WorldWideScience

Sample records for change regulatory initiatives

  1. A “New Deal” for the profession : Regulatory initiatives, changing knowledge conceptions and the Committee on Accounting Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, Dominic

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how “New Deal” regulatory initiatives, primarily the Securities Acts and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), changed US auditors’ professional knowledge conception, culminating in the 1938 expansion of the Committee on Accounting Procedure

  2. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  3. Regulatory change and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Report submitted by a Working Group established by the Committee on the Global Financial System and the Markets Committee. The Group was chaired by Ulrich Bindseil (European Central Bank) and William R Nelson (Federal Reserve Board). Financial regulation is evolving, as policymakers seek to strengthen the financial system in order to make it more robust and resilient. Changes in the regulatory environment are likely to have an impact on financial system structure and on the behaviour of finan...

  4. DOE regulatory reform initiative vitrified mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.J.; Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with responsibly managing the largest volume of mixed waste in the United States. This responsibility includes managing waste in compliance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations, and in a cost-effective, environmentally responsible manner. Managing certain treated mixed wastes in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage and disposal units (specifically those mixed wastes that pose low risks from the hazardous component) is unlikely to provide additional protection to human health and the environment beyond that afforded by managing these wastes in storage and disposal units subject to requirements for radiological control. In October, 1995, the DOE submitted a regulatory reform proposal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relating to vitrified mixed waste forms. The technical proposal supports a regulatory strategy that would allow vitrified mixed waste forms treated through a permit or other environmental compliance mechanism to be granted an exemption from RCRA hazardous waste regulation, after treatment, based upon the inherent destruction and immobilization capabilities of vitrification technology. The vitrified waste form will meet, or exceed the performance criteria of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass that has been accepted as an international standard for immobilizing radioactive waste components and the LDR treatment standards for inorganics and metals for controlling hazardous constituents. The proposal further provides that vitrified mixed waste would be responsibly managed under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) while reducing overall costs. Full regulatory authority by the EPA or a State would be maintained until an acceptable vitrified mixed waste form, protective of human health and the environment, is produced

  5. Opening remarks: regulatory initiatives toward improved technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edison, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to deal with the numerous problems that have evolved over the years with nuclear power plant technical specifications, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken some initiatives for improvement: 1) new operating licenses, 2) change to existing operating reactor technical specifications, 3) a broad-scoped reconsideration of the content of technical specifications, and 4) rule changes. It is believed that reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used in conjunction with manufacturer's recommendations and engineering judgment to better define the appropriate scope and depth for technical specification resulting in focusing attention on high risk-worth systems and avoidance of plant shutdown transients both intentionally and unintentionally through provisions of technical specifications

  6. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  7. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  8. The Regulatory Consumer: Prosumer-Driven Local Energy Production Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butenko, A.; Cseres, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the (pro)active role consumers could (and are encouraged by the respective policy to) assume in markets that emerged due to European market liberalization and technological changes. These changes expanded consumer markets and changed regulatory architectures accordingly.

  9. Initiating Knowledge Management Project in a Regulatory Body in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakdee, K.; Apichaibukol, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Thailand is one of countries that have adopted the use of nuclear technology in various applications such as medical, agricultural, industrial and research applications. Recognizing this enormous potential in many applications, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) as a regulatory body under the Ministry of Science and Technology, carries out a variety of activities to disseminate and promote youth, entrepreneurs and public on the awareness of the atomic energy in Thailand. In recent years, “knowledge management” is one of the key factors that contribute to safe, secure and efficient operation of nuclear activities and facilities but also for the regulatory processes as well. In this regards, the OAP is aware and recognize of the importance of studying and initiating nuclear knowledge and human resource development programme in the regulatory body. Even though, the OAP has been initiating the project on nuclear knowledge and human resources for several years but the present status of the projects still remain in primarily stage of the initiating. This paper describes the initiating of nuclear knowledge in the past and present status for knowledge management project in regulatory body in Thailand. (author

  10. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives...... to the analysis of the evolution of British merger control provides some important new insights, most notably that the content, form, and scope of merger control in Britain have been deeply transformed in accordance with neoliberal ideas since the 1980s and that this process, which was part of a broader...

  11. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in a Changing Nuclear Regulatory Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illizastigui, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses the approach followed by the Cuban National Center for Nuclear Safety for the management of current and new competences of its regulatory staff with the aim of allowing those staff to effectively fulfill their core regulatory functions. The approach is realized through an Integrated System for Competence Building, which is based on the IAEA recommendations, shown to be effective in ensuring the necessary competence in the relevant areas. In the author’s opinion, competence of the regulatory staff in the area of human and organizational factors is of paramount importance and needs to be further strengthened in order to be able to assess safety performance at the facilities and detect early signs of deteriorating safety performance. The former is defined by the author as the core regulatory function “Analysis” which covers the entire spectrum of assessment tasks carried out by the regulatory staff to: a) detect declining safety performance, b) diagnose latent weaknesses (root causes) and c) make effective safety culture interventions. The author suggests that competence associated with the fulfillment of the analysis function is distinctly identified and dealt with separately in the current system of managing regulatory competence. (author)

  12. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory... information: (1) Your name, (2) title, (3) company or organization (if applicable), (4) mailing address, (5...

  13. Dramatic changes in 67 miRNAs during initiation of first wave of spermatogenesis in Mus musculus testis: global regulatory insights generated by miRNA-mRNA network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Sreesha; Radhakrishnan, Karthika; Indu, Sivankutty; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2014-09-01

    We mapped global changes in miRNA and mRNA profiles spanning the first wave of spermatogenesis using prepubertal (Postnatal Day 8 [P8]), pubertal (P16), and adolescent (P24) Mus musculus testes and identified the differential expression of 67 miRNAs and 8226 mRNAs. These two data sets were integrated into miRNA-dependent regulatory networks based on miRWalk predictions. In a network representing the P8 to P16 transition, downregulation of four miRNAs and upregulation of 19 miRNAs were linked with 81 upregulated target mRNAs and 228 downregulated target mRNAs, respectively. Furthermore, during the P16 to P24 transition, two miRNAs were downregulated, and eight miRNAs were upregulated, which linked with 64 upregulated mRNAs and 389 downregulated mRNAs, respectively. Only three of the miRNAs present in the network (miR-34b-5p, miR-34c, and miR-449a) showed a progressive increase from P8 through P16 to P24, while the remaining miRNAs in the network showed statistically significant changes in their levels either during the P8 to P16 transition or during the P16 to P24 transition. Analysis of the chromosomal location of these differentially expressed miRNAs showed that 14 out of 25 miRNAs upregulated from P8 to P16, and 18 out of 40 miRNAs upregulated from P8 to P24 were X-linked. This is suggestive of their escape from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and postmeiotic sex chromatin. This integrated network of miRNA-level and mRNA-level changes in mouse testis during the first wave of spermatogenesis is expected to build a base for evaluating the role of miRNA-mediated gene expression regulation in maturing mammalian testis. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Leading and managing organizational change initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Peus, Claudia; Frey, Dieter; Gerkhardt, Marit; Fischer, Peter; Traut-Mattausch, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Although indispensable for long-term economic growth, organizational changes are usually met with resistance. This article draws on psychological theories and empirical evidence to highlight why and under what conditions changes lead to resistance and what likely consequences of resistance are. Furthermore, the article discusses the variables that have been identified as success factors for organizational change initiatives. These include individual difference variables and objective characte...

  15. Rethinking managerial roles in change initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.S. Koene (Bas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOrganisational change that is initiated by middle management rather than top management is more likely to gain employee support. This is the conclusion of a recent study co-authored by Bas Koene, assistant professor in RSM’s Department of Organisation and Personnel Management.

  16. The Philippine Regulatory Frameworks, Support Policies, And Initiatives Encouraging Women Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    EDRALIN, Divina M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the Philippine regulatory frameworks, support policies, initiatives, and barriers to encouraging women entrepreneurship. Currently, women entrepreneurship seems to be nurtured with the right environment, including regulatory frameworks, financial resources and support programs for, as well as business practices and social attitudes in the country towards women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in general. However, though many SME-friendly laws and policies exist, their im...

  17. Fisheries regulatory regimes and resilience to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea, Elena; Pearlman, Isaac; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2017-05-01

    Climate change is already producing ecological, social, and economic impacts on fisheries, and these effects are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the future. Fisheries governance and regulations can alter socio-ecological resilience to climate change impacts via harvest control rules and incentives driving fisher behavior, yet there are no syntheses or conceptual frameworks for examining how institutions and their regulatory approaches can alter fisheries resilience to climate change. We identify nine key climate resilience criteria for fisheries socio-ecological systems (SES), defining resilience as the ability of the coupled system of interacting social and ecological components (i.e., the SES) to absorb change while avoiding transformation into a different undesirable state. We then evaluate the capacity of four fisheries regulatory systems that vary in their degree of property rights, including open access, limited entry, and two types of rights-based management, to increase or inhibit resilience. Our exploratory assessment of evidence in the literature suggests that these regulatory regimes vary widely in their ability to promote resilient fisheries, with rights-based approaches appearing to offer more resilience benefits in many cases, but detailed characteristics of the regulatory instruments are fundamental.

  18. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor.

  19. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing

  20. Managing education/training resources to survive regulatory change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley-Walker, L.; DeSain, G.

    1985-01-01

    The road to development of nuclear training and education programs that prepare operators to not only competently operate a commercial nuclear power plant under routine conditions but also acquire the knowledge, experience, and confidence necessary to perform under the rigors of a significant off-normal incident has been filled with speculative opinion, recommendations, disagreement, guidelines, and downright confusion. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) had not produced a regulation that specifically addresses the nature of education/training related to off-normal incidents. No one educational process currently offered fully addresses the ideal solution for those employed in the nuclear industry. The only practical solution must be the result of collaborative efforts between utilities and educational resources. The Regents College Degree Collaboration Model provides a worthy vehicle for positive movement toward this solution and survival of the ever-changing regulatory constraints in education

  1. NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B.; Wood, E.; Meyer, D.; Maynard, N.; Pandya, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    This project aligns with NASA’s Strategic Goal 3A - “Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount of resources will be most vulnerable, and least likely to adapt to the impacts brought on by a changing climate. Further, the level of vulnerability of these communities is directly correlated with their ability to implement short, medium and long range mitigation measures. The North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges (NDATC) has established a climate change education initiative among its six member Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs). The goal of this project is to enhance the TCUs capacity to educate their constituents on the science of climate change and mitigation strategies specifically as they apply to Indian Country. NDATC is comprised of six American Indian tribally chartered colleges (TCUs) which include: Cankdeska Cikana Community College, serving the Spirit Lake Dakota Nation; Fort Berthold Community College, serving the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation; Sitting Bull College, serving the Hunkpapa Lakota and Dakota Nation; Turtle Mountain Community College, serving the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa; Sisseton Wahpeton College serving the Sisseton and Wahpeton Dakota Nation, and United Tribes Technical College, serving over 70 Tribal groups from across the United States. The purpose of this project is to (1) increase awareness of climate change and its potential impacts in Indian Country through education for students, faculty and presidents of the TCUs as well as Tribal leadership; (2) increase the capacity of TCUs to respond to this global threat on behalf of tribal people; (3) develop climate change mitigation strategies relevant to Indian

  2. New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    ) and the COMBACTE and TRANSLOCATION projects under NewDrugs4BadBugs program, involving the EU Commission and the pharma industry. But also national initiatives, such as the successful Danish ban and regulations on antibiotic use in animal production, as well as educational efforts (the European Antibiotic Awareness......New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives Posted on March 19, 2014 by Timo Minssen Please find attached a ppt presentation on “New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives” given...... on March 7, 2014 at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The presentation was followed by a discussion moderated by US patent attorney Melissa Hunter-Ensor, Partner at Saul Ewing, Boston I started out by emphasizing increasing problems of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on a global level, providing new...

  3. Regulatory aspects of management of change - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear licensees are increasingly required to adapt to a more challenging commercial environment as moves to de-regulate electricity markets gather pace. One of the costs that is often perceived as being amenable to control is staffing, and hence there is significant exploration of new strategies for managing staffing levels. This report presents the outputs from a Workshop convened by the Special Experts' Group in Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) of the Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and organised by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). The purpose of the workshop was to facilitate the exchange of views on, and approaches towards, the regulation of organisational change. The major risks associated with organisational change were discussed, and a range of regulatory challenges was identified for detailed discussion. There was agreement that the licensee must retain the responsibility to manage its own business but that organisational issues should be subject to regulatory scrutiny if they have the potential to impact on safety. The regulator should be able to demonstrate an approach to oversight of organisational change which is valid, transparent and consistent, and should inform the licensee of its expectations in terms of information supplied, communication and timing. The workshop confirmed that there is significant agreement between regulators concerning the need for licensees to put in place arrangements to manage organisational change. There was also broad consensus on what should constitute the elements of a licensee's management of change process. Differing views were evident about the balance between regulatory scrutiny of the process, as opposed to the outcomes of change, which largely represents differing regulatory regimes and philosophies. However, it was acknowledged that the regulator must be capable of taking an early view of the adequacy of proposed changes, rather than monitoring outcomes alone

  4. Changes in Cis-regulatory Elements during Morphological Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lee Paul

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available How have animals evolved new body designs (morphological evolution? This requires explanations both for simple morphological changes, such as differences in pigmentation and hair patterns between different Drosophila populations and species, and also for more complex changes, such as differences in the forelimbs of mice and bats, and the necks of amphibians and reptiles. The genetic changes and pathways involved in these evolutionary steps require identification. Many, though not all, of these events occur by changes in cis-regulatory (enhancer elements within developmental genes. Enhancers are modular, each affecting expression in only one or a few tissues. Therefore it is possible to add, remove or alter an enhancer without producing changes in multiple tissues, and thereby avoid widespread (pleiotropic deleterious effects. Ideally, for a given step in morphological evolution it is necessary to identify (i the change in phenotype, (ii the changes in gene expression, (iii the DNA region, enhancer or otherwise, affected, (iv the mutation involved, (v the nature of the transcription or other factors that bind to this site. In practice these data are incomplete for most of the published studies upon morphological evolution. Here, the investigations are categorized according to how far these analyses have proceeded.

  5. Power plant construction contracting in a changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 1965 blackout in the Northeast provided the wake-up call that spawned in unprecedented program of power plant construction by electric utilities. This building program began in the late 1960s and continued unabated through the 1970s. Beginning in the late 1970s, state regulators began in era of 'prudence' reviews which disallowed as imprudent significant portions of the costs of certain nuclear units being brought on line at the time. This regulatory experience brought about a fundamental change in the way in which utilities evaluated the need for additional capacity. This paper explores construction contracting trends in light of recent developments in the relationship between the electric utility and the state regulator. It is within this context that the utility decides: (1) whether to build, buy, or save; and (2) if the decision is to build, which project planning and administration considerations will maximize the utility's ability to incorporate project costs into the ratebase. In order to put these issues into their proper perspective, this paper first presents a brief overview of the prudence decisions of the past, and the chilling effect of these decisions generally on new project planning. The paper next focuses on the recent changes to the post-construction prudence review model, including the introduction of pre-approval arrangements and rolling prudence reviews. Following that will be a survey of new construction spending decisions in light of these changes. After an analysis of the bases for the prudence disallowances of the past and the application of the lessons learned from these disallowances to contract planning and administration issues of today, the paper will close with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used contract delivery methods in today's regulatory environment

  6. The BC-Alberta intertie : impact of regulatory change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.; Hughes, K.

    2004-01-01

    The interconnected electricity system between the provinces of British Columbia (BC) and Alberta was discussed with reference to the Cranbrook-Langdon 500 kV line and two 138 kV transmission lines. The lines in British Columbia are owned by BC Hydro and operated by the BC Transmission Corporation, while the lines in Alberta are owned by AltaLink and operated by the Alberta Electric Systems Operator (AESO). The operating terms and conditions are established by an Interconnection Agreement between all parties. The Alberta-BC Intertie was designed to operate at an operating transfer capacity of 1200 MW from BC to Alberta, and 1000 MW from Alberta to BC. The operational limits on Intertie capacity were imposed due to voltage constraints within Alberta during high load periods resulting from insufficient transmission support. It was noted that available capacity is often under-utilized because sometimes it is not economical to schedule into or out of Alberta due to better market conditions in the Pacific Northwest. Transmission users in BC have explicit transmission rights which must be purchased on an hourly basis. However, transmission rights in Alberta follow dispatch of generation through Power Pool bidding. The impact of an under-utilized transmission capacity is higher wholesale prices in both Alberta and in the Pacific Northwest because ratepayers end up paying for the under-used capacity. This presentation also outlined regulatory change in Alberta with reference to consolidation of Alberta's Transmission Administrator, Power Pool Administrator and system controller functions; Alberta's new transmission policy; and, the enhanced role of market surveillance administrator. It also outlined the regulatory change in British Columbia with reference to the creation of the BC Transmission Corporation; the Heritage Contract; and, stepped rates and retail access. The effect of changes on intertie usage in both Alberta and British Columbia were also outlined. 31 refs

  7. Learning and Organizational Change in SPI Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Marikka

    Explaining how organizations chance has been a central and enduring quest of management scholars and many other disciplines. In order to be successful change requires not only a new process or technology but also the engagement and participation of the people involved. In this vein the change process results in new behavior and is routinized in practical daily business life of the company. Change management provides a framework for managing the human side of these changes. In this article we present a literature review on the change management in the context of Software Process Improvement. The traditional view of learning, as a “lessons learned” or post-mortem reporting activity is often apparent in SPI literature. However, learning can also be viewed as a continuous change process where specific learning cycle starts with creative conflict and ends up in formal norms and systems. Since this perspective has almost no visibility in SPI literature of past it could show a new direction to the future development of change management in SPI.

  8. Adapting to an initial self-regulatory task cancels the ego depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Junhua; Dewitte, Siegfried; Mao, Lihua; Xiao, Shanshan; Shi, Yucai

    2013-09-01

    The resource-based model of self-regulation provides a pessimistic view of self-regulation that people are destined to lose their self-control after having engaged in any act of self-regulation because these acts deplete the limited resource that people need for successful self-regulation. The cognitive control theory, however, offers an alternative explanation and suggests that the depletion effect reflects switch costs between different cognitive control processes recruited to deal with demanding tasks. This account implies that the depletion effect will not occur once people have had the opportunity to adapt to the self-regulatory task initially engaged in. Consistent with this idea, the present study showed that engaging in a demanding task led to performance deficits on a subsequent self-regulatory task (i.e. the depletion effect) only when the initial demanding task was relatively short but not when it was long enough for participants to adapt. Our results were unrelated to self-efficacy, mood, and motivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The SPARC initiative: a catalyst for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Savenije

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available SPARC was started in 1997 by a number of large research libraries in the US. Its main goal was to restore a competitive balance of the STM journals publishing market. A number of programmatic areas were initiated in order to realize this goal: SPARC Alternatives, SPARC Leading Edge, SPARC Scientific Communities, and SPARC Communication and Advocacy. Since two years SPARC puts a special emphasis on Open Access, including institutional repositories. The paper gives an overview of the activities of SPARC and its partners in these areas. The results are evaluated and compared with the measures defined in 1997. Finally, the paper describes the possibilities for libraries to contribute to the realization of SPARC's goals.

  10. Regulatory changes raise troubling questions for genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J; Dorschner, Michael O; Burke, Wylie; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-11-01

    By 6 October 2014, many laboratories in the United States must begin honoring new individual data access rights created by recent changes to federal privacy and laboratory regulations. These access rights are more expansive than has been widely understood and pose complex challenges for genomic testing laboratories. This article analyzes regulatory texts and guidances to explore which laboratories are affected. It offers the first published analysis of which parts of the vast trove of data generated during next-generation sequencing will be accessible to patients and research subjects. Persons tested at affected laboratories seemingly will have access, upon request, to uninterpreted gene variant information contained in their stored variant call format, binary alignment/map, and FASTQ files. A defect in the regulations will subject some non-CLIA-regulated research laboratories to these new access requirements unless the Department of Health and Human Services takes swift action to avert this apparently unintended consequence. More broadly, all affected laboratories face a long list of daunting operational, business, compliance, and bioethical issues as they adapt to this change and to the Food and Drug Administration's recently announced plan to publish draft guidance outlining a new oversight framework for lab-developed tests.

  11. Regional climate change strategies and initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer, Emma RM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available of stabilising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would inhibit human-induced global warming and climate change. More recently, all 15 member states have signed the Paris Agreement, which aims to reduce GHG emissions in order to limit global... (but are not limited to) feed-in tariffs for renewable energy; removal of fossil fuel subsidies; “polluter pays” and “user pays” taxes; as well as discussions around green market incentivisation (very much an emerging conversation). These obviously...

  12. National Program Initiative to Prevent Illicit Trafficking for Radioactive Materials Out of Regulatory Control at the Border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyanta, S.

    2016-01-01

    The existing function of regulatory authority in a country which use a lot of radioactive sources is important key. The regulatory body has to in a position independence from other operators and nuclear research centre activities, so that their justification on Regulatory objective of safety and security can be achieved. The essential function of regulatory authority has to be represented such as development regulations, perform review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, and emergency preparedness and response functions. Under regulatory object coverage is divided into two clusters i.e. licensed nuclear installation and radiation facilities clusters,. There is other regulatory object is radioactive material out of regulatory control. This kind object is new option in the county and there for need priority policy judgement. This paper will discuss the Regulatory infrastructure and functions and it focused on the experience about National Programme Initiative to Prevent Illicit Trafficking for Radioactive Materials out of Regulatory Control at the Border. Regulatory Infrastructure and Functions. In Indonesia the independent regulatory authority ''called BAPETEN'' has been established since early 2000 based on the Act No. 10 year 1997, independent from operator organization and other nuclear research centre. Organization structure of BAPETEN has defined main divisions dealing with developing regulations, perform review and assessments, inspection and enforcement, and emergency preparedness and response, and also covered assessment function as a backup technical support division as a think-tank functions. Regulatory objects are nuclear installations such as three research reactors, Fuel fabrication facility, Isotope production facility, and waste storage facility for spent fuel and dis-used radioactive sources is running well. Recently, Regulatory of radioactive sources out of regulatory control is a new challenges, they need strengthened

  13. Leadership and Safety Management: Regulatory Initiatives for Enhancing Nuclear Safety in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, C.H.; Park, Y.W.; Choi, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Since the construction of the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in the Republic of Korea in 1978, a high level of nuclear safety has continued to be maintained. This has been the important basis on which the continuous construction of NPPs has been possible in the country. To date, regulatory initiatives, leaderships and strategies adopting well harmonized regulatory systems and practices of advanced countries have contributed to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of safety regulation and further enhancing nuclear safety. The outcomes have resulted in a high level of safety and performance of Korean NPPs, attributing largely to the safety promotion policy. Recently, with the support of the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST), the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) established the International Nuclear Safety School and created a Nuclear Safety Master's Degree Programme. Further, it developed multilateral and bilateral cooperation with other agencies to promote global nuclear safety, with the aim of providing knowledge and training to new entrant countries in establishing the safety infrastructure necessary for ensuring an acceptable level of nuclear safety. (author)

  14. Changing emphasis at the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Office of Research is to ensure availability of sound technical information for timely decision making in support of the NRC's safety mission. The Office of Research is changing some of its emphasis to better meet the expected needs of the NRC's regulatory offices. Long-standing programs in support of operating reactors are nearing completion. These programs include plant aging and severe accident research for currently operating plants. This meeting will also address the new challenges faced by the NRC in its review of the advanced light water and non-light water reactors. As plant aging and severe accident research programs are nearing completion, the research activities are coming to focus on the emerging technologies, for example, digital instrumentation and control systems, both as replacement equipment for operating plants and as the technology of choice and necessity for the advanced reactors. Necessity, because analog equipment is becoming obsolete. Other examples include the use of new materials in operating plants, human factors considerations in the design and operation of the advanced plants, thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the advanced reactors, and new construction techniques

  15. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...] Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for Petitions for..., Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737... process changes APHIS is making to our petition process, go to http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet...

  16. 78 FR 69694 - Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...] Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms... information on the AGA Web site. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact...

  17. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  18. Knowledge Management Initiatives Used to Maintain Regulatory Expertise in Transportation and Storage of Radioactive Materials - 12177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Haile; Garcia-Santos, Norma; Saverot, Pierre; Day, Neil; Gambone Rodriguez, Kimberly; Cruz, Luis; Sotomayor-Rivera, Alexis; Vechioli, Lucieann; Vera, John; Pstrak, David [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop EBB-03D-02M, 6003 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1974 with the mission to license and regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials for commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses in order to protect public health and safety, and the environment, and promote the common defense and security. Currently, approximately half (∼49%) of the workforce at the NRC has been with the Agency for less than six years. As part of the Agency's mission, the NRC has partial responsibility for the oversight of the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. The NRC has experienced a significant level of expertise leaving the Agency due to staff attrition. Factors that contribute to this attrition include retirement of the experienced nuclear workforce and mobility of staff within or outside the Agency. Several knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been implemented within the Agency, with one of them including the formation of a Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation (SFST) KM team. The team, which was formed in the fall of 2008, facilitates capturing, transferring, and documenting regulatory knowledge for staff to effectively perform their safety oversight of transportation and storage of radioactive materials, regulated under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 71 and Part 72. In terms of KM, the SFST goal is to share critical information among the staff to reduce the impact from staff's mobility and attrition. KM strategies in place to achieve this goal are: (1) development of communities of practice (CoP) (SFST Qualification Journal and the Packaging and Storing Radioactive Material) in the on-line NRC Knowledge Center (NKC); (2) implementation of a SFST seminar program where the seminars are recorded and placed in the Agency's repository, Agency-wide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS); (3) meeting of technical discipline group programs to share knowledge within specialty areas; (4

  19. Regulatory T cells predict the time to initial treatment in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lukas; Melchardt, Thomas; Egle, Alexander; Grabmer, Christoph; Greil, Richard; Tinhofer, Inge

    2011-05-15

    Early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by a highly variable course of disease. Because it is believed that regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are potent suppressors of antitumor immunity, the authors hypothesized that increased T(regs) may favor disease progression. T(reg) levels (cluster of differentiation 3 [CD3]-positive, [CD4]-positive, CD25-positive, and CD127-negative) in peripheral blood from 102 patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate correlations with clinical data. The relative T(reg) numbers in CD4-positive T cells were significantly greater in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with the numbers in a control group of 170 healthy individuals (P = .001). Patients were divided into 2 groups using a median T(reg) value of 9.7% (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells). Patients with higher T(reg) levels had a significantly shorter time to initial treatment (median, 5.9 years) compared with patients who had lower T(reg) levels (median, 11.7 years; log-rank P = .019). Furthermore, T(reg) levels (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells) had significant prognostic power to predict the time to initial treatment in univariate analysis (P = .023) and in multivariate Cox regression analysis that included the variables Rai stage, immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene mutational status, chromosomal aberrations, and CD38 expression (P = .028). Higher T(reg) levels had significant and independent prognostic power for predicting the time to initial treatment in patients with low to intermediate stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 2010 American Cancer Society.

  20. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. The impetus for this effort was spawned in part by the decision of the Japanese government to move large quantities of reprocessed plutonium by air from France to Japan. The exploration of options for overflights of United States and Canadian airspace (among others) and landings in Anchorage, Alaska, generated intense debate in the US and countries that might have been overflown. The debate centered on general questions of the need to air transport plutonium in large quantities, package survival in an accident, prenotification, emergency response, routing, safeguards and other facets of the proposed operations. In the US, which already had the most stringent regulations for packaging of plutonium shipped by air (NUREG-0360), there was immediate additional legislative action to increase the stringency by requiring demonstration that an aircraft carrying plutonium in certified packagings could undergo a severe crash without release of plutonium (the Murkowski amendment). In the United Kingdom there was an official inquiry that resulted in a high visibility report (ACTRAM 88) and a conclusion that the IAEA should examine regulatory needs in the general area of air transport

  1. The political economy of productive sectors: Explaining regulatory initiatives in the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    of regulation of the fisheries resource. In contrast, Ugandan milk production has boomed since the mid 1990s, and while the quality of the milk used to be highly questionable due to practices such as diluting milk and boiling it in sauce-pans, quality has gradually improved due to regulatory initiatives...

  2. Regulatory Focus as a Mediator of the Influence of Initiating Structure and Servant Leadership on Employee Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Mitchell J.; Kacmar, K. Michele; Carlson, Dawn S.; Chonko, Lawrence B.; Roberts, James A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the authors test a model in which the regulatory focus of employees at work mediates the influence of leadership on employee behavior. In a nationally representative sample of 250 workers who responded over 2 time periods, prevention focus mediated the relationship of initiating structure to in-role performance and deviant…

  3. 76 FR 78059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65927; File No. SR-OCC-2011-15] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Management of..., future regulatory requirements for clearinghouses could impose liquidity requirements that would be...

  4. An assessment of the contribution of NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] regulatory growth to nuclear plant cost growth using engineering scope changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of NRC regulations to the growth in nuclear power plant capital costs using the case study method. The two plants selected for the case studies are Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L) St. Lucie Unit 1 (SL1) and St. Lucie Unit 2 (SL2). SL1 was constructed in the early 1970s and was granted an operating license in 1976. SL2 was constructed in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was granted an operating license in 1983. The information bases were the amendments to the contracts between FP and L and its architect-engineer/constructor, i.e., the ''scope changes''. These were examined and analyzed for causation, i.e., NRC-initiated or utility-initiated, and all of the costs associated with scope changes of each type were aggregated to determine the contribution of each. Although the scope changes accounted for only a small fraction of the total cost growth for either plant, they were still used to determine the relative contribution of regulatory growth to cost growth. Unexpectedly, a significantly higher percentage of out-of-scope work (approximately 84%) was attributable to NRC regulatory requirements for SL1 than SL2 (approximately 47%). These results were unexpected because SL2 was constructed during a period in which regulation was considered to be particularly unstable. However, a more detailed analysis of causation indicates that a shift occurred from an ad-hoc mode of regulation in the early 1970s to a more prescriptive process in the late 1970s. Thus the number of formal NRC requirements may not be a valid measure of regulatory stability

  5. New Internet Business Initiatives in the Context of Change Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sofronijević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the changing role of the Internet as a framework of several new business initiatives. In the last five years the Internet has evolved from being just a useful tool to a force shaping business strategies and influencing long-term managerial decision making. The paper presents an analysis of several cutting edge business initiatives and relates the success opportunities they have with evolving features of the Internet. The growth of importance of the Internet stresses the need to evaluate the state of local ICT development and precise data in this area for successful new business initiatives and meaningful change management. The paper presents the importance of such an evaluation for engaging change management that may be the crucial factor for the future of business initiatives in the era of ubiquitous, smart Internet.

  6. Action Learning--A Process Which Supports Organisational Change Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how action learning sets (ALSs) were used to support organisational change initiatives. It sets the scene with contextualising the inclusion of change projects in a masters programme. Action learning is understood to be a dynamic process where a team meets regularly to help individual members address issues through a highly…

  7. U.S. regulatory initiatives related to nuclear research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is working to improve its 'early warning system' in order to recognize trends and identify potential safety problems whether the source of the problems relates to a reactor safety system or to a utility management or organizational issue. The Commission has approved the use of performance indicators to provide a more effective means for top NRC management and the Commission to recognize changes in the safety performance of operating reactors. Research also has a leading role in assuring the safety of the evolving nuclear technology. The primary role of NRC's program is to provide a sound technical basis for decisions on the resolution of safety issues for the current generation of plants and safety issues that may arise for future designs. Topical areas essential to resolve the remaining safety issues or uncertainties related to LWR operation are human factors and accident management, life extension and plant aging, studies on containment integrity, severe accident risk analysis and uncertainty resolution, reliability engineering and the analysis of thermal-hydraulic transients. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Nurse leaders' experiences of implementing regulatory changes in sexual health nursing practice in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Stevenson, Janine

    2013-05-01

    Most research about regulatory policy change concerning expanded nursing activities has emphasized advanced practice roles and acute care settings. This study is a contribution to the small pool of research concerned with regulatory policy implementation for nurses undertaking expanded nursing practice activities in a public health context. Using the regulatory changes in certified nursing practice in one Canadian province as our starting point, we investigated the experiences of nurse leaders in implementing this change. Using a qualitative interpretive descriptive approach informed by tenets of complexity theory, we examined the experiences of 16 nurse leaders as situated within the larger public health care system in which nurses practice. Two interrelated themes, (a) preparing for certification and (b) the certification process, were identified to illustrate how competing and contrasting demands between health care and regulatory organizations created substantial barriers to policy change. Implications for health service delivery and future research are discussed.

