climate and health. In this respect, our paper also presents a critical summary of the recent literature related to more general aspects of the impacts of climate changes on human health, such as: the economics of climate change; how to manage the health effects of climate change; the establishment of Early Warning Systems for infectious diseases.

  17. Gender Differences on Research: The Perceptions and Use of Academic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, the increasing pressure over higher education institutions to promote alternative non-state funding sources has lead to an increasing importance given to research and, more specifically to applied research. The notion that women dedicate less time to research may be seen in the new context, as a prominent threat for women to…

  18. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Time-lapse amplitude changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Datta-Gupta, Akhil; Behrens, Ron; Condon, Pat; Rickett, Jame s

    2003-03-13

    Asymptotic methods provide an efficient means by which to infer reservoir flow properties, such as permeability, from time-lapse seismic data. A trajectory-based methodology, much like ray-based methods for medical and seismic imaging, is the basis for an iterative inversion of time-lapse amplitude changes. In this approach a single reservoir simulation is required for each iteration of the algorithm. A comparison between purely numerical and the trajectory-based sensitivities demonstrates their accuracy. An application to a set of synthetic amplitude changes indicates that they can recover large-scale reservoir permeability variations from time-lapse data. In an application of actual time-lapse amplitude changes from the Bay Marchand field in the Gulf of Mexico we are able to reduce the misfit by 81% in twelve iterations. The time-lapse observations indicate lower permeabilities are required in the central portion of the reservoir.

  19. CHANGES IN THE RESEARCH SYSTEM. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES FROM TERTIARY EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Gabriel; Bara, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the role of research in tertiary education is a challenge for the Romanian higher education system, and a represents a resource for a sustainable development for universities in the future. The purpose of this contribution is, first, a brief assessment of the elements that support research in Romanian tertiary education - human and material potential, financial resources allocated (especially from the state budget) and attracted, the orientation of the research spending, possible w...

  20. Changes in the representation of space and time while listening to music

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg; Smukalla, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to alter people's ordinary experience of space and time. Not only does this challenge the concept of invariant space and time tacitly assumed in psychology but it may also help us understand how music works and how music can be understood as an embodied experience. Yet research about these alterations is in its infancy. This review is intended to delineate a future research agenda. We review experimental evidence and subjective reports of the influence of music on the represent...

  1. The Change Laboratory in Higher Education:research-intervention using activity theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bligh, Brett; Flood, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the Change Laboratory as an intervention-research methodology in higher education. We trace its theoretical origins in dialectical-materialism and activity theory, consider the recommendations made by its main proponents, and discuss its use in a range of higher education settings. We suggest that the Change Laboratory offers considerable potential for higher education research, though tensions between Change Laboratory design recommendations and typical higher educ...

  2. An Action Research Model for the Management of Change in Continuing Professional Distance Education

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Baptista Nunes; Maggie McPherson

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an action research model as basis for the management of change in continuing professional distance education (CPDE). The model proposed emerged from the need to manage a complex change process from traditional paper-based distance education to e-learning. In order to illustrate and support the model proposed, this paper describes and discusses such a change process in a CPDE Masters programme.The Educational Management Action Research (EMAR) model conjugates pedagogical t...

  3. Global-Change research in Norway. National inventory of Global Change research in Norway i 2011; Global Change-forskning i Norge. En kartlegging av norsk Global change-forskning i 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    From the preface: The Norwegian Global Change (GC) Committee is appointed by the Research Council and works to strengthen the association of Norwegian researchers and research to the international GC programs and IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis). As part of this effort, the Committee wanted a survey of Norwegian research activities linked to these programs. CICERO was engaged to carry out survey work in dialogue with the Research and GC Committee. The results of the survey are presented in this report. The GC programs are: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International geosphere-biosphere program (IGBP), International program of biodiversity science (DIVERSITAS), International Human Dimension Programme Wed Global Environmental Change (IHDP). In addition to IIASA. The results of the survey will be, and is, used as a basis for further activities of the Committee in terms of incentives that can increase the internationalization of Norwegian research. Furthermore, it help to ensure good coupling to these programs in their transition to a common platform in the international Future Earth Initiative (http://www.icsu.org/future-earth).(eb)

  4. Changing the world is easy. Changing the Academy is hard: Systemic Action Research and the recreation of higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Brydon-Miller, Mary;

    2015-01-01

    models of higher education. In fact, Action Research is already engaged with notions of utopia (Nielsen & Svensson, 2006) and with creating alternative ways of understanding and enacting teaching and learning with the goal of creating positive social, economic, and political change within the context of......, “a respect for people and for the knowledge and experience they bring to the research process, a belief in the ability of democratic processes to achieve positive social change, and a commitment to action” (Brydon-Miller, Greenwood, and Maguire, 2003, p. 15). This symposium brings together Burns...... dialogue about creating a more explicit and visible network of such projects and practitioners in a Systemic Action Research process aimed at achieving fundamental reforms in higher education (Greenwood, 2007). References: Brydon-Miller, M. (2008). Ethics and action research: Deepening our commitment to...

  5. Developments in information technology and their implications for psychological research: Disruptive or diffusive change?

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, S.

    2013-01-01

    The notion of technology-induced disruptive change has generally been applied within academia to teaching and learning. Less explored is the disruption that occurs to research as mainstream technology develops. This article examines the effects of technological change on research in psychology, in particular focussing on the development of web-based empirical research procedures over the past 15 years or so. I discuss the history, challenges and potential of these developments, and put forwar...

  6. Jugendliche Lebenswelten und Lebensentwürfe im gesellschaftlichen Wandel Youth in Times of Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gruner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Forschungen zur Sozialisation Jugendlicher in den neuen Bundesländern haben seit 1990 Hochkonjunktur. Da ist zum einen die Frage nach der Anpassung ostdeutscher Jugendlicher an bundesdeutsche Verhältnisse: die Rede ist vom „Individualisierungsschock“ für Kinder und Jugendliche, von alarmierender Jugendgewalt oder von der „verlorenen Zukunft“ für Mädchen und Frauen. Zum anderen sind da die jeweils neuen Versuche der „Erwachsenengeneration“, die (als defizitär eingestuften Wertvorstellungen und Orientierungen der Jüngeren auf Begriffe zu bringen: „Werteverlust“, „Politikverdruss“, „Bindungsunfähigkeit“ usw. Weil das Interesse an der jungen Generation schon immer groß war – „Wer die Jugend hat, hat die Zukunft“ (H. Lietz – stehen Forschungen über jugendliche Lebenswelten und Wertvorstellungen in einer langen Tradition. In diesem Kontext sind auch die hier besprochenen Studien zu verorten. Ihr gemeinsames Thema ist die Sozialisation von Kindern und Jugendlichen unter den Bedingungen gesellschaftlichen Wandels.The three studies reviewed in this article all deal with the socialisation of children and teenagers at times of social change. Since 1990, there has been significant interest in research on the socialisation of youth in former East Germany. On the one hand, scholars have been interested in researching the ways in which East German youth adapts (or fails to adapt to West German ideas-e.g, there has been talk of being “traumatised by a turn toward individualism” which many children and teenagers are said to have experienced, of increasing violence among youth, and of a “lost future” for women and girls. On the other hand, adults attempt time and again to give a name to youth’s value systems and orientations (many of which these adults consider as deficient such as, “loss of value systems,” “lack of interest in politics,” and “inability to commit.” The three studies can be located in

  7. Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in Global Change Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, P.; Goodsite, M.E.; Cloetingh, S.; Agnoletti, M.; Moldan, B.; Lang, D.J.; Leemans, R.; Oerstroem Moeller, J.; Pardo Buendía, M.; Pohl, W.; Scholz, R.W.; Sors, A.; Vanheusden, B.; Yusoff, K.; Zondervan, R.