  9. Changing our regulatory structure to accommodate a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of various regulatory schemes were assessed based on the assumption that certain aspects of transmission and distribution will have to be regulated even after deregulation comes into effect. Price regulation and incentive regulation are the two main forms used to ensure equitable availability of various transmission/wheeling services to distributors, and service quality, wheeling, and prices to be charged by distributors to customers. It was found on balance that only effective market forces spur efficiency, and regulations are only second best. Incentive regulation was not considered to be significantly more efficient than price regulation. The effectiveness of either form will depend upon market conditions and the skill of the regulator

  10. Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Cox, S.

    2014-05-01

    This CERI report aims to provide an introductory overview of key regulatory issues associated with the deployment of renewable energy -- particularly variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such wind and solar power. The report draws upon the research and experiences from various international contexts, and identifies key ideas that have emerged from the growing body of VRE deployment experience and regulatory knowledge. The report assumes basic familiarity with regulatory concepts, and although it is not written for a technical audience, directs the reader to further reading when available. VRE deployment generates various regulatory issues: substantive, procedural, and public interest issues, and the report aims to provide an empirical and technical grounding for all three types of questions as appropriate.

  11. Organizational Learning, Building and Sustaining Core Competencies: Knowledge Management Initiatives on Inspection and Regulatory Enforcement in BAPETEN Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeng Beta, W. P.; Nurwidi Astuti, Y. H.; Hermawan, A. S.; Syaifulloh, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Regulatory inspection and law enforcement are among the core competencies of the Indonesia Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Knowledge management (KM) initiatives are based on strategic planning of BAPETEN. KM in BAPETEN is in its early stage, it is realized since 2015–2016, although its elements have stayed in service for 18 years. Its architecture and performance-information are: to conduct risk based inspection for medical, industrial and research facilities; to plan, monitor and evaluate of effective inspection, including standard operating procedures (SOPs); to utilize inspectors for safety security of radiation sources along with coordination with related stakeholders; to enforce the safety and security facilities report to users; to optimize reliable data communication, processing and information technology (B@LIS); to perform regulatory enforcement along with other related stakeholders. KM processes are performed through the “Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization” (SECI) model. Technical knowledge for inspectors are based on the IAEA–TECDOC–1526 plus supporting knowledge. With KM, innovation products can easily be used, because they are documented, distributed in a KM portal, knowledge is shared through the BAPETEN website, B@LIS database and others. Our challenge is that KM initiatives still need a tremendous effort, not only internally, but also externally, especially in coordination and collaboration. Information access brings about not only positive but also negative impacts. Innovations in regulatory inspection and law enforcement in BAPETEN are planned innovations, sustained, and systematically performed. (author

  12. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Initiatives of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, R.

    2010-01-01

    Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Initiatives of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa(FNRBA) is a regional organization comprising of nuclear regulatory bodies it’s goals are to promote the establishment of regulatory infrastructure in all countries of the Region to adopt joint action plan for implementation of self-assessment and work with Member States to upgrade their regulatory infrastructures, develop and promote a framework for capacity building in areas of radiation and nuclear safety and security, to create an opportunity for mutual support and coordination of regional initiatives by leveraging the development and utilization of regional and international resources and expertise and to serve as reference body on matters relating to nuclear and radiation safety and security in the Region. Radioactive active sources continue to play an increasingly important role in socio-economic activities on the African continent. There is also an ever increasing need to ensure that radioactive sources are utilized in a safe and secure manner

  13. 77 FR 65815 - Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-BA24 Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... geographical areas to the sanctuary and change the name of the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (FBNMS or...

  14. Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean ... and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen decision-making and ... represent a serious threat for fast-growing small- and medium-sized cities. ... guidance on how to integrate gender practices into climate resilient plans for ...

  15. Evaluating U.S. States climate change initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P

    2004-07-01

    This paper evaluates sub-federal efforts to mitigate climate change in the United States through a range of climate-relevant initiatives, identifying principal trends and detailing climate-relevant initiatives in several states. These strategies include renewable electricity mandates, State and regional greenhouse gas emissions inventories, mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reporting, State greenhouse gas emissions caps, greenhouse gas emissions reductions from motor vehicles, and greenhouse gas emissions cap-and-trade programs for electric generation in several States. Many municipalities in the United States are also pursuing a range of climate-relevant initiatives, those actions are beyond the scope of this paper, but it should be noted they also influence state and national consideration of climate-relevant initiatives in the United States. (author)

  16. Evaluating U.S. States climate change initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates sub-federal efforts to mitigate climate change in the United States through a range of climate-relevant initiatives, identifying principal trends and detailing climate-relevant initiatives in several states. These strategies include renewable electricity mandates, State and regional greenhouse gas emissions inventories, mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reporting, State greenhouse gas emissions caps, greenhouse gas emissions reductions from motor vehicles, and greenhouse gas emissions cap-and-trade programs for electric generation in several States. Many municipalities in the United States are also pursuing a range of climate-relevant initiatives, those actions are beyond the scope of this paper, but it should be noted they also influence state and national consideration of climate-relevant initiatives in the United States. (author)

  17. Crisis, criticism, change: Regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Kimberly A.; )

    2015-01-01

    Accidents are a forcing function for change in the nuclear industry. While these events can shed light on needed technical safety reforms, they can also shine a light on needed regulatory system reforms. The TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in Japan is the most recent example of this phenomenon, but it is not the only one. In the wake of the three major accidents that have occurred in the nuclear power industry - Three Mile Island (TMI) in the United States; Chernobyl in Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union; and the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Japan - a commission or committee of experts issued a report (or reports) with harsh criticism of the countries' regulatory system. And each of these accidents prompted changes in the respective regulatory systems. In looking at these responses, however, one must ask if this crisis, criticism, change approach is working and whether regulatory bodies around the world should instead undertake their own systematic reviews, un-prompted by crisis, to better ensure safety. This article will attempt to analyse the issue of regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents by first providing a background in nuclear regulatory systems, looking to international and national legal frameworks. Next, the article will detail a cross-section of current regulatory systems around the world. Following that, the article will analyse the before and after of the regulatory systems in the United States, the Soviet Union and Japan in relation to the TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Finally, taking all this together, the article will address some of the international and national efforts to define exactly what makes a good regulator and provide conclusions on regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents. (author)

  18. NEGOTIATING STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY FOLLOWING REGULATORY CHANGES TO A PROVINCIAL METHADONE PROGRAM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, MJ; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of socialstructural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose® (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of ‘structural vulnerability’. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose® precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and codispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  19. 77 FR 40392 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments.... I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change.... [[Page 40393

  20. Fumigant emission reductions with TIF warrant regulatory changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Ajwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With methyl bromide's phase-out, most growers have turned to alternative fumigants, particularly 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D and chloropicrin. These alternatives are tightly regulated because they are classified as toxic air contaminants and volatile organic compounds; the latter combine with other substances to produce ground-level ozone (smog. Two ambient air monitoring studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of totally impermeable film (TIF to reduce emissions from shank applications of chloropicrin and 1,3-D. In 2009, a study demonstrated that TIF reduced chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 45% and 38%, respectively, but TIF did not reduce total emissions when it was cut after 6 days. In 2011, increasing the tarp period from 5 to 10 days decreased chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 88% and 78%, and their total emissions by 64% and 43%, respectively. Concurrent dynamic flux chamber results corroborated the ambient air monitoring data. These studies provide regulatory agencies with mitigation measures that should allow continued fumigant use at efficacious application rates.

  1. Regulatory pressure and income smoothing by banks in response to anticipated changes to the Basel Ⅱ Accordq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yeong Lim; Kevin Ow Yong

    2017-01-01

    We examine the effects of the revised Basel II rules on bank managers’ discretionary behavior, specifically income smoothing and loan loss provisioning. As the revised rules exert greater regulatory pressure on corporate than retail banking, we predict corporate bank managers to reduce risk-taking activities or increase income smoothing. Analysis of segmental reports reveals greater(less) income smoothing in the corporate banking segments of low-capital(high-capital) banks during the Basel II period, with their managers recognizing loan loss provisions in a less timely fashion. We find no such effects for retail banking. Although we document an initially negative market reaction to the regulatory announcements, that reaction weakens over time. Overall,the study highlights the unintended consequences of the banking rule changes.

  2. Regulatory pressure and income smoothing by banks in response to anticipated changes to the Basel II Accord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Yeong Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of the revised Basel II rules on bank managers’ discretionary behavior, specifically income smoothing and loan loss provisioning. As the revised rules exert greater regulatory pressure on corporate than retail banking, we predict corporate bank managers to reduce risk-taking activities or increase income smoothing. Analysis of segmental reports reveals greater (less income smoothing in the corporate banking segments of low-capital (high-capital banks during the Basel II period, with their managers recognizing loan loss provisions in a less timely fashion. We find no such effects for retail banking. Although we document an initially negative market reaction to the regulatory announcements, that reaction weakens over time. Overall, the study highlights the unintended consequences of the banking rule changes.

  3. 77 FR 3646 - Proposed Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    .... 100908440-1615-01] RIN 0648-BA24 Proposed Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... in the Federal Register to revise the regulations for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (76...

  4. Assessment of safety culture: Changing regulatory approach in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronaky, Jozsef; Toth, Andras

    2002-01-01

    Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is changing its inspection practice and assessment methods of safety performance and safety culture in operating nuclear facilities. The new approach emphasises integrated team inspection of safety cornerstones and systematic assessment of safety performance of operators. (author)

  5. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use

  6. Regulatory use of risk information - initial developments at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehleisen, A.; Koncar, M.; Vojnovic, D.; Persic, A.

    2004-01-01

    Similarly to other regulators worldwide, the SNSA intends to enhance the use of PSA and risk insights in its activities in order to ensure a better and more focused regulatory oversight as well as improved interface with a licensee. The main aim of the SNSA is to establish PSA as a standard tool to complement the deterministic based regulation for a variety of regulatory tasks. The PSA applications should, in particular, support the decision making process as well as the interactions with the Krsko NPP. As a first step in the internal use of PSA, PSA event analysis and risk based performance indicators are being introduced. In 2004, the SNSA will start introducing risk follow up and risk informed inspections. By mid 2005 the legal basis for the use of PSA will be also established in Slovenian legislation. (author)

  7. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Diane

    2013-01-01

    administration: Clinton (122.3 ± 36.4, Bush (29.5 ± 16.2 and Obama (41.7 ± 11.1. Conclusions Most regulatory letters released by FDA headquarters were related to marketing and advertising activities of pharmaceutical companies. The number of regulatory letters was highest during the second Clinton administration, diminished during the Bush administrations, and increased again during the Obama administration. A further assessment of the impact of changes in federal administration on the enforcement activities of the FDA is required.

  8. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diane; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Montagne, Michael

    2013-01-22

    ± 16.2) and Obama (41.7 ± 11.1). Most regulatory letters released by FDA headquarters were related to marketing and advertising activities of pharmaceutical companies. The number of regulatory letters was highest during the second Clinton administration, diminished during the Bush administrations, and increased again during the Obama administration. A further assessment of the impact of changes in federal administration on the enforcement activities of the FDA is required.

  9. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  10. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-01-01

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented

  11. The Brazilian Policy on Climate Change: Regulatory and Governance Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2012-01-01

    Through the Copenhagen Accord and the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) in Cancun, Brazil has confirmed its national voluntary reduction targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with reductions between 36.1 per cent and 38.9 per cent of projected emissions by 2020. These targets were defined in the National Climate Change Policy (PNMC, in Portuguese) approved by the National Congress (Law No. 12.187, dated 29 December 2009). These national targets focus on controlling deforestation, which...

  12. 77 FR 40396 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments on.... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The... principal office and at the Public Reference Room of the Commission. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's...

  13. 77 FR 1099 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory.../ , and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... sections A, B, and C below, of the most significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory...

  14. 76 FR 61453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65433; File No. SR-C2-2011-024] Self-Regulatory... change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory... Office of the Secretary and at the Commission. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...

  15. Fisheries and Oceans Canada climate change risk assessment initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalpe, R. [Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper provided an overview of an initiative undertaken by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) Canada to assess the risks associated with climate change on Canada's waterways and aquatic resources over the next 10 to 20 years. It discussed the risk associated with changes in water temperature and level in increasing the vulnerability of fish stocks and ecosystems. A decrease in water levels is also an issue as it will render current infrastructure ineffective. Storm surges can also have an impact on coastal community infrastructure. The purpose of the assessment was to provide DFO management with a structured understanding of the major climate change factors that pose risks to DFO's operations and to establish priorities in identifying appropriate risk mitigation responses. The presentation discussed the different stages of the initiative (planning, identification and evaluation of risk, validation, and reporting), its' challenges and benefits, as well as lessons learned from this exercises. Lessons learned from the project are as follows: get senior level buy-in from the outset; engage the right people; make it easy for others to be engaged; validate results and risk management response; be ready for surprises; and build in some flexibility to the process. figs.

  16. Features of heart rate variability capture regulatory changes during kangaroo care in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Joshi, R.; van Pul, C.; Atallah, N.L.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Andriessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Study design: Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo

  17. 77 FR 66196 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Accounting Principles (``GAAP''). Canadian clearing members that use Form 1 report the same, and in some... Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Financial... financial reporting by Canadian clearing members to reflect the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization...

  18. Climate change considerations for the Port Hope area initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirklady, J.; Morassutti, M.; Tamm, J.; Coutts, P.; Chambers, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) is a community-based program intended to develop a safe and long-term (approximately 500 years) solution for the management of historic low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that has been present in the Port Hope area for many years. The PHAI undertakings involve the construction and management of two Long-Term Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facilities (referred to as the LTWMFs) in Port Hope and in Port Granby. These undertakings are currently undergoing detailed examination through the Environmental Screening process under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to provide information necessary to satisfy the requirements of the Scope of Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects. In particular, the purpose of the study was to satisfy the requirements to evaluate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the proposed PHAI initiatives and to evaluate the potential effect of climate change parameters on the two Projects. The Port Hope and Port Granby Projects will contribute to Ontario's GHG emission inventory due to vehicle exhaust from excavation equipment and haul trucks during the construction phase of the LTWMFs. The construction phase of the Projects is of relatively short duration, and the contribution of GHGs from each Project was determined to be insignificant compared to Ontario's GHG emissions from the Construction and Transportations sectors. The proposed project elements associated with the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects were each evaluated with respect to potential sensitivities to future change in climate parameters. Considering the potential changes to climate, a screening analysis of each element of the LTWMFs was undertaken. Because it is considered likely that the current design level storms will be exceeded within the next 500 years, it was determined that the storm water management system was potentially sensitive to changes

  19. In silico modeling of epigenetic-induced changes in photoreceptor cis-regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Reafa A; Dunham, Nicholas R; Enke, Raymond A; Berndsen, Christopher E

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic repressor of mRNA transcription in many plant and vertebrate systems. However, the mechanism of this repression is not fully understood. The process of transcription is controlled by proteins that regulate recruitment and activity of RNA polymerase by binding to specific cis-regulatory sequences. Cone-rod homeobox (CRX) is a well-characterized mammalian transcription factor that controls photoreceptor cell-specific gene expression. Although much is known about the functions and DNA binding specificity of CRX, little is known about how DNA methylation modulates CRX binding affinity to genomic cis-regulatory elements. We used bisulfite pyrosequencing of human ocular tissues to measure DNA methylation levels of the regulatory regions of RHO , PDE6B, PAX6 , and LINE1 retrotransposon repeats. To describe the molecular mechanism of repression, we used molecular modeling to illustrate the effect of DNA methylation on human RHO regulatory sequences. In this study, we demonstrate an inverse correlation between DNA methylation in regulatory regions adjacent to the human RHO and PDE6B genes and their subsequent transcription in human ocular tissues. Docking of CRX to the DNA models shows that CRX interacts with the grooves of these sequences, suggesting changes in groove structure could regulate binding. Molecular dynamics simulations of the RHO promoter and enhancer regions show changes in the flexibility and groove width upon epigenetic modification. Models also demonstrate changes in the local dynamics of CRX binding sites within RHO regulatory sequences which may account for the repression of CRX-dependent transcription. Collectively, these data demonstrate epigenetic regulation of CRX binding sites in human retinal tissue and provide insight into the mechanism of this mode of epigenetic regulation to be tested in future experiments.

  20. Federal guide for a radiological response: Supporting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission during the initial hours of a serious accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, R.T.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a planning guide for those Federal agencies that work with the Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC) during the initial hours of response to a serious radiological emergency in which the NRC is the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). These Federal agencies are: DOE, EPA, USDA, HHS, NOAA, and FEMA. This guide is intended to help these agencies prepare for a prompt response. Instructions are provided on receiving the initial notification, the type of person to send to the scene, the facility at which people are needed, how to get them to that facility, and what they should do when they arrive. Federal agencies not specifically mentioned in this guide may also be asked to support the NRC

  1. EU-funded initiatives for real world evidence: descriptive analysis of their characteristics and relevance for regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plueschke, Kelly; McGettigan, Patricia; Pacurariu, Alexandra; Kurz, Xavier; Cave, Alison

    2018-06-14

    A review of European Union (EU)-funded initiatives linked to 'Real World Evidence' (RWE) was performed to determine whether their outputs could be used for the generation of real-world data able to support the European Medicines Agency (EMA)'s regulatory decision-making on medicines. The initiatives were identified from publicly available websites. Their topics were categorised into five areas: 'Data source', 'Methodology', 'Governance model', 'Analytical model' and 'Infrastructure'. To assess their immediate relevance for medicines evaluation, their therapeutic areas were compared with the products recommended for EU approval in 2016 and those included in the EMA pharmaceutical business pipeline. Of 171 originally identified EU-funded initiatives, 65 were selected based on their primary and secondary objectives (35 'Data source' initiatives, 15 'Methodology', 10 'Governance model', 17 'Analytical model' and 25 'Infrastructure'). These 65 initiatives received over 734 million Euros of public funding. At the time of evaluation, the published outputs of the 40 completed initiatives did not always match their original objectives. Overall, public information was limited, data access was not explicit and their sustainability was unclear. The topics matched 8 of 14 therapeutic areas of the products recommended for approval in 2016 and 8 of 15 therapeutic areas in the 2017-2019 pharmaceutical business pipeline. Haematology, gastroenterology or cardiovascular systems were poorly represented. This landscape of EU-funded initiatives linked to RWE which started before 31 December 2016 highlighted that the immediate utilisation of their outputs to support regulatory decision-making is limited, often due to insufficient available information and to discrepancies between outputs and objectives. Furthermore, the restricted sustainability of the initiatives impacts on their downstream utility. Multiple projects focussing on the same therapeutic areas increase the likelihood of

  2. Accounting for Technological Change in Regulatory Impact Analyses: The Learning Curve Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Regulatory impact assessment is formally required by the U.S. and many other nations in order to help governments weigh the costs and benefits of proposed regulations, particularly as they compare to those of alternative actions and other government priorities. 1 One of the “best practices” of regulatory impact assessments, as established by the OECD, is to use estimates of costs that are grounded in economic theory. Economic theory indicates that changes in compliance costs should be expected over time as a result of factors related to technological innovation. But many U.S. regulatory impact assessments have traditionally employed a practice that is in conflict with this expectation: they take current estimates of the costs of complying with a proposed regulation and project that those costs will remain unchanged over the full time period that the regulation would be in effect.

  3. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations

  4. Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO 2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed sulfuric acid aerosols in the lower stratosphere that cooled the earth's surface ∼ 0.5 o C for typically three years. While such events are currently happening once every 80 years, there are times in geologic history when they occurred every few to a dozen years. These were times when the earth was cooled incrementally into major ice ages. There have also been two dozen times during the past 46,000 years when major volcanic eruptions occurred every year or two or even several times per year for decades. Each of these times was contemporaneous with very rapid global warming. Large volumes of SO 2 erupted frequently appear to overdrive the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere resulting in very rapid warming. Such warming and associated acid rain becomes extreme when millions of cubic kilometers of basalt are erupted in much less than one million years. These are the times of the greatest mass extinctions. When major volcanic eruptions do not occur for decades to hundreds of years, the atmosphere can oxidize all pollutants, leading to a very thin atmosphere, global cooling and decadal drought. Prior to the 20th century, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) followed increases in temperature initiated by changes in SO 2 . By 1962, man burning fossil fuels was adding SO 2 to the atmosphere at a rate equivalent to one 'large' volcanic eruption each 1.7 years. Global temperatures increased slowly from 1890 to 1950 as anthropogenic sulfur increased slowly. Global temperatures increased more rapidly after 1950 as the rate of anthropogenic sulfur emissions increased. By

  5. Initiatives related to climate change in Ghana. Towards change in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuertenberger, L.; Bunzeck, I.G.; Van Tilburg, X.

    2011-04-01

    To support the development of a National Climate Change Policy Framework (NCCPF) and a further harmonization of climate change related activities in Ghana, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP) and the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MEST) expressed demand for a mapping of the most important past and current climate change related initiatives in the country, and of international climate change related funding opportunities, that Ghana might be able to access. The initiatives mapping demonstrates Ghana's longstanding engagement with climate change, dating back to more than 15 years ago. The report shows a multitude of activities including a number of large (5 mln. USD to > 100 mln. USD), GEF or World Bank financed projects, and a range of smaller projects (in the order of 100 000 - 500 000 USD). The majority of current initiatives are related to forestry and REDD. This report concludes with a discussion on observed trends, such as a broadening involvement of MDAs in adaptation initiatives and a focus on low carbon growth, and of points for attention, such as a need for coordination, for private sector involvement and supporting systems (such as institutional capacity, governance and monitoring systems)

  6. Changing innovation into a registered product: From concept to regulatory approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda

    2018-05-01

    Innovation in animal health pharmaceuticals is important to address unmet and underserved medical needs, and often comes from products initially developed for human medicine. The purpose of the review is to help readers understand how breakthroughs from human biotechnology may be developed for use in veterinary medicine, while understanding the key drivers to success, the difficulties of regulatory approval, and the realistic risks and rewards of developing applications for animals. The types of human drugs which may be useful for veterinary applications are reviewed, including examples. The regulatory path is discussed, with a review of the various oversight agencies, and the categories of data required to be submitted, including safety, efficacy, manufacturing, environmental impact and human food safety. In conclusion, the cost, development time, and barriers to innovation in veterinary medical pharmaceuticals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Wangler, M.W.; Selling, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. Few technical issues remain in determining the shape of the IAEA's revision of its regulations to accommodate air transport of large quantities of radioactive material. In the next two years the detailed wording of the regulations will be fully worked out and proposed for inclusion in SS6. Considering the breadth of the member state participation in the process, it seems likely that the approved version of the 1995 revision of SS6 will contain air mode revisions that move away from the predominantly mode independent character that characterized their first 30 years. (J.P.N.)

  8. Environmental concerns and regulatory initiatives related to hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations: potential implications for North American gas supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, Lisa [Earthworks (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Shale gas resources have been referred to as a game changer for North America and it is expected that shale gas will account for over 30% of the natural gas production in North America by 2020. However, the development of this resource has raised several concerns, notably in terms of water use and contamination; more stringent regulations could be implemented in the coming years. The aim of this paper is to present the effect that more stringent regulations would have on gas development in the Marcellus shale, which accounts for 20% of North American shale gas production. Information on hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts is provided herein, along with information on the regulatory initiatives underway in the Marcellus shale region. This paper pointed out that novel regulations relating to shale gas development could significantly reduce the growth in shale gas production.

  9. A new method for measuring the thermal regulatory properties of phase change material (PCM) fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Fan, J

    2009-01-01

    Several methods already exist for the measurement of the thermal regulatory properties of fabrics containing phase change materials (PCMs). However, they do not adequately simulate the actual use condition; consequently the measurements may not have relevance to the performance of PCM fabrics in actual use. Here we report on the development of a new method, which better simulates the real use situation. In this method, a hot plate, simulating the human body, generates a constant amount of heat depending on the type of human activity to be simulated. The hot plate covered by the PCM fabric is then exposed to a thermal transient simulating a wearer moving from one thermal environment to another; the changes of surface temperature and heat loss of the hot plate are then recorded and used to characterize the thermal regulatory properties of the PCM fabrics

  10. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND ERP IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar U. Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is a useful tool that builds strong capabilities, improves performance, supports better decision making, and provides competitive advantage for businesses. ERP aims to help the management by setting better business practices and equipping them with the right information to take timely decision. In any new technology implementation, one of the issues that need to be addressed is the resistance to change. Many implementations have failed due to strong resistance from the end users. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to test the impact of resistance to change on ERP's implementation success and how change management initiatives acts in the capacity of a moderating role. Using data collected from 69 manufacturing organizations through a mail survey, it was found that resistance to change is negatively related to achievement of predetermined goals (b = –0.930, p < 0.01 and usersatisfaction (b = –0.952, p < 0.01. Further, change management initiatives did not moderate the relationship between resistance and predetermined goals but it moderated the relationship between resistance and user satisfaction. In addition, change management initiatives have a direct positive impact on user satisfaction. This research concludes that the human factor is very important in ERP's implementation.

  11. Regulatory changes to renewable energy support schemes: An international investment law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paleckaite, Gintare

    2014-01-01

    Thesist analyzes how regulatory changes related to renewable energy investment support schemes can be perceived under international investment law standards and how possible decisions of international investment law tribunals could impact investment in this sector. This research is based on case studies of two states: Spain and the Czech Republic and claims against them. These cases will assist in analyzing the effects of the amendment/revocation of renewable energy support schemes. Answers t...

  12. Resilient Prosumer Scenario in a Changing Regulatory Environment—The UniRCon Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Sanduleac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments are pushing for new solutions based upon massive integration of renewable electricity generation in networks already facing many challenges. This paper presents a novel approach to managing the energy transfer towards prosumers making use of smart management of local energy storage. The proposed design (including storage dimensioning is based on several operating scenarios in which the prosumer might operate as: (i a “load only” entity (from a grid perspective, thus exhibiting investment resiliency against regulatory changes and high energy efficiency; or (ii a prosumer, in case regulatory opportunistic profit might be available. This can be realized within a newly proposed Uni-directional Resilient Consumer (UniRCon architecture. The major aim of the proposed architecture is to achieve optimal self-consumption while avoiding curtailment even in a changing regulatory environment like, for example, the total lack of incentives for generation based on renewable energy sources (RES. One of the major advantages of the proposed architecture consists in the adaptability to changes in the regulatory and market environment. The term resilience is used with multiple meanings: (a the prosumer’s financial resilience against regulatory changes when investment calculations assume no-grid injections; (b the prosumer’s technical resilience, with electrical design based on standalone operation; (c the resilience of clusters of interconnected end-user installations with enabled community-level electricity exchange, independent of the existing main grid supply; (d the contribution to grid resilience, by enabling AC microgrid (MG operation in island mode when large portions of the grid are formed by clusters of UniRCon prosumers (the ease of islanding segmentation of the local grid in case of emergencies. For proof of concept, three use-cases are detailed: (i photovoltaic (PV installations connected behind the meter; (ii PV and

  13. Testosterone: from initiating change to modulating social organisation in domestic fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, John P.; Murphy, Kenneth J.; Bannon, Finian J.; Hynes, Niamh M.; Hayden, Thomas J.

    2009-07-01

    Testosterone (T) concentrations in many species are sensitive to seasonal changes and to changes in social conditions. However, the effect of the natural or endogenous T increase in the juvenile on their social behaviour is not well understood. In this study, T and behaviour were measured from the pro-social juvenile to the adult stage in semi-feral domestic fowl. During the pro-social phase T levels and the distance chicks maintained between each other, i.e. inter-individual distance (IID) were low. Then, as T increased, a corresponding increase in IID occurred and continued in males until dispersal to individual adult male territories. In the new and initially stable adult social structure, T declined and IID remained high, indicating a new behavioural mechanism was in place. Males first mated as T levels were declining. They were then challenged; then T increased, and then IID increased again. Adult male T levels fluctuate, being low or declining in a socially stable environment and increasing following a challenge, suggesting a regulatory or modulating role for T. The results are consistent with T having an endogenous role: in the juvenile, driving behavioural change towards adulthood, and in adulthood, a modulating role regulating social organisation.

  14. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  15. 78 FR 13103 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... intermediate holding company from the ownership structure of the Exchange. C. Self-Regulatory Organization's...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending Its Rules To..., Inc., Thereby Eliminating NYSE Arca Holdings, Inc. From the Ownership Structure of the Exchange...

  16. 77 FR 52096 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ...'s rules, the financial and regulatory risk management controls and supervisory procedures required...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by... that broker-dealers appropriately control the risks associated with market access, so as not to...

  17. 77 FR 52097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... financial and regulatory risk management controls and supervisory procedures required by Rule 15c3-5 under...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by... that broker-dealers appropriately control the risks associated with market access, so as not to...

  18. 77 FR 25770 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... settings via Regulatory Bulletin. The Mechanism protects Market Makers from the risk associated with an...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending NYSE Amex Options Rule 928NY Specifying That the Potential Range for the Settings Applicable to the Market Maker Risk...

  19. 75 FR 2899 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61333; File No. SR-NYSE-2009-117] Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Amending Its... regulatory program. III. Discussion and Commission's Findings After careful review, the Commission finds that...

  20. Evolution of regulatory networks towards adaptability and stability in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Diverse biological networks exhibit universal features distinguished from those of random networks, calling much attention to their origins and implications. Here we propose a minimal evolution model of Boolean regulatory networks, which evolve by selectively rewiring links towards enhancing adaptability to a changing environment and stability against dynamical perturbations. We find that sparse and heterogeneous connectivity patterns emerge, which show qualitative agreement with real transcriptional regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The characteristic scaling behavior of stability reflects the balance between robustness and flexibility. The scaling of fluctuation in the perturbation spread shows a dynamic crossover, which is analyzed by investigating separately the stochasticity of internal dynamics and the network structure differences depending on the evolution pathways. Our study delineates how the ambivalent pressure of evolution shapes biological networks, which can be helpful for studying general complex systems interacting with environments.

  1. Barriers to Change: Findings from Three Literacy Professional Learning Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Parsons, Seth A.; Morewood, Aimee; Ankrum, Julie W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe lessons learned from three separate literacy professional learning initiatives that took place in elementary schools in three different locations: high-poverty urban, medium-poverty rural, and low-poverty suburban. The professional learning initiatives were also diverse in scope: one was a three-year, school-wide…

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVENESS OF CHANGE INITIATIVES: Evidence from Malaysian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazzari Ismail

    2003-01-01

    The general finding confirms and reinforces the literature on effective change management.  It was found that organizations that were perceived by staff to have achieved successful change outcomes, were also perceived to have managed the change processes well in accordance to general principles derived from research on organizational change.

  3. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  4. 17 CFR 249.819 - Form 19b-4, for electronic filing with respect to proposed rule changes by all self-regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filing with respect to proposed rule changes by all self-regulatory organizations. 249.819 Section 249..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Forms for Self-Regulatory Organization Rule Changes and Forms for....819 Form 19b-4, for electronic filing with respect to proposed rule changes by all self-regulatory...

  5. The NASA Climate Change Research Initiative - A Scientist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, A. N.; Pearce, M. D.; Dulaney, N.; Kelly, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    For the last four years, I have been a lead mentor in the NASA GISS Climate Change Research Initiative (CCRI) program, a component in the NASA GSFC Office of Education portfolio. It creates a multidisciplinary; vertical research team including a NYC metropolitan teacher, graduate student, undergraduate student, and high school student. While the college and high school members of this research team function like a more traditional internship component, the teacher component provides a powerful, direct way to connect state-of-the art research with students in the classroom. Because the teacher internship lasts a full year, it affords a similar relationship with a teacher that normally only exists between a PhD student and scientist. It also provides an opportunity to train the teacher in using the extensive data archives and other information maintained on NASA's publicly available websites. This time and access provide PhD-level training in the techniques and tools used in my climate research to the high school teacher. The teacher then uses his/her own pedagogical expertise to translate these techniques into age/level appropriate lesson plans for the classroom aligned with current STEM education trends and expectations. Throughout the process, there is an exchange of knowledge between the teacher and scientist that is very similar to the training given to PhD level graduate students. The teacher's understanding of the topic and implementation of the tools is done under a very close collaboration with the scientist supervisor and the NASA Education Program Specialist. This vertical team model encourages collegial communication between teachers and learners from many different educational levels and capitalizes on the efficacy of near peer mentoring strategies. This relationship is important in building trust through the difficult, iterative process that results in the development of highly accurate and quality (continuously discussed and vetted) curriculum composed

  6. 77 FR 67427 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Rules provide updates related to anti-money laundering legislation applicable to customers, clarify... proposed rule change will have any impact or impose any burden on competition. C. Self-Regulatory...

  7. 77 FR 42349 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Defining a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... ATP Holders via Regulatory Bulletin regarding the rule change. The Exchange plans to issue notice....\\7\\ \\7\\ See Notice, supra note 3, at 32158. III. Discussion The Commission finds that the proposed...

  8. When planning is not enough: the self-regulatory effect of implementation intentions on changing snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Bagozzi, Richard P; Spanjol, Jelena

    2010-05-01

    This study examined whether matching implementation intentions to people's regulatory orientation affects the effectiveness of changing unhealthy snacking habits. Participants' regulatory orientation was either measured (as a chronic trait) or manipulated (as a situational state), and participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention conditions to eat more healthy snacks or avoid eating unhealthy ones. A self-reported online food diary of healthy and unhealthy snacks over a 2-day period. Participants with weak unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks when forming any type of implementation intentions (regardless of match or mismatch with their regulatory orientation), while participants with strong unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks only when forming implementation intentions that matched their regulatory orientations. RESULTS suggest that implementation intentions that match regulatory orientation heighten motivation intensity and put snacking under intentional control for people with strong unhealthy snacking habits. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2010 - part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - integrated assessment modeling and valuation.

  10. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2011 - part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - estimating impacts and valuing damages on a sectoral basis.

  11. Evolutionary changes of Hox genes and relevant regulatory factors provide novel insights into mammalian morphological modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui; Sun, Xiaohui; Chen, Meixiu; Sun, Yingying; Tian, Ran; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    The diversity of body plans of mammals accelerates the innovation of lifestyles and the extensive adaptation to different habitats, including terrestrial, aerial and aquatic habitats. However, the genetic basis of those phenotypic modifications, which have occurred during mammalian evolution, remains poorly explored. In the present study, we synthetically surveyed the evolutionary pattern of Hox clusters that played a powerful role in the morphogenesis along the head-tail axis of animal embryos and the main regulatory factors (Mll, Bmi1 and E2f6) that control the expression of Hox genes. A deflected density of repetitive elements and lineage-specific radical mutations of Mll have been determined in marine mammals with morphological changes, suggesting that evolutionary changes may alter Hox gene expression in these lineages, leading to the morphological modification of these lineages. Although no positive selection was detected at certain ancestor nodes of lineages, the increased ω values of Hox genes implied the relaxation of functional constraints of these genes during the mammalian evolutionary process. More importantly, 49 positively-selected sites were identified in mammalian lineages with phenotypic modifications, indicating adaptive evolution acting on Hox genes and regulatory factors. In addition, 3 parallel amino acid substitutions in some Hox genes were examined in marine mammals, which might be responsible for their streamlined body. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. 17 CFR 249.822 - Form 19b-7, for electronic filing with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filing with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations under Section 19(b)(7)(A... proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations under Section 19(b)(7)(A) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. This form shall be used by self-regulatory organizations, as defined in section 3(a)(25...

  13. Initial threat assessment. Radiological risks associated with SevRAO facilities falling within the regulatory supervision responsibilities of FMBA[Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilin, Leonid; Kochetkov, Oleg; Simakov, Anatoly; Shandala, Natalya; Savkin, Mikhail; Sneve, Malgorzata K.; Boerretzen, Peer; Jaworska, Alicja; Smith, Graham; Barraclough, Ian; Kruse, Phil

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this initial threat assessment is to obtain a view, from the regulatory perspective of FMBA, of the most important issues which require supervision and regulatory development, regarding work which has to be carried out at the Andreeva Bay and Grcmikha. The main radiological threats have been identified and actions to reduce the threats have been proposed. Situations where regulations and procedures for workers on-site need to be developed have been identified. This will be a basis for further development of Russian regulation and procedures. (Author)

  14. International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change is already happening, and its effects are being felt in many places. But relatively little is known about how to cope and adapt to it. IRIACC aims to address this knowledge gap through rigorous research in Canada and across four continents.

  15. Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.

  16. Transcriptome analysis revealed the possible regulatory pathways initiating female geese broodiness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang; Han, Chunchun; He, Hua; Xu, Hengyong

    2018-01-01

    Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese. Expression changes of hypocretin (HCRT) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus of nesting geese may cause appetite reduction, which is possibly the first step and a prerequisite to initiate broodiness. In addition to prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), genes including oxytocin-neurophysin (OXT), chordin-like protein 1 (CHRDL1) and growth hormone (GH), expressed in the pituitary gland, are new candidate molecules that may be involved in broodiness in geese. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in the pituitary gland, the proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS), heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA), and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) in the ovary that may consolidate and transduce signals regulating the HPGA during broodiness in geese. PMID:29408859

  17. Transcriptome analysis revealed the possible regulatory pathways initiating female geese broodiness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehe Liu

    Full Text Available Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese. Expression changes of hypocretin (HCRT and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC in the hypothalamus of nesting geese may cause appetite reduction, which is possibly the first step and a prerequisite to initiate broodiness. In addition to prolactin (PRL, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, genes including oxytocin-neurophysin (OXT, chordin-like protein 1 (CHRDL1 and growth hormone (GH, expressed in the pituitary gland, are new candidate molecules that may be involved in broodiness in geese. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 in the pituitary gland, the proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS, heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 in the ovary that may consolidate and transduce signals regulating the HPGA during broodiness in geese.

  18. Social-ecological system framework: initial changes and continuing challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. McGinnis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological system (SES framework investigated in this special issue enables researchers from diverse disciplinary backgrounds working on different resource sectors in disparate geographic areas, biophysical conditions, and temporal domains to share a common vocabulary for the construction and testing of alternative theories and models that determine which influences on processes and outcomes are especially critical in specific empirical settings. We summarize changes that have been made to this framework and discuss a few remaining ambiguities in its formulation. Specifically, we offer a tentative rearrangement of the list of relevant attributes of governance systems and discuss other ways to make this framework applicable to policy settings beyond natural resource settings. The SES framework will continue to change as more researchers apply it to additional contexts; the main purpose of this article is to delineate the version that served as the basis for the theoretical innovations and empirical analyses detailed in other contributions to this special issue.

  19. Features of Heart Rate Variability Capture Regulatory Changes During Kangaroo Care in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Deedee R; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo care for 3 months. The pre-kangaroo care, during-kangaroo care, and post-kangaroo care data were retrieved in infants with at least 10 accurately annotated kangaroo care sessions. Eight HRV features (5 in the time domain and 3 in the frequency domain) were used to visually and statistically compare the pre-kangaroo care and during-kangaroo care periods. Two of these features, capturing the percentage of heart rate decelerations and the extent of heart rate decelerations, were newly developed for preterm infants. A total of 191 kangaroo care sessions were investigated in 11 preterm infants. Despite clinically irrelevant changes in vital signs, 6 of the 8 HRV features (SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of the SD, percentage of consecutive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 ms, SD of heart rate decelerations, high-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) showed a visible and statistically significant difference (P heart rate decelerations. HRV-based features may be clinically useful for capturing the dynamic changes in autonomic regulation in response to kangaroo care and other changes in environment and state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pervasive and stochastic changes in the TCR repertoire of regulatory T-cell-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingjie; Sharma, Rahul; Kung, John T; Deshmukh, Umesh S; Jarjour, Wael N; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2008-04-01

    We hypothesize that regulatory T-cell (Treg)-deficient strains have an altered TCR repertoire in part due to the expansion of autoimmune repertoire by self-antigen. We compared the Vbeta family expression profile between B6 and Treg-lacking B6.Cg-Foxp3(sf)(/Y) (B6.sf) mice using fluorescent anti-Vbeta mAbs and observed no changes. However, while the spectratypes of 20 Vbeta families among B6 mice were highly similar, the Vbeta family spectratypes of B6.sf mice were remarkably different from B6 mice and from each other. Significant spectratype changes in many Vbeta families were also observed in Treg-deficient IL-2 knockout (KO) and IL-2Ralpha KO mice. Such changes were not observed with anti-CD3 mAb-treated B6 mice or B6 CD4+CD25- T cells. TCR transgenic (OT-II.sf) mice displayed dramatic reduction of clonotypic TCR with concomitant increase in T cells bearing non-transgenic Vbeta and Valpha families, including T cells with dual receptors expressing reduced levels of transgenic Valpha and endogenous Valpha. Collectively, the data demonstrate that Treg deficiency allows polyclonal expansion of T cells in a stochastic manner, resulting in widespread changes in the TCR repertoire.

  1. 77 FR 47472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... proposed rule change to make certain amendments that, in part, clarified the operation of the new Market... equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by...

  2. 77 FR 38879 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... marketable non-displayed interest, the Market Maker would be required to re-enter a quotation for purposes of...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Adding New... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to add new...

  3. 76 FR 55148 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Adopt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Rules for the...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to adopt rules for the qualification, listing, and delisting... the Proposal The Exchange proposes rules to adopt a program for the qualification, listing, and...

  4. 75 FR 69491 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63266; File No. SR-NYSE-2010-67] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock Exchange LLC Changing the NYBX Order Execution Sequence November 5, 2010. I. Introduction On September 9, 2010, the New York...

  5. Success factors for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study of healthcare administrators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; Spaulding, Aaron; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Success factors related to the implementation of change initiatives are well documented and discussed in the management literature, but they are seldom studied in healthcare organizations engaged in multiple strategic change initiatives. The purpose of this study was to identify key success factors related to implementation of change initiatives based on rich qualitative data gathered from health leader interviews at two large health systems implementing multiple change initiatives. In-depth personal interviews with 61 healthcare leaders in the two large systems were conducted and inductive qualitative analysis was employed to identify success factors associated with 13 change initiatives. Results from this analysis were compared to success factors identified in the literature, and generalizations were drawn that add significantly to the management literature, especially to that in the healthcare sector. Ten specific success factors were identified for the implementation of change initiatives. The top three success factors were (1) culture and values, (2) business processes, and (3) people and engagement. Two of the identified success factors are unique to the healthcare sector and not found in the literature on change models: service quality and client satisfaction (ranked fourth of 10) and access to information (ranked ninth). Results demonstrate the importance of human resource functions, alignment of culture and values with change, and business processes that facilitate effective communication and access to information to achieve many change initiatives. The responses also suggest opportunities for leaders of healthcare organizations to more formally recognize the degree to which various change initiatives are dependent on one another.

  6. Changes to Regulatory Systems for more Efficient Nuclear Energy Deployment: An Industry Viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is required to play a much larger role in the energy mix in most credible energy scenarios that address climate change (680 GW additional capacity by 2050 according to IEA, 1000 GW according to World Nuclear Association). To reach these ambitious targets, a concerted effort will be required involving industry, governments and regulators. Changes to regulatory systems and processes – including licensing (design, site, operation), export control, security and waste - is one important area that can stimulate faster and more cost effective development of nuclear capacity. In the past, regulators were mainly concerned with authorizing a limited number of reactors from a limited number of designs under a national standard. Today regulators need resources to assess a wider range of designs, while each licensee needs to complete a thorough safety assessment even if the design has been assessed and approved elsewhere. These developments are the inevitable consequence of globalization and competition within the industry. This paper examines the current state of nuclear regulation in relation to the main attributes of good regulation as defined by the OECD. It further looks at ongoing efforts among regulators to share experience or harmonize requirements, such as within MDEP, or to agree common safety levels, such as in WENRA, in order to reach common positions and improve their regulatory approaches. Finally, it will assess the work of industry to demonstrate the benefits – both in terms of efficiency as well as safety – of harmonised regulations notably through the activities of the World Nuclear Association/CORDEL Working Group. (author)

  7. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change during Agile and DevOps Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayner, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Organizational change initiatives are more likely to fail than to succeed, especially when the change challenges corporate culture and norms. Researchers have explored factors that contribute to change failure, to include the relationship between leadership behaviors and change success. Peer reviewed studies have yet to examine these variables in…

  8. Identifying Cis-Regulatory Changes Involved in the Evolution of Aerobic Fermentation in Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Tsai, Bing-Shi; Wu, Fang-Ting; Yu, Fu-Jung; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Sung, Huang-Mo; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Gene regulation change has long been recognized as an important mechanism for phenotypic evolution. We used the evolution of yeast aerobic fermentation as a model to explore how gene regulation has evolved and how this process has contributed to phenotypic evolution and adaptation. Most eukaryotes fully oxidize glucose to CO2 and H2O in mitochondria to maximize energy yield, whereas some yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its relatives, predominantly ferment glucose into ethanol even in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as aerobic fermentation. We examined the genome-wide gene expression levels among 12 different yeasts and found that a group of genes involved in the mitochondrial respiration process showed the largest reduction in gene expression level during the evolution of aerobic fermentation. Our analysis revealed that the downregulation of these genes was significantly associated with massive loss of binding motifs of Cbf1p in the fermentative yeasts. Our experimental assays confirmed the binding of Cbf1p to the predicted motif and the activator role of Cbf1p. In summary, our study laid a foundation to unravel the long-time mystery about the genetic basis of evolution of aerobic fermentation, providing new insights into understanding the role of cis-regulatory changes in phenotypic evolution. PMID:23650209

  9. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  10. Physical Education Teacher Change: Initial Validation of the Teacher Change Questionnaire-Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Ben D.; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Program satisfaction, self-efficacy to change, and willingness to change, are dispositions that influence physical education teacher change. The study purpose was to validate an instrument measuring program satisfaction, self-efficacy to change, and willingness to change relative to teachers' likelihood to change. A 15-item Teacher Change…

  11. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  12. 75 FR 64767 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Y-Exchange Rules To Conform to the Current Rules of BATS Exchange October 13, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b... hereby given that on October 4, 2010, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BYX'') filed with the...

  13. 78 FR 15394 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Adopting... paragraph (d) it contains a provision establishing how the transition period from NYSE Rule 477 will work... to announce the effective date of the new rules at least 30 days in advance in an Information...

  14. 76 FR 67238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65619, File No. SR-BATS-2011-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Adopt Rules Applicable to Auctions Conducted by the Exchange for Exchange-Listed Securities October 25, 2011. I. Introduction On August 22, 2011,...

  15. 77 FR 38351 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... copper market is the third largest metals market in terms of physical volume. Much of the copper traded...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List and Trade Shares of iShares Copper Trust Pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201 June 22, 2012. Pursuant to Section...

  16. 75 FR 13614 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... to handle the additional traffic associated with the listing and trading of $1 strikes where the...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Establish Strike... 1012 (Series of Options Open for Trading) to establish strike-price intervals for options on Index...

  17. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. 77 FR 39288 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... (i) ``ATP Holders,'' as that term is defined in Rule 900.2NY(5); (ii) Sponsored Participants, as that term is defined in Rule 900.2NY(77); and (iii) non-ATP Holder broker-dealers and vendors that request... change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory...

  19. 77 FR 55885 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Exchange Rule 3307 To Institute a Five Millisecond Delay in the Execution Time of Marketable Orders on... millisecond delay in the execution time of marketable orders on NASDAQ OMX PSX. Notice of the proposed rule...

  20. 76 FR 21085 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. By- Laws April 8, 2011. I. Introduction On February 8, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market... vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' that director's election. In its filing, NASDAQ noted that...

  1. 76 FR 4968 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Listing and Trading Shares of the AdvisorShares Active Bear ETF January 19, 2011. I. Introduction On... of the security or investment in the portfolio. \\14\\ Under accounting procedures followed by the Fund...

  2. 75 FR 1439 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Rescinding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ...(a)(iv). Finally, because DMMs no longer act as agent for orders on the Display Book under the rules... fails to follow the Policy would not be in violation the Order Display rule \\8\\ and/or the Firm Quote...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Rescinding NYSE Information...

  3. 75 FR 65541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63132; File No. SR-Phlx-2010-118] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. To Expand the $.50 Strike Price Program October 19, 2010. On August 25, 2010, NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. (``Phlx'' or ``Exchange...

  4. 77 FR 67851 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68177; File No. SR-BOX-2012-003] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Price Improvement Period November 7, 2012. I. Introduction On July 25, 2012, BOX Options Exchange LLC (``Exchange...

  5. 75 FR 38585 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62396; File No. SR-BX-2010-012] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc. (``BX'' or ``Exchange...

  6. 75 FR 38584 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62395; File No. SR-Phlx-2010-18] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX PHLX (``Phlx'' or...

  7. 75 FR 80553 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63558; File No. SR-NYSEAmex-2010-100] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Complex Orders December 16, 2010. I. Introduction On October 20, 2010, NYSE Amex LLC (``NYSE Amex'' or the ``Exchange...

  8. 78 FR 28680 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69545; File No. SR-ICC-2013-03] Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Recovery and Resolution Arrangements May 9, 2013. On March 7, 2013, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the...

  9. Effect of everolimus initiation and early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal on myocardial FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Kiran; Gustafsson, Finn; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Through immunosuppression CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play an indispensable role in allograft rejection. Post-HTx treatment with everolimus is associated with slower progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) - chronic rejection - than CNI based therapy. We hypothes......BACKGROUND: Through immunosuppression CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play an indispensable role in allograft rejection. Post-HTx treatment with everolimus is associated with slower progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) - chronic rejection - than CNI based therapy. We...... hypothesized treatment with everolimus reduced the risk of CAV by modulating myocardial FoxP3 levels. METHODS: 15 patients from the Schedule trial comparing everolimus, MMF, steroid and early CNI (Everolimus, n=8) withdrawal to conventional CNI based immunosuppression (Controls, n=7) after de novo HTx were...

  10. Areas of Inquiry : Guiding FSSD practitioners at the beginning of a change initiative towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenboom, Michaela; Mireault, Amy; Stolz, Thaela

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to support sustainability practitioners at the beginning of a change initiative towards sustainability to increase the success of the change. Moving towards sustainability is a complex journey and requires radical and structural transformational change in companies. Mutual understanding of the company and the practitioner is required to design a suitable change process. Existing tools related to sustainability, change management, corporate analysis and assessment were analy...

  11. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants

  12. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  13. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Jodi S; Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Steinberg, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems. (paper)

  14. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jodi S.; Nolte, Christoph; Steinberg, Jessica; Agrawal, Arun

    2014-04-01

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.

  15. 49 CFR 40.297 - Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.297 Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial... managed-care provider, any service agent) may change in any way the SAP's evaluation or recommendations...

  16. The young and adolescents: Initiating change in children’s eating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited success in existing interventions for initiating dietary behavior change among children is forcing a more detailed analysis of how to promote change. The mediating variable model provides a conceptual framework for understanding how behavior change interventions work and integrates more basi...

  17. Building hospital capacity planning mechanisms in Poland: The impact of 2016/2017 regulatory changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Sowada, Christoph; Domagała, Alicja; Więckowska, Barbara

    2018-02-07

    Capacity planning is a crucial component of modern health care governance. The aim of this paper is to analyze the requirements that need to be met to build effective hospital capacity planning mechanisms in Poland. In this context, the recent regulatory changes strongly influencing hospital sector functioning, including introduction of health care needs maps, capital investment assessment, and hospital network regulations, are analyzed. Some possible ways forward, based on review of international experiences in hospital capacity planning, are discussed. Applied methods include literature review and analysis of statistical data as well as desk analysis of key national regulations related to hospital sector. Results indicate that at the system level, the process of capacity planning involves 4 elements: capital investment in facilities, equipment, and technology; service delivery; allocation of staff; and financial resources. For hospital capacity planning to be effective, the strategic decision at the macrolevel must be complemented by appropriate management of individual hospitals. The major challenge of building hospital capacity planning mechanism in Poland is imbedding it into the overall health system strategy. Because of the lack of such a strategy, the practical implementation of the ad hoc changes, which have been introduced, shows some inconsistencies. The regulations implemented between 2016 and 2017 provided a basis for hospital capacity planning, yet still need evaluation and adjustments. Also, including a mechanism for human resources planning is of crucial importance. The regulations should provide incentives for reducing oversized hospital infrastructure with simultaneous development of the long-term and coordinated care models. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a 60 Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille, IRSN

  19. Crystal structure of the regulatory subunit of archaeal initiation factor 2B (aIF2B) from hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3: a proposed structure of the regulatory subcomplex of eukaryotic IF2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Tahara, Maino; Maetani, Shigehiro; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao; Kimura, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). eIF2B is a heteropentameric protein composed of α-ε subunits. The α, β, and δ subunits form a regulatory subcomplex, while the γ and ε form a catalytic subcomplex. Archaea possess homologues of α, β, and δ subunits of eIF2B. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of an archaeal regulatory subunit (aIF2Bα) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 A resolution. aIF2Bα consists of two subdomains, an N-domain (residues 1-95) and a C-domain (residues 96-276), connected by a long α-helix (α5: 78-106). The N-domain contains a five helix bundle structure, while the C-domain folds into the α/β structure, thus showing similarity to D-ribose-5-phosphate isomerase structure. The presence of two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit and the gel filtration analysis suggest a dimeric structure of aIF2Bα in solution, interacting with each other by C-domains. Furthermore, the crystallographic 3-fold symmetry generates a homohexameric structure of aIF2Bα; the interaction is primarily mediated by the long α-helix at the N-domains. This structure suggests an architecture of the three subunits, α, β, and δ, in the regulatory subcomplex within eIF2B

  20. Will changes in phenology track climate change? A study of growth initiation timing in coast Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Ford; Connie Harrington; Sheel Bansal; Peter J. Gould; Brad St. Clair

    2016-01-01

    Under climate change, the reduction of frost risk, onset of warm temperatures and depletion of soil moisture are all likely to occur earlier in the year in many temperate regions. The resilience of tree species will depend on their ability to track these changes in climate with shifts in phenology that lead to earlier growth initiation in the spring. Exposure to warm...

  1. NTL 11 spent fuel flask - meeting the challenge of regulatory and technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, the NTL11 flask type will have been responsible for transporting a total of 1500 tonnes of heavy metal in the form of spent fuel. Excluding domestic transports in France and the UK, this represents 25% of the total European spent fuel transported for reprocessing since the flasks came into service in 1977. Approximately 40% of the total for the flask type will have been transported to BNFL's Sellafield facility, the remainder to Cogema at La Hague. The NTL11 flask can justifiably be described as being the workhorse of BNFL's European spent fuel transport business. The NTL11 flask started life under the ownership of Nuclear Transport Limited, an associate company of BNFL, and in recent years the original fleet of five flasks has been absorbed into the BNFL inventory. A recent build programme has seen a further four flasks added to the fleet, an expedient measure to cope with the additional transport requirements imposed by the need to meet the June 2005 deadline for the removal of contracted fuels from Germany. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting the package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet regulatory changes, or the challenges posed by the regulators. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible those margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. The NTL11 flask was designed around the reactor and fuel characteristics prevailing in the 1970's. Over the lifetime of the flask the responsible engineering teams have faced and met the successive challenges to develop the capability of the Package to face the changing requirements of the industry and the Transport Regulations. Both

  2. Attenuating initial beliefs: increasing the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change information by reflecting on values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Anne-Marie; Sparks, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change information tends to be interpreted against the backdrop of initial environmental beliefs, which can lead to some people being resistant toward the information. In this article (N = 88), we examined whether self-affirmation via reflection on personally important values could attenuate the impact of initial beliefs on the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change evidence. Our findings showed that initial beliefs about the human impact on ecological stability influenced the acceptance of information only among nonaffirmed participants. Self-affirmed participants who were initially resistant toward the information showed stronger beliefs in the existence of climate change risks and greater acknowledgment that individual efficacy has a role to play in reducing climate change risks than did their nonaffirmed counterparts. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Exploring the Process of Implementing Healthy Workplace Initiatives: Mapping to Kotter's Leading Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Stacie; Pescud, Melanie; Waterworth, Pippa; Shilton, Trevor; Roche, Dee; Ledger, Melissa; Slevin, Terry; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Kotter's leading change model to explore the implementation of workplace health and wellbeing initiatives. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 workplace representatives with a healthy workplace initiative. None of the workplaces used a formal change management model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives. Not all of the steps in Kotter model were considered necessary and the order of the steps was challenged. For example, interviewees perceived that communicating the vision, developing the vision, and creating a guiding coalition were integral parts of the process, although there was less emphasis on the importance of creating a sense of urgency and consolidating change. Although none of the workplaces reported using a formal organizational change model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives, there did appear to be perceived merit in using the steps in Kotter's model.

  4. Governing climate change transnationally: assessing the evidence from a database of sixty initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Bulkeley; Liliana Andonova; Karin Bäckstrand; Michele Betsill; Daniel Compagnon; Rosaleen Duffy; Ans Kolk; Matthew Hoffmann; David Levy; Peter Newell; Tori Milledge; Matthew Paterson; Philipp Pattberg; Stacy VanDeveer

    2012-01-01

    With this paper we present an analysis of sixty transnational governance initiatives and assess the implications for our understanding of the roles of public and private actors, the legitimacy of governance ‘beyond’ the state, and the North–South dimensions of governing climate change. In the first part of the paper we examine the notion of transnational governance and its applicability in the climate change arena, reflecting on the history and emergence of transnational governance initiative...

  5. Predicting the effect of climate change on wildfire behavior and initial attack success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, William; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gilless, J. Keith; Riley, William J.; Moody, Tadashi J.; Simon de Blas, Clara; Hayhoe, Katharine; Moritz, Max; Stephens, Scott; Torn, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    This study focused on how climate change-induced effects on weather will translate into changes in wildland fire severity and outcomes in California, particularly on the effectiveness of initial attack at limiting the number of fires that escape initial attack. The results indicate that subtle shifts in fire behavior of the sort that might be induced by the climate changes anticipated for the next century are of sufficient magnitude to generate an appreciable increase in the number of fires that escape initial attack. Such escapes are of considerable importance in wildland fire protection planning, given the high cost to society of a catastrophic escape like those experienced in recent decades in the Berkeley-Oakland, Santa Barbara, San Diego, or Los Angeles areas. However, at least for the three study areas considered, it would appear that relatively modest augmentations to existing firefighting resources might be sufficient to compensate for change-induced changes in wildland fire outcomes.

  6. Structural changes of the regulatory proteins bound to the thin filaments in skeletal muscle contraction by X-ray fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yasunobu; Takezawa, Yasunori; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Ueno, Yutaka; Minakata, Shiho; Tanaka, Hidehiro; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the structural changes related to the regulation mechanism in skeletal muscle contraction, the intensity changes of thin filament-based reflections were investigated by X-ray fiber diffraction. The time course and extent of intensity changes of the first to third order troponin (TN)-associated meridional reflections with a basic repeat of 38.4 nm were different for each of these reflections. The intensity of the first and second thin filament layer lines changed in a reciprocal manner both during initial activation and during the force generation process. The axial spacings of the TN-meridional reflections decreased by ∼0.1% upon activation relative to the relaxing state and increased by ∼0.24% in the force generation state, in line with that of the 2.7-nm reflection. Ca 2+ -binding to TN triggered the shortening and a change in the helical symmetry of the thin filaments. Modeling of the structural changes using the intensities of the thin filament-based reflections suggested that the conformation of the globular core domain of TN altered upon activation, undergoing additional conformational changes at the tension plateau. The tail domain of TN moved together with tropomyosin during contraction. The results indicate that the structural changes of regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments occur in two steps, the first in response to the Ca 2+ -binding and the second induced by actomyosin interaction

  7. Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Gene Associated With Nicotine Initiation and Addiction: Analysis of Novel Regulatory Features at 5′ and 3′-Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Aziz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is widespread behavior in Qatar and worldwide and is considered one of the major preventable causes of ill health and death. Nicotine is part of tobacco smoke that causes numerous health risks and is incredibly addictive; it binds to the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR in the brain. Recent studies showed α7nAChR involvement in the initiation and addiction of smoking. Kynurenic acid (KA, a significant tryptophan metabolite, is an antagonist of α7nAChR. Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme encoded by KMO enhances the KA levels. Modulating KMO gene expression could be a useful tactic for the treatment of tobacco initiation and dependence. Since KMO regulation is still poorly understood, we aimed to investigate the 5′ and 3′-regulatory factors of KMO gene to advance our knowledge to modulate KMO gene expression. In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to identify the regulatory sequences associated with expression of KMO. The displayed differential expression of KMO mRNA in the same tissue and different tissues suggested the specific usage of the KMO multiple alternative promoters. Eleven KMO alternative promoters identified at 5′-regulatory region contain TATA-Box, lack CpG Island (CGI and showed dinucleotide base-stacking energy values specific to transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs. The structural features of regulatory sequences can influence the transcription process and cell type-specific expression. The uncharacterized LOC105373233 locus coding for non-coding RNA (ncRNA located on the reverse strand in a convergent manner at the 3′-side of KMO locus. The two genes likely expressed by a promoter that lacks TATA-Box harbor CGI and two TFBSs linked to the bidirectional transcription, the NRF1, and ZNF14 motifs. We identified two types of microRNA (miR in the uncharacterized LOC105373233 ncRNA, which are like hsa-miR-5096 and hsa-miR-1285-3p and can target the miR recognition

  8. Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, Martin [Department of Informatics and Computers, University of Ostrava, 30 dubna 22, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.

  9. Frameworks for Change: Four Recurrent Themes for Quality in Early Childhood Curriculum Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jennifer; Fleet, Alma

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of a case study that investigated how early childhood teachers experience organisational change. As one of three levels of quality improvement, State government-funded curriculum initiatives were developed with an aim to promote change. Three curriculum documents, one each focusing on literacy, pedagogy and…

  10. Deliberations on nuclear safety regulatory system in a changing industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety concern, which may accompany such external environmental factors as privatization and restructuring of the electric power industry, is emerging as an international issue. In order to cope with the concern about nuclear safety, it is important to feedback valuable experiences of advanced countries that restructured their electric power industries earlier and further to reflect the current safety issues, which are raised internationally, fully into the nuclear safety regulatory system. This paper is to review the safety issues that might take place in the process of increasing competition in the nuclear power industry, and further to present a basic direction and effective measures for ensuring nuclear safety in response thereto from the viewpoint of safety regulation. It includes a political direction for a regulatory body's efforts to rationalize and enforce efficiently its regulation. It proposes to ensure that regulatory specialty and regulatory cost are stably secured. Also, this paper proposes maintaining a sound nuclear safety regulatory system to monitor thoroughly the safety management activities of the industry, which might be neglected as a result of focusing on reduction of the cost for producing electric power. (author)

  11. The Traumatic Brain Injury Endpoints Development (TED) Initiative: Progress on a Public-Private Regulatory Collaboration to Accelerate Diagnosis and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Geoffrey T; MacDonald, Christine L; Markowitz, Amy; Stephenson, Diane; Robbins, Ann; Gardner, Raquel C; Winkler, Ethan A; Bodien, Yelena; Taylor, Sabrina; Yue, John K; Kannan, Lakshmi; Kumar, Allison; McCrea, Michael; Wang, Kevin K W

    2017-03-31

    The Traumatic Brain Injury Endpoints Development (TED) Initiative is a 5-year, Department of Defense (DoD) funded project that is working toward the ultimate goal of developing better designed clinical trials, leading to more precise diagnosis, and effective treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI). TED is comprised of leading academic clinician-scientists, along with innovative industry leaders in biotechnology and imaging technology, patient advocacy organizations, and philanthropists, working collaboratively with regulatory authorities, specifically the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The goals of the TED Initiative are to gain consensus and validation of TBI clinical outcome assessment measures and biomarkers for endorsement by global regulatory agencies for use in drug and device development processes. This manuscript summarizes the Initiative's Stage 1 progress over the first 18 months, including intensive engagement with a number of FDA divisions responsible for review and validation of biomarkers and clinical outcome assessments, progression into the prequalification phase of FDA's Medical Device Development Tool program for a candidate set of neuroimaging biomarkers, and receipt of FDA's Recognition of Research Importance Letter regarding TBI. Other signal achievements relate to the creation of the TED Metadataset, harmonizing study measures across eight major TBI studies, and the leadership role played by TED investigators in the conversion of the NINDS TBI Common Data Elements (CDEs) to Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) standards. This paper frames both the near-term expectations and the Initiative's long-term vision to accelerate approval of treatments for patients affected by TBI in urgent need of effective therapies.