    2013-01-01

    In nearly all domains of Global Change Research (GCR), the role of humans is a key factor as a driving force, a subject of impacts, or an agent in mitigating impacts and adapting to change. While advances have been made in the conceptualisation and practice of interdisciplinary Global Change Researc

  8. NIST Infrared Blackbody Calibration Support for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, L. M.; Zeng, J.; Mekhontsev, S.; Khromchenko, V.

    2013-12-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Sensor Science Division has provided support of various existing and planned satellite programs, which monitor key parameters for the study of climate change, such as solar irradiance, earth radiance, and atmospheric effects. Recently, this has included the establishment of new measurement instrumentation and expanded capabilities for the characterization of infrared reference blackbody sources and cavity radiometers, as well as the materials used to coat the cavity surfaces. In order to accurately measure high levels of effective emissivity and absorptance of cavities, NIST has developed a laser- and integrating-sphere-based facility (the Complete Hemispherical Infrared Laser-based Reflectometer (CHILR)). The system is used for both radiometer and blackbody cavity characterization. Currently, a second CHILR-II is being added, which can accommodate cavities with apertures up to 20 cm in diameter. Multiple laser sources with wavelengths ranging from 1.5 μm to 23 μm are used to perform reflectance (1 - emissivity (or absorptance)) measurements of the radiometer cavities. For a more comprehensive understanding of the measurement results, NIST has also measured samples of the coated surfaces of the cavities and associated baffles. This includes several types of reflectance measurements: specular, directional-hemispherical (diffuse), and bi-directional distribution function (BRDF). The first two are performed spectrally and provide information that enables estimation of the cavity performance where laser sources for CHILR are not available. The coating results provide input for cavity simulation (including Monte-Carlo raytracing software) analysis to help validate the CHILR results as well as to predict the performance of variations in the cavity designs. In order to adequately characterize reference sources operating at temperatures below ambient to approximately 200 K (cloud-top temperatures), coatings have

  9. Variation and Change in the Grammatical Marking of Stance: The Case of That-Complement Clauses in Research Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarolta Godnič Vičič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the genre of research articles has been extensively studied across different disciplines and languages; however, diachronic change and intradisciplinary variation in this academic genre have received less attention. Therefore this paper aims to shed light on change and variation in research articles within a multidisciplinary field of research by focusing on the use of that-complement clause constructions which are known to mark stance. The corpus-based study uses tourism studies as an example, and covers the time span from 1995 to 2010. Diachronic change in the use of that-complement clause constructions was found in instances when they are marked by a verb as well as in the kinds of stance meanings conveyed. Significant intradisciplinary variation was also found across the journals.

  10. Forms of Collaboration. The Flexible Role of the Researcher within the Changing Context of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A. I.; And Others

    The changing role of the external researcher is explored in the context of two action research projects in Malaga (Spain). The first project was an evaluation of a trade school program for disadvantaged young people in a low-income rural area of Spain. Researchers began as friendly evaluators in a democratic evaluation of the program's first…

  11. Time course of pH change in plant epidermis using microscopic pH imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Risako; Shimizu, Megumi; Kazama, Haruko; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    We established a microscopic pH imaging system to track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis in vivo. In the previous research, we have found out that anthocyanin containing cells have higher pH. However, it was not clear whether the anthocyanin increased the pH or anthocyanin was synthesized result from the higher pH. Therefore, we further investigated the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change. To track the time course of pH change in plant epidermis, we established a system using luminescent imaging technique. We used HPTS (8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate) as pH indicator and applied excitation ratio imaging method. Luminescent image was converted to a pH distribution by obtained in vitro calibration using known pH solution. Cellular level observation was enabled by merging microscopic color picture of the same region to the pH change image. The established system was applied to epidermal cells of red-tip leaf lettuce, Lactuca Sativa L. and the time course was tracked in the growth process. We would discuss about the relationship between anthocyanin and pH change in plant epidermis.

  12. Time in Geographic Space: Report on the Specialist Meeting of Research Initiative 10 (94-9)

    OpenAIRE

    Egenhofer, Max J.; Golledge, Reginald G.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the Specialist Meeting of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) Research Initiative on “Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in GIS.” This Research Initiative addresses space and time as it relates to objects and people in geographic space. The Specialist Meeting for the Research Initiative was held at Lake Arrowhead, CA May 8-11, 1993 to set and prioritize a research agenda. The primary goal of this report is to disseminate the results of the...

  13. Changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahelma Eero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%. The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET. Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers. The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Results At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of

  14. Building Partnerships and Research Collaborations to Address the Impacts of Arctic Change: The North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J.; North, L. A.; Strenecky, B.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in Arctic warming influence the various atmospheric and oceanic patterns that drive Caribbean and mid-latitude climate events, including extreme events like drought, tornadoes, and flooding in Kentucky and the surrounding region. Recently, the establishment of the North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3) project at Western Kentucky University (WKU) in partnership with the University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland Arctic Cooperation Network (IACN), and Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) provides a foundation from which to engage students in applied research from the local to global levels and more clearly understand the many tenets of climate change impacts in the Arctic within both a global and local community context. The NAC3 project encompasses many facets, including joint international courses, student internships, economic development, service learning, and applied research. In its first phase, the project has generated myriad outcomes and opportunities for bridging STEM disciplines with other fields to holistically and collaboratively address specific human-environmental issues falling under the broad umbrella of climate change. WKU and UNAK students desire interaction and exposure to other cultures and regions that are threatened by climate change and Iceland presents a unique opportunity to study influences such as oceanic processes, island economies, sustainable harvest of fisheries, and Arctic influences on climate change. The project aims to develop a model to bring partners together to conduct applied research on the complex subject of global environmental change, particularly in the Arctic, while simultaneously focusing on changing how we learn, develop community, and engage internationally to understand the impacts and find solutions.

  15. Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageev, Eduard; Mizobata, Keisuke; Nakajima, Takashi, E-mail: nakajima@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-07-27

    Some of the vibrational modes of crystalline organic polymers are known to be sensitive to the structural change from the crystalline phase to the amorphous phase, and vice versa. Using a mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulse from a free-electron laser as a probe, we demonstrate the time-resolved detection of structural change in crystalline polymer (polyethylene) films upon laser heating by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Transmittance of the resonant mid-IR pulse almost instantaneously changes before and after the Nd:YAG laser pulse if its fluence is sufficient to induce the structural change in the film. The developed technique would be useful to study the time-dependent dynamics of the structural change in various materials.

  16. Real-time Observational Water Level Data Stream Online Filtering Method with Hydrological Changes Semantic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irregular environmental changes and occasional instrument malfunctions have made noises and exceptions in observational data prominence. Therefore, before processing real-time water level data online, data cleaning is urgently needed to ensure data quality. Since traditional data filtering methods didn't take the data change pattern into consideration, these methods have encountered some severe problems, including the poor adaptability of filter model, the low estimation precision and prohibitively high calculation cost. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a hydrological change semantics constrained online Kalman filtering method: creating dynamic semantic mapping between real-time data changing pattern and the rules of spatial-temporal hydrological process evolution; implementing the change semantic constrained Kalman filtering method to support the adaptive parameter optimization. Observational water level data streams of different precipitation scenarios are selected for testing. Experimental results prove that by means of this method, more accurate and reliable water level information can be available.

  17. Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the vibrational modes of crystalline organic polymers are known to be sensitive to the structural change from the crystalline phase to the amorphous phase, and vice versa. Using a mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulse from a free-electron laser as a probe, we demonstrate the time-resolved detection of structural change in crystalline polymer (polyethylene) films upon laser heating by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Transmittance of the resonant mid-IR pulse almost instantaneously changes before and after the Nd:YAG laser pulse if its fluence is sufficient to induce the structural change in the film. The developed technique would be useful to study the time-dependent dynamics of the structural change in various materials

  18. It's time for a change in the way we educate physiology PhD candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallitsch, R B

    1996-12-01

    Graduate students in physiology programs today are faced with a job market that is significantly different from that which many of us faced 25, 10, or even 5 years ago. As a result, physiology educators need to change the content and style of their programs to prepare graduates for their futures. Programs must continue to prepare graduates for research postdoctoral positions, but they also should prepare them for employment at smaller institutions that have higher teaching demands and that encourage, but do not require, research. Changes are suggested in the way PhD candidates are taught and in the way professors mentor students seeking employment at smaller institutions. PMID:8997411

  19. Nonparametric decomposition of quasi-periodic time series for change-point detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, Alexey; Burnaev, Evgeny; Lokot, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the sequential online change-point detection problem for a dynamical system driven by a quasiperiodic stochastic process. We propose a multicomponent time series model and an effective online decomposition algorithm to approximate the components of the models. Assuming the stationarity of the obtained components, we approach the change-point detection problem on a per-component basis and propose two online change-point detection schemes corresponding to two real-world scenarios. Experimental results for decomposition and detection algorithms for synthesized and real-world datasets are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of our change-point detection framework.

  20. Changing Risk Perception and the Time-Varying Price of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Füss, Roland; Gehrig, Thomas; Rindler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of changes in risk perception on bond markets triggered by the 2007-08 financial crisis. Using a methodology novel to empirical finance, we quantify the increase in credit spreads caused by changes in risk pricing and changes in risk factors. The lasting increase in credit spreads is almost exclusively due to time-varying prices of risk. We interpret this as a change in risk perception which provides a possible solution to the credit spread puzzle. Default p...

  1. Change in participant engagement during a family-based preventive intervention: ups and downs with time and tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Katharine T; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of preventive interventions is related to both the delivery of content and the uptake of that content. Although much research has focused on the quality of delivery, few studies have examined the factors that influence uptake. This study examines how and why participants' engagement-conceptualized as a dynamic process wherein participants interact with each other, the interventionists, and the intervention curriculum-changes over time. We apply growth curve models to repeated measures of engagement obtained from 252 families during a 7-week intervention trial. In the models, we examine (a) whether and how engagement changes over time, and the extent of between-person differences in change; and (b) how those changes and differences are related to chronic and session-specific aspects of family tension, while also controlling for differences across parent sex and 2 versions of the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth Ages 10-14 (SFP 10-14). Results show that, on average, engagement increased over time, linearly with some deceleration, with substantial differences in both level and rates of change. Higher in-session chronic family tension was related to lower initial levels of engagement but not rates of change. Sessions when families displayed more session-specific tension were characterized by different levels of engagement for parents, depending on their level of chronic tension. Overall, our results highlight the importance of considering engagement as a dynamic construct that changes over time in complex ways. Further understanding of the many factors that influence engagement can promote both better delivery and better uptake of intervention curriculum. PMID:25383795

  2. Type and timing of stream flow changes in urbanizing watersheds in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina G. Hopkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linking the type and timing of hydrologic changes with patterns of urban growth is essential to identifying the underlying mechanisms that drive declines in urban aquatic ecosystems. In six urbanizing watersheds surrounding three U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, and Pittsburgh, PA, we reconstructed the history of development patterns since 1900 and assessed the magnitude and timing of stream flow changes during watershed development. Development reconstructions indicated that the majority of watershed development occurred during a period of peak population growth, typically between 1950 and 1970. Stream flow records indicated significant increases in annual frequency of high-flow events in all six watersheds and increases in annual runoff efficiency in five watersheds. Annual development intensity during the peak growth period had the strongest association with the magnitude of changes in high-flow frequency from the pre- to post-development periods. Results suggest the timing of the peak growth period is particularly important to understanding hydrologic changes, because it can set the type of stormwater infrastructure installed within a watershed. In three watersheds there was a rapid (∼10-15 years shift toward more frequent high-flow events, and in four watersheds there was a shift toward higher runoff efficiency. Breakpoint analyses indicated these shifts occurred between 1969 and 1976 for high-flow frequency and between 1962 and 1984 for runoff efficiency. Results indicated that the timing of high-flow changes were mainly driven by the development trajectory of each watershed, whereas the timing of runoff-efficiency changes were driven by a combination of development trajectories and extreme weather events. Our results underscore the need to refine the causes of urban stream degradation to incorporate the impact of gradual versus rapid urbanization on hydrologic changes and aquatic ecosystem function, as well as to

  3. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Tansey, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs), in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries. Methods We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques. Results Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process. Conclusion Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However

  4. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hunt

    Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be

  5. Sexual Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths: Consistency and Change Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sex...

  6. CLEAR PM: Teaching, Outreach, and Research Through Real-Time Particulate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of particulate matter (also called aerosols) can be made through measurement. This measurement does not change in value if it is made in a teaching, research, or outreach environment. A grant from the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation provided funding to construct an instrument suite composed of 1-4 second measurements that are displayed in real-time through a software interface. This display module is called CLEAR PM (Chemistry Lessons Enabling Aerosol Realizations through Particulate Measurement), and was conceived to apply across outreach activities, teaching activities, and research activities. The construction and software design of CLEAR PM was done as part of a special topics course for chemistry and engineering graduate students at Drexel University. Measurement principles of the different (research grade) instruments were taught as part of the course, with emphasis put on the fundamental measurements and their limitations, and an introduction to data acquisition software was also integral to the teaching component. As a final project of the course graduate students were required to create a 'teaching' module that illustrates a chemistry or physics concept and utilizes the measurements of CLEAR PM. These modules ranged from gas-phase ozone chemistry creating secondary organic aerosols, to the wavelength dependent absorption profiles of wood smoke versus propane soot. The teaching modules developed by the graduate students have been used in outreach activities sponsored by The Franklin Institute and the Clean Air Council in Philadelphia, where underrepresented groups often make up a large fraction of the audience. CLEAR PM is designed to give students and citizens a hands-on opportunity to see how we measure and understand the world around us. As mentioned previously, the instruments that are part of CLEAR PM are research grade instruments, and are actively being used in research projects in the DeCarlo lab at Drexel to study particulate

  7. Climate change – health impacts due to changes in the indoor environment; research need

    OpenAIRE

    Crump, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    People in industrialised countries spend approximately 80% of their time indoors and the young and the elderly and people in poor health are likely to spend considerably more time indoors, particularly at home. Therefore all aspects of health that are related to environmental conditions can be impacted by the quality of the indoor environment. The indoor environment should provide shelter from the extremes of the outdoors and maintain a comfortable indoor climate, particular...

  8. High School Students' Time Management Skills in Relation to Research Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcoltekin, Alpturk

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and present a correlation of their time management skills with demographic variables, as well as examining the relation between their level of research anxiety and time management skills. The study group composed 270 12th-grade students (127 males and…

  9. Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Kokkalis, Alexandros; Bardarson, H.;

    2016-01-01

    across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we...... evaluated the development of climate change related marine science by quantifying trends in number of publications, disciplinarity, and scientific focus of 1362 research articles published between 1990 and 2011. Our analysis showed a faster increase in publications within climate change related marine...... science than in general marine science indicating a growing prioritisation of research with a climate change focus. The composition of scientific disciplines producing climate change related publications, which initially was dominated by physical sciences, shifted toward a distribution with almost even...

  10. Changes in population characteristics and their implication on public health research

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ping; Coles, F. Bruce; O'Campo, Patricia; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Population estimates are generally drawn from one point in time to study disease trends over time; changes in population characteristics over time are usually not assessed and included in the study design. We evaluated whether population characteristics remained static and assessed the degree of population shifts over time. The analysis was based on the New York State 1990 and 2000 census data with adjustments for changes in geographic boundaries. Differences in census tract information were ...

  11. Carbon dynamics and changing winter conditions: a review of current understanding and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haei, M.; Laudon, H.