  12. Regulatory issues with multiplicity in drug approval: Principles and controversies in a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Norbert; Brandt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Recently, new draft guidelines on multiplicity issues in clinical trials have been issued by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Multiplicity is an issue in clinical trials, if the probability of a false-positive decision is increased by insufficiently accounting for testing multiple hypotheses. We outline the regulatory principles related to multiplicity issues in confirmatory clinical trials intended to support a marketing authorization application in the EU, describe the reasons for an increasing complexity regarding multiple hypotheses testing and discuss the specific multiplicity issues emerging within the regulatory context and being relevant for drug approval.

  13. 75 FR 51866 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Transfer Service of National Securities Clearing Corporation August 16, 2010. I. Introduction On June 4... complements a Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (``FINRA'') rule requiring FINRA members to use... specified time frames. \\5\\ CNS is an ongoing accounting system which nets today's Settling Trades with...

  14. Incremental change or initial differences? Testing two models of marital deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2012-08-01

    Most couples begin marriage intent on maintaining a fulfilling relationship, but some newlyweds soon struggle, and others continue to experience high levels of satisfaction. Do these diverse outcomes result from an incremental process that unfolds over time, as prevailing models suggest, or are they a manifestation of initial differences that are largely evident at the start of the marriage? Using 8 waves of data collected over the first 4 years of marriage (N = 502 spouses, or 251 newlywed marriages), we tested these competing perspectives first by identifying 3 qualitatively distinct relationship satisfaction trajectory groups and then by determining the extent to which spouses in these groups were differentiated on the basis of (a) initial scores and (b) 4-year changes in a set of established predictor variables, including relationship problems, aggression, attributions, stress, and self-esteem. The majority of spouses exhibited high, stable satisfaction over the first 4 years of marriage, whereas declining satisfaction was isolated among couples with relatively low initial satisfaction. Across all predictor variables, initial values afforded stronger discrimination of outcome groups than did rates of change in these variables. Thus, readily measured initial differences are potent antecedents of relationship deterioration, and studies are now needed to clarify the specific ways in which initial indices of risk come to influence changes in spouses' judgments of relationship satisfaction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS.......026) and time (P changes were observed (south, P = 0.061; central west, P ....001; north: P = 0.070; east, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence of regional differences in initial virologic response to cART. Improvements over time were observed, suggesting that so far, the effect of primary resistance has not been of sufficient magnitude to prevent increasing suppression...

  17. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Yun-Ze; Li, Han; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected.

  18. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. RESULTS: Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA......). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LTPA and OPA were associated......BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. METHODS: The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent...

  19. 50-Ma Initiation of Hawaiian-Emperor Bend Records Major Change in Pacific Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Warren D.; Clague, David A.

    2006-09-01

    The Hawaiian-Emperor bend has played a prominent yet controversial role in deciphering past Pacific plate motions and the tempo of plate motion change. New ages for volcanoes of the central and southern Emperor chain define large changes in volcanic migration rate with little associated change in the chain's trend, which suggests that the bend did not form by slowing of the Hawaiian hot spot. Initiation of the bend near Kimmei seamount about 50 million years ago (MA) was coincident with realignment of Pacific spreading centers and early magmatism in western Pacific arcs, consistent with formation of the bend by changed Pacific plate motion.

  20. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed by professio......Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed...... of severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice undergoing T cell transfer colitis did not influence the course of disease probably reflecting the lack of Tregs in this model of chronic colitis. In conclusion, we show that treatment with B7-H4-Ig in vivo changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases...

  1. Current and new developments in transport and regulatory issues concerning radioisotopes: managing change for minimum business impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Neil; Coppell, David; Rogers, David; Schrader, John

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the regulatory framework governing the Radiation Processing Industry have the potential to make a real business impact on day-to-day profitability. Many areas of the Radiation Processing Industry are affected by changes in the regulatory framework within which these areas are managed. When planning for such changes the transportation element in the shipment of sealed cobalt radiation sources is an area that is often neglected by some parts of the distribution chain. A balance must be struck between the cobalt supplier and the facility operator/customer that rests upon how much the customer needs to know about the intricacies of cobalt shipment. The objective of this paper is to highlight areas of possible business impact and reassure the users of sealed radiation sources that the global suppliers of these products are used to negotiating local variations in regulations governing the physical transportation of radiation sources, changes in regulations governing the design, manufacture and use of transportation containers and changes in the availability of commercial shippers and shipping routes. The major suppliers of industrial quantities of cobalt-60 are well placed to lead their customers through this complex process as a matter of routine

  2. Changing the regulation for regulating the change: Innovation-driven regulatory developments for smart grids, smart metering and e-mobility in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Schiavo, Luca; Delfanti, Maurizio; Fumagalli, Elena; Olivieri, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    For a long time considered as technologically mature, electric systems are now facing a period of rapid evolution, inspired by climate change concerns. Several studies show that current regulation of natural monopolies does not offer sufficient incentives for network operators (and network users) to participate in this process. Taking Italy as a case study, this paper analyses how energy regulation can change to support the current transformation. We describe the recent regulatory interventions in the domain of smart grids, smart metering and electromobility, with a specific emphasis on the provisions aimed at fostering innovation—an issue that until recently has received almost no attention in the literature nor in the practice of regulation. The progress we observe is considerable in all new areas of concern, and, above all, in the regulator's commitment to provide the right incentives for investments in demonstration projects: the acquisition of experience is regarded as essential to move to more sophisticated regulatory instruments. Finally, regulation is also increasingly concerned with network users, both traditional and new, with the objective to stimulate more active behaviours. - Highlights: ► Regulatory changes in Italy: smart grids, smart metering and electromobility. ► Identification of indicators for regulating innovative investments. ► Demonstration projects for smart grids and EV recharging infrastructures. ► Proposal of an output-based regulation for smart grids. ► Time of Use pricing for residential and small commercial consumers

  3. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade significant reductions of NOx and SOx emissions from coal burning power plants in the U.S. have been achieved due to regulatory action and substitution of new generation towards natural gas and wind power. Low natural gas prices, ever decreasing solar generation costs, and proposed regulatory changes, such as to the Cross State Air Pollution Rule, promise further long-run coal power plant emission reductions. Reduced power plant emissions have the potential to affect ozone and particulate air quality and influence regional climate through aerosol cloud interactions and visibility effects. Here we investigate, on a national scale, the effects on future (~2030) air quality and regional climate of power plant emission regulations in contrast to and combination with policies designed to aggressively promote solar electricity generation. A sophisticated, economic and engineering based, hourly power generation dispatch model is developed to explore the integration of significant solar generation resources (>10% on an energy basis) at various regions across the county, providing detailed estimates of substitution of solar generation for fossil fuel generation resources. Future air pollutant emissions from all sectors of the economy are scaled based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory to account for activity changes based on population and economic projections derived from county level U.S. Census data and the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook. Further adjustments are made for technological and regulatory changes applicable within various sectors, for example, emission intensity adjustments to on-road diesel trucking due to exhaust treatment and improved engine design. The future year 2030 is selected for the emissions scenarios to allow for the development of significant solar generation resources. A regional climate and air quality model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF model) is

  4. Governing climate change transnationally: assessing the evidence from a database of sixty initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulkeley, H.; Andanova, L.; Bäckstrand, K.; Betsill, M.; Compagnon, D.; Duffy, R.; Kolk, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Levy, D.; Newell, P.; Milledge, T.; Paterson, M.; Pattberg, P.; VanDeveer, S.

    2012-01-01

    With this paper we present an analysis of sixty transnational governance initiatives and assess the implications for our understanding of the roles of public and private actors, the legitimacy of governance ‘beyond’ the state, and the North-South dimensions of governing climate change. In the first

  5. Governing Climate Change Transnationally: Assessing the Evidence from a Survey of Sixty Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulkeley, H.; Andonova, L.; Backstrand, K.; Betsill, M.; Compagnon, D.; Duffy, R.; Levy, D.; Hofmann, M.; Kolk, A.; Paterson, M.; Pattberg, P.H.; VanDeveer, S.

    2012-01-01

    With this paper we present an analysis of sixty transnational governance initiatives and assess the implications for our understanding of the roles of public and private actors, the legitimacy of governance 'beyond' the state, and the North-South dimensions of governing climate change. In the first

  6. Climate Change, Glacier Response, and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya: Contributions Toward Future Earth Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Shea

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Climate Change, Glacier Response, and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya: Contributions Toward Future Earth Initiatives. Edited by R. B. Singh, Udo Schickhoff, and Suraj Mal. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016. xvi + 399 pp. Hardcover: US$ 179.00, ISBN 978-3-319-28975-5. E-book: US$ 139.00, ISBN 978-3-319-28977-9.

  7. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...Pursuant to section 751(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and 19 CFR 351.216 and 351.221(c)(3), the Department of Commerce is initiating a changed-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect to myonic GmbH.

  8. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...... rates Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6...

  9. Approaches to evaluating climate change impacts on species: A guide to initiating the adaptation planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Rowland; Jennifer E. Davison; Lisa J. Graumlich

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on species and associated management objectives is a critical initial step for engaging in the adaptation planning process. Multiple approaches are available. While all possess limitations to their application associated with the uncertainties inherent in the data and models that inform their results, conducting and incorporating...

  10. Attenuating initial beliefs: Increasing the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change information by reflecting on values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, A.M.; Sparks, P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change information tends to be interpreted against the backdrop of initial environmental beliefs, which can lead to some people being resistant toward the information. In this article (N = 88), we examined whether self-affirmation via reflection on personally important values

  11. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was…

  12. A Discussion of Change Theory, System Theory, and State Designed Standards and Accountability Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Larry; Christy, W. Keith

    This brief paper is a presentation that preceeded another case of considering the ongoing dialogue on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized school-improvement processes. It attempts to raise a number of questions about the relationship between state-designed standards and accountability initiatives and change and…

  13. First update to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulatory strategy for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.; Linehan, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has updated its initial regulatory strategy for the High-Level Waste Repository Licensing Program. The update describes changes to the initial strategy and summarizes progress and future activities. This paper summarizes the first update of the regulatory strategy. In general the overall strategy of identifying and reducing uncertainties is unchanged. Identifying regulatory and institutional uncertainties is essentially complete, and therefore, the current and future emphasis is on reducing those regulatory and institutional uncertainties identified to date. The NRC staff has improved the methods of reducing regulatory uncertainties by (1) enhancing the technical basis preparation process for potential rulemakings and guidance and (2) designing a new guidance document, called a staff position, for clarifying regulatory uncertainties. For guiding the US DOE's reduction of technical uncertainties, the NRC staff will give more emphasis to prelicense application reviews and less emphasis on preparing staff technical positions

  14. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  15. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha; Lombard, Catherine; Teede, Helena; Ilic, Dragan; Murphy, Kerry; Harrison, Cheryce

    2015-01-01

    Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis. A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649) that participated in the prevention trial. Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i) no change, (ii) relapse, (iii) intermittent and (iv) continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress. Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex process. Our

  16. Understanding Changes in Modeled Land Surface Characteristics Prior to Lightning-Initiated Holdover Fire Breakout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hain, Christopher R.; White, Kristopher; Wachter, J. Brent; Nauslar, Nicholas; MacNamara, Brittany

    2018-01-01

    Lightning initiated wildfires are only 16% of the total number of wildfires within the United States, but account for 56% of the acreage burned. One of the challenges with lightning-initiated wildfires is their ability to "holdover" which means smolder for up to 2+ weeks before breaking out into a full fledged fire. This work helps characterize the percentage of holdover events due to lightning, and helps quantify changes in the land surface characteristics to help understand trends in soil moisture and vegetation stress that potentially contribute to the fire breaking out into a full wildfire.

  17. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zawadzki, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    , the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed...... to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter...

  18. Initial Atomic Motion Immediately Following Femtosecond-Laser Excitation in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, E; Okada, S; Ichitsubo, T; Kawaguchi, T; Hirata, A; Guan, P F; Tokuda, K; Tanimura, K; Matsunaga, T; Chen, M W; Yamada, N

    2016-09-23

    Despite the fact that phase-change materials are widely used for data storage, no consensus exists on the unique mechanism of their ultrafast phase change and its accompanied large and rapid optical change. By using the pump-probe observation method combining a femtosecond optical laser and an x-ray free-electron laser, we substantiate experimentally that, in both GeTe and Ge_{2}Sb_{2}Te_{5} crystals, rattling motion of mainly Ge atoms takes place with keeping the off-center position just after femtosecond-optical-laser irradiation, which eventually leads to a higher symmetry or disordered state. This very initial rattling motion in the undistorted lattice can be related to instantaneous optical change due to the loss of resonant bonding that characterizes GeTe-based phase change materials. Based on the amorphous structure derived by first-principles molecular dynamics simulation, we infer a plausible ultrafast amorphization mechanism via nonmelting.

  19. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Cazenave, Anny; Larnicol, Gille

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition...... to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV...... validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the main improvements derived from the algorithms development dedicated to the 2016 full reprocessing of the dataset are described. Efforts have also focused on the improvement of the sea level estimation...

  20. Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene L. Chia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It examines eight guidelines that are widely used in designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives. Four guiding principles with a number of criteria that are relevant for planning synergy outcomes in forest carbon activities are proposed. The guidelines for developing forest carbon initiatives need to demonstrate that (1 the health of forest ecosystems is maintained or enhanced; (2 the adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities is ensured; (3 carbon and adaptation benefits are monitored and verified; and (4 adaptation outcomes are anticipated and planned in forest carbon initiatives. The forest carbon project development guidelines can encourage the integration of adaptation in forest carbon initiatives. However, their current efforts guiding projects and programs to deliver biodiversity and environmental benefits, ecosystem services, and socioeconomic benefits are not considered explicitly as efforts towards enhancing adaptation. An approach for incentivizing and motivating project developers, guideline setters, and offset buyers is imperative in order to enable existing guidelines to make clear contributions to adaptation goals. We highlight and discuss potential ways of incentivizing and motivating the explicit planning and promotion of adaptation outcomes in forest carbon initiatives.

  1. Evaluating confidence in the impact of regulatory nutrient reduction and assessing the competing impact of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, I.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Human impacts on the Chesapeake Bay through increased nutrient run-off as a result of land-use change, urbanization, and industrialization, have resulted in a degradation of water quality over the last half-century. These direct impacts, compounded with human-induced climate changes such as warming, rising sea level, and changes in precipitation, have elevated the conversation surrounding the future of the Bay's water quality. As a result, in 2010, a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) was established for the Chesapeake Bay that limited nutrient and sediment input in an effort to increase dissolved oxygen. This research utilizes a multiple model approach to evaluate confidence in the estuarine water quality modeling portion of the TMDL. One of the models is then used to assess the potential impact climate change may have on the success of currently mandated nutrient reduction levels in 2050. Results demonstrate that although the models examined differ structurally and in biogeochemical complexity, they project a similar attainment of regulatory water quality standards after nutrient reduction, while also establishing that meeting water quality standards is relatively independent of hydrologic conditions. By developing a Confidence Index, this research identifies the locations and causes of greatest uncertainty in modeled projections of water quality. Although there are specific locations and times where the models disagree, this research lends an increased degree of confidence in the appropriateness of the TMDL levels and in the general impact nutrient reductions will have on Chesapeake Bay water quality under current environmental conditions. However, when examining the potential impacts of climate change, this research shows that the combined impacts of increasing temperature, sea level, and river flow negatively affect dissolved oxygen throughout the Chesapeake Bay and impact progress towards meeting the water quality standards associated with the TMDL with

  2. Changes in regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis in intestinal lymphangiectasia with enteric protein loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokari, Ryota; Kitagawa, Noritake; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Kurihara, Chie; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Hibi, Toshifumi; Miura, Soichiro

    2008-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and LYVE-1 are specifically expressed in the endothelium of the lymphatic systems. VEGF-C, D, FOXC2, Prox 1, and SOX18 are known to play central roles in lymphatic development. We investigated the expression of regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis in the duodenal mucosa of idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia. Biopsy samples were obtained from duodenal biopsies in patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia complicated with protein-losing from white spot lesions in which lymphangiectasia was histologically confirmed. Immunohistochemical analysis for VEGFR3 and LYVE-1 was performed. mRNA expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR3, and transcription factors was determined by the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. In the control mucosa, VEGFR3 was weakly expressed on the central lymphatic vessels in the lamina propria and LYVE-1 was expressed mainly on the lymphatic vessels in the submucosa. In intestinal lymphangiectasia, VEGFR3 and LYVE-1 expression levels were increased on the mucosal surface corresponding to widely dilated lymphatic vessels, while they were decreased in the deeper mucosa. mRNA expression study showed a significant increase in the expression level of VEGFR3 in lymphangiectasia, but the expression of VEGF-C and -D mRNA was significantly suppressed compared with that in controls despite the presence of lymphangiectasia. The mRNA expression levels of FOXC2 and SOX18 were also decreased, whereas Prox 1 was not altered. There is an altered expression of regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis in the duodenal mucosa in these patients.

  3. Regulatory changes in the management of the structural integrity of the vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, M.; Jardi, X.; Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Marcelles, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the changes that have recently occurred in both the normative and ASME code, affecting the monitoring programs of the vessel. Also, the changes will be discussed in the future are envisaged in codes and regulations.

  4. Social changes and women-initiated divorce in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Gaining or Loosing Power?

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Kazi Nadira

    2011-01-01

    The study attempts to explore the nature of women-initiated divorce in Dhaka, considering the social changes of Bangladesh. The study focuses particularly on the urban middle class women as the scope of the study. By employing a qualitative in-depth interview method with the combination of Focus Group Discussions and participant observation, the present study critically explores the perspectives of divorce of middle class women from the point of view of their own experience, th...

  5. Microvascular changes during acne lesion initiation and scarring is revealed in vivo using optical microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Choi, Woo J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease in society and often leads to scarring. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting specific features of acne lesion initiation and scarring on human facial skin in vivo over 30 days. Optical microangiography (OMAG) technique made it possible to image 3D tissue microvasculature changes up to 1 mm depth in vivo without the need of exogenous contrast agents in ~10 seconds. The presented results show promise to facilitate clinical trials of treatment and prognosis of acne vulgaris by detecting cutaneous microvasculature and structural changes within human skin in vivo.

  6. The use of and obstacles to social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakespear Mudombi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change will have major impacts on ecosystems and human livelihoods while challenging the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Social learning, an ongoing adaptive process of knowledge generation, reflection and synthesis, may enhance people’s awareness about climate change and its impacts, with positive outcomes for their adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of factors promoting social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa. An online survey was used to obtain the views of decision makers in government and non-governmental organisations about the presence of personal factors and organisational factors that promote social learning. Descriptive analysis was used to assess these issues. The findings provide some evidence of social learning in climate change adaptation projects in South Africa, with the majority of respondents indicating that personal social learning indicators were present. Mechanisms for improved conflict resolution were, however, less prevalent. The organisational and governance-related barriers to implementation also presented significant challenges. Some of the main organisational barriers were short timeframes for implementing projects, inadequate financial resources, political interference, shortcomings in governance systems and lack of knowledge and expertise in organisations. There is a need for organisations to promote social learning by ensuring that their organisational environment and governance structures are conducive for their employees to embrace social learning. This will help contribute to the overall success of climate change adaptation initiatives.

  7. 42 CFR 476.93 - Opportunity to discuss proposed initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.93 Section 476.93 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation. Before a QIO reaches an initial denial determination or makes a change as a result of a DRG validation, it must— (a) Promptly notify the...

  8. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1) An...

  9. Financing urban adaptation to climate change impacts mapping of existing initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschalier, Claire; Leseur, Alexia; Archambault, Sabrina; Joubert, Marion; Larrue, Clement; Rossin, Nicolas; Salenson, Irene

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, CDC Climat research, in partnership with AFD, published a mapping of the types of initiatives available for the financing of urban adaptation to climate change, offering additional options to more conventional sources of funding for climate change and sustainable development (national budget transfers, Official Development Aid, etc.). Based on the review of 27 main initiatives, the report shows a strong prevalence of initiatives supporting soft adaptation measures (strategy planning, capacity building, project design, technical assistance, etc). These are in a position to help support the development of a coherent portfolio of bankable projects. The mapping also reveals that local intermediaries (regional and local banks, national development funds, etc.) play a significant role in financing urban adaptation to climate change. Several key factor of success for the cities' access to these sources of funding are also identified, among which liaising with international development stakeholders (such as multilateral and bilateral donors) at the local level, and the identification of various co-benefits and synergies between the economic, environmental and climate impacts. (authors)

  10. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  11. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  12. How maya women respond to changing technology : The effect of helping behavior on initiating reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K L; McMillan, G P

    1998-06-01

    In the mid 1970s labor-saving technology was introduced into a Maya subsistence agricultural community that markedly increased the efficiency with which maize could be ground and water collected. This increased efficiency introduces a possible savings in the time that women allocate to work, which can be reapportioned to child care, food production, domestic work, or leisure. An earlier study suggested that this labor-saving technology had a positive effect in decreasing the age at which these Maya women begin their reproductive careers. Although there is a statistical association between the age at which women bear their first child and the introduction of modern technology, this association does not demonstrate that the decline in age at first birth is causally related to the presence of technology. This paper pursues two objectives to evaluate this potential causal relationship in greater detail. First, a theory relating technological change to the initiation of a reproductive career is briefly developed in order to make qualitative predictions about behavioral changes as a response to changing technology. Second, these predictions are then tested against time allocation data recently collected in this same Maya community.We suggest that both of the conditions necessary to initiate reproduction-fecundity and access to mates-fundamentally depend on the amount of help that a girl provides to her family. Further, the help that a girl provides can be affected by technological changes. Analyses show that when modern technology is available, unmarried young women do not change the time allocated to domestic tasks and child care, and allocate more time to low-energy leisure activities. This lack of perceived benefit to working more and a potential concomitant shift towards a positive energy balance may in part explain why Maya women leave home and initiate reproduction at a younger age after labor-saving technology is introduced.

  13. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative: Facing the Challenges of Global Change in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Qi, Jiaguo

    2016-04-01

    During the past 12 years, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications and 40 books to its credit, NEESPI's activities resulted in significant scientific outreach. This created a new research realm through self-organization of NEESPI scientists in a broad research network, accumulation of knowledge while developing new tools (observations, models, and collaborative networks) and producing new, exciting results that can be applied to directly support decision-making for societal needs. This realm was summed up at the Synthesis NEESPI Workshop in Prague, Czech Republic (April 9-12, 2015) where it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: " What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?". To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions, especially, under conditions when societal decision-making impacts and feeds back on the environment. This made the NEESPI studies closer to the ICSU research initiative "Future Earth". Accordingly, the NEESPI Research Team decided to reorganize in the nearest future NEESPI into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and began development of its Programmatic White Paper (in preparation at the time of this abstract submission). The NEFI research

  14. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Bemporad, E. [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy (LIME), University of Rome TRE, Via Della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work we study the fatigue damage evolution in an API 5L X60 steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural changes and residual stresses are evaluated during fatigue tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microdeformations and macro residual stresses are estimated by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are discussed in view of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This indicator could allow the prediction of residual life before macrocracking. - Abstract: Steel pipes used in the oil and gas industry undergo the action of cyclic loads that can cause their failure by fatigue. A consistent evaluation of the fatigue damage during the initiation phase should fundamentally be based on a nanoscale approach, i.e., at the scale of the dislocation network, in order to take into account the micromechanisms of fatigue damage that precede macrocrack initiation and propagation until the final fracture. In this work, microstructural changes related to fatigue damage initiation are investigated in the API 5L X60 grade steel, used in pipe manufacturing. Microdeformations and macro residual stress are evaluated using X-ray diffraction in real time during alternating bending fatigue tests performed on samples cut off from an X60 steel pipe. The aim of this ongoing work is to provide ground for further development of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation in X60 steel. This damage indicator could allow a good residual life prediction of steel pipes previously submitted to fatigue loading, before macroscopic cracking, and help to increase the reliability of these structures.

  15. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloecker, Katja; Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F.; Guermazi, A.; Hitzl, W.; Hunter, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8 % to 29.9 % (SRM -0.82; p < 0.001). Change in medial meniscus extrusion in a central image (SRM 0.18) and in the central five slices (SRM 0.22) did not reach significance, but change in extrusion across the entire meniscus (SRM 0.32; p = 0.03) and in the relative area of meniscus extrusion (SRM 0.56; p < 0.001) did. There was a reduction in medial meniscus volume (10 %; p < 0.001), width (7 %; p < 0.001), and height (2 %; p = 0.08); meniscus substance loss was strongest in the posterior (SRM -0.51; p = 0.001) and weakest in the anterior horn (SRM -0.15; p = 0.31). This pilot study reports, for the first time, longitudinal change in quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. (orig.)

  16. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloecker, Katja [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); BHS Linz, Department of Orthopaedics, Linz (Austria); Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring (Germany); Guermazi, A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), Boston, MA (United States); Hitzl, W. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg, Research Office, Salzburg (Austria); Hunter, D.J. [University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Sydney (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8 % to 29.9 % (SRM -0.82; p < 0.001). Change in medial meniscus extrusion in a central image (SRM 0.18) and in the central five slices (SRM 0.22) did not reach significance, but change in extrusion across the entire meniscus (SRM 0.32; p = 0.03) and in the relative area of meniscus extrusion (SRM 0.56; p < 0.001) did. There was a reduction in medial meniscus volume (10 %; p < 0.001), width (7 %; p < 0.001), and height (2 %; p = 0.08); meniscus substance loss was strongest in the posterior (SRM -0.51; p = 0.001) and weakest in the anterior horn (SRM -0.15; p = 0.31). This pilot study reports, for the first time, longitudinal change in quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. (orig.)

  17. Regulatory change for organ procurement organizations: certifying the success of transplantation in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    In June 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services released the final rule for the conditions of participation for organ procurement organizations in the United States. The new guidelines change the way OPOs are measured, shifting from a population-based set of performance measures to a system that is based on eligible donors and conversion rates. In addition to the change in measurement philosophy, CMS has included statements, regarding organizational structure, staffing, and research as standard measures for OPOs. The change from solely donation and transplantation measures is significant for the community, and will result in changes in the way OPOs structure their organizations and governing and clinical boards.

  18. RS Application for conducting change detection within the Sundarban Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh to meet REDD+ initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, T.; Maus, P.; Megown, K.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) provided technical support to the Resource Information Management System (RIMS) unit of the Forest Department (FD) of Bangladesh in developing a method to monitor changes within the Sundarbans Reserve Forest using remote sensing and GIS technology to meet the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) initiatives within Bangladesh. It included comparing the simple image differencing method with the Z-score outlier change detection method to examine changes within the mangroves of Bangladesh. Landsat data from three time periods (1989, 1999, 2009) were used to quantify change within four canopy cover classes (High, Medium, Low, and Very Low) within Sundarbans. The Z-score change analysis and image differencing was done for all the 6 reflective bands obtained from Landsat and two spectral indices NDVI and NDMI, derived from these bands for each year. Our results indicated very subtle changes in the mangrove forest within the past twenty years and the Z-score analysis was found to be more useful in capturing these subtle changes than the simple image difference method. Percent change in Z-score of NDVI provided the most meaningful index of vegetation change. It was used to summarize change for the entire study area by pixel, by canopy cover classes and the management compartment during this analysis. Our analysis showed less than 5% overall change in area within the mangroves for the entire study period. Percent change in forest canopy cover reduced from 4% in 1989-99 to 2% by 1999-2009 indicating an increase in forest canopy cover. Percent change in NDVI Z-score of each pixel was used to compute the overall percent change in z-score within the entire study area, mean percent change within each canopy cover class and management compartments from 1989 to 1999 and from 1999 to 2009. The above analysis provided insight to the spatial distribution of percent change in NDVI between the study periods and helped in

  19. Influencing organisational change in the NHS: lessons learned from workplace wellness initiatives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Lloyd, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the key issues in influencing organisational change in NHS settings, in the development of workplace wellness interventions to improve employee health and wellbeing. To tackle poor public health and associated rising healthcare costs, there must be a focus on the root cause of many preventable diseases - unhealthy lifestyle choices. Workplace wellness initiatives are now an important prevention strategy adopted by socially responsible organisations to target the health and wellbeing of working age adults. Lessons learned from initiatives in secondary care suggest that effective implementation requires change in organisational 'health culture', through a combination of education, behaviour change intervention, needs-based facilities, and services and strategies for developing supportive and health-promoting work environments. Most of all, employers must demonstrate a commitment to health and wellness that is fully integrated with their mission, values and long-term vision, paving the way for sustainable lifestyle changes. Evaluation systems must be in place to measure the impact and outcomes of wellness schemes.

  20. Ca2+-induced PRE-NMR changes in the troponin complex reveal the possessive nature of the cardiac isoform for its regulatory switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Cordina

    Full Text Available The interaction between myosin and actin in cardiac muscle, modulated by the calcium (Ca2+ sensor Troponin complex (Tn, is a complex process which is yet to be fully resolved at the molecular level. Our understanding of how the binding of Ca2+ triggers conformational changes within Tn that are subsequently propagated through the contractile apparatus to initiate muscle activation is hampered by a lack of an atomic structure for the Ca2+-free state of the cardiac isoform. We have used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE-NMR to obtain a description of the Ca2+-free state of cardiac Tn by describing the movement of key regions of the troponin I (cTnI subunit upon the release of Ca2+ from Troponin C (cTnC. Site-directed spin-labeling was used to position paramagnetic spin labels in cTnI and the changes in the interaction between cTnI and cTnC subunits were then mapped by PRE-NMR. The functionally important regions of cTnI targeted in this study included the cTnC-binding N-region (cTnI57, the inhibitory region (cTnI143, and two sites on the regulatory switch region (cTnI151 and cTnI159. Comparison of 1H-15N-TROSY spectra of Ca2+-bound and free states for the spin labeled cTnC-cTnI binary constructs demonstrated the release and modest movement of the cTnI switch region (∼10 Å away from the hydrophobic N-lobe of troponin C (cTnC upon the removal of Ca2+. Our data supports a model where the non-bound regulatory switch region of cTnI is highly flexible in the absence of Ca2+ but remains in close vicinity to cTnC. We speculate that the close proximity of TnI to TnC in the cardiac complex is favourable for increasing the frequency of collisions between the N-lobe of cTnC and the regulatory switch region, counterbalancing the reduction in collision probability that results from the incomplete opening of the N-lobe of TnC that is unique to the cardiac isoform.

  1. Efficacy of a "small-changes" workplace weight loss initiative on weight and productivity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    The effect of weight reduction on workplace productivity is unknown. We have investigated a "small-changes" workplace weight loss intervention on weight and productivity outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites (n = 102) received the 12-week intervention. One site received an extra 9-month weight-maintenance component. Magnitudes of effects on weight and productivity were assessed via standardization. Both groups reduced weight at 12 weeks and maintained lost weight at 12 months. There were small possible improvements in productivity at one worksite and trivial reductions at the other by 12 weeks, with little subsequent change during maintenance in either group. At an individual level, weight change was associated with at most only small improvements or small reductions in productivity. Workplace weight loss initiatives may need to be more intensive or multidimensional to enhance productivity.