    2015-09-01

    Despite the important role of winters for northern ecosystems, it remains the least understood of all the seasons. Here, we summarize existing empirical studies on winter climate and carbon dynamics and highlight some important future research directions. The existing studies include field-scale snow-cover manipulation experiments representing extreme soil climate conditions, laboratory soil incubations studying the influential factors, and time-series of climate and carbon data showing long-term natural variations and existing trends. Most of the field and laboratory experiments indicate an increased soil organic carbon loss due to soil frost. Long-term data demonstrate temporal changes in winter CO2 efflux and its important contribution to the annual fluxes. A number of research priorities to improve our understanding of winter conditions include (i) ecosystem processes in the fall-winter and winter-spring shoulder seasons, (ii) extreme events, (iii) partitioning into organic- and inorganic carbon, (iv) carry-over effects of winter and growing season on each other, (v) long-term cumulative impacts, and (vi) improved winter process modelling. These areas of research would enable an improved understanding of the role of the snow covered period for carbon cycling, and provide a basis for more realistic models that include winter processes.

  12. Designing an Africa-EU research and innovation collaboration platform on climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tostensen, Arne; Monteverde Haakonsen, Jan; Hughes, Mike;

    Climate change is arguably the most significant of a set of interconnected global challenges threatening water resources and food security. In particular, the relationship between water resources, food systems and climate change is tightly coupled, and improved food security under climate change...... contribute to making this process more effective by developing a proposition for a platform to strengthen Africa-EU research and innovation collaboration on climate change....

  13. Supplier's internal communication in change process to solution business: Challenges and tentative research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Ryynänen, Harri; Pekkarinen, Olli; Salminen, Risto T.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines supplier's internal communication when a company is changing to being a solution provider. The focus lies on the internal communication challenges during the change. The qualitative case study comprises two cases of the change process to solution business. The results indicate that there are eight main internal communication challenges when a company is changing to being a solution supplier. In addition, the study offers a categorization to manage these challenges and c...

  14. Biological effects of climate change: An introduction to the field and a survey of current research

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Gørill

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a survey of international (Chapter 2) as well as national research activities within 13 selected countries (Chapter 3) in the field of biological effects of climate change. In addition, a brief overview of potential changes within natural ecosystems in response to climate change is given (Chapter 1). This part is intended to serve as a quick introduction for biologists who lack previous experience with the whole or parts of the field of climate change impact studies. The ...

  15. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses...... driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity...... that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms...

  16. Changing the Peer Review or Changing the Peers--Recent Development in Assessment of Large Research Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Finn; Monsted, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of research programmes is changing. The problem is discussed through detailed study of a selection process to a call for collaborations in the energy sector for the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. The authors were involved in the application for a Knowledge Innovation Community. Through the analysis of the case the…

  17. Spatio-temporal change detection from multidimensional arrays: Detecting deforestation from MODIS time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng; Pebesma, Edzer; Sanchez, Alber; Verbesselt, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Growing availability of long-term satellite imagery enables change modeling with advanced spatio-temporal statistical methods. Multidimensional arrays naturally match the structure of spatio-temporal satellite data and can provide a clean modeling process for complex spatio-temporal analysis over large datasets. Our study case illustrates the detection of breakpoints in MODIS imagery time series for land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon using the BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) change detection framework. BFAST includes an Empirical Fluctuation Process (EFP) to alarm the change and a change point time locating process. We extend the EFP to account for the spatial autocorrelation between spatial neighbors and assess the effects of spatial correlation when applying BFAST on satellite image time series. In addition, we evaluate how sensitive EFP is to the assumption that its time series residuals are temporally uncorrelated, by modeling it as an autoregressive process. We use arrays as a unified data structure for the modeling process, R to execute the analysis, and an array database management system to scale computation. Our results point to BFAST as a robust approach against mild temporal and spatial correlation, to the use of arrays to ease the modeling process of spatio-temporal change, and towards communicable and scalable analysis.

  18. Detecting Changes in Forest Structure over Time with Bi-Temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Melkas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to stems caused by natural forces and timber harvesting constitute an essential input for many forestry-related applications and ecological studies, especially forestry inventories based on the use of permanent sample plots. Conventional field measurement is widely acknowledged as being time-consuming and labor-intensive. More automated and efficient alternatives or supportive methods are needed. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been demonstrated to be a promising method in forestry field inventories. Nevertheless, the applicability of TLS in recording changes in the structure of forest plots has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a fully automated method for detecting changes in forest structure over time using bi-temporal TLS data. The developed method was tested on five densely populated forest plots including 137 trees and 50 harvested trees in point clouds. The present study demonstrated that 90 percent of tree stem changes could be automatically located from single-scan TLS data. These changes accounted for 92 percent of the changed basal area. The results indicate that the processing of TLS data collected at different times to detect tree stem changes can be fully automated.

  19. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.

    2013-07-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Prevalence and Cost of Full-Time Research Fellowships During General Surgery Residency – A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M.; Klingensmith, Mary E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. Summary Background Data General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1-3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Methods Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Results Response rate was 200/239 (84%). A total of 381 out of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and post-residency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (p<0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of ACGME work hour regulations for clinical residents, while a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Conclusions Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. While performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after post-graduate training. PMID:19106692

  1. Research on Climate Change and Its Impacts Needs Freedom of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Mölders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change captured my interest as a teenager when, at the dining table, my dad talked about potential anthropogenic climate changes. He brought up subjects such as “climate could change if the Siberian Rivers were to be deviated to the South for irrigation of the (semi arid areas of the former Soviet Union”. Other subjects were afforestation in the Sahel to enhance precipitation recycling, deforestation in the Tropics that could have worldwide impacts on climate, the local climate impacts of the Merowe High Dam in its vicinity and downstream, Atlantropa, a new ice age, and the increase in days with sunshine after the introduction of the high-chimney policy in the Rhein-Ruhr area, just to mention a few.

  2. Research on Climate Change and Climate Change Communication%论气候变化与气候传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑保卫; 李玉洁

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the origin of the climate change, makes discussion about the rising and importance of climate change communication research, introduces the current research of climate change communication both at home and abroad, and clarifies the basic notion and way in the research. It defines the climate change communication as such a commutative activity which promotes the climate change information and related scientific knowledge to be understood and mastered by the public then to seek the solving of climate change problems as the target via changing the public's attitude and behavior regarding the climate change. While the paper also points out the meaning of this research lies in: to make theory summary and systematic explanation of the climate change communication phenomena, to do the mass dissemination and popularization work of such kind of knowledge, and to provide academic supports for those stakeholders including the government ,media ,business and NGO of climate change.%本文论述了气候变化问题的由来及发展,以及气候传播研究的兴起及意义,介绍了国外和国内气候传播研究的现状,同时厘清了气候传播研究中的一些基本概念与思路。论文认为气候传播是将气候变化信息及其相关科学知识为社会与公众所理解和掌握,并通过公众态度和行为的改变,以寻求气候变化问题解决为目标的社会传播活动;指出气候传播研究的目的及意义在于:对气候传播现象进行理论概括和系统阐释;对气候传播知识进行社会传播与推广;为政府、媒体、企业和NGO等社会组织提供有关气候传播的学术支持等。

  3. Change Semantic Constrained Online Data Cleaning Method for Real-Time Observational Data Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yulin; Lin, Hui; Li, Rongrong

    2016-06-01

    Recent breakthroughs in sensor networks have made it possible to collect and assemble increasing amounts of real-time observational data by observing dynamic phenomena at previously impossible time and space scales. Real-time observational data streams present potentially profound opportunities for real-time applications in disaster mitigation and emergency response, by providing accurate and timeliness estimates of environment's status. However, the data are always subject to inevitable anomalies (including errors and anomalous changes/events) caused by various effects produced by the environment they are monitoring. The "big but dirty" real-time observational data streams can rarely achieve their full potential in the following real-time models or applications due to the low data quality. Therefore, timely and meaningful online data cleaning is a necessary pre-requisite step to ensure the quality, reliability, and timeliness of the real-time observational data. In general, a straightforward streaming data cleaning approach, is to define various types of models/classifiers representing normal behavior of sensor data streams and then declare any deviation from this model as normal or erroneous data. The effectiveness of these models is affected by dynamic changes of deployed environments. Due to the changing nature of the complicated process being observed, real-time observational data is characterized by diversity and dynamic, showing a typical Big (Geo) Data characters. Dynamics and diversity is not only reflected in the data values, but also reflected in the complicated changing patterns of the data distributions. This means the pattern of the real-time observational data distribution is not stationary or static but changing and dynamic. After the data pattern changed, it is necessary to adapt the model over time to cope with the changing patterns of real-time data streams. Otherwise, the model will not fit the following observational data streams, which may led

  4. Channel Reordering with Time-shifted Streams to Improve Channel Change Latency in IPTV Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Azgin, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    In IPTV networks, channel change latency is considered as a major obstacle in achieving broadcast-level quality video delivery. Because of the bandwidth limitations observed at the client side, users typically have access to a limited number of channels. As a result, channel change requests oftentimes need to go through the network, thereby leading to significant delays. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a resource-efficient time-shifted channel reordering mechanism to minimize the channel change latency. The proposed framework exploits the differing key-frame delivery times for the adjacent sessions to dynamically arrange the switching order during the surfing periods. The simulation results show that, with the proposed framework, more than 50% improvement can be achieved in channel change latency without introducing any overhead in the network.

  5. Changes in Rural Land Use and Part-time Farming, Central Victoria, 1974 to 1978

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Ian R.

    1983-01-01

    Successive surveys of 376 rural holdings near Melbourne, in 1974-75 and 1978-79, revealed a substantial increase in part-time farming at the expense of full-time farming, but little change in overall land use and area farmed. Few of the part-time farms surveyed were profitable in the mid-1970's, but most farmers put their farming way of life ahead of financial considerations, and the blow was softened by capital gains on farm land and the tax deductibility of farm losses. Part-time farms were...

  6. Phenotypic plasticity alone cannot explain climate-induced change in avian migration timing

    OpenAIRE

    Buskirk, Josh; Mulvihill, Robert S; Leberman, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Recent climate change has been linked to shifts in the timing of life-cycle events in many organisms, but there is debate over the degree to which phenological changes are caused by evolved genetic responses of populations or by phenotypic plasticity of individuals. We estimated plasticity of spring arrival date in 27 species of bird that breed in the vicinity of an observatory in eastern North America. For 2441 individuals detected in multiple years, arrival occurred earlier during warm year...

  7. Dynamic global games of regime change: Learning, multiplicity, and timing of attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletos, George-Marios; Hellwig, Christian; Pavan, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Global games of regime change-coordination games of incomplete information in which a status quo is abandoned once a sufficiently large fraction of agents attacks it-have been used to study crises phenomena such as currency attacks, bank runs, debt crises, and political change. We extend the static benchmark examined in the literature by allowing agents to take actions in many periods and to learn about the underlying fundamentals over time. We first provide a simple recursive algorithm for t...

  8. A Practical Approach to Mode Change in Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Ravn, Anders Peter; Thomsen, Bent;

    We present a contract for consistent mode change in a real-time system for control applications. The contract between the control engineer and the software developer guarantees that when a mode change is signalled, it will occur at a specific instant thereafter, and that the task sets for the modes...... are never mixed. The concept is illustrated by small examples, and efficient implementations in Safety Critical Java on two platforms are demonstrated....

  9. Spike timing precision changes with spike rate adaptation in the owl's auditory space map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Clifford H; Takahashi, Terry T

    2015-10-01

    Spike rate adaptation (SRA) is a continuing change of responsiveness to ongoing stimuli, which is ubiquitous across species and levels of sensory systems. Under SRA, auditory responses to constant stimuli change over time, relaxing toward a long-term rate often over multiple timescales. With more variable stimuli, SRA causes the dependence of spike rate on sound pressure level to shift toward the mean level of recent stimulus history. A model based on subtractive adaptation (Benda J, Hennig RM. J Comput Neurosci 24: 113-136, 2008) shows that changes in spike rate and level dependence are mechanistically linked. Space-specific neurons in the barn owl's midbrain, when recorded under ketamine-diazepam anesthesia, showed these classical characteristics of SRA, while at the same time exhibiting changes in spike timing precision. Abrupt level increases of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) noise initially led to spiking at higher rates with lower temporal precision. Spike rate and precision relaxed toward their long-term values with a time course similar to SRA, results that were also replicated by the subtractive model. Stimuli whose amplitude modulations (AMs) were not synchronous across carrier frequency evoked spikes in response to stimulus envelopes of a particular shape, characterized by the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF). Again, abrupt stimulus level changes initially disrupted the temporal precision of spiking, which then relaxed along with SRA. We suggest that shifts in latency associated with stimulus level changes may differ between carrier frequency bands and underlie decreased spike precision. Thus SRA is manifest not simply as a change in spike rate but also as a change in the temporal precision of spiking. PMID:26269555

  10. Writing for Change: Research as Public Pedagogy and Arts-Based Activism. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In its analysis of the potential and realities of narrative inquiry, "Writing for Change" is both theoretical and highly practical, offering a way to conceptualize this kind of research and providing concrete suggestions as to how it might be conducted. With its emphasis on arts-based activist education, the book also contributes to current…

  11. Scalable time series change detection for biomass monitoring using gaussian process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Biomass monitoring, specifically detecting changes in the biomass or vegetation of a geographical region, is vital for studying the carbon cycle of the system and has significant implications in the context of understanding climate change and its impacts. Recently, several time series change detection methods have been proposed to identify land cover changes in temporal profiles (time series) of vegetation collected using remote sensing instruments. In this paper, we adapt Gaussian process regression to detect changes in such time series in an online fashion. While Gaussian process (GP) has been widely used as a kernel based learning method for regression and classification, their applicability to massive spatio-temporal data sets, such as remote sensing data, has been limited owing to the high computational costs involved. In this paper we address the scalability aspect of GP based time series change detection. Specifically, we exploit the special structure of the covariance matrix generated for GP analysis to come up with methods that can efficiently estimate the hyper-parameters associated with GP as well as identify changes in the time series while requiring a memory footprint which is linear in the size of input data, as compared to traditional method which involves solving a linear system of equations for the Choleksy decomposition of the quadratic sized covariance matrix. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves significant speedups, as high as 1000, when processing long time series, while maintaining a small memory footprint. To further improve the computational complexity of the proposed method, we provide a parallel version which can concurrently process multiple input time series using the same set of hyper-parameters. The parallel version exploits the natural parallelization potential of the serial algorithm and is shown to perform significantly better than the serial version, with speedups as high as 10. Finally, we demonstrate the

  12. Regulating Workplace Risks A Comparative Study of Inspection Regimes in Times of Change

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, David; Frick, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Regulating Workplace Risks is a study of regulatory inspection of occupational health and safety (OHS) and its management in five countries - Australia, Canada (Quebec), France, Sweden and the UK - during a time of major change. It examines the implications of the shift from specification to process based regulation, in which attention has been increasingly directed to the means of managing OHS more systematically at a time in which a major restructuring of work has occurred in response to the globalised economy. These changes provide both the context and material for a wider discussion of the

  13. Changes over the course of time in histological subclassification of Hodgkin's disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, A F; Specht, L K; Nissen, N I;

    1991-01-01

    cases which are not histologically diagnostic but microscopically bear resemblance to Hodgkin's disease, to obtain a uniform subclassification in accordance with recent new points of the Rye classification, to examine possible changes in incidence over the course of time and to examine the NS...... disagreement. In the histologically reclassified material, the Rye classification lost its prognostic significance. It was not possible to demonstrate a gradual change over the course of time in the relative number of cases in each subgroup.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  14. Time-varying effect models for ordinal responses with applications in substance abuse research

    OpenAIRE

    Dziak, John J.; Li, Runze; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Buu, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Ordinal responses are very common in longitudinal data collected from substance abuse research or other behavioral research. This study develops a new statistical model with free SAS macro’s that can be applied to characterize time-varying effects on ordinal responses. Our simulation study shows that the ordinal-scale time-varying effects model has very low estimation bias and sometimes offers considerably better performance when fitting data with ordinal responses than a model that treats th...