  2. 77 FR 3531 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Enhance Risk Management.... Description The rule change will enhance the risk management controls associated with DTC's Receiver... Participant's net debit cap is placed on a pending (recycling) queue until another transaction creates...

  3. Nuclear energy research initiative, an overview of the cooperative program for the risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2000-01-01

    EPRI sstudies have shown that nuclear plant capital costs will have to decrease by about 35% to 40% to be competitive with fossil-generated electricity in the Unite States. Also, the ''first concrete'' to fuel load construction schedule will have to be decreased to less than 40 months. Therefore, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiate the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) and ABB CENP proposed a cooperative program with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Duke Engineering and Services (DE and S) to begin an innovative research effort to drastically cut the cost of new nuclear power plant construction for the U. S. de-regulated market place. This program was approved by the DOE through three separate but coordinated ''cooperative agreements.'' They are the ''Risk-Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants'' (Risk-Informed NPP), the ''Smart Nuclear Power Plant Program'' (Smart-NPP), and ''Design, Procure, Construct, Install and Test'' (DPCIT) Program. DOE funded the three cooperative agreements at a level of $2.6 million for the first year of the program. Funding for the complete program is durrently at a level $6.9 million, however, ABB CENP and all partners anticipate that the scope of the NERI program will be increased as a result of the overall importance of NERI to the U. S. Government. The Risk-Informed NPP program, which is aimed at revising costly regularory and design requirements without reducing overall plant safety, has two basic tasks: ''development of Risk-Informed Methods'' and ''strengthening the Reliability Database.'' The overall objective of the first task is to develop a scientific, risk-informed approach for identifying and simplifying deterministic industry standards, regulatory requirements, and safety systems that do not significantly contribute to nuclear power plant reliability and safety. The second basic task is to develop a means for strengthening the reliability database

  4. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  5. Institutional transformation: An analysis of change initiatives at NSF ADVANCE institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Ellen W.

    The purpose of this study was to examine how institutional culture promoted or impeded the implementation of round one and two NSF ADVANCE initiatives designed to improve academic climates for women in science and engineering. This study was conducted in two phases. In phase one, 35 participants from 18 institutions were interviewed to answer three research questions. Participants identified a policy, process, or program designed to improve academic cultures for women in science and engineering fields. Participants also identified strategies that promoted the implementation of these efforts, and discussed factors that impeded these efforts. In phase two, site visits were conducted at two institutions to answer a fourth research question. How did institutional culture shape the design and implementation of faculty search processes? Policies, processes, and programs were implemented by participants at the institutional, departmental, and individual levels and included family friendly and dual career policies at the institutional level, improved departmental faculty search and climate improvement processes, and mentoring programs and training for department heads at the individual level. Communication and leadership strategies were key to the successful implementation of policies, processes, and programs designed to achieve institutional transformation. Communication strategies involved shaping change messages to reach varied audiences often with the argument that change efforts would improve the climate for everyone not just women faculty members. Administrative and faculty leaders from multiple levels proved important to change efforts. Institutional Transformation Institutional culture shaped initiatives to improve faculty search processes. Faculty leaders in both settings used data to persuade faculty members of the need for change. At one site, data that included national availability information was critical to advancing the change agenda. At the other site

  6. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  7. 77 FR 39781 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... would be for an IPO. \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 77a. Significant regulatory concerns, including accounting fraud... accounting fraud or subject to other concealed and undisclosed legal or regulatory problems. For purposes of...

  8. Chronic stress and peripheral pain: Evidence for distinct, region-specific changes in visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-11-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was designed around core elements of successful environmental professional development programs and aligned with practices advocated in benchmarked science standards. Data were collected from multiple sources including observations of professional development events, participants' reflections on their learning, and collection of instructional units designed during the Academy. Data were also collected from a focal case study teacher in a middle school setting. Case study data included classroom observations, teacher interviews, and student beliefs toward climate change. Results indicated that the Climate Academy fostered increased learning among participants of both climate science content and pedagogical strategies for teaching about climate change. Additionally, results indicated that participants applied their new learning in the design of climate change instructional units. Finally, results from the case study indicated positive impacts on student beliefs and greater awareness about climate change. Results have implications for the design of professional development programs on climate change, a topic included for the first time in national standards.

  10. 78 FR 62809 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... not be added, since the initial strikes go as low as possible ($1). Or, assume that the McDonald's... proposed rule change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. [[Page 62810

  11. 77 FR 27255 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Reduce the Current Level of Risk Mutualization Among Clearing Participants and To Modify the Initial Margin Risk Model So That It Is Easier for... modifications to its risk model for clearing credit default swaps (``CDS'') contracts. For the first...

  12. City logistics initiatives aimed at improving sustainability by changing the context of urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available City logistics is a field that attracts increasing attention of professionals and scientific community and international organizations. Research on problems of urban areas' logistics gives different results and practical solutions. City logistics flows are characterized by partiality, spatial dispersion of generators, diversity in terms of the logistics chains structure, frequency of a large number of smaller shipments, dynamism, stochasticity etc. Problems and the complexity of logistics in urban areas as well as significant decline in the quality of life in modern cities have caused the development of initiatives and concepts of city logistics which should allow the sustainable development of urban areas. The first part of this paper presents the problems of city logistics and impact of logistics activities on urban areas in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The second part presents city logistics initiatives that involve the change of urban area context, in order to improve its sustainability.

  13. Clustering excellence to exert transformative change: the Hartford Geriatric Nursing Initiative (HGNI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Angela Barron; Watman, Rachael; Escobedo, Marcus; Beilenson, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how the John A. Hartford Foundation sought to maximize the influence of its various geriatric nursing projects by organizing and managing them collectively as the Hartford Geriatric Nursing Initiative (HGNI). This initiative aimed to develop a shared identity, encouraged cross-pollination of efforts, convened project leaders to address opportunities and problems, launched across-project collaborations, and created tools and resources to support overall efforts. This paper ends with some reflections on the processes implemented to maximize HGNI effectiveness, particularly the importance of forging a common identity in order to encourage expanded solutions. The HGNI can serve as an example of how intersecting interests can fuel new ideas, thus helping others think more strategically about change efforts in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The ESA climate change initiative: Satellite data records for essential climate variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, R.; Merchant, C.J.; Saunders, R.

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) to provide satellite-based climate data records (CDRs) that meet the challenging requirements of the climate community. The aim is to realize the full potential of the long-term Earth observation (EO) archives...... that both ESA and third parties have established. This includes aspects of producing a CDR, which involve data acquisition, calibration, algorithm development, validation, maintenance, and provision of the data to the climate research community. The CCI is consistent with several international efforts...... targeting the generation of satellite derived climate data records. One focus of the CCI is to provide products for climate modelers who increasingly use satellite data to initialize, constrain, and validate models on a wide range of space and time scales....

  15. 78 FR 19057 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing Proposed Rule Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... categories. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the... by ICEEU. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the.... 78q-1(b)(3)(F). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Burden on Competition ICE Clear Europe...

  16. 75 FR 39714 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to....C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of the.... II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed...

  17. 76 FR 77877 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...). II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed... self-regulatory organization has prepared summaries, set forth in Sections A, B and C below, of the...

  18. 76 FR 61444 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's... Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory... IV below. The self-regulatory organization has prepared summaries, set forth in Sections A, B and C...

  19. 78 FR 48732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization... Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of... A, B, and C below, of the most significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory...

  20. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 8, Regulatory Framework Intersections: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  1. 78 FR 36616 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... of this proposed rule change filing, the United Kingdom, Mexico, Ireland, Switzerland, Spain, Norway... services industry already contain provisions allocating the risk of any FATCA Withholding tax that will...

  2. Initiation of TNF Inhibitor Therapy and Change in Physiologic Measures in Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J.; Liu, Liyan; Asgari, Maryam M.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Harrold, Leslie; Salman, Craig; Herrinton, Lisa J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psoriasis may predispose to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, the role of TNF inhibitor in mediating this risk is controversial. Objective To assess this relationship, we estimated change in metabolic physiologic measures before and after initiation of TNF inhibitor therapy compared with methotrexate therapy among psoriasis patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study, 2007–2012, using computerized clinical data for 1,274 new users of TNF inhibitor and 979 new users of methotrexate therapy to compare change in blood pressure, lipids, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and body mass index before and after start of TNF inhibitors or methotrexate. The study was restricted to new users. We computed within-person change in each measure, so that each patient served as their own control. In addition, we compared TNF inhibitor patients to methotrexate patients, by computing the adjusted difference in their group means. In secondary analyses, we examined phototherapy as a comparator. Results Among starters of TNF inhibitor and MTX therapy, within-person change in physiologic measures at 6 months did not differ significantly. We observed no important or significant changes in any of the physiologic measures with initiation of TNF inhibitor compared with methotrexate. The same results were found in subgroup analyses focused on men, and on those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. The same results were observed with phototherapy, except that diastolic blood pressure declined by 0.6 mm Hg within-person during the 6 months after starting phototherapy (p<0.05). Conclusions The study provides no evidence for improvement of physiologic measures associated with the metabolic syndrome resulting from TNF inhibitor use for psoriasis. PMID:24708441

  3. Can community change be measured for an outcomes-based initiative? A comparative case study of the success by 6 initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minich, Lisa; Howe, Steven; Langmeyer, Daniel; Corcoran, Kevin

    2006-12-01

    One of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations today is the demand for measurable results. Increasingly, these organizations are focusing less on program outputs and program outcomes in favor of community outcomes or changes demonstrated in the larger community. Success by 6(R) is a popular United Way initiative that emphasizes defining and measuring community outcomes. In this paper, we describe our work with 24 Success by 6(R) initiatives around the country. It is clear that not all of these initiatives are measuring community outcomes. Of those initiatives that are experiencing some success measuring community outcomes, similar measurement strategies are reported. Additionally, our experience suggests several United Way employees express dissatisfaction with the logic model as a framework for defining and measuring community outcomes although no preferred alternative model is identified. Evaluators working with community-wide initiatives must find ways to communicate the differences between program and community outcomes to key stakeholders and funders.

  4. Changes in Translational Efficiency is a Dominant Regulatory Mechanism in the Environmental Response of Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Ronald C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Serres, Margrethe H.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Hill, Eric A.; Romine, Margaret F.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wiley, H. S.

    2013-09-23

    To understand how cell physiological state affects mRNA translation, we used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown under steady state conditions at either aerobic or suboxic conditions. Using a combination of quantitative proteomics and RNA-Seq, we generated high-confidence data on >1000 mRNA and protein pairs. By using a steady state model, we found that differences in protein-mRNA ratios were primarily caused by differences in the translational efficiency of specific genes. When oxygen levels were lowered, 28% of the proteins showed at least a 2-fold change in expression. Altered transcription levels appeared responsible for 26% of the protein changes, altered translational efficiency appeared responsible for 46% and a combination of both were responsible for the remaining 28%. Changes in translational efficiency were significantly correlated with the codon usage pattern of the genes and measurable tRNA pools changed in response to altered O2 levels. Our results suggest that changes in the translational efficiency of proteins, in part caused by altered tRNA pools, is a major determinant of regulated protein expression in bacteria.

  5. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas D.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  6. Attribution of soil moisture dynamics - Initial conditions vs. atmospheric forcing and the role of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-05-01

    The world's climate has started to change more quickly in recent decades and a stronger and faster shift is expected in the future. Even if the public perception is mostly limited to a widespread warming, climate change is a complex phenomenon impacting numerous variables of the climate system in different ways, also depending on time and location. Furthermore, extreme events may change more drastically than the mean climate. There is growing evidence that climate change is mostly man-made. However, it is still a matter of debate to which extent changes of the mean climate but also of particular (extreme) events are due to human impact. These questions are addressed by the growing science of climate attribution. Pointing out the anthropogenic influence on extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heatwave or the 2002 floods in Central Europe may help to support adaptation to climate change. This study investigates soil moisture in Europe in the context of climate change, because of its role as a key variable of the land-climate system and its practical importance for instance to agriculture. To derive soil moisture dynamics from 1984-2007 we use E-OBS forcing data together with SRB radiation data and employ an observation-based approach where soil moisture is computed from a water balance equation in which runoff (normalized with precipitation) and ET (normalized with net radiation) are simple functions of soil moisture. The constant runoff function is prescribed for the whole continent, and the ET function is calibrated using temperature data. After performing a validation of the inferred soil moisture data we use it in order to analyze changes in the likelihood of droughts. Our results show increased drought risk especially in north-eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, whereby the probability of extreme droughts increases stronger as for mild dryness episodes. To assess the potential for drought forecasting we furthermore study the importance of the initial

  7. Regulatory challenges posed by a changing nuclear fuel industry in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.W.; Tew, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the UK, all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle are regulated by HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) through a licensing regime established by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. This paper describes that regime, and also the organisational and technological changes which have taken place in the nuclear fuel industry in recent years. Such organisational changes have included restructuring, staff reductions, the greater use of contractors and possible privatisation. The paper then addresses the response of the regulator to such changes, both in terms of the licensing process and the inspection activities on site. It describes in particular new HSE Guidance - ''Nuclear Site Licences: Notes for Applicants'' - which introduces the key concept of a management prospectus for nuclear licensees. (author)

  8. 42 CFR 476.94 - Notice of QIO initial denial determination and changes as a result of a DRG validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... changes as a result of a DRG validation. 476.94 Section 476.94 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... changes as a result of a DRG validation. (a) Notice of initial denial determination—(1) Parties to be... retrospective review, (excluding DRG validation and post procedure review), within 3 working days of the initial...

  9. Regulatory Changes and Productivity of the Banking Sector in the Indian Sub-Continent

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbar Jaffry; Yaseen Ghulam; Sean Pascoe; Joe Cox

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to measure changes in technical efficiency levels within the banking sectors of the Indian sub-continent: specifically India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, over the period 1993–2002. This study is done in the context of a number of sweeping deregulations across the sub-continent in the early 1990s, and the possible effect these may have had upon efficiency levels. A Malmquist Index of TFP change over the time-period in question is employed, along with a Tobit regression, in order...

  10. Aging has small effects on initial ischemic acute kidney injury development despite changing intrarenal immunologic micromilieu in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Ghee Young; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Sung Joo; Oh, Ha Young; Huh, Wooseong

    2016-02-15

    Inflammatory process mediated by innate and adaptive immune systems is a major pathogenic mechanism of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). There are concerns that organ recipients may be at increased risk of developing IRI after receiving kidneys from elder donors. To reveal the effects of aging on the development of renal IRI, we compared the immunologic micromilieu of normal and postischemic kidneys from mice of three different ages (9 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo). There was a higher number of total T cells, especially effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells, and regulatory T cells in the normal kidneys of old mice. On day 2 after IRI, the proportion of necrotic tubules and renal functional changes were comparable between groups although old mice had a higher proportion of damaged tubule compared with young mice. More T cells, but less B cells, trafficked into the postischemic kidneys of old mice. The infiltration of NK T cells was similar across the groups. Macrophages and neutrophils were comparable between groups in both normal kidneys and postischemic kidneys. The intrarenal expressions of TNF-α and VEGF were decreased in normal and postischemic kidneys of aged mice. These mixed effects of aging on lymphocytes and cytokines/chemokines were not different between the two groups of old mice. Our study demonstrates that aging alters the intrarenal micromilieu but has small effects on the development of initial renal injury after IRI. Further study investigating aging-dependent differences in the repair process of renal IRI may be required. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. South Africa's national REDD+ initiative: assessing the potential of the forestry sector on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahlao, Sebataolo; Mantlana, Brian; Winkler, Harald; Knowles, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is regarded by its proponents as one of the more efficient and cost effective ways to mitigate climate change. There was further progress toward the implementation of this mechanism at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP) in Cancun in December 2010. Many countries in southern African, including South Africa, have not been integrated (do not participate) into the UN-REDD+ programme, probably due to their low forest cover and national rates of deforestation. This paper discusses the potential contribution of REDD+ activities to the South African Government's pledge of reducing national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 34% below business as usual by 2020. A number of issues such as complex land tenure system, limited forest cover and other conflicting environmental issues present challenges for REDD+ in South Africa. Despite these genuine concerns, REDD+ remains a practical strategy to contribute to climate change mitigation for South Africa. The paper raises the need for development of a variety of emission reduction programmes – not only in the energy sector. The paper also assesses several national options and opportunities towards a working REDD+ mechanism. It concludes by identifying key mechanisms for moving forward to prepare for REDD+ actions in South Africa and raises the urgent need for national dialogue between stakeholders and institutions to evaluate the feasibility of making use of the mechanism in South Africa and the Southern African Development Cooperation (SADC) region. The paper further addresses possible synergies and conflicts between the national climate change and forestry policies towards REDD+ development. It suggests that REDD+ should be part of the national dialogue on policy to respond to climate change and should be integrated into the national flagship programmes that the national climate change white paper seeks to implement. A multiple

  12. 78 FR 60695 - Regulatory Reorganization; Administrative Changes to Regulations Due to the Consolidation of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Consolidation of the Financial Management Service and the Bureau of the Public Debt Into the Bureau of the... Service''). The new bureau consolidated the bureaus formerly known as the Financial Management Service... Register on May 24, 2013. This consolidation requires reorganization of, and administrative changes to...

  13. 77 FR 520 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... one of the reference ETFs measured by the index is a gold- or silver-based ETF.\\5\\ Generally, OCC... security of an underlying relative performance index is an ETF designed to measure the return of gold or... changes to OCC's By-Laws clarifying that options on the CBOE Gold ETF Volatility Index will be cleared and...

  14. Indirect land use change and biofuels. Mathematical analysis reveals a fundamental flaw in the regulatory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Dale, B.E.; Heijungs, R.; Azapagic, A.; Darlington, T.; Kahlbaum, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has used partial equilibrium models to estimate the overall indirect land use change (iLUC) associated with the biofuel scenario mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

  15. Did our current initial treatment practice change after EAU/ESPU vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokat, Eda; Gurocak, Serhat; Ure, Iyimser; Acar, Cenk; Sınık, Zafer; Tan, Mustafa Ozgur

    2018-06-02

    The "European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines on Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in Children (September 2012)" established risk classification by analyzing and defining risk factors for each patient. In this study we aimed to investigate how our initial treatment procedures were affected by EAU/ESPU guideline vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping and to compare the early clinical results of treatments performed before and after the risk classification in our patients with VUR. 334 renal units with regular clinical follow-up who were treated owing to VUR (vesicoureteral reflux) between years 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical parameters such as grade and laterality of reflux, presence of renal scar, initial and follow-up treatments, findings of medical treatment and surgical procedures were analyzed. The initial medical and surgical methods were compared by categorizing patients according to risk groups before and after 2013. Mean age and follow-up duration were 71.4(6-216) months and 47(4-141) months, respectively. Among the preoperative parameters, only high EAU risk group (p = 0.01) and treating lower urinary tract symptoms (p age, sex, and presence of renal scar at DMSA were not affecting the success of treatment significantly. While no significant difference in medical and surgical treatment rates is observed after risk grouping system in low risk group, the percentages of patients who are treated with surgical methods initially were significantly decreased in moderate and high risk groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively). We determined that VUR risk grouping did not change clinical success significantly in all risk groups. Despite the fact that EAU/ESPU VUR risk classification changed our current practice in terms of initial treatment method, this different approach did not seem to affect early clinical success positively. There is still an absolute need for studies with larger sample size and long

  16. Debris flow-induced topographic changes: effects of recurrent debris flow initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Qun

    2017-08-12

    Chushui Creek in Shengmu Village, Nantou County, Taiwan, was analyzed for recurrent debris flow using numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis. The two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation program FLO-2D were used to simulate debris flow induced by rainfall during typhoon Herb in 1996 and Mindulle in 2004. Changes in topographic characteristics after the debris flows were simulated for the initiation of hydrological characteristics, magnitude, and affected area. Changes in topographic characteristics included those in elevation, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), and hypsometric curve integral (HI), all of which were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis. The results show that the SPI and peak discharge in the basin increased after a recurrence of debris flow. The TWI was higher in 2003 than in 2004 and indicated higher potential of landslide initiation when the slope of the basin was steeper. The HI revealed that the basin was in its mature stage and was shifting toward the old stage. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the parameters' mean depth, maximum depth, affected area, mean flow rate, maximum flow rate, and peak flow discharge were increased after recurrent debris flow, and peak discharge occurred quickly.

  17. Governing and Managing Customer-initiated Engineering Change – An in-depth case study of a global industrial supplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    or externally by for instance customers. Managing initiated engineering changes is a vital source for improving product performance and radically reducing change costs. Customer-initiated engineering change is an area growing in importance decreasing product life cycles and increasing demand for customisation....... Through an in-depth case study, this paper investigates which process and what governance setup is appropriate to manage customer initiated engineering changes, referred to as request management. The paper includes a proposal for a request management framework and a task-based iterative process model...

  18. Challenges and Changes: Developing Teachers' and Initial Teacher Education Students' Understandings of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Gillian; Haigh, Mavis

    2017-12-01

    Teachers need an understanding of the nature of science (NOS) to enable them to incorporate NOS into their teaching of science. The current study examines the usefulness of a strategy for challenging or changing teachers' understandings of NOS. The teachers who participated in this study were 10 initial teacher education chemistry students and six experienced teachers from secondary and primary schools who were introduced to an explicit and reflective activity, a dramatic reading about a historical scientific development. Concept maps were used before and after the activity to assess teachers' knowledge of NOS. The participants also took part in a focus group interview to establish whether they perceived the activity as useful in developing their own understanding of NOS. Initial analysis led us to ask another group, comprising seven initial teacher education chemistry students, to take part in a modified study. These participants not only completed the same tasks as the previous participants but also completed a written reflection commenting on whether the activity and focus group discussion enhanced their understanding of NOS. Both Lederman et al.'s (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497-521, 2002) concepts of NOS and notions of "naive" and "informed" understandings of NOS and Hay's (Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 39-57, 2007) notions of "surface" and "deep" learning were used as frameworks to examine the participants' specific understandings of NOS and the depth of their learning. The ways in which participants' understandings of NOS were broadened or changed by taking part in the dramatic reading are presented. The impact of the data-gathering tools on the participants' professional learning is also discussed.

  19. Changes in peripheral blood level of regulatory T cells in patients with malignant melanoma during treatment with dendritic cell vaccination and low-dose IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-α and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high......) , was prospectively analysed in fresh blood, and treatment-associated quantitative and qualitative changes were analysed. By the 4th vaccine, patients showed a marked increase in CD4+ CD25(high) T cell subset from 6% to 22% (P...

  20. Changes in peripheral blood level of regulatory T cells in patients with malignant melanoma during treatment with dendritic cell vaccination and low-dose IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-a and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high......) , was prospectively analysed in fresh blood, and treatment-associated quantitative and qualitative changes were analysed. By the 4th vaccine, patients showed a marked increase in CD4+ CD25(high) T cell subset from 6% to 22% (P...

  1. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  2. Changing the diet of a nation: Population/regulatory strategies for a developed economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-09-01

    The principal nutritional problems of developed economies are related to the excessive and unbalanced intake of energy and nutrients. During the 20th century, as economies improved and food production became more efficient, conditions related to undernutrition were replaced by epidemics of coronary heart disease, certain cancers and other chronic conditions related to food overconsumption. In developed countries such as the United States, obesity became the predominant public health nutrition problem. To prevent obesity, people must consume less energy and be more active, but the food supplies of developed economies offer their populations amounts of energy that greatly exceed physiological need. Food overproduction causes competition in the food industry, limits its expansion, and leads food producers to invest heavily in marketing. To increase sales, food companies must encourage people to consume more of their products, substitute their products for others or develop new markets. Such efforts create an environment in which food is readily available at all times and readily overconsumed. Marketing expenditures for any single food product greatly exceed the total amounts available to governments for national campaigns to prevent chronic diseases. Existing government policies often support this environment through price supports and other means. To reverse obesity and its health consequences, governments need to consider ways to address the food environment through policies in education, agriculture, school meals, pricing, taxation and other means, as well as to develop mechanisms to fund new programme initiatives.

  3. Changes of microRNA profile and microRNA-mRNA regulatory network in bones of ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Hyun; Ohn, Jung Hun; Song, Jung Ah; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hyojung; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Park, Woog-Yang; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-03-01

    Growing evidence shows the possibility of a role of microRNAs (miRNA) in regulating bone mass. We investigated the change of miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles in bone tissue in an ovariectomized mice model and evaluated the regulatory mechanism of bone mass mediated by miRNAs in an estrogen-deficiency state. Eight-week-old female C3H/HeJ mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Sham-op), and their femur and tibia were harvested to extract total bone RNAs after 4 weeks for microarray analysis. Eight miRNAs (miR-127, -133a, -133a*, -133b, -136, -206, -378, -378*) were identified to be upregulated after OVX, whereas one miRNA (miR-204) was downregulated. Concomitant analysis of mRNA microarray revealed that 658 genes were differentially expressed between OVX and Sham-op mice. Target prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs identified potential targets, and integrative analysis using the mRNA microarray results showed that PPARγ and CREB pathways are activated in skeletal tissues after ovariectomy. Among the potential candidates of miRNA, we further studied the role of miR-127 in vitro, which exhibited the greatest changes after OVX. We also studied the effects of miR-136, which has not been studied in the context of bone mass regulation. Transfection of miR-127 inhibitor has enhanced osteoblastic differentiation in UAMS-32 cells as measured by alkaline phosphatase activities and mRNA expression of osteoblast-specific genes, whereas miR-136 precursor has inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, transfection of both miR-127 and miR-136 inhibitors enhanced the osteocyte-like morphological changes and survival in MLO-Y4 cells, whereas precursors of miR-127 and -136 have aggravated dexamethasone-induced cell death. Both of the precursors enhanced osteoclastic differentiation in bone marrow macrophages, indicating that both miR-127 and -136 are negatively regulating bone mass. Taken together, these results suggest a novel insight into the

  4. Market redesign and regulatory change : how companies doing business in Alberta's power markets will be affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Power Pool of Alberta (PPA) began its operations in 1996 based on a model with a single price set based on day ahead offers/bids and real time dispatch. The Electric Utilities Act was amended in 1998 and direct sales were permitted in 1999. The Power Purchase Arrangement Auction was implemented in 2000. Significant events took place in 2001, including: (1) retail competition, (2) PPAs began operations, (3) restrictions on direct sales were removed, (4) forward exchange operation, and (5) ancillary services market. In 2002, the Market Achievement Plan II was implemented and government industry structure was reviewed. There are several considerations regarding market redesign, such as day ahead market, capacity market, congestion management, and Northwest Regional Transmission Organization (RTO West). The role of the International Standard Organization (ISO) was discussed, with reference to the Independent System Operator, Independent Market Operator, and Transmission and Market Planner. Redesign must involve all participants and include informed, phased in changes

  5. The Business Change Initiative: A Novel Approach to Improved Cost and Schedule Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Bryson, Jonathan; Klein, Gerald; Lunz-Ruark, Val; Majerowicz, Walt; McKeever, J.; Nair, Param

    2016-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's Flight Projects Directorate employed a Business Change Initiative (BCI) to infuse a series of activities coordinated to drive improved cost and schedule performance across Goddard's missions. This sustaining change framework provides a platform to manage and implement cost and schedule control techniques throughout the project portfolio. The BCI concluded in December 2014, deploying over 100 cost and schedule management changes including best practices, tools, methods, training, and knowledge sharing. The new business approach has driven the portfolio to improved programmatic performance. The last eight launched GSFC missions have optimized cost, schedule, and technical performance on a sustained basis to deliver on time and within budget, returning funds in many cases. While not every future mission will boast such strong performance, improved cost and schedule tools, management practices, and ongoing comprehensive evaluations of program planning and control methods to refine and implement best practices will continue to provide a framework for sustained performance. This paper will describe the tools, techniques, and processes developed during the BCI and the utilization of collaborative content management tools to disseminate project planning and control techniques to ensure continuous collaboration and optimization of cost and schedule management in the future.

  6. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inactivation Induces Cell Senescence through Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1-Mediated Lipogenesis in Chang Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Mie; Song, Insun; Seo, Yong-Hak; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced lipogenesis plays a critical role in cell senescence via induction of expression of the mature form of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which contributes to an increase in organellar mass, one of the indicators of senescence. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which signaling molecules control SREBP1-mediated lipogenesis and senescence. We developed cellular models for stress-induced senescence, by exposing Chang cells, which are immortalized human liver cells, to subcytotoxic concentrations (200 µM) of deferoxamine (DFO) and H2O2. In this model of stress-induced cell senescence using DFO and H2O2, the phosphorylation profile of glycogen synthase kinase 3α (GSK3α) and β corresponded closely to the expression profile of the mature form of SREBP-1 protein. Inhibition of GSK3 with a subcytotoxic concentration of the selective GSK3 inhibitor SB415286 significantly increased mature SREBP1 expression, as well as lipogenesis and organellar mass. In addition, GSK3 inhibition was sufficient to induce senescence in Chang cells. Suppression of GSK3 expression with siRNAs specific to GSK3α and β also increased mature SREBP1 expression and induced senescence. Finally, blocking lipogenesis with fatty acid synthase inhibitors (cerulenin and C75) and siRNA-mediated silencing of SREBP1 and ATP citrate lyase (ACL) significantly attenuated GSK3 inhibition-induced senescence. GSK3 inactivation is an important upstream event that induces SREBP1-mediated lipogenesis and consequent cell senescence.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of conformation changes of HIV-1 regulatory protein on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Daohui; Li, Libo; He, Daohang; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou@scut.edu.cn

    2016-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene accompanied by early conformational change from α-helix to β-sheet structures was observed by molecular simulations. This work presents the molecular mechanism of graphene-induced peptide conformational alteration and sheds light on developing graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV. - Highlights: • Graphene induced early structural transition of Vpr13-33 is studied by MD simulations. • Both π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions orchestrate the peptide adsorption. • Vpr has an increased propensity of β-sheet content on graphene surface. • To develop graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV is possible. - Abstract: The fragment of viral protein R (Vpr), Vpr13-33, plays an important role in regulating nuclear importing of HIV genes through channel formation in which it adopts a leucine-zipper-like alpha-helical conformation. A recent experimental study reported that helical Vpr13-33 would transform to β-sheet or random coil structures and aggregate on the surface of graphene or graphene oxide through hydrophobic interactions. Due to experimental limitations, however, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the adsorption dynamics at the early stage of the conformational transition at water-graphene interface and the underlying driving force at molecular level. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformation transition phenomena. Vpr13-33 kept α-helical structure in solution, but changed to β-sheet structure when strongly adsorbed onto graphene. Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The cluster analysis identified the most significant populated conformation and the early stage of structure conversion from α-helical to β-sheet was found, but the full β-sheet propagation was not observed. Free energy landscape analysis further complemented the transformation analysis of

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of conformation changes of HIV-1 regulatory protein on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Daohui; Li, Libo; He, Daohang; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene accompanied by early conformational change from α-helix to β-sheet structures was observed by molecular simulations. This work presents the molecular mechanism of graphene-induced peptide conformational alteration and sheds light on developing graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV. - Highlights: • Graphene induced early structural transition of Vpr13-33 is studied by MD simulations. • Both π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions orchestrate the peptide adsorption. • Vpr has an increased propensity of β-sheet content on graphene surface. • To develop graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV is possible. - Abstract: The fragment of viral protein R (Vpr), Vpr13-33, plays an important role in regulating nuclear importing of HIV genes through channel formation in which it adopts a leucine-zipper-like alpha-helical conformation. A recent experimental study reported that helical Vpr13-33 would transform to β-sheet or random coil structures and aggregate on the surface of graphene or graphene oxide through hydrophobic interactions. Due to experimental limitations, however, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the adsorption dynamics at the early stage of the conformational transition at water-graphene interface and the underlying driving force at molecular level. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformation transition phenomena. Vpr13-33 kept α-helical structure in solution, but changed to β-sheet structure when strongly adsorbed onto graphene. Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The cluster analysis identified the most significant populated conformation and the early stage of structure conversion from α-helical to β-sheet was found, but the full β-sheet propagation was not observed. Free energy landscape analysis further complemented the transformation analysis of

  9. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures in...