  15. Bringing the Body Back into the Study of Time in Consumer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyoki, Sammy; Schwob, Alexandre; Hietanen, Joel;

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual chapter explores the role of embodiment in phenomenological experience of lived time, and the implications it may hold for studying consumption. We argue that though consumer research scholars have become increasingly cognizant of the embodied foundation of temporal experience, th...... build an existing work in consumer research to open up a possibility for a phenomenological experience of consumption that is, to a great extent, precognitive, temporal, and based on the ability to experience lived time....

  16. Consumer Response to the Timing of Income: Evidence from a Change in Tax Withholding.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Matthew D.; Joel Slemrod

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the income tax withholding tables were adjusted so that withholding was reduced. A typical worker received an extra $28.80 in take-home pay per month in March through December 1992, to be offset by a lower tax refund in 1993. The change in withholding amounted to 0.5 percent of GDP. President Bush, who proposed this change in his State of the Union address, intended that it provide a temporary stimulus to demand. But the policy change involved only the timing of income, so, under the...

  17. Change-Point Detection in Time-Series Data by Relative Density-Ratio Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Song; Collier, Nigel; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of change-point detection is to discover abrupt property changes lying behind time series data. In this paper, we present a novel statistical change-point detection algorithm that is based on non-parametric divergence estimation between two retrospective segments. Our method uses the relative Pearson divergence as a divergence measure, and it is accurately and efficiently estimated by a method of direct density-ratio estimation. Through experiments on artificial and real-world datasets including human-activity sensing, speeches, and Twitter archives, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  18. Putting Climate Change on the Map: A Translation from Time to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, B.; Bethke, I.; Drange, H.

    2009-04-01

    By increasing the concentrations of atmospheric greenhouses gases, man is changing the physical geography of planet Earth. This message is often given to the public in form of rather abstract numbers, such as changes in the annual mean surface temperature. Therefore, one of the difficulties to overcome when educating the public about climate change is to translate these abstract numbers into everyday experiences - a task that is not easy given the statistical and thereby abstract definition of the term 'climate' itself. However, climate does not only vary with time, but also with space, and people generally have a better idea of what it would be like to live in another place, than to experience an annual mean temperature rise of e.g. 3 K. We used the model calculations from the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to translate the projected temperature change into a change of location: Each point on a geographical map is shifted to the closest location that in the year 2000 has the annual mean temperature that the point is projected to have at some time in the future. With this method, it is possible to create a new kind of accessible and visually appealing illustration of climate change, answering the question: Where do I have to go today to experience tomorrow's climate? Similarly, it is possible to answer a related question: Where would I have to move if I want to continue living in today's climate?

  19. Allocating Time Resources for Research between Academic Staff: The Case of Norwegian University Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore how time resources for research are allocated among academic staff members in institutions where research qualifications differ much between individuals. Norwegian university colleges are used as a case. These resources, which can be regarded as scarce goods, are of two kinds: the share of working hours…

  20. Study on the vegetation dynamic change using long time series of remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2010-10-01

    The vegetation covering land surface is main component of biosphere which is one of five significant spheres on the earth. The vegetation plays a very important role on the natural environment conservation and improvement to keep human being's living environment evergreen while the vegetation supplies many natural resources to human living and development continuously. Under the background of global warming, vegetation is changing as climate changes. It is not doubt that human activities have great effects on the vegetation dynamic. In general, there are two aspects of the interaction between vegetation and climate, the climatic adaptation of vegetation and the vegetation feedback on climate. On the base of the research on the long term vegetation growth dynamics, it can be found out the vegetation adaptation to climate change. The dynamic change of vegetation is the direct indicator of the ecological environment changes. Therefore, study on the dynamic change of vegetation will be very interest and useful. In this paper, the vegetation change in special region of China will be described in detail. In addition to the methods of the long term in-situ observation of vegetation, remote sensing technologies can also be used to study the long time series vegetation dynamic. The widely used NDVI was often employed to monitor the status of vegetation growth. Actually, NDVI can indicate the vigor and the fractional cover of vegetation effectively. So the long time series of NDVI datasets are a very valuable data source supporting the study on the long term vegetation dynamics. Since 1980, a series of NOAA satellites have been launched successfully, which have already supplied more than 20 years NOAA/AVHRR satellites data. In this paper, we selected Ningxia Hui autonomic region of China as the case study area and used 20 years pathfinder AVHRR NDVI data to carry out the case study on the vegetation dynamics in order to further understand the phenomena of 20 years vegetation

  1. Changes in the representation of space and time while listening to music

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas eSchäfer; Jörg eFachner; Mario eSmukalla

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to alter people’s ordinary experience of space and time. Not only does this challenge the concept of invariant space and time tacitly assumed in psychology but it may also help us understand how music works and how music can be understood as an embodied experience. Yet research about these alterations is in its infancy. This review is intended to delineate a future research agenda. We review experimental evidence and subjective reports of the influence of music on the represent...

  2. a New Japanese Project for Arctic Climate Change Research - Grene Arctic - (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    A new Arctic Climate Change Research Project 'Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences' has started in 2011 for a five years project. GRENE-Arctic project is an initiative of Arctic study by more than 30 Japanese universities and institutes as the flame work of GRENE (Green Network of Excellence) of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). The GRENE-Arctic project set four strategic research targets: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic 2. Understanding the Arctic system for global climate and future change 3. Evaluation of the effects of Arctic change on weather in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries 4. Prediction of sea Ice distribution and Arctic sea routes This project aims to realize the strategic research targets by executing following studies: -Improvement of coupled general circulation models based on validations of the Arctic climate reproducibility and on mechanism analyses of the Arctic climate change and variability -The role of Arctic cryosphere in the global change -Change in terrestrial ecosystem of pan-Arctic and its effect on climate -Studies on greenhouse gas cycles in the Arctic and their responses to climate change -Atmospheric studies on Arctic change and its global impacts -Ecosystem studies of the Arctic ocean declining Sea ice -Projection of Arctic Sea ice responding to availability of Arctic sea route (* ** ***) *Changes in the Arctic ocean and mechanisms on catastrophic reduction of Arctic sea ice cover **Coordinated observational and modeling studies on the basic structure and variability of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system ***Sea ice prediction and construction of ice navigation support system for the Arctic sea route. Although GRENE Arctic project aims to product scientific contribution in a concentrated program during 2011-2016, Japanese Arctic research community established Japan Consortium for Arctic Environmental Research (JCAR) in May

  3. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotype fitness and various control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    P.N. Thompson; Heesterbeek, J A P; van Arendonk,

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated very slowly from a population, a small selective disadvantage of the heterozygote results in a large increase in the rate of elimination. With selective advantage of the heterozygote through linkage...

  4. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotypic fitness and various control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    P.N. Thompson; Heesterbeek, J A P; Van Arendonk, J. A. M.

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated very slowly from a population, a small selective disadvantage of the heterozygote results in a large increase in the rate of elimination. With selective advantage of the heterozygote through linkage...

  5. Time Zones, Factor Prices and Inflow of Educational Capital: Changing Sectoral Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Biswajit; Marjit, Sugata; Nakanishi, Noritsugu

    2013-01-01

    Time Zone difference induced changes in trade and factor prices are relatively new concerns in trade literature. Here in this paper we formulate a trade model capturing the issue of Time Zone difference and communication technology revolution together to show that due to these developments skilled workers benefit. Though wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers is widened under reasonable and, of course, sensible condition. Return to capital dwindles while educational capital get...

  6. Time dependent quaritum harmonic oscillator subject to a sudden change of mass: continuous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Moya-Cessa, H.; M. Fernández Guasti

    2007-01-01

    We show that a harmonic oscillator subject to a sudden change of mas s produces squeezed states. Our study is based on an approximate analytic solution to the time-dependent harmonic oscillator equation with a subperiod function parameter. This continuous treatment differs from former studies that involve the matching of two time-independent solutions at the discontinuity. This formalism requires an ad hoc transformation of the original differential equation and isalso applicable for rapid, a...

  7. The Impact of Gasoline Price Changes on Traffic Safety: a Time Geography Explanation.

    OpenAIRE

    Guangqing Chi; Jeremy Porter; Arthur Cosby; David Levinson

    2009-01-01

    The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety has received increasing attention in empirical studies. However, this important relationship has not been explained within a conceptual or theoretical framework. In this study, we examine this relationship within a time geography framework in an attempt to understand the effect of time-varying fluctuations in gasoline prices and their relationship to traffic safety in a case study of Mississippi from April 2004 to December 2008. We furthe...

  8. Empowering Change Agents in Hierarchical Organizations: Participatory Action Research in Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J; Ladonne, Robert A; Martin, Lea M

    2016-06-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) approaches harness collaborative partnerships to stimulate change in defined communities. The purpose of this article is to illustrate key methodological strategies used in the application of PAR methods in the particularly challenging environment of a hierarchical organization. A study designed to promote sustainable, insider-generated system-level changes in the provision of end-of-life (EOL) care in the restrictive setting of six state prisons is used as an exemplar of the application of three cardinal principles of PAR. First, development of a collaborative network with active partnership between outsider academic researchers and insider co-researchers began with careful attention to understanding the culture and processes of prisons and gaining the support of organizational leadership, using qualitative data gathering and trust-building. During the implementation phase, promoting co-ownership of change in EOL care through the co-construction of knowledge and systems to enhance sustainable change required carefully-orchestrated strategies to maximize the collaborative spirit of the project. Co-researchers were empowered to examine their worlds and capture opportunities for change using new leadership skills role-modeled by the research team. Third, their local knowledge of the barriers inherent in the contextual reality of prisons was translated into achievable system change by production of a toolkit of formalized and well-rehearsed change strategies that collaborative teams were empowered to enact within their hierarchical prison environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028096

  9. Understanding the Future of Change Agency in Sustainability Through Cellular Automata Scenarios: The Role of Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main interdisciplinary challenges today is to understand and change the dominant social perceptions and values that support and perpetuate unsustainable practices. Social computational simulations have been conceived in recent years to understand emergent results from complex systems. These dynamic social models are of interest to sustainability researchers because they provide a means to implement hypotheses and explore scenarios that could help extend our understanding of the future role of change agency in society. Change agents are individuals who directly or indirectly enable sustainable behaviors or inhibit practices that damage the environment and large social groups. Evidence-based strategies, guidelines and methods are necessary in order to manage creative change agency more effectively. This paper presents work with computational simulations, known as cellular automata, in order to explore the role of timing in triggering social change through uncoordinated, autonomous individual action. The paper identifies a number of issues related to creative change agency and proposes associated guidelines for practitioners. As a means of early validation, these findings are portrayed against empirical studies in the literature.

  10. Diurnal changes in the perception of emotions in music: Does the time of day matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Brabant, Olivier; Toiviainen, Petri

    2014-01-01

    According to the Hindustani music tradition, the ability of a song to induce certain emotions depends on the time of day: playing a song at the right time is said to maximise its emotional effect. The present exploratory study investigated this claim by combining findings in chronobiology, mood research and music perception. It has already been established that some aspects of our mood fluctuations follow a cyclical pattern. Besides, it is a known fact that our current mood influences our per...

  11. Re-Visioning Action: Participatory Action Research and Indigenous Theories of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This article observes that participatory action research (PAR), by nature of being collaborative, necessitates making explicit theories of change that may have otherwise gone unseen or unexamined. The article explores the limits of the reform/revolution paradox on actions and theories of change in PAR. Citing examples from two recent youth PAR…

  12. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  13. Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub M

    2009-01-01

    In order to identify future monitoring and research needs, a COST Strategic workshop on the role of "Forest ecosystems in a changing environment" assembled nearly 180 scientists from 30 countries in Istanbul on 11-13 March 2008. The workshop specifically tackled the fields of climate change and forests, ozone, atmospheric deposition and critical loads, biodiversity, as well as quality assurance in forest monitoring.

  14. Topographic Maps: Rediscovering an Accessible Data Source for Land Cover Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, Ron; McSweeney, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    Given some limitations of satellite imagery for the study of land cover change, we draw attention here to a robust and often overlooked data source for use in student research: USGS topographic maps. Topographic maps offer an inexpensive, rapid, and accessible means for students to analyze land cover change over large areas. We demonstrate our…

  15. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  16. Public Presentations of Professional Change in Academic Research Library Strategic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Academic librarianship is a profession in the midst of change. Embedded within multiple social spheres, academic librarians are adapting to changes in higher education, the sociotechnical environment of information, and the system of professions. This research investigates the ways in which academic librarians publicly present the ways in which…

  17. A measure of total research impact independent of time and discipline

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Authorship and citation practices evolve with time and differ by academic discipline. As such, indicators of research productivity based on citation records are naturally subject to historical and disciplinary effects. We observe these effects on a corpus of astronomer career data constructed from a database of refereed publications. We employ a simple mechanism to measure research output using author and reference counts available in bibliographic databases to develop a citation-based indicator of research productivity. The total research impact (tori) quantifies, for an individual, the total amount of scholarly work that others have devoted to his/her work, measured in the volume of research papers. A derived measure, the research impact quotient (riq), is an age independent measure of an individual's research ability. We demonstrate that these measures are substantially less vulnerable to temporal debasement and cross-disciplinary bias than the most popular current measures. The proposed measures of resear...

  18. Evidence for Long-Time Scale ( > 103 years) Changes in Hydrothermal Activity Induced By Seismic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Howald, T.; Campbell, A.; Hofstra, A.; Lueth, V.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Gable, C. W.; Luijendijk, E.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kelley, S.; Phillips, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    The typical approach to assess climate change impacts on water resources systems is based on a vertical integration/coupling of models: GCM models are run to project future precipitations and temperatures, which are then downscaled and used as inputs to hydrologic models whose outputs are processed by water systems models. From a decision-making point of view, this top-down vertical approach presents some challenges. For example, since the range of uncertainty that can be explored with GCM is limited, researchers are relying on ensembles to enlarge the spread, making the modeling approach even more demanding in terms of computation time and resource. When a particular water system must be analyzed, the question is to know whether this computationally intensive vertical approach is necessary in the first place or if we could extrapolate projections available in neighboring systems to feed the water system model? This would be equivalent to a horizontal approach. The proposed study addresses this question by comparing the performance of a water resource system under future climate conditions using the vertical and horizontal approaches. The methodology is illustrated with the hydropower system of the Gatineau River Basin in Quebec, Canada. Vertically obtained hydrologic projections available in those river basins are extrapolated and used as inputs to a stochastic multireservoir optimization model. Two different extrapolation techniques are tested. The first one simply relies on the ratios between the drainage areas. The second exploits the covariance structure found in historical flow data throughout the region. The analysis of the simulation results reveals that the annual and weekly energy productions of the system derived from the horizontal approach are statistically equivalent to those obtained with the vertical one, regardless of the extrapolation technique used.