  10. Effect of the Initial Vortex Size on Intensity Change in the WRF-ROMS Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the tropical cyclone (TC) induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling strongly depends on the preexisting oceanic condition and TC characteristics. However, very few focused on the correlation of SST cooling and the subsequent intensity with TC size. Therefore, a series of idealized numerical experiments are conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) model to understand how the vortex size is related to SST cooling and subsequent intensity changes of a stationary TC-like vortex. In the uncoupled experiments, the radius of maximum wind (RMW) and size (radius of gale-force wind (R17)) both depend on the initial size within the 72 h simulation. The initially small vortex is smaller than the medium and large vortices throughout its life cycle and is the weakest. In other words, thermodynamic processes do not contribute as much to the R17 change as the dynamic processes proposed (e.g., angular momentum transport) in previous studies. In the coupled experiments, the area-averaged SST cooling induced by medium and large TCs within the inner-core region is comparable due to the similar surface winds and thus mixing in the ocean. Although a stronger SST cooling averaged within a larger region outside the inner-core is induced by the larger TC, the intensity of the larger TC is more intense. This is because that the enthalpy flux in the inner-core region is higher in the larger TC than that in the medium and small TCs.

  11. Multistate outbreak of Listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Newbern, E Claire; Griffin, Patricia M; Graves, Lewis M; Hoekstra, R Michael; Baker, Nicole L; Hunter, Susan B; Holt, Kristin G; Ramsey, Fred; Head, Marcus; Levine, Priscilla; Johnson, Geraldine; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dianna; Reddy, Vasudha; Kornstein, Laura; Gerwel, Michal; Nsubuga, Johnson; Edwards, Leslie; Stonecipher, Shelley; Hurd, Sharon; Austin, Deri; Jefferson, Michelle A; Young, Suzanne D; Hise, Kelley; Chernak, Esther D; Sobel, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Listeriosis, a life-threatening foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes, affects approximately 2500 Americans annually. Between July and October 2002, an uncommon strain of L. monocytogenes caused an outbreak of listeriosis in 9 states. We conducted case finding, a case-control study, and traceback and microbiological investigations to determine the extent and source of the outbreak and to propose control measures. Case patients were infected with the outbreak strain of L. monocytogenes between July and November 2002 in 9 states, and control patients were infected with different L. monocytogenes strains. Outcome measures included food exposure associated with outbreak strain infection and source of the implicated food. Fifty-four case patients were identified; 8 died, and 3 pregnant women had fetal deaths. The case-control study included 38 case patients and 53 control patients. Case patients consumed turkey deli meat much more frequently than did control patients (P = .008, by Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In the 4 weeks before illness, 55% of case patients had eaten deli turkey breast more than 1-2 times, compared with 28% of control patients (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-17.1). Investigation of turkey deli meat eaten by case patients led to several turkey processing plants. The outbreak strain was found in the environment of 1 processing plant and in turkey products from a second. Together, the processing plants recalled > 30 million pounds of products. Following the outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service issued new regulations outlining a L. monocytogenes control and testing program for ready-to-eat meat and poultry processing plants. Turkey deli meat was the source of a large multistate outbreak of listeriosis. Investigation of this outbreak helped guide policy changes designed to prevent future L. monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  12. Initial high-resolution microscopic mapping of active and inactive regulatory sequences proves non-random 3D arrangements in chromatin domain clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Marion; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Markaki, Yolanda; Hellmann, Ines; Maiser, Andreas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; John, Sam; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Cremer, Thomas

    2017-08-07

    The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an 'open' local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and inactive TREs in the context of a recently proposed model for a functionally defined nuclear architecture, where an active and an inactive nuclear compartment (ANC-INC) form two spatially co-aligned and functionally interacting networks. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy, we performed 3D FISH with differently labeled DNA probe sets targeting either sites with DHS[+], apparently active TREs, or DHS[-] sites harboring inactive TREs. Using an in-house image analysis tool, DNA targets were quantitatively mapped on chromatin compaction shaped 3D nuclear landscapes. Our analyses present evidence for a radial 3D organization of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) with layers of increasing chromatin compaction from the periphery to the CDC core. Segments harboring active TREs are significantly enriched at the decondensed periphery of CDCs with loops penetrating into interchromatin compartment channels, constituting the ANC. In contrast, segments lacking active TREs (DHS[-]) are enriched toward the compacted interior of CDCs (INC). Our results add further evidence in support of the ANC-INC network model. The different 3D topographies of DHS[+] and DHS[-] sites suggest positional changes of TREs between the ANC and INC depending on their functional state, which might provide additional protection against an inappropriate activation. Our finding of a structural organization of CDCs based on radially arranged layers of different chromatin compaction levels indicates a complex higher-order chromatin organization beyond a dichotomic classification of chromatin into an 'open,' active and 'closed

  13. The initial changes of fat deposits during the decomposition of human and pig remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Stephanie J; Stuart, Barbara H; Rowe, Rebecca; Langlois, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The early stages of adipocere formation in both pig and human adipose tissue in aqueous environments have been investigated. The aims were to determine the short-term changes occurring to fat deposits during decomposition and to ascertain the suitability of pigs as models for human decomposition. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from both species after immersion in distilled water for up to six months was compared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Changes associated with decomposition were observed, but no adipocere was formed during the initial month of decomposition for either tissue type. Early-stage adipocere formation in pig samples during later months was detected. The variable time courses for adipose tissue decomposition were attributed to differences in the distribution of total fatty acids between species. Variations in the amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also detected between species. The study shows that differences in total fatty acid composition between species need to be considered when interpreting results from experimental decomposition studies using pigs as human body analogs.

  14. 75 FR 51002 - Pure Magnesium In Granular Form from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...) management; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base.\\6\\ Although no... Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Pasta From Turkey, 74 FR...

  15. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  16. 77 FR 3152 - New Mexico: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation-by-Reference of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution control, Water supply... Mexico: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation-by-Reference of State Hazardous.... SUMMARY: During a review of New Mexico's regulations, the EPA identified a variety of State-initiated...

  17. The influence of the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative: change in children's exposure to food advertising on television in Canada between 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, M; Wanless, A

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether children's exposure to television food/beverage advertising has changed since the implementation of the self-regulatory Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI). Data on 11 advertised food/beverage categories (candy, chocolate bars, cookies, portable snacks, cheese, yogurt, cereal, juices, soft drinks, diet soft drinks and fast food) were purchased from Nielsen Media Research for May 2006, 2009 and 2011 for the broadcasting markets of Toronto and Vancouver. The number of advertisements aired on 27 television stations between 0600 hours-1200 hours was determined in Toronto and Vancouver for May 2006, 2009 and 2011 and the percentage change in the number of spots between May 2006 and May 2011 on all stations, on children's specialty stations and on generalist stations was then calculated. The average number food/beverage spots seen by children aged 2-11 was determined for May 2006 and 2009 and the percentage change was calculated. On children's specialty channels, a 4.5% decrease in total spots aired was observed while spots aired on generalist stations increased by 44% (Toronto) and 45% (Vancouver). On all stations, children's total average exposure to food/beverage advertising increased by 16.8% in Toronto and 6.4% in Vancouver between 2006 and 2009. Significant increases were seen in snacks and yogurt in both cities, and in fast food in Toronto. On children's specialty channels, children's exposure to the food/beverage categories considered increased by 5.4% in Toronto and by 2.5% in Vancouver. Despite improvements in the volume of spots on children's specialty channels, children's exposure to food and beverage advertising has increased since the implementation of the CAI. The current self-regulatory system is failing to protect children from food marketing high in fat, sugar and sodium on television. Government regulation needs to be considered.

  18. Total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation as the initial treatment for minimal-change chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory C; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Smith, Milton T; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Salehi, Marzieh; Choe, Kyuran A; Brunner, John E; Abbott, Daniel E; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Ahmad, Syed A

    2015-03-01

    Patients with minimal-change chronic pancreatitis (MCCP) are traditionally managed medically with poor results. This study was conducted to review outcomes following total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation (TP/IAT) as the initial surgical procedure in the treatment of MCCP. All patients submitted to TP/IAT for MCCP were identified for inclusion in a single-centre observational study. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify pertinent preoperative, perioperative and postoperative data. A total of 84 patients with a mean age of 36.5 years (range: 15-60 years) underwent TP/IAT as the initial treatment for MCCP. The most common aetiology of chronic pancreatitis in this cohort was idiopathic (69.0%, n = 58), followed by aetiologies associated with genetic mutations (16.7%, n = 14), pancreatic divisum (9.5%, n = 8), and alcohol (4.8%, n = 4). The most common genetic mutations pertained to CFTR (n = 9), SPINK1 (n = 3) and PRSS1 (n = 2). Mean ± standard error of the mean preoperative narcotic requirements were 129.3 ± 18.7 morphine-equivalent milligrams (MEQ)/day. Overall, 58.3% (n = 49) of patients achieved narcotic independence and the remaining patients required 59.4 ± 10.6 MEQ/day (P < 0.05). Postoperative insulin independence was achieved by 36.9% (n = 31) of patients. The Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey administered postoperatively demonstrated improvement in all tested quality of life subscales. The present report represents one of the largest series demonstrating the benefits of TP/IAT in the subset of patients with MCCP. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  19. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  20. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels: Role of the initial dislocation structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitária, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Bemporad, E. [University of Rome “ROMA TRE”, Mechanical and Industrial Eng. Dept., Via Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2013-09-15

    The present work is the second part of an ongoing study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels [B. Pinheiro et al., Mat. Sci. Eng., A 532 (2012) 158–166]. Microdeformations and residual stresses (macrostresses) are evaluated by X-ray diffraction during alternating bending fatigue tests on samples taken from an API 5L X60 grade steel pipe. Microdeformations are evaluated from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction peak and residual stresses are estimated from the peak shift. Here, to understand the role of the initial dislocation structure, annealed samples are considered. As previously found for as-machined samples, the evolution of microdeformations shows three regular successive stages, but now with an increase during the first stage. The amplitude of each stage is accentuated with increasing stress amplitude, while its duration is reduced. Residual stresses show a similar trend, with stages of the same durations than those observed for FWHM, respectively. Additionally, changes in density and distribution of dislocations are observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with the technique of focused ion beam. The results are very encouraging for the development of a future indicator of fatigue damage initiation for pipe steels based on microstructural changes measured by X-ray diffraction.

  1. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels: Role of the initial dislocation structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, B.; Lesage, J.; Pasqualino, I.; Bemporad, E.; Benseddiq, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is the second part of an ongoing study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels [B. Pinheiro et al., Mat. Sci. Eng., A 532 (2012) 158–166]. Microdeformations and residual stresses (macrostresses) are evaluated by X-ray diffraction during alternating bending fatigue tests on samples taken from an API 5L X60 grade steel pipe. Microdeformations are evaluated from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction peak and residual stresses are estimated from the peak shift. Here, to understand the role of the initial dislocation structure, annealed samples are considered. As previously found for as-machined samples, the evolution of microdeformations shows three regular successive stages, but now with an increase during the first stage. The amplitude of each stage is accentuated with increasing stress amplitude, while its duration is reduced. Residual stresses show a similar trend, with stages of the same durations than those observed for FWHM, respectively. Additionally, changes in density and distribution of dislocations are observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with the technique of focused ion beam. The results are very encouraging for the development of a future indicator of fatigue damage initiation for pipe steels based on microstructural changes measured by X-ray diffraction

  2. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michaël; Zawadzki, Lionel; Zuo, Hao; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Scharffenberg, Martin G.; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Joana Fernandes, M.; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Rudenko, Sergei; Cipollini, Paolo; Quartly, Graham D.; Passaro, Marcello; Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2018-02-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change since it integrates the impacts of ocean warming and ice mass loss from glaciers and the ice sheets. Sea level has been listed as an essential climate variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During the past 25 years, the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter standards were selected to produce new sea level products (called SL_cci v2.0) based on nine altimeter missions for the period 1993-2015 (https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2015-v_2.0-201612; Legeais and the ESA SL_cci team, 2016c). Corresponding orbit solutions, geophysical corrections and altimeter standards used in this v2.0 dataset are described in detail in Quartly et al. (2017). The present paper focuses on the description of the SL_cci v2.0 ECV and associated uncertainty and discusses how it has been validated. Various approaches have been used for the quality assessment such as internal validation, comparisons with sea level records from other groups and with in situ measurements, sea level budget closure analyses and comparisons with model outputs. Compared with the previous version of the sea level ECV, we show that use of improved geophysical corrections, careful bias reduction between missions and inclusion of new altimeter missions lead to improved sea level products with reduced uncertainties on different spatial and temporal scales. However, there

  3. The Cumbria Rural Health Forum: initiating change and moving forward with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, Jae-Llane; Marshall, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The Cumbria Rural Health Forum was formed by a number of public, private and voluntary sector organisations to collaboratively work on rural health and social care in the county of Cumbria, England. The aim of the forum is to improve health and social care delivery for rural communities, and share practical ideas and evidence-based best practice that can be implemented in Cumbria. The forum currently consists of approximately 50 organisations interested in and responsible for delivery of health and social care in Cumbria. An exploration of digital technologies for health and care was recognised as an initial priority. This article describes a hands-on approach undertaken within the forum, including its current progress and development. The forum used a modified Delphi technique to facilitate its work on discussing ideas and reaching consensus to formulate the Cumbria Strategy for Digital Technologies in Health and Social Care. The group communication process took place over meetings and workshops held at various locations in the county. A roadmap for the implementation of digital technologies into health and social care was developed. The roadmap recommends the following: (i) to improve the health outcomes for targeted groups, within a unit, department or care pathway; (ii) to explain, clarify, share good (and bad) practice, assess impact and value through information sharing through conferences and events, influencing and advocacy for Cumbria; and (iii) to develop a digital-health-ready workforce where health and social care professionals can be supported to use digital technologies, and enhance recruitment and retention of staff. The forum experienced issues consistent with those in other Delphi studies, such as the repetition of ideas. Attendance was variable due to the unavailability of key people at times. Although the forum facilitated collective effort to address rural health issues, its power is limited to influencing and supporting implementation of change

  4. Nanoscale changes in chromatin organization represent the initial steps of tumorigenesis: a transmission electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkezyan, Lusik; Backman, Vadim; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Subramanian, Hariharan; White, Craig; Dela Cruz, Mart; Wali, Ramesh K; Goldberg, Michael J; Bianchi, Laura K; Roy, Hemant K

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear alterations are a well-known manifestation of cancer. However, little is known about the early, microscopically-undetectable stages of malignant transformation. Based on the phenomenon of field cancerization, the tissue in the field of a tumor can be used to identify and study the initiating events of carcinogenesis. Morphological changes in nuclear organization have been implicated in the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), and we hypothesize that characterization of chromatin alterations in the early stages of CRC will provide insight into cancer progression, as well as serve as a biomarker for early detection, risk stratification and prevention. For this study we used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nuclei harboring pre-neoplastic CRC alterations in two models: a carcinogen-treated animal model of early CRC, and microscopically normal-appearing tissue in the field of human CRC. We quantify the chromatin arrangement using approaches with two levels of complexity: 1) binary, where chromatin is separated into areas of dense heterochromatin and loose euchromatin, and 2) grey-scale, where the statistics of continuous mass-density distribution within the nucleus is quantified by its spatial correlation function. We established an increase in heterochromatin content and clump size, as well as a loss of its characteristic peripheral positioning in microscopically normal pre-neoplastic cell nuclei. Additionally, the analysis of chromatin density showed that its spatial distribution is altered from a fractal to a stretched exponential. We characterize quantitatively and qualitatively the nanoscale structural alterations preceding cancer development, which may allow for the establishment of promising new biomarkers for cancer risk stratification and diagnosis. The findings of this study confirm that ultrastructural changes of chromatin in field carcinogenesis represent early neoplastic events leading to the development of well

  5. Changes of optical, dielectric, and structural properties of Si15Sb85 phase change memory thin films under different initializing laser power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Zhang Lei; Wang Yang; Han Xiaodong; Wu Yiqun; Zhang Ze; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study the optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization. → The optical and dielectric constants, absorption coefficient of Si 15 Sb 85 change regularly with the increasing laser power. → The optical band gaps of Si 15 Sb 85 irradiated upon different power lasers were calculated. → HRTEM images of the samples were observed and the changes of optical and dielectric constants are determined by crystalline structures changes of the films. - Abstract: The optical, dielectric, and structural characteristics of Si 15 Sb 85 phase change memory thin films under a moving continuous-wave laser initialization are studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of complex refractive index, dielectric functions, absorption coefficient, and optical band gap of the films on its crystallization extents formed by the different initialization laser power are analyzed in detail. The structural change from as-deposited amorphous phase to distorted rhombohedra-Sb-like crystalline structure with the increase of initialization laser power is clearly observed with sub-nanometer resolution. The optical and dielectric constants, the relationship between them, and the local atomic arrangements of this new phase change material can help explain the phase change mechanism and design the practical phase change memory devices.

  6. 76 FR 49522 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... company. \\5\\ 15 U.S.C. 77a. Significant regulatory concerns, including accounting fraud allegations, have... listed company) is not engaged in undetected accounting fraud or subject to other concealed and...

  7. 78 FR 68488 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... bad faith or unethically.''). Rule 2010--Equities is a broad ethical concept that covers all unethical... regulatory responsibilities for certain NYSE rules and rule interpretations (``FINRA Incorporated NYSE Rules...

  8. Changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and risk of falling: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wallace, Robert B; Wu, Chunyuan; Seguin, Rebecca A; Going, Scott B; LaCroix, Andrea; Eaton, Charles; Ockene, Judith K; LaMonte, Michael J; Jackson, Rebecca; Jerry Mysiw, W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Falling significantly affects quality of life, morbidity, and mortality among older adults. We sought to evaluate the prospective association between sedentary time, physical activity, and falling among post-menopausal women aged 50-79years recruited to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers across the United States. Baseline (B) and change in each of the following were evaluated at year 3 (Y3) and year 6 (Y6; baseline n=93,676; Y3 n=76,598; Y6 n=75,428): recreational physical activity (MET-h/wk), sitting, sleeping (min/day), and lean body mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (subset N=6475). Falls per year (0, 1, 2, ≥3) were assessed annually by self-report questionnaire and then dichotomized as ≤1 and ≥2falls/year. Logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, body mass index, fall history, tobacco and alcohol use, medical conditions, and medications. Higher baseline activity was associated with greater risk of falling at Y6 (18%; p for trend falling (1% Y3; 2% Y6; pfalling at Y3 and Y6 (p for trend falling among post-menopausal women. Additional fall prevention strategies, such as balance and resistance training, should be evaluated to assist post-menopausal women in reaching or maintaining levels of aerobic activity known to prevent and manage several chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes and clinical significance of CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells in Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jintao; Yu Peiling; Dong Jingwei; Liao Qihong; Liu Dongliang; Zeng Hongyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Graves disease by observing the changes of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - regulatory T cells (Treg) population in the patients. Methods: Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg of CD4 + T cells in 90 Graves disease patients (Graves disease group) and 50 healthy adults (control group). Thyroid function and autoantibody levels were determined simultaneously. The t test was adopted for comparison between groups. The relationship between CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg and thyroid function was analyzed by linear correlation analysis. Results: The percentages of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg in Graves disease group and control group were 1.39%±1.09% and 4.59%±1.14% separately. There was significant difference between the two groups (t=16.4, P<0.01). There were negative correlation between CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg percentages and total triiodothyronine, total thyroxine,free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyrotropin receptor antibody,thyroglobulin antibody, thyroid microsomal antibody (r=-0.62, -0.65, -0.56, -0.71, -0.50, -0.15, all P<0.01). Conclusions: The reduction of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg percentages in Graves disease group and close relations of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg with thyroid function and thyroid autoantibody levels suggest that CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg decrease in the number may be associated with the onset of Graves disease. CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - may be the specific marker of Treg. (authors)

  10. Initial Analyses of Change Detection Capabilities and Data Redundancies in the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lubinski, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Evaluations of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program sampling designs for water quality, fish, aquatic vegetation, and macroinvertebrates were initiated in 1999 by analyzing data collected since 1992...

  11. 75 FR 61702 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    .../supplier relationships have not changed as a result of the corporate name change. To support its claims, A... 1, 2010, A Foods informed the Department that it changed its name from May Ao and [[Page 61703... that May Ao officially changed its name to A Foods on December 25, 2009. This constitutes changed...

  12. Health care administrators' perspectives on the role of absorptive capacity for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Spaulding, Aaron; Gamm, Larry; Johnson, Christopher E

    2013-01-01

    The dimensions of absorptive capacity (ACAP) are defined, and the importance of ACAP is established in the management literature, but the concept has not been applied to health care organizations attempting to implement multiple strategic initiatives. The aim of this study was to test the utility of ACAP by analyzing health care administrators' experiences with multiple strategic initiatives within two health systems. Results are drawn from administrators' assessments of multiple initiatives within two health systems using in-depth personal interviews with a total of 61 health care administrators. Data analysis was performed following deductive qualitative analysis guidelines. Interview transcripts were coded based on the four dimensions of ACAP: acquiring, assimilating, internalizing/transforming, and exploiting knowledge. Furthermore, we link results related to utilization of management resources, including number of key personnel involved and time consumption, to dimensions of ACAP. Participants' description of multiple strategic change initiatives confirmed the importance of the four ACAP dimensions. ACAP can be a useful framework to assess organizational capacity with respect to the organization's ability to concurrently implement multiple strategic initiatives. This capacity specifically revolves around human capital requirements from upper management based on the initiatives' location or stage within the ACAP framework. Strategic change initiatives in health care can be usefully viewed from an ACAP perspective. There is a tendency for those strategic initiatives ranking higher in priority and time consumption to reflect more advanced dimensions of ACAP (assimilate and transform), whereas few initiatives were identified in the ACAP "exploit" dimension. This may suggest that health care leaders tend to no longer identify as strategic initiatives those innovations that have moved to the exploitation stage or that less attention is given to the exploitation

  13. MR findings of neuro-Behcet's disease: initial and follow-up changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Beom; Chang, Ki Hyun; Kim, Hong Dae; Han, Moon Hee; Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo; Yu, In Kyu; Seong, Su Ok; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of neuro B ehcet's disease, and changes occurring during follow up. Brain MR imaging was performed in 19 patients in whom neuro-Behcet's disease had been clinically diagnosed. After treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, 23 follow-up MR images were obtained in 12 patients, and a total of 42 MR images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. Of the 19 patients, 17 (89%) had parenchymal lesions, and the other two had dural venous sinus thrombosis. Among the 17 patients with parenchymal lesions, three showed leptomeningeal enhancement. A total of 72 parenchymal lesions were detected on initial MR images; 55 (76%) were patchy or nodular in shape and the lesion of the internal capsule appeared linear. Seventeen lesions (24%) in 12 patients were confluent. In order of frequency, the involved sites were the pons, midbrain, thalamus, basal ganglia, internal capsule, and frontal lobe. Thirteen lesions of 39 lesions detected on postcontrast images were enhanced, and a mass effect was seen in the area of 16 parenchymal lesions. Associated findings were microhemorrhage of the brain in two patients and spinal cord involvement in one. On short-term follow-up images obtained 1 week to 2 months after intensive treatment during the acute stage of the illness, the leptomeningeal enhancement seen in three patients had decreased and most parenchymal lesions showed improvement. Long-term follow-up images obtained 3 months to 3 years late showed that parenchymal lesions had relapsed in five patients, and brainstem atrophy had developed or progressed in five others. The most characteristic MR finding of neuro-Behcet's disease is multiple non-hemorrhagic lesions involving the brainstem. Leptomeningeal enhancement and dural venous sinus thrombosis may also be noted. On follow-up MR, the lesions may show either improvement or aggravation, and brainstem atrophy is not uncommon. (author)

  14. 77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... company's management, production facilities and customer/supplier relationships have not changed as a... in no significant changes to management, production facilities, supplier relationships, and customers... limited to, changes in: (1) Management; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4...

  15. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28% employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45. Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54 and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60. Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44, increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39, and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17. Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In

  16. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF CORPORATE CHANGE INITIATIVES IN SINGAPORE'S SMALL BUSINESS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Menkhoff

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the change propensity of owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and associated challenges in the Republic of Singapore. Based on both qualitative interviews and quantitative survey research amongst Singapore's SME owners and change advocates, it identifies several critical issues with regard to the successful management of organizational transitions in small firms: "the need to change", "the mindset of small entrepreneurs", "change management know how" and "the value of external consultancy inputs". The data suggest that awareness building measures and educational efforts are necessary to enable more owners of local SMEs to benefit from change management tools and concepts as well as respective external expertise. Change management training and exposure to "best" (sectoral change management practices and successful projects facilitated by external change agents might help more small entrepreneurs to manage both intra-organizationally and externally induced organizational changes more effectively.

  17. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  18. [Changes of CD(4)(+) Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and CD(4)(+)IL-17+T cells in acrolein exposure rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming; Tu, Ling; Liang, Yinghong; Li, Jia; Gong, Yanjie; Zhang, Yihua; Yang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the changes of CD(4)(+) IL-17+T (Th17) and CD(4)(+)Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) cells in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) , and therefore to explore the role of Th17 and Treg in acrolein exposure airway inflammation in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a 2 wk acrolein exposure group, a 4 wk acrolein exposure group, a 2 wk control group and a 4 wk control group (n=10 each). Cells in BALF were collected and analyzed by absolute and differential cell counts.IL-17 and IL-6 levels in serum and BALF were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CD(4)(+)IL-17+T and CD(4)(+) Foxp3+Treg in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry.The mRNA expressions of IL-17 and Foxp3 were measured by real-time PCR. Comparisons of the data between different groups were performed using one-way ANOVA, and SNK and Games-Howell test were used for comparison between 2 groups. Levels of IL-17 were remarkable increased in the 2 wk acrolein exposure group and the 4 wk acrolein exposure group in serum [(52.64 ± 1.89) ng/L, (76.73 ± 5.57) ng/L], and BALF [(79.07 ± 5.67) ng/L, (96.61 ± 6.44) ng/L] compared with the 2 wk control group [(40.05 ± 3.12) ng/L, (56.75 ± 4.37) ng/L] and the 4 wk control group [(38.75 ± 3.23) ng/L, (53.27 ± 4.48) ng/L], all Pcells and macrophages (r=0.5126, 0.5437, all Pcells and an vary of inflammatory cytokines were evident in airway inflammation of acrolein exposed rats, suggesting that Treg was involved in the immunological regulation and Th17 was associated with the persistent inflammation in acrolein induced airway inflammation in rats.

  19. 17 CFR 240.19b-4 - Filings with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and fairly implied by that rule. (e) For the purposes of this paragraph, new derivative securities... the product class that would include the new derivative securities product and the self-regulatory... within five business days after commencement of trading a new derivative securities product. (f) A...

  20. 75 FR 36136 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... is the practice of NYSE Euronext's Global Risk and Audit Services Department (``RAS''), which...) and Section 401(a) of the Exchange's Bylaws To Eliminate the Exchange's Audit Committee, Compensation... eliminate the Exchange's Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Regulatory Oversight Committee. The...

  1. 76 FR 1477 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... relating to distribution, compliance of sales and marketing materials, and certain regulatory compliance... Futures Contracts targeting a long notional exposure equivalent to approximately +200% of a Fund's... Leveraged Fund will sell a sufficient number of Short Index Futures Contracts targeting a short notional...

  2. 76 FR 79729 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... plc as signatories. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the... is the recognition that CDS contracts cleared by ICC referencing broad-based securities indices are... would, among other things, decompose CDS contracts referencing broad-based [[Page 79730

  3. 78 FR 26826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...\\ Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between Phlx and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's... unfair competitive advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory... potential for conflicts of interest in instances where a member firm is affiliated with an exchange of which...

  4. 78 FR 29795 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc ; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...\\ Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between BX and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's... unfair competitive advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory... potential for conflicts of interest in instances where a member firm is affiliated with an exchange of which...

  5. 78 FR 10666 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... PHLX. BX, NASDAQ, PHLX and NES are affiliates. Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between PHLX and... conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory obligations and its commercial interests.\\7\\ \\7...). Recognizing that the Commission has previously expressed concern regarding the potential for conflicts of...

  6. 78 FR 12123 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization... Exchange proposes to amend the times in which certain ATP Holders are required to notify the Exchange in... to extend the time ATP Holders acting as agent for Customer orders have to notify the Exchange of a...

  7. 77 FR 21120 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., specifically SPDR S&P 500 (SPY), Apple, Inc. (AAPL), SPDR Gold Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG), and Amazon.com...), and Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN) for all expirations applicable to 100 share options in each class. The... available at the Exchange, www.nyse.com , and the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory...

  8. 78 FR 62841 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... million, shares of liquidity during the month, which is a higher rate than the base rate of $0.0007 per... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70655; File No. SR-BX-2013-054] Self-Regulatory... Exchange Rule 7018(a) With Respect to Transactions in Securities Priced at $1 per Share or Greater October...

  9. 78 FR 16749 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-regulatory organization has prepared summaries, set forth in Sections A, B, and C below, of the most... Plan's goal to address extraordinary market volatility. Accordingly, when the underlying security is in... theory, the liquidity provided by requiring Market Makers to continue to quote during a Limit or Straddle...

  10. 75 FR 2902 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... market activity altogether. In today's evolving regulatory climate, the Exchange believes that the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61326; File No. SR-Phlx-2009-113] Self... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on...

  11. Fatores determinantes para modificações da terapia antirretroviral inicial Factors determining changes in initial antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Girão Limaverde Lima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores determinantes das mudanças da terapia antirretroviral (TARV inicial dos pacientes assistidos em hospital de referência em AIDS do Ceará. MÉTODOS: O estudo descritivo e exploratório utilizou a análise dos formulários de solicitação de início ou modificação de tratamento do ano de 2008, acompanhando as mudanças de terapia durante o primeiro ano de tratamento. Os dados foram analisados nos programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS e Epi Info, utilizando ANOVA e teste exato do coeficiente de contingência, com significância de p OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors determining changes in initial antiretroviral therapy (ART in patients attended to in an AIDS tertiary care hospital in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: This descriptive and exploratory study used the analysis of request to initiate or change treatment forms in the year of 2008, and the changes in therapy were followed through the first year of treatment. Data were analyzed with SPSS and EpiInfo by using ANOVA and the exact test of the coefficient of contingency, with significance at p < 0.05. RESULTS: From 301 patients initiating ART, 22.1% (n = 68 needed a change in the first year. These patients were mostly males, aged 20 to 39 years; with only one ART changed needed in 86.8% of the cases (n = 59. Reports of two or three changes in regimen were observed. Zidovudine was the drug most often changed, followed by lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz. A significant association was found between changes in initial regimens and the report of adverse reactions (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The main factor determining changes in the initial ART was an adverse reaction report. Most patients had one change in the initial ART over the first year of treatment. ART monitoring contributed to a better control of the specific drug therapy.

  12. Changes in healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections after the introduction of a national hand hygiene initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Page, Katie; Campbell, Megan; Brain, David; Martin, Elizabeth; Rashleigh-Rolls, Rebecca; Halton, Kate; Hall, Lisa; Jimmieson, Nerina; White, Katherine; Paterson, David; Graves, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    Interventions that prevent healthcare-associated infection should lead to fewer deaths and shorter hospital stays. Cleaning hands (with soap or alcohol) is an effective way to prevent the transmission of organisms, but rates of compliance with hand hygiene are sometimes disappointingly low. The National Hand Hygiene Initiative in Australia aimed to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, with the goal of reducing rates of healthcare-associated infection. We examined whether the introduction of the National Hand Hygiene Initiative was associated with a change in infection rates. Monthly infection rates for healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections were examined in 38 Australian hospitals across 6 states. We used Poisson regression and examined 12 possible patterns of change, with the best fitting pattern chosen using the Akaike information criterion. Monthly bed-days were included to control for increased hospital use over time. The National Hand Hygiene Initiative was associated with a reduction in infection rates in 4 of the 6 states studied. Two states showed an immediate reduction in rates of 17% and 28%, 2 states showed a linear decrease in rates of 8% and 11% per year, and 2 showed no change in infection rates. The intervention was associated with reduced infection rates in most states. The failure in 2 states may have been because those states already had effective initiatives before the national initiative's introduction or because infection rates were already low and could not be further reduced.

  13. Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993-2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Larnicol, G.

    2015-01-01

    .6 and 1-2 mm year(-1)). Similarly, interannual global mean sea level variations (currently uncertain to 2-3 mm) need to be monitored with better accuracy. In this paper, we present various data improvements achieved within the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) project on "Sea...

  14. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  15. International cooperative initiatives and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key ...... efforts under the UNFCCC is uncertain, but believed to be quite large. •The UNFCCC is arguably ill suited to coordinate and strengthen the accountability of international cooperative initiatives.......International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key...... transparent performance monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The article concludes with two considerations. Firstly, it advocates for the United Nations Environment Programme as one entity that could bring much-needed coordination among ICIs, and between ICIs and national government-led efforts to mitigate...

  16. The use of and obstacles to social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mudombi, Shakespear; Fabricius, Christo; Van Zyl-Bulitta, Verena; Patt, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change will have major impacts on ecosystems and human livelihoods while challenging the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Social learning, an ongoing adaptive process of knowledge generation, reflection and synthesis, may enhance people’s awareness about climate change and its impacts, with positive outcomes for their adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of factors promoting social learning in climate change adapta...

  17. Framing Vision: An Examination of Framing, Sensegiving, and Sensemaking during a Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this short article is to review the findings from an instrumental case study that examines how a college president used what this article refers to as "frame alignment processes" to mobilize internal and external support for a college initiative--one that achieved success under the current president. Specifically, I…

  18. Putting Teachers First: Leading Change through Design--Initiating and Sustaining Effective Teaching of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt-White, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The Teachers First initiative is a grass-roots cluster-model approach for bringing together primary and secondary teachers and school principals: to analyse student performance data; design and practice activities and assessment tools; and promote teaching practices that address students' learning difficulties in mathematics. The balance of both…

  19. Managing the ERP implementation journey - change in discourse from classical IT project to technology-driven organisational change initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Rose, Jeremy

    In the implementation of an ERP system in a large Danish production company (here referred to as Omega), discourse surrounding the project changed appreciably during the course of the project. Drawing on recent adaptations of discourse theory, we provide a theoretical model which relates technolo...

  20. 77 FR 60105 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Orange Juice from Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review and Intent... Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 74 FR 4733 (January 27, 2009). \\11\\ See, e.g., Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products and Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel...

  1. 78 FR 79667 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Japan: Initiation of Expedited Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... change in management, production facilities, supplier relationships, or customer base with respect to the... changes to management, production facilities, supplier relationships, and customers with respect to the...) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base.\\11\\ While no single factor or combination of these factors...

  2. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... including, but not limited to, changes in management, production facilities, supplier relationships, and customer base. See Industrial Phosphoric Acid From Israel: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... Corp. is the successor-in- interest to Phuong Nam Co., Ltd. With respect to management prior to and...

  3. Thinking Change Inclusively: Views of Educational Administrators on Inclusive Education as a Reform Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Halis

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to delve into the debate about educational change and evaluate this concept around the paradigms introduced by inclusive education. The paper embarks on views of 27 educational administrators working in different educational institutions in Turkey. Participants are asked to provide their views on educational change and the…

  4. Exploring the role of traditional ecological knowledge in climate change initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Vinyeta; Kathy. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous populations are projected to face disproportionate impacts as a result of climate change in comparison to nonindigenous populations. For this reason, many American Indian and Alaska Native tribes are identifying and implementing culturally appropriate strategies to assess climate impacts and adapt to projected changes. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK...

  5. Engendering Behavior Change through Single-Session Workshops: Lessons Learned from Extension's Private well Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Alyson; Gold, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a follow-up mail survey conducted in 2009, we found that structured, one-time workshops can influence and impact participant behavior change. Survey results suggest that brief workshops, staffed by key resource personnel, can have a powerful influence on participant behavior change and fill an important gap in rural drinking water…

  6. 76 FR 66344 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change... 31, 2011, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of... consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook Consolidation Process). For convenience...

  7. 75 FR 17456 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12...

  8. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  9. Conformal changes of metrics and the initial-value problem of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conformal techniques are reviewed with respect to applications to the initial-value problem of general relativity. Invariant transverse traceless decompositions of tensors, one of its main tools, are related to representations of the group of 'conformeomorphisms' acting on the space of all Riemannian metrics on M. Conformal vector fields, a kernel in the decomposition, are analyzed on compact manifolds with constant scalar curvature. The realization of arbitrary functions as scalar curvature of conformally equivalent metrics, a generalization of Yamabe's (Osaka Math. J.; 12:12 (1960)) conjecture, is applied to the Hamiltonian constraint and to the issue of positive energy of gravitational fields. Various approaches to the solution of the initial-value equations produced by altering the scaling behaviour of the second fundamental form are compared. (author)

  10. Increased activity of pre-motor network does not change the excitability of motoneurons during protracted scratch initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Alaburda, Aidas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2013-01-01

    of their intrinsic excitability. Here we employed an experimental paradigm of protracted scratch initiation in the integrated carapace-spinal cord preparation of adult turtles (Chrysemys scripta elegans). The protracted initiation of scratch network activity allows us to investigate the excitability of motoneurons...... and pre-motor network activity in the time interval from the start of sensory stimulation until the onset of scratch activity. Our results suggest that increased activity in the pre-motor network facilitates the onset of scratch episodes but does not change the excitability of motoneurons at the onset...... of scratching....

  11. Scientific underpinnings of biotechnology regulatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleim, Savannah; Smyth, Stuart J

    2018-05-25

    Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies. This article examines the public documents available from Canada, the United States, the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development regarding the development of regulatory risk assessment frameworks for products of biotechnology to determine what science grounds these frameworks. The documentation used to provide the initial structure to the existing regulatory frameworks identifies the linkages, connections and relationships that exist between science, risk assessment and regulatory policy. The relationship between risk and regulation has never been more critical to the commercialization of innovative agricultural products. Documenting the role of science-based risk assessment in regulations and how this has changed over the 20 years of experience in regulating GM crops will identify changes in the risk/regulation relationship. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Change of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK Cells in peripheral blood of children with acute leukemia and its possible significance in tumor immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze-Lin; Hu, Guan-Yu; Chen, Fu-Xiong; Lu, Hui-Min; Wu, Zi-Liang; Li, Hua-Mei; Wei, Feng-Gui; Guan, Jing-Ming; Wu, Li-Ping

    2010-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the changes of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK cells in peripheral blood of acute leukemia children at different stages, the function of immune system and the possible roles of the CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells as well as NK cells in leukemia immunity. The number and proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK cells were detected by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 53 acute leukemia children, including 25 patients in new diagnosis and 28 patients in continuous complete remission (CCR), and were compared with that of 20 normal children. The results indicated that the mean proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(+) in CD4(+) T cells of peripheral blood in newly diagnosed patients, patients with CCR and normal children were (9.55 +/- 2.41)%, (8.54 +/- 2.51)% and (6.25 +/- 0.85)% respectively, the mean proportions of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(+) in newly diagnosed patients and patients with CCR were higher than that in normal children, the mean proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(+) in newly diagnosed patients were higher than that in patients with CCR (p cell count in patients with acute leukaemia decreased as compared with normal control, while after achieving CCR, the NK cell count in patients were also less than that in normal control (4.11 +/- 3.87% and 10.41 +/- 7.20% vs 14.06 +/- 5.95%, p regulatory T cells is a simple, reproductive and accurate method, and the CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(+) T cells can better reflect the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. The increase of regulatory T cells and decrease of NK cells in pediatric patients with acute leukemia indicate that the function of NK cells may be depressed. Treg T cells play a role in occurrence and development of leukemia, and are involved in down-regulating NK cell function.

  13. Managing the Transformation: A Change Management Strategy for U.S. Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    sensegiving in transformational change processes from the bottom up. Higher Education , 65(6), 761–780. doi:10.1007/s10734-012-9575-7 Kezar, A...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. MANAGING THE TRANSFORMATION : A...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MANAGING THE TRANSFORMATION : A CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

  14. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  15. Regulatory guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  16. Disconnects Between Audiences, Resources, and Initiatives: Key Findings of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Gilbes, F.; Trotz, M.; McKayle, C.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Meisels, G.; Peterson, M.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership focused on defining a plan for effective education on climate change and its salient issues in coastal communities Florida and the US Caribbean territories. The approach included assessing perceptions and needs of stakeholders, evaluating the nature of available educational and information resources, and establishing a partnership that includes the public and professional organizations most relevant in planning and in addressing the resiliency of coastal communities. Information gathering activities included surveys among K-12 educators and students on climate change perceptions and current classroom activities in both Florida and the Caribbean territories; surveys of professional urban and land-use planners across Florida regarding their understanding of related in their professional practice; and conducting an inventory of relevant educational materials and information resources. Survey results showed a range of misperceptions about climate change, its causes and its likely impacts. At present, students and teachers in high and middle schools show poor understanding of climate science, and minimal time is spent in instruction on climate change in science courses in Florida and Puerto Rico schools. Also, there has to be professional development efforts and access to rich instructional content in a continuum spanning schools and professional communities including planners (which we surveyed). Architects and engineers are communities that also need to be surveyed and included in future efforts. A major obstacle to efforts at providing continuing education for planners and municipal officials is the lack of consensus on and access to regionally-specific scientific data regarding climate impacts and the relevant instructional content. It is difficult for professionals to prepare for climate change if they cannot define impacts in the Florida-Caribbean region and its coastal urban areas. Across over 1000

  17. 77 FR 57630 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... change was published for comment in the Federal Register on July 30, 2012.\\3\\ The Commission received no comment letters regarding the proposed rule change. This order approves the proposed rule change. \\1\\ 15 U...

  18. Setting ART initiation targets in response to changing guidelines: The importance of addressing both steady-state and backlog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Catherine; Naidoo, Nicolette P; Venter, W D Francois; Jaffer, Ambereen; Barker, Pierre M

    2014-05-12

    Target setting is useful in planning, assessing and improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes. In the past 4 years, the ART initiation environment has been transformed due to the change in eligibility criteria (starting ART at a CD4+ count ART. To describe and illustrate the use of a target-setting model for estimating district-based targets in the era of an expanding ART programme and changing CD4+ count thresholds for ART initiation. Using previously described models and data for annual new HIV infections, we estimated both steady-state need for ART initiation and backlog in a North West Province district, accounting for the shift in eligibility. Comparison of actual v. targeted ART initiations was undertaken. The change in CD4+ count threshold adds a once-off group of newly eligible patients to the pool requiring ART - the backlog. The steady-state remains unchanged as it is determined by the annual rate of new HIV infections in previous years. The steady-state need for the district was 639 initiations/month, and the backlog was ~15,388 patients. After the shift in eligibility in September 2011, the steady-state target was exceeded over several months with some backlog addressed. Of the total backlog for this district, 72% remains to be cleared. South Africa has two pools of patients who need ART: the steady-state of HIV-infected patients entering the programme each year, determined by historical infection rates; and the backlog created by the shift in eligibility. The healthcare system needs to build long- term capacity to meet the steady-state need for ART and additional capacity to address the backlog.

  19. Initial immunological changes as predictors for house dust mite immunotherapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E; Fernández, T D; Doña, I; Rondon, C; Campo, P; Gomez, F; Salas, M; Gonzalez, M; Perkins, J R; Palomares, F; Blanca, M; Torres, M J; Mayorga, C

    2015-10-01

    Although specific immunotherapy is the only aetiological treatment for allergic disorders, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Specific immunotherapy induces changes in lymphocyte Th subsets from Th2 to Th1/Treg. Whether differences in immunological patterns underlie patient response to immunotherapy has not yet been established. We studied the immunological changes occurring during a 1-year period of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) immunotherapy and their relation with clinical outcome. We included 34 patients with DP allergy who received subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SCIT) for 1 year. Following treatment, patients were classified as responders or non-responders. Fourteen allergic subjects who did not receive SCIT were included as controls. Peripheral blood was obtained at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and cultured with nDer p 1. Phenotypic changes, cytokine production and basophil response were analysed by flow cytometry; transcription factors were measured by mRNA quantification. Serum immunoglobulin levels were also measured. After 1 year of SCIT, 82% of cases showed improved symptoms (responders). Although increases in sIgG4 were observed, BAT reactivity was not modified in these patients. Increases in T-BET/FOXP3 as well as nDer p 1-specific Th1/Treg frequencies were also observed, along with a decrease in Th2, Th9 and Th17. These changes corresponded to changes in cytokine levels. Patients who respond well to DP-SCIT show immunological differences compared to non-responders. In responders, basal differences include a lower frequency of Th1 and higher frequencies of Th2, Th9 and Th17 cells. After 1 year of treatment, an increased production of sIgG4 was observed in responders, along with a change in Th2 response towards Th1/Treg. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The past, present, and future of the U.S. electric power sector: Examining regulatory changes using multivariate time series approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kyle Edwin

    The U.S. energy sector has undergone continuous change in the regulatory, technological, and market environments. These developments show no signs of slowing. Accordingly, it is imperative that energy market regulators and participants develop a strong comprehension of market dynamics and the potential implications of their actions. This dissertation contributes to a better understanding of the past, present, and future of U.S. energy market dynamics and interactions with policy. Advancements in multivariate time series analysis are employed in three related studies of the electric power sector. Overall, results suggest that regulatory changes have had and will continue to have important implications for the electric power sector. The sector, however, has exhibited adaptability to past regulatory changes and is projected to remain resilient in the future. Tests for constancy of the long run parameters in a vector error correction model are applied to determine whether relationships among coal inventories in the electric power sector, input prices, output prices, and opportunity costs have remained constant over the past 38 years. Two periods of instability are found, the first following railroad deregulation in the U.S. and the second corresponding to a number of major regulatory changes in the electric power and natural gas sectors. Relationships among Renewable Energy Credit prices, electricity prices, and natural gas prices are estimated using a vector error correction model. Results suggest that Renewable Energy Credit prices do not completely behave as previously theorized in the literature. Potential reasons for the divergence between theory and empirical evidence are the relative immaturity of current markets and continuous institutional intervention. Potential impacts of future CO2 emissions reductions under the Clean Power Plan on economic and energy sector activity are estimated. Conditional forecasts based on an outlined path for CO2 emissions are

  1. Improving Substance Abuse Treatment: The National Treatment Plan Initiative. Changing the Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    This report is the result of five expert panels and six regional public hearings around the country that focused on key persistent issues that have characterized discussions of substance abuse over the years: closing the treatment gap; reducing stigma and changing attitudes; improving and strengthening treatment systems; connecting services and…

  2. Changes in the ocular surface: initial observations from a pilot study of diagnostic radiology technicians (radiographers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerdal, Canan; Aydin, Sevda; Sengoer, Tomris; Onmus, Hale; Oezarar, Muemtaz

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and cytological changes in the ocular surface of radiology technicians (radiographers) exposed to diagnostic doses of radiation. The Schirmer, Rose Bengal staining and Tear-Break-Up-Time tear function tests were carried out following routine ophthalmic examination in 15 radiology technicians (group I) and 15 controls (group II). Impression cytology was performed by placing 5-mm-thick half-circular cellulose acetate filter paper in the upper and lower quadrants around the limbus. The cytological evaluation was made using the mapping technique. Significantly increased dry eye was detected in group I. In the impression cytology investigation, squamous metaplasia and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration was noted in all the group-I cases. A distinct change was observed between the regions showing squamous metaplasia and neigbouring normal epithelial cell structure. Dry eye and ocular surface cytological changes were observed in diagnostic radiology technicians. Routine ophthalmic evaluation of radiology technicians would be beneficial in detecting early cytological changes and dry eye. (orig.)

  3. 75 FR 4044 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... several of these factors will necessarily provide a dispositive indication of succession, generally the... merchandise, the new company operates as the same business entity as the prior company, the Department will... before and after the name change include identical unified business numbers, addresses, legal...

  4. 75 FR 67685 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... not affected the company's management, sales operations, supplier relationships, or customer base in a... management structure, sales operations, supplier relationships, and customer base have not changed... relationships or customer base in any meaningful way. In accordance with section 751(b) of the Act and 19 CFR...

  5. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... factors including, but not limited to: (1) Management; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... y Placa resulted in little or no change in management, production facilities, supplier relationships...

  6. Directionality of Change in Youth Anxiety Treatment Involving Parents: An Initial Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wendy K.; Kurtines, William M.; Jaccard, James; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with minimal parent involvement to CBT with active parent involvement in a sample of 119 youths (7-16 years old; 33.6% Caucasian, 61.3% Latino) with anxiety disorders. The dynamics of change between youth anxiety and parent variables (positive-negative behaviors toward the…

  7. Climate Change Community Outreach Initiative (CCCOI)--A Gulf of Mexico Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. H.; Stone, D.; Schultz, T.; LeBlanc, T.; Miller-Way, T.; Estrada, P.

    2012-12-01

    This five-year, Gulf of Mexico regional collaborative is funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-Office of Education and represents a successful grant submitted by the FL Aquarium as a member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). This climate change effort focuses on enhanced content knowledge and the manner in which personal actions and behaviors contribute to sustainability and stewardship. Diverse audiences—represented by visitors at the informal centers listed above—have been and are involved in the following activities: social networking via responses to climate change surveys; an "ocean and climate change defender" computer game, specifically designed for this project; an average of 10 annual outreach events implemented by these facilities at community festivals; climate change lectures provided to family audiences; and professional development workshops for informal and formal educators. This presentation will provide opportunities and challenges encountered during the first two years of implementation. This regional effort is also aligned with both the Ocean Literacy: Essential Principles and the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles. Additional partners include: Normandeau Associates, Conservation Enterprises, Unlimited, and Mindclay Creative.

  8. Northern Ireland Student Teachers' Changing Attitudes towards Inclusive Education during Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    With the passing of the Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Act into law alongside the move away from academic selection for post-primary pupils by 2008 and a far reaching review of the curriculum, education in Northern Ireland is about to face its most radical change in fifty years. Issues relating to Inclusive Education are now pressing…

  9. An investigation into the change of shape of fatigue cracks initiated at surface flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portch, D.J.

    1979-09-01

    Surface fatigue cracks found in plant can often be closely approximated in shape by a semi-ellipse. The stress intensity factor range at the deepest part of the surface crack is dependent upon a number of variables, including the crack aspect ratio. In fatigue life analysis, the aspect ratio of a propagating crack is frequently assumed to remain constant, possibly due to the complexity of estimating aspect ratio change on the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics. This report describes the results of an experimental programme to examine the change of shape of fatigue cracks subjected to uniaxial tensile or bending stresses. The data obtained has been used to modify equations proposed by the author in a previous report to predict the change of aspect ratio of a crack propagating from a known defect. These modified equations, although not including terms to account for the effects of varying mean stress levels or material properties, generally give a good agreement with published experimental results. Crack propagation rate data obtained from the tensile fatigue tests has been used to estimate crack tip stress intensity factors. These are compared with values calculated from published solutions using both the constant geometry assumption and also the shape change equations proposed in this report. Use of these equations gives improved agreement with experiment in most cases. (author)

  10. 78 FR 8551 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Risk Management Initiatives: Changes to Maximum Loan-to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: This proposed notice would make changes to the loan-to-value (LTV) financing available... Division at 202-708-3055 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with speech or hearing impairments may access this number via TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at 800-877-8339. Copies...

  11. "Y Nosotros, Que?": Moving beyond the Margins in a Community Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Sandra; Ares, Nancy; Padela, Maryam Razvi; Hopper, Mindy; Webster, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Our ethnography focuses on an urban community change organization within a predominantly African American and Latino population. Latino Critical Race Theory and Critical Race Theory help us understand the Spanish speakers' positioning and how particularities of Latinas/os' experience challenged power relations and group cohesion. Our findings…

  12. The Initiative to extend Medicare into Mexico: a case study in changing U.S. Health Care Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Ibarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the geo-political activities of interest groups, governments and multinational corporations involved in an initiative to extend Medicare to U.S. retirees residing in Mexico.  If the initiative to change the current Medicare policy succeeds, the relocation of Medicare-eligible populations from the U.S. to Mexico is likely to increase; the U.S. is expected to gain cost-savings for taxpayers on Medicare; Mexico can develop senior-housing and options for long-term care it currently lacks; and foreign-led multinational corporations will increase their profits and dominance, fostering even more privatization in Mexico’s health care sector. By exploring new issues about retirement migration and health this study seeks to gain knowledge about the phenomena in a number of areas.  First, the retirement migration of North Americans to Latin America is an under-studied phenomenon in the fields of social gerontology, migration research, and health policy studies.  Second, the Medicare in Mexico initiative is even less well-known among health policy scholars than the retirement migration phenomenon into Mexico. Yet this initiative is inherently international in scope and involves a number of US-based institutions and interest groups actively promoting the project from within Mexico. Thus, the initiative has important geo-political and socio-economic implications for reforming health care systems in the U.S. and Mexico.

  13. 77 FR 7652 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Revise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Procedures Related to Certain Technical and Operational Changes Relating to Credit Default Swap Contracts... changes described below with its Clearing Members. These changes seek to improve drafting and cross... purpose of specifying technical operational changes relating to CDS Contracts (as defined at ICE Clear...

  14. Striatal Reward Activity and Antipsychotic-Associated Weight Change in Patients With Schizophrenia Undergoing Initial Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    -nine antipsychotic-naive inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia were included in a multimodal longitudinal cohort study from December 16, 2008, to December 11, 2013. Fifty-eight patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a monetary reward task. After 6 weeks of treatment...... with amisulpride, a relatively selective dopamine D2 antagonist, 39 patients underwent a second fMRI scan and measurement of change in body weight. Final follow-up was completed on January 14, 2014, and data were analyzed from October 25, 2014, to June 15, 2015 and August 31 to September 19, 2015. Exposures: Six...... weeks of individually dosed amisulpride treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reward-anticipation activity in the striatum before and after treatment and weight change. Results: Of the 69 patients who consented to the study, 39 underwent the follow-up fMRI and weight measurement (age range, 18-45 years...

  15. Green roof soil system affected by soil structural changes: A project initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínková, Vladimíra; Dohnal, Michal; Šácha, Jan; Šebestová, Jana; Sněhota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic soil systems and structures such as green roofs, permeable or grassed pavements comprise appreciable part of the urban watersheds and are considered to be beneficial regarding to numerous aspects (e.g. carbon dioxide cycle, microclimate, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). Expected performance of these systems is significantly affected by water and heat regimes that are primarily defined by technology and materials used for system construction, local climate condition, amount of precipitation, the orientation and type of the vegetation cover. The benefits and potencies of anthropogenic soil systems could be considerably threatened in case when exposed to structural changes of thin top soil layer in time. Extensive green roof together with experimental green roof segment was established and advanced automated monitoring system of micrometeorological variables was set-up at the experimental site of University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings as an interdisciplinary research facility of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The key objectives of the project are (i) to characterize hydraulic and thermal properties of soil substrate studied, (ii) to establish seasonal dynamics of water and heat in selected soil systems from continuous monitoring of relevant variables, (iii) to detect structural changes with the use of X-ray Computed Tomography, (iv) to identify with the help of numerical modeling and acquired datasets how water and heat dynamics in anthropogenic soil systems are affected by soil structural changes. Achievements of the objectives will advance understanding of the anthropogenic soil systems behavior in conurbations with the temperate climate.

  16. Fathers for Change for Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence: Initial Community Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith

    2015-12-01

    The lack of focus on the role of men as fathers within intervention programs for men with histories of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) or substance abuse is of significant concern given the large numbers of these men who are actively parenting and coparenting children. Fathers for Change is a new intervention designed to fill this gap. Eighteen fathers with co-occurring IPV and substance abuse were randomly assigned to Fathers for Change or Individual Drug Counseling (IDC). They were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 3 months following the 16-week intervention period. Men in the Fathers for Change group: (1) were more likely to complete treatment; (2) reported significantly greater satisfaction with the program; (3) reported a trend toward less IPV; and (4) exhibited significantly less intrusiveness in coded play interactions with their children following treatment than fathers in the IDC group. Results indicate further evaluation of this intervention in a larger sample is warranted. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  17. Microgravity alters protein phosphorylation changes during initiation of sea urchin sperm motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Bracho, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) studies demonstrated that bull sperm swim with higher velocity in microgravity (microG) than at 1 G. Coupling between protein phosphorylation and sperm motility during activation in microG and at 1 G was examined in the ESA Biorack on two space shuttle missions. Immotile sperm were activated to swim (86-90% motility) at launch +20 h by dilution into artificial seawater (ASW). Parallel ground controls were performed 2 h after the flight experiment. Activation after 0, 30, and 60 s was terminated with electrophoresis sample buffer and samples analyzed for phosphoamino acids by Western blotting. Phosphorylation of a 130-kDa phosphothreonine-containing protein (FP130) occurred three to four times faster in microG than at 1 G. A 32-kDa phosphoserine-containing protein was significantly stimulated at 30 s but returned to 1 G control levels at 60 s. The rate of FP130 phosphorylation in microG was attenuated by D2O, suggesting that changes in water properties participate in altering signal transduction. Changes in FP130 phosphorylation triggered by the egg peptide speract were delayed in microG. These results demonstrate that previously observed effects of microG on sperm motility are coupled to changes in phosphorylation of specific flagellar proteins and that early events of sperm activation and fertilization are altered in microG.

  18. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p's e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes.

  19. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): facing the challenges and pathways of global change in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David; Henebry, Geoffrey; Tchebakova, Nadezhda; Maksyutov, Shamil; Monier, Erwan; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Qi, Jiaguo; Prishchepov, Alexander; Kukavskaya, Elena; Porfiriev, Boris; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Loboda, Tatiana; Shiklomanov, Nikolay; Nghiem, Son; Bergen, Kathleen; Albrechtová, Jana; Chen, Jiquan; Shahgedanova, Maria; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Speranskaya, Nina; Soja, Amber; de Beurs, Kirsten; Bulygina, Olga; McCarty, Jessica; Zhuang, Qianlai; Zolina, Olga

    2017-12-01

    During the past several decades, the Earth system has changed significantly, especially across Northern Eurasia. Changes in the socio-economic conditions of the larger countries in the region have also resulted in a variety of regional environmental changes that can have global consequences. The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better prepare societies for future developments. A key principle of NEFI is that these developments must now be secured through science-based strategies co-designed with regional decision-makers to lead their societies to prosperity in the face of environmental and institutional challenges. NEESPI scientific research, data, and models have created a solid knowledge base to support the NEFI program. This paper presents the NEFI research vision consensus based on that knowledge. It provides the reader with samples of recent accomplishments in regional studies and formulates new NEFI science questions. To address these questions, nine research foci are identified and their selections are briefly justified. These foci include warming of the Arctic; changing frequency, pattern, and intensity of extreme and inclement environmental conditions; retreat of the cryosphere; changes in terrestrial water cycles; changes in the biosphere; pressures on land use; changes in infrastructure; societal actions in response to environmental change; and quantification of Northern Eurasia's role in the global Earth system. Powerful feedbacks between the Earth and human systems in Northern Eurasia (e.g., mega-fires, droughts, depletion of the cryosphere essential for water supply, retreat of sea ice) result from past and current human activities (e.g., large-scale water withdrawals, land use, and governance

  20. Smoke-free hospital site conversations: how nurses can initiate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackereth, Peter; Finchett, Charlotte; Holt, Melody

    2016-11-24

    Smoking tobacco continues to be the world's most preventable cause of death and disability with over six trillion cigarettes sold each year. Patients, visitors and health professionals who smoke on hospital sites present a challenge to the effectiveness of public health messages. Health professionals who ignore 'No smoking' hospital/clinic signage, and avoid smoking-cessation activity, help to sustain the perception that smoking is tolerated. Case studies, with a focus on lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are used to illustrate how nurses can 'seed' the idea of hospitals becoming smoke-free, provide brief interventions and support patients, carers and colleagues to make that change.

  1. QT interval correction for drug-induced changes in body temperature during integrated cardiovascular safety assessment in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrani, Abdel-Ilah; El Amrani-Callens, Francine; Loriot, Stéphane; Singh, Pramila; Forster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety assessment requires accurate evaluation of QT interval, which depends on the length of the cardiac cycle and also on core body temperature (BT). Increases in QT interval duration have been shown to be associated with decreases in BT in dogs. An example of altered QT interval duration associated with changes in body temperature observed during a 4-week regulatory toxicology study in dogs is presented. Four groups of Beagle dogs received the vehicle or test item once on Day 1, followed by a 4-week observation period. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were continuously recorded on Days 1 and 26 by jacketed external telemetry (JET). Core body temperature (BT) was measured with a conventional rectal thermometer at appropriate time-points during the Day 1 recording period. Decreased BT was observed approximately 2h after treatment on Day 1, along with increased QT interval duration corrected according to the Van de Water formula (QTcV), but the effect was no longer observed after correction for changes in BT [QTcVcT=QTcV-14(37.5-BT)] according to the Van der Linde formula. No significant changes in QTcV were reported at the end of the observation period, on Day 26. The present study demonstrates that core body (rectal) temperature can easily be monitored at appropriate time-points during JET recording in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs, in order to correct QT interval duration values for treatment-related changes in BT. The successful application of the Van der Linde formula to correct QTc prolongation for changes in BT was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Impact of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 in Initiation of the Type I Interferon Response in the Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus-Infected Central Nervous System versus the Periphery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Fenger, Christina; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    in the LCMV-infected CNS, whereas concurrent elimination of both factors markedly reduces the virus-induced host response. This is unlike the situation in the periphery, where deficiency of IRF7 almost eliminates the LCMV-induced production of the type I IFNs. This difference is seemingly related to the local...... environment, as peripheral production of type I IFNs is severely reduced in intracerebrally (i.c.) infected IRF7-deficient mice, which undergo a combined infection of the CNS and peripheral organs, such as spleen and lymph nodes. Interestingly, despite the redundancy of IRF7 in initiating the type I IFN...

  3. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Thermal-Hydraulic Research Program: Maintaining expertise in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Shotkin, L.M.; Baratta, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) thermal-hydraulic research program enjoyed ample funding, sponsored extensive experimental and analytical development programs, and attracted worldwide expertise. With the completion of the major experimental programs and with the promulgation of the revised emergency core-cooling system rule, both the funding and prominence of thermal-hydraulic research at the NRC have declined in recent years. This has led justifiably to the concern by some that the program may no longer have the minimal elements needed to maintain both expertise and world-class status. The purpose of this article is to describe the NRC's current thermal-hydraulic research program and to show how this program ensures maintenance of a viable, robust research effort and retention of needed expertise and international leadership

  4. UV irradiation-initiated MMA polymerization to prepare microcapsules containing phase change paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Sude; Song, Guolin; Li, Wei; Fan, Pengfei; Tang, Guoyi [Institute of Advanced Materials, Graduated School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM), paraffin, with polymethylmethacrylate shell was prepared by introducing UV irradiation to an O/W emulsion polymerization for approximately 30 min under constant stirring. The results of differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that the latent heat and the content of paraffin of microcapsules are 101 J g{sup -1} and 61.2 wt%, respectively. The phase transition temperature of MEPCM ranges from 24 to 33 C. The MEPCM was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis results show that the MEPCM is degraded into two distinguishable steps. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also indicate that the MEPCM displays a good thermal reliability. Gypsum boards composed of as-prepared MEPCM show a good temperature-regulated property. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated paraffin as MEPCMs have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes such as phase change material slurries, solar space heating applications, textiles and building materials. (author)

  5. Heterogeneity of change in state affect following insulin therapy initiation in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruszczyńska Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore heterogeneity of change in state affect following the introduction of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. State affect was assessed twice among 305 patients: just before the introduction of insulin therapy and at 1-month follow-up. Latent class growth modeling showed that negative affect (NA increased in 78% of the sample, whereas positive affect (PA improved in only 17% of the participants. On the basis of cross-tabulation of these changes a 4-class model of emotional response to the new treatment was obtained. The largest subgroup of participants (57% manifested “threat response”, i.e. moderate-stable PA with increase in NA. Participants in the “challenge response” subgroup (11.8% showed increases in both NA and PA. The third class (10.2% characterized by “no response”, had low-stable NA and moderate-stable PA. The smallest “stress response” subgroup (9.8% showed increase in NA and high-stable PA. Gender, age and education level were significant covariates of group membership. Thus, the findings revealed heterogeneous emotional response to the new treatment, which may be of clinical relevance for improving diabetic patients’ adjustment through a more individual, person-centered approach.