  19. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses

  20. The Changing Nature of Governance in the Public Research University: Untangling the Web of Faculty Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudt, Angela Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Public research universities continue to be challenged on a number of fronts--declining state revenues, increasing enrollment, calls for accountability and transparency from the public, and increasing scrutiny by governing boards. In addition, the composition of faculty at public research universities is changing. Understanding the impact that…

  1. Developing Professional Knowledge about Teachers through Metaphor Research: Facilitating a Process of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongqin; Coombs, Steven; Zhou, Xing

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws upon research evidence obtained as metaphors from biographical narrative interviews of Mandarin teachers of English working in China, which has illustrated the problems of teachers adapting to change in Chinese schools. The research has attempted to explore teachers' professional adaptation under strenuous challenges, that is, the…

  2. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  3. Learning Might Not Equal Liking: Research Methods Course Changes Knowledge But Not Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, O. J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Students completed surveys at the beginning and end of a sophomore-level course on research and statistics. We hypothesized that the course would produce advances in knowledge of research and statistics and that those changes would be accompanied by more favorable attitudes toward the subject matter. Results showed that knowledge did increase…

  4. Examining Epistemic Frames in Conceptual Change Research: Implications for Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P. Karen; Alexander, Patricia A.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Hennessey, Maeghan N.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, research on the role of epistemic beliefs in conceptual change has increased dramatically. The focus of that research has largely been on students' beliefs about knowledge and knowing; that is, how one understands what it means to know. In this article, we consider the characteristics of knowledge and knowing (i.e., epistemic frames)…

  5. A new scenario framework for Climate Change Research: scenario matrix architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.; Kriegler, E.; O'Neill, B.C.; Ebi, K.L.; Riahi, K.; Carter, T.R.; Edmonds, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Kram, T.; Mathur, R.; Winkler, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the scenario matrix architecture that underlies a framework for developing new scenarios for climate change research. The matrix architecture facilitates addressing key questions related to current climate research and policy-making: identifying the effectiveness of different ad

  6. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Viviroli, Daniel; Archer, D R; Buytaert, W.; Fowler, H.J.; G. B. Greenwood; Hamlet, A F; Huang, Y.; G. Koboltschnig; M. I. Litaor; J. I. López-Moreno; S. Lorentz; Schädler, Bruno; Schreier, H.; Schwaiger, K; Vuille, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations f...

  7. Demographic changes and the demands on agricultural landscapes: Refl ections on a new research topic

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, K.; A. Artner; Knierim, A

    2008-01-01

    Demographic change suggests substantial effects on future societal demands on agricultural landscape use and thus on rural areas. Demographic change is thereby defined as both the decrease of the population and the shift in the age distribution („aging“) and in the spatial distribution („rural flight“ particularly of young people). The exploration of the research object is based on the starting hypothesis that the demands and preferences of an aging and urbanizing population are changing and ...

  8. Creative Climate: A global ten-year communications, research and learning project about environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, M. A.; Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    The next ten years have been described by influential science and policy figures as ‘the most important in human history’. Many believe that the actions taken will decide whether we catastrophically change the atmosphere and eradicate our fellow species or find an alternative, less-damaging development path. But communications and public engagement initiatives have tended to focus on near term impacts or debates - whether they emphasise hazards, or trumpet ‘solutions’. There are signs of diminishing returns on communications and public engagement efforts, and serious obstacles to engaging around 40% of publics in e.g. the US and the UK. The Creative Climate web project takes a new approach, inviting people to see humanity’s intellectual and practical journey with these issues as an inspiring, dynamic and unfolding story. We are inviting people to join us in building a huge living archive of experiences and ideas that respond to these issues. The website will collect thoughts and stories from doorstep to workplace, from lab to garden; from international conference to community meeting - from all over the world. The body of diaries lie at the core of the project, but these are supplemented by the offer of free online learning resources and broadcast-quality audio and video materials. The project is experimental in terms of its scope, its approach to environmental communications and debate and in its use of media. It works with formal partners, including the BBC, yet also makes the most of the opportunities for user generated content to create a rich multimedia resource that can support research, learning and engagement. The design of the project is informed by environmental social science and communications research, and by an awareness of the unfolding potential of Internet based communications to support social change. It is also intended that the Creative Climate platform will develop so as to serve researchers by offering an open resource of qualitative

  9. 1968, 1989, 2011: reconsidering social movements, 'moments of change' and theoretical framing over time

    OpenAIRE

    Kornetis, Kostis

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on three separate "moments of change" - 1968, 1989 and 2011 – in order to trace the changes in the way in which social movements were theoretically framed on a research level ever since the 1960s. Rather than focusing on the real or imaginary connections that activists often create with the contestatory past – or the rejection thereof – it demonstrates the ways in which those moments were theorised and the genealogies that were forged by specialists, who more often than n...

  10. Bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute ferrous sulphate tablet aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Maw, Matthew; Chiu, Robert; Lim, Albert Yick Hou

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman accidentally aspirated an iron tablet. She was successfully treated with early endobronchial removal of the iron tablet remnants, oral corticosteroids and antibiotics. We describe the bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute iron tablet aspiration and highlight the importance of early intervention to avoid complications.

  11. Bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute ferrous sulphate tablet aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maw, Matthew; Chiu, Robert; Lim, Albert Yick Hou

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman accidentally aspirated an iron tablet. She was successfully treated with early endobronchial removal of the iron tablet remnants, oral corticosteroids and antibiotics. We describe the bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute iron tablet aspiration and highlight the importance of early intervention to avoid complications. PMID:23257641

  12. Hookah Use among New Jersey Youth: Associations and Changes over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Hrywna, Mary; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess hookah use among youth for prevalence, associations, and changes over time. Methods: Data from the 2008 and 2010 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed to examine hookah smoking by gender, race/ethnicity, and grade level. Results: Prevalence of hookah use increased significantly among black and Hispanic students.…

  13. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...

  14. The Visualization of Change in Word Meaning over Time using Temporal Word Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Lala, Chiraag; Cohen, Shay B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a visualization tool that can be used to view the change in meaning of words over time. The tool makes use of existing (static) word embedding datasets together with a timestamped $n$-gram corpus to create {\\em temporal} word embeddings.

  15. 20 CFR 702.337 - Formal hearings; change of time or place for hearings; postponements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; change of time or place for hearings; postponements. 702.337 Section 702.337 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE...

  16. Agility: A Crucial Capability for Universities in Times of Disruptive Change and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Government funding cuts have provided a new impetus to Australian universities to re-examine their value proposition and corporate focus. While the sector has gone through waves of change in recent times, institutions are now scrambling for their place in a highly competitive market. Institutions explore new revenue opportunities and digital…

  17. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology : biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the rel

  18. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...

  19. Changes in Mobility of Children with Cerebral Palsy over Time and across Environmental Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Beth L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; O'Neil, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined changes in mobility methods of children with cerebral palsy (CP) over time and across environmental settings. Sixty-two children with CP, ages 6-14 years and classified as levels II-IV on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, were randomly selected from a larger data base and followed for three to four years. On each…

  20. Effect of injection time on postictal SPET perfusion changes in medically refractory epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) brain imaging in epilepsy has become an increasingly important noninvasive tool in localizing the epileptogenic site. Ictal SPET demonstrates the highest localization sensitivity as compared with postictal and interictal SPET. While ictal SPET consistently reveals hyperperfusion at the epileptogenic site, postictal SPET reveals either hyper- or hypoperfusion depending on the timing of radiopharmaceutical injection. Much discussion in the literature exists about exactly when the transition from hyper- to hypoperfusion occurs at the epileptogenic site in postictal SPET. The systematic examination of two clinical variables - time of injection from seizure onset and offset - was useful in understanding postictal perfusion changes. Twenty-seven patients with medically refractory epilepsy receiving postictal and interictal SPET scans were studied. Quantitative SPET difference imaging was used to evaluate perfusion changes in relationship to injection time. Perfusion changes were found to reflect the time of injection in relation to seizure onset, but to be somewhat independent of seizure offset. Thus, the majority of patients (8/12, 67%) receiving postictal injections within 100 s after seizure onset demonstrated hyperperfusion, while all patients (15/15, 100%) receiving postictal injections more than 100 s after seizure onset showed hypoperfusion. The explanation of this phenomenon is unknown but the findings appear to parallel known changes in cerebral lactate levels. (orig.)