  6. Changes in living arrangement, daily smoking, and risky drinking initiation among young Swiss men: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähler, C; Foster, S; Estévez, N; Dey, M; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between changes in living arrangement and the initiation of daily smoking and monthly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) in a cohort of young Swiss men. Longitudinal cohort study. The sample consisted of 4662 young men drawn from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors who lived with their family at baseline. Follow-up assessments occurred 15 months later. Multiple regression models were adjusted for individual and family factors (family model), as well as for individual and peer-related factors (peer model). Relative to those still living with their parents at follow-up (n = 3845), those who had moved out (n = 817) were considerably more likely to have taken up smoking or RSOD after adjusting for several individual, family, and peer-related variables: OR (daily smoking) = 1.67 (95% CI 1.15-2.41) (P = 0.007) and OR (monthly RSOD) = 1.42 (95% CI 1.08-1.88) (P = 0.012). The strongest family-related predictors of smoking initiation were family structure and the lack of parental regulation and the strongest peer-related factors alcohol/drug problems in peers. Meanwhile, the strongest peer-related predictors of RSOD initiation were peer pressure (misconduct), perceived social support from friends, and perceived social support from a significant other, whereas family factors were not associated with RSOD initiation. Further subanalyses were conducted to examine the impact of different living arrangement changes on substance use initiation and revealed that living with peers at follow-up was associated with the greatest risk. We identified a strong association between moving out of one's parents' home and daily smoking and monthly RSOD initiation in young Swiss men. Moving out to live with peers was an especially strong predictor of substance use initiation. Campaigns that aim to prevent heavy smoking and drinking should be intensified at the end of obligatory school. Copyright © 2016 The Royal

  7. 76 FR 60957 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Change to the Benchmark Index Applicable to the Russell Equity ETF September 26, 2011. I. Introduction On... applicable to the Russell Equity ETF (``Fund,'' formerly known as the ``One Fund''). The proposed rule change... ETF, and the name of U.S. One Trust was changed to Russell Exchange Traded Funds Trust (``Trust...

  8. Dynamic changes to survivin subcellular localization are initiated by DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritess Gay Asumen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Maritess Gay Asumen1, Tochukwu V Ifeacho2, Luke Cockerham3, Christina Pfandl4, Nathan R Wall31Touro University’s College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA; 2University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Center for Health Disparities Research and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University, CA, USA; 4Green Mountain Antibodies, Burlington, VT, USAAbstract: Subcellular distribution of the apoptosis inhibitor survivin and its ability to relocalize as a result of cell cycle phase or therapeutic insult has led to the hypothesis that these subcellular pools may coincide with different survivin functions. The PIK kinases (ATM, ATR and DNA-PK phosphorylate a variety of effector substrates that propagate DNA damage signals, resulting in various biological outputs. Here we demonstrate that subcellular repartitioning of survivin in MCF-7 cells as a result of UV light-mediated DNA damage is dependent upon DNA damage-sensing proteins as treatment with the pan PIK kinase inhibitor wortmannin repartitioned survivin in the mitochondria and diminished it from the cytosol and nucleus. Mitochondrial redistribution of survivin, such as was recorded after wortmannin treatment, occurred in cells lacking any one of the three DNA damage sensing protein kinases: DNA-PK, ATM or ATR. However, failed survivin redistribution from the mitochondria in response to low-dose UV occurred only in the cells lacking ATM, implying that ATM may be the primary kinase involved in this process. Taken together, this data implicates survivian’s subcellular distribution is a dynamic physiological process that appears responsive to UV light- initiated DNA damage and that its distribution may be responsible for its multifunctionality.Keywords: survivin, PIK kinases, ATM, ATR, DNA-PK

  9. Simulating and quantifying legacy topographic data uncertainty: an initial step to advancing topographic change analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, Thad; Zhu, Zhen; Gares, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Rapid technological advances, sustained funding, and a greater recognition of the value of topographic data have helped develop an increasing archive of topographic data sources. Advances in basic and applied research related to Earth surface changes require researchers to integrate recent high-resolution topography (HRT) data with the legacy datasets. Several technical challenges and data uncertainty issues persist to date when integrating legacy datasets with more recent HRT data. The disparate data sources required to extend the topographic record back in time are often stored in formats that are not readily compatible with more recent HRT data. Legacy data may also contain unknown error or unreported error that make accounting for data uncertainty difficult. There are also cases of known deficiencies in legacy datasets, which can significantly bias results. Finally, scientists are faced with the daunting challenge of definitively deriving the extent to which a landform or landscape has or will continue to change in response natural and/or anthropogenic processes. Here, we examine the question: how do we evaluate and portray data uncertainty from the varied topographic legacy sources and combine this uncertainty with current spatial data collection techniques to detect meaningful topographic changes? We view topographic uncertainty as a stochastic process that takes into consideration spatial and temporal variations from a numerical simulation and physical modeling experiment. The numerical simulation incorporates numerous topographic data sources typically found across a range of legacy data to present high-resolution data, while the physical model focuses on more recent HRT data acquisition techniques. Elevation uncertainties observed from anchor points in the digital terrain models are modeled using "states" in a stochastic estimator. Stochastic estimators trace the temporal evolution of the uncertainties and are natively capable of incorporating sensor

  10. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Li Han; Dai Shun; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhou Bin; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected

  11. Positive demonstration of initiatives under the voluntary climate change challenge program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, J.; Hare, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions that have built up over a century is a long-term challenge which requires long-term, sustainable solutions. The solutions include the increasing need for Canadians to use less carbon intensive fuels, such as natural gas. There are no economically and socially acceptable quick fixes that will produce dramatic results on a large scale. The endorsement of the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge and Registry Program (VCR) by the Canadian Gas Association (CGA), and subsequent approval of the Memorandum of Understanding, are indicative of commitments by the Association and its member companies to environmentally responsible actions and measures to ensure efficient energy usage. While CGA and members continue to reduce emissions, it must be recognized that significant progress will take time. Given the benefits of a long-term sustainable approach, the Voluntary Challenge represents the most logical way to proceed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian sources without causing severe economic dislocation. (au) 26 refs

  12. Changes in Initial Treatment for Prostate Cancer Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 1999–2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinan, Michaela A.; Robinson, Timothy J.; Zagar, Timothy M.; Scales, Charles D.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Reed, Shelby D.; Lee, W. Robert; Schulman, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the absence of evidence from large clinical trials, optimal therapy for localized prostate cancer remains unclear; however, treatment patterns continue to change. We examined changes in the management of patients with prostate cancer in the Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective claims-based analysis of the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and androgen deprivation therapy in the 12 months after diagnosis of prostate cancer in a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare claims. Patients were Medicare beneficiaries 67 years or older with incident prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2007. Results: There were 20,918 incident cases of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2007. The proportion of patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy decreased from 55% to 36%, and the proportion of patients receiving no active therapy increased from 16% to 23%. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the most common method of radiation therapy, accounting for 77% of external beam radiotherapy by 2007. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy began to replace open surgical approaches, being used in 49% of radical prostatectomies by 2007. Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2007, the use of androgen deprivation therapy decreased, open surgical approaches were largely replaced by minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the predominant method of radiation therapy in the Medicare population. The aging of the population and the increasing use of newer, higher-cost technologies in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer may have important implications for nationwide health care costs.

  13. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  14. Policy initiatives for change and innovation in basic education programmes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaus Kadingdi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an historical perspective, the recent history of educational policy making in Ghana, as it relates to the provision of basic education, is examined. Three periods or phases are identified corresponding to the situation prior to Independence, the period between 1951 and 1986 and the reforms instituted in 1987 and the years that followed. Despite the willing cooperation of various donor agencies and the availability of resources, progress has been limited. The policy and contextual reasons for this comparative lack of progress are examined in turn. The paper concludes with what can be learnt from these attempts at reform and suggests that, whilst the issues involved are complex, greater attention needs to be focused on the training and support of teachers in their classroom role rather than focusing on the provision of resources. Helping teachers to understand the desired changes in their practice and the need to make pupils independent learners, coupled with reforms of teacher training and support, and the nature and quality of teacher continuing professional development, can all be seen as key ways in which further progress may be made

  15. Longitudinal Study of the Impacts of a Climate Change Curriculum on Undergraduate Student Learning: Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin C. Burkholder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the efficacy of a semester-long undergraduate sustainability curriculum designed from a systems approach. The three-course curriculum, which incorporated environmental science and ethics courses along with an integrative course using a community-based learning pedagogy, was intended to provide students with experience using knowledge and skills from distinct disciplines in a holistic way in order to address the complex problems of the human acceptance of and response to anthropogenic climate change. In the fall of 2013, 23 of the 24 sophomore general education students enrolled in the three courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester; 17 of those same students completed the survey again in the spring of 2016, their senior year. Results, which focus on the 17 students who continued to participate through their senior year, were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The pre/post data from the surveys demonstrated significant improvement in climate literacy, certainty, concern and urgency over the course of the semester; the senior data indicated that those improvements were largely retained. The study also suggests that the nine-credit curriculum improved transferable skills such as interdisciplinary thinking, self-confidence and public speaking. A qualitative analysis of three student cases, informed by a focus group (n = 7 of seniors along with other sources of information, suggested retention of such transferable skills, and, in some cases, deeper involvement in climate and sustainability action.

  16. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  17. Through the regulatory hoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    There are many regulatory hoops through which waste generators, brokers, and disposal site operators must jump to dispose of waste safely. As the proposed exclusionary date of January 1, 1986, approaches, these regulatory hoops have the distinct possibility of multiplying or at least changing shape. The state of Washington, in its role as an Agreement State with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, licenses and inspects the commercial operator of the Northwest Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Hanford Reservation. Washington has received as much as 53%, or 1.4 million cubic feet per year, of the nation's total volume of waste disposed. To control such a large volume of waste, a regulatory program involving six agencies has developed over the years in Washington

  18. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  19. 75 FR 50021 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... to be executed against the PIXL Order, such best prices may include non-Auction quotes and orders... Initiating Member has chosen a stop price submission. Regarding competition, the Exchange will provide the... promote and foster competition and provide more options contracts with the opportunity for price...

  20. 75 FR 20016 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... (``BCC'') for disciplinary action. In addition, the fine schedule would be administered on a one year... as one single offense, for purposes of initiating disciplinary action under Exchange rules, or... the Business Conduct Committee (``BCC'') for possible disciplinary action when the Exchange determines...

  1. 75 FR 82420 - Self-Regulatory Organizations, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ...). SPACs are companies that raise capital in an initial public offering (``IPO'') to enter into future undetermined business combinations through mergers, capital stock exchanges, asset acquisitions, stock... issue additional shares at the time of the business combination to raise capital.\\17\\ According to the...

  2. 78 FR 52991 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... start price. When a PIP is initiated at a price equal to the NBBO, regardless of size, the resting... is a competitive disadvantage to the Exchange in continuing differentiation, it is appropriate to... Commission's Public Reference Room on official business days between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m...

  3. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing a Change Initiative in Long-Term Care Using the INTERACT® Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappen, Ruth M; Wolf, David G; Rahemi, Zahra; Engstrom, Gabriella; Rojido, Carolina; Shutes, Jill M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    Implementation of major organizational change initiatives presents a challenge for long-term care leadership. Implementation of the INTERACT® (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program, designed to improve the management of acute changes in condition and reduce unnecessary emergency department visits and hospitalizations of nursing home residents, serves as an example to illustrate the facilitators and barriers to major change in long-term care. As part of a larger study of the impact of INTERACT® on rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, staff of 71 nursing homes were called monthly to follow-up on their progress and discuss successful facilitating strategies and any challenges and barriers they encountered during the yearlong implementation period. Themes related to barriers and facilitators were identified. Six major barriers to implementation were identified: the magnitude and complexity of the change (35%), instability of facility leadership (27%), competing demands (40%), stakeholder resistance (49%), scarce resources (86%), and technical problems (31%). Six facilitating strategies were also reported: organization-wide involvement (68%), leadership support (41%), use of administrative authority (14%), adequate training (66%), persistence and oversight on the part of the champion (73%), and unfolding positive results (14%). Successful introduction of a complex change such as the INTERACT® quality improvement program in a long-term care facility requires attention to the facilitators and barriers identified in this report from those at the frontline.

  4. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 31989 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... maker strategies to maintain best buy and sell quotations which are `reasonably related to the market... regulation, persons who regularly implement market maker strategies to maintain best buy and sell quotations... particular securities, and adopting associated pricing changes. The overall purpose of these changes is to...

  6. 77 FR 36324 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... of NYSE MKT LLC (collectively the ``Organizational Documents'') to make certain conforming changes... Regulated Subsidiaries, and make certain conforming changes to the Organizational Documents, as set forth... independent, objective perspectives, while at the same time affording NYSE Euronext sufficient flexibility to...

  7. 78 FR 28654 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-CBOE-2011-114) (order granting approval of a proposed rule change relating to Complex Order processing... rule change relating to Complex Order processing in CBOE's Hybrid 3.0 classes). \\10\\ The Exchange notes... Auction (``DNA'') designation for Complex Orders; (iii) add a definition of conforming ratio; \\8\\ (iv...

  8. 76 FR 28257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... tie-breakers are criteria that operate in a hierarchy. If one and only one price satisfies the first... consolidated quote. The effect of this change is that the Exchange will not disseminate the very last Order... imbalance only contains non-routable interest. While this change could have the effect of reducing the last...

  9. 77 FR 74707 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... the Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600 December 11, 2012. On October... Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF (``Fund''). The proposed rule change was published for comment in the... proprietary business cycle research, the Sub-Adviser proactively will change the Fund's asset allocation and...

  10. 77 FR 51599 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Proposed Rule Change As with the Standard North American Corporate Single Names currently cleared, ICC... the following twenty additional investment grade Standard North American Corporate Single Name CDS... Single Names do not require any changes to the body of the ICC Rules. ICC will clear the Additional...

  11. 77 FR 73106 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... default swaps and European Corporate Single-Name credit default swaps. Notice of the proposed rule change... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Add Rules Related to the Clearing of iTraxx Europe Index CDS and European Corporate Single-Name CDS December 3, 2012. On September...

  12. 76 FR 69783 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Directors, which C2 believes will provide it, the Nominating and Governance Committee and the Representative... instructions to Form 19b-4, the Exchange noted in Item 2 of its filing that it needed to obtain, but had not..., and Voting Agreement changes set forth in this proposed rule change. The Exchange also noted that it...

  13. 76 FR 10073 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ..., primarily China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and... par value traded to be considered as an eligible investment. Economic and other conditions in Asia may... will change from time to time in response to economic events and changes to the credit ratings of the...

  14. 76 FR 805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Trading Shares of the SPDR Nuveen S&P High Yield Municipal Bond ETF December 30, 2010. Pursuant to Section... Change The Exchange proposes to list and trade shares of the SPDR Nuveen S&P High Yield Municipal Bond ETF under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3), Commentary .02. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  15. 75 FR 6072 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... delisting process if such rule changes are found to benefit Nasdaq's financial position.\\46\\ [[Page 6075... SEC filing made by listing companies, including proxies and annual and quarterly financial reports... the changes that have taken place in the financial markets, the existing time periods are unreasonably...

  16. IL-33 Effect on Quantitative Changes of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ryba-Stanisławowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-33 is an IL-1 cytokine family member, with ability to induce both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. It binds to ST2 receptor, whose deficiency is associated with enhanced inflammatory response. The most recent studies have shown the immunoregulatory effect of IL-33 on Tregs in animal models. As type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease, where Treg defects have been described, we aimed to analyze the in vitro influence of recombinant IL-33 on quantitative properties of regulatory CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ T cells. CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ as well as CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ST2+ Tregs were analyzed by flow cytometry. In a group of patients with type 1 diabetes in vitro IL-33 treatment induced regulatory CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cell frequencies as well as upregulating the surface expression of ST2 molecule. In addition, the number of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cells carrying ST2 receptor increased significantly. Similar effect was observed in case of the FOXP3 expression. We did not observe any significant changes in IL-33 treated cells of healthy controls. The level of ST2 was higher in serum of patients with type 1 diabetes in comparison to their healthy counterparts. We propose that IL-33 becomes an additional immunostimulatory factor used to induce Treg expansion in future clinical trials of adoptive therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  17. Regulatory point of view of SAT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.

    2002-01-01

    I present the regulatory system for monitoring operator training and check competency of operator personnel in Hungary and the effects of SAT to the regulatory framework/practice related to recruitment, training and authorisation of operating personnel. Also I introduce an application to manage the initial and refreshing training to regulatory bodies. (author)

  18. Organophosphate-Induced Changes in the PKA Regulatory Function of Swiss Cheese/NTE Lead to Behavioral Deficits and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  19. 76 FR 24069 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... in the Exchange's LLC Agreement and By-Laws, including technical and grammatical changes to reflect... categories: ``Committees Composed Solely of Directors'' or ``Committees Not Composed Solely of Directors...

  20. 77 FR 44702 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Process and would not necessitate any changes to order processing.\\4\\ \\4\\ The Exchange notes that when it... received from other market centers are marked as intermarket sweep orders, which by definition, are not...

  1. 77 FR 14048 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... taxation, adverse changes in investment or exchange control regulations, political instability, which could... principal stability than is typically available in a portfolio of lower-rated longer-term, fixed income...

  2. 77 FR 20854 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... change is available on the Exchange's Web site, at the Exchange's principal office and in the Public... available would enable tracing of some, but not all, of the erroneous executions comprising an error... all comments on the Commission's [[Page 20858

  3. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiyavarong, Pichaya; Traitanon, Opas; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Patumanond, Jayanton; Tasanarong, Adis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  4. Up in smoke: regulatory immortality for 'grandfathered' power plants under the NSR rule changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad G. Schneider [Clean Air Task Force (USA)

    2004-01-01

    The US New Source Review (NSR) program requires power plant owners to install modern pollution control whenever they upgrade their plants in a way that will cause more pollution. The Clean Air Task Force and other environmental organizations and dozens of states and municipalities have challenged changes to the NSR rule change exempting grandfathered power plants under certain conditions. The author discussed this legislation and whether the Clear Skies Act will be effective. 9 refs.

  5. How will precipitation change in extratropical cyclones as the planet warms? Insights from a large initial condition climate model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yettella, Vineel; Kay, Jennifer E.

    2017-09-01

    The extratropical precipitation response to global warming is investigated within a 30-member initial condition climate model ensemble. As in observations, modeled cyclonic precipitation contributes a large fraction of extratropical precipitation, especially over the ocean and in the winter hemisphere. When compared to present day, the ensemble projects increased cyclone-associated precipitation under twenty-first century business-as-usual greenhouse gas forcing. While the cyclone-associated precipitation response is weaker in the near-future (2016-2035) than in the far-future (2081-2100), both future periods have similar patterns of response. Though cyclone frequency changes are important regionally, most of the increased cyclone-associated precipitation results from increased within-cyclone precipitation. Consistent with this result, cyclone-centric composites show statistically significant precipitation increases in all cyclone sectors. Decomposition into thermodynamic (mean cyclone water vapor path) and dynamic (mean cyclone wind speed) contributions shows that thermodynamics explains 92 and 95% of the near-future and far-future within-cyclone precipitation increases respectively. Surprisingly, the influence of dynamics on future cyclonic precipitation changes is negligible. In addition, the forced response exceeds internal variability in both future time periods. Overall, this work suggests that future cyclonic precipitation changes will result primarily from increased moisture availability in a warmer world, with secondary contributions from changes in cyclone frequency and cyclone dynamics.

  6. Molecular dynamics analysis of conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein during the initial steps of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-García, Fernando; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús Ignacio; Mendieta, Jesús; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Initial conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein is caused only by mechanical forces. ► HRA region undergoes a structural change from a beta + alpha conformation to an extended coil and then to an all-alpha conformation. ► HRS domains of F protein form three single α-helices prior to generation of the coiled coil. -- Abstract: The fusion of paramyxovirus to the cell membrane is mediated by fusion protein (F protein) present in the virus envelope, which undergoes a dramatic conformational change during the process. Unlike hemagglutinin in orthomyxovirus, this change is not mediated by an alteration of environmental pH, and its cause remains unknown. Steered molecular dynamics analysis leads us to suggest that the conformational modification is mediated only by stretching mechanical forces once the transmembrane fusion peptide of the protein is anchored to the cell membrane. Such elongating forces will generate major secondary structure rearrangement in the heptad repeat A region of the F protein; from β-sheet conformation to an elongated coil and then spontaneously to an α-helix. In addition, it is proposed that the heptad repeat A region adopts a final three-helix coiled coil and that this structure appears after the formation of individual helices in each monomer.

  7. Performance degradation and microstructure changes in freeze-thaw cycling for PEMFC MEAs with various initial microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Yeop; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Cho, EunAe; Lee, Kug-Seung; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Jang, Jong Hyun [Fuel Cell Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, In Chul [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 446-912 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    When the temperature of a fuel cell vehicle is repeatedly reduced to subzero temperatures, volume changes by water/ice transformations and frost heave mechanism can cause microstructural changes in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA), and a resultant permanent decrease in the performance of fuel cell stacks. In this study, five MEAs manufactured by different methods, were tested under repeated freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles between -20 C and 10 C, and the variations in their electrochemical and microstructural characteristics were analyzed according to the initial microstructures. When the MEAs were prepared by spraying catalyst inks on polymer membranes, no significant microstructural changes were observed. In the case of two supplied MEAs, void formations at the electrolyte/electrode interface or vertical cracks within the catalyst layers were observed after 120 F-T cycles. Void formation seems to be responsible for performance degradation as a result of ohmic loss, but the effect of cracks in the catalyst layers was not confirmed. In 120 F-T cycles, activation overpotentials and concentration overpotentials did not increase significantly for any of the MEAs, even although gradual decreases in the electrochemically active surface area of the platinum catalysts and changes in the porous structure were observed. (author)

  8. Robustness and accuracy in sea urchin developmental gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar eBen-Tabou De-Leon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developmental gene regulatory networks robustly control the timely activation of regulatory and differentiation genes. The structure of these networks underlies their capacity to buffer intrinsic and extrinsic noise and maintain embryonic morphology. Here I illustrate how the use of specific architectures by the sea urchin developmental regulatory networks enables the robust control of cell fate decisions. The Wnt-βcatenin signaling pathway patterns the primary embryonic axis while the BMP signaling pathway patterns the secondary embryonic axis in the sea urchin embryo and across bilateria. Interestingly, in the sea urchin in both cases, the signaling pathway that defines the axis controls directly the expression of a set of downstream regulatory genes. I propose that this direct activation of a set of regulatory genes enables a uniform regulatory response and a clear cut cell fate decision in the endoderm and in the dorsal ectoderm. The specification of the mesodermal pigment cell lineage is activated by Delta signaling that initiates a triple positive feedback loop that locks down the pigment specification state. I propose that the use of compound positive feedback circuitry provides the endodermal cells enough time to turn off mesodermal genes and ensures correct mesoderm vs. endoderm fate decision. Thus, I argue that understanding the control properties of repeatedly used regulatory architectures illuminates their role in embryogenesis and provides possible explanations to their resistance to evolutionary change.

  9. 76 FR 32005 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Listing and Trading of the Guggenheim Enhanced Core Bond ETF and Guggenheim Enhanced Ultra- Short Bond ETF... change to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the Guggenheim Enhanced Core Bond ETF and Guggenheim Enhanced Ultra-Short Bond ETF (each a ``Fund,'' and, together, the ``Funds'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule...

  10. 75 FR 4600 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... states that the fee reduction would also respond to the price competition provided by alternative... Prices constitute ``non-core data;'' i.e., the Exchange does not require a central processor to... Changes in NYSE Realtime Reference Prices Service January 22, 2010. I. Introduction On November 27, 2009...

  11. 75 FR 29792 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... administered pursuant to the Exchange's minor rule plan (``MRP''). As amended, the fine schedule would now..., the Commission believes that the proposed changes to the MRP should strengthen the Exchange's ability... quote spread parameter rule, under the MRP, reasonably addresses quoting violations on an electronic...

  12. 76 FR 55956 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Commentary .02(b)(4) to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.200, means any combination of investments, including cash... investment objective of USMI is for the daily changes in percentage terms of its Units' net asset value... Fundamentals of Commodity Futures Returns,'' Gorton, Rouwenhorst and Hayashi (September 2008), Yale...

  13. 77 FR 36307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Restated Operating Agreement of NYSE MKT LLC (collectively the ``Organizational Documents'') to make... directors of the Regulated Subsidiaries, and make certain conforming changes to the Organizational Documents... independent, objective perspectives, while at the same time affording NYSE Euronext sufficient flexibility to...

  14. 76 FR 59472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Global Markets, Inc. only, not to the governance of the Exchange. The Exchange will continue to be... the Amended and Restated Bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. September 19, 2011. Pursuant to Section... of the Exchange's sole stockholder, BATS Global Markets, Inc. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  15. 76 FR 59462 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... herein relate to the bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. only, not to the governance of the Exchange. The... Restate the Amended and Restated Bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. September 19, 2011. Pursuant to... of the Exchange's sole stockholder, BATS Global Markets, Inc. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  16. 77 FR 17533 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... for other cleared products, and not through the CLS Bank International (``CLS'') system. At present..., effective January 17, 2012, all payments that had been settled via CLS including Upfront Fees, Quarterly... Europe has also engaged in a public consultation process in relation to all the changes, pursuant to the...

  17. 76 FR 62112 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... risk by maintaining an aggregate portfolio duration of between two and eight years under normal market....wisdomtree.com . WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc. (``WisdomTree Asset Management'') is the investment...-dealers regarding access to information concerning the composition and/or changes to the Fund's portfolio...

  18. 76 FR 75932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the equivalent of $5 billion in local currency sovereign debt. The criteria used to evaluate whether a... Change The Exchange proposes to list and trade the shares of the following fund of the WisdomTree Trust.... Purpose The Exchange proposes to list and trade the Shares of the WisdomTree Emerging Markets Inflation...

  19. 78 FR 77743 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...\\ a proposed rule change to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the PIMCO Diversified Income... proposes to list and trade the Shares of the Funds pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600, which governs... to other risks, such as interest rate or currency risk. A Fund may also use forwards to enhance...

  20. 77 FR 3532 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... component currencies. The price used for the calculation of the Index is the mid-point between the Bloomberg... Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to list and trade... (``UTP'').\\3\\ The Exchange proposes to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the following pursuant to...

  1. 77 FR 15440 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... component currencies. The price used for the calculation of the Index is the mid-point between the Bloomberg... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to list... The Exchange proposes to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the following funds (each a ``Fund...

  2. 75 FR 479 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving the Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... operation of the closing process, with an eye toward any potential changes in the behavior of market... orders; and (x) codify the hierarchy of allocation of interest in the closing transaction in NYSE Amex... codify the hierarchy of allocation logic applied to interest participating in the closing transaction...

  3. 75 FR 71760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... portfolio, Peritus will perform its own independent investment analysis of each issuer to determine its... in a portfolio of securities selected by its investment advisor consistent with its investment... with respect to access to information concerning the composition and/or changes to the portfolio). \\7...

  4. 77 FR 65920 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Trading of Shares of the Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600 October 25... Turner Business Cycle ETF. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site... and trade shares (``Shares'') of the Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca...

  5. 77 FR 63380 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... generally reduce changes in the market price of securities from their original purchase price because, upon... commitment. The Fund will only make commitments to purchase such securities with the intention of actually... purchase fixed income securities issued by U.S. or foreign corporations \\6\\ or financial institutions...

  6. 77 FR 13668 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Rule 604(h) that is being moved to new Rule 613. Accordingly, trading floor personnel will continue to... Supervisor, or ``SU,'' if applicable. This provision is being moved, unchanged, in its entirety to new Rule... to finders,\\36\\ and is being moved to Rule 614(b), without change. \\36\\ This provision is identical...

  7. 77 FR 66209 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68119; File No. SR-ICEEU-2012-08)] Self... way risk'' involving correlation between the risk of default of an underlying sovereign and the risk..., including back tests and stress tests. ICE Clear Europe believes that the proposed rule change to add New...

  8. 78 FR 68111 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... entered by ATP Holders. \\7\\ Under Rules 980NY(c)(i)-(iii), incoming orders or quotes, or those residing in... ATP Holder During the Trading Day November 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities... (``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been...

  9. 77 FR 39535 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG), and Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN). These issues were selected because they are... S&P 500 (SPY), Apple, Inc. (AAPL), SPDR Gold Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG), and Amazon.com Inc... contracts''). The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at www.nyse.com...

  10. 78 FR 17731 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... foregoing proposed rule change: (1) Does not significantly affect the protection of investors or the public... also lead to investor confusion. The Exchange notes that the Commission approved Mini Options on SPY... level of retail investor participation in trading options on these underlying securities. Mini Options...

  11. 78 FR 73911 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... effects a change that: (i) Does not significantly affect the protection of investors or the public... general, to protect investors and the public interest. The Exchange believes that extending the SPY Pilot... market makers, institutional investors and retail investors, to establish greater positions when pursuing...

  12. 77 FR 61649 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... clearance of the following twenty additional investment grade Standard North American Corporate Single Name... ``Additional Single Names''). As with the Standard North American Corporate Single Names currently cleared, ICC... Single Names do not require any changes to the body of the ICC Rules. ICC will clear the Additional...

  13. 77 FR 17536 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to Its Risk Model To Reduce the... Model so That It Is Easier for Market Participants To Measure Their Risk March 20, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on March 8, 2012, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and...

  14. 78 FR 76479 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc... Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination... connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below...

  15. 78 FR 76415 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc... Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination... connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below...

  16. 77 FR 47461 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... portfolio price to small parallel shifts in interest rates. When measured across a portfolio, the effective... business day) for the Fund. The identity and number or par value of the Deposit Securities may change... the identities and quantities of the portfolio of securities and other assets (``Disclosed Portfolio...

  17. 78 FR 72965 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... type called a Midpoint Passive Liquidity (``MPL'') Order; (2) NYSE MKT Rule 1000--Equities to specify... Order into the Retail Liquidity Program. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the...) NYSE MKT Rule 107C--Equities to incorporate the new MPL Order into the Retail Liquidity Program...

  18. 76 FR 24548 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... securities at fair value as determined in good faith using methods approved by the Funds' Board of Trustees... Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union... change is consistent with the Act. Comments may be submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  19. 75 FR 8164 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... long-term investment horizons. The Fund's investment objective is non- fundamental and may be changed... December 15, 2005. The Trust is registered with the Commission as an investment company.\\5\\ \\3\\ NYSE Arca... an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a) (``1940 Act...

  20. 77 FR 41829 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Market Maker Peg Order below one round lot, the market maker would need to enter a new order, after... Amendment No. 1, To Adopt a New Market Maker Peg Order Available to Exchange Market Makers July 10, 2012... Change The Exchange proposes to adopt a new Market Maker Peg Order to provide similar functionality as...

  1. 75 FR 39074 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    .... Accordingly, a 10% percent price movement in a leveraged ETP may not signify extraordinary volatility. Because....14, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Volatility'' June 30, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19... Volatility'' to add additional securities to the pilot rule. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  2. 75 FR 39084 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    .... Accordingly, a 10% percent price movement in a leveraged ETP may not signify extraordinary volatility. Because....14, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Volatility.'' June 30, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19... Volatility'' to add additional securities to the pilot rule. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  3. 76 FR 71405 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Codify...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend NYSE Amex Equities Rule... representing buying interest inquired about selling interest in one of his or her assigned securities and later a Floor broker representing selling interest makes an inquiry about buying interest, the assigned...

  4. 75 FR 19436 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ..., the Commission is not publishing it for comment.\\4\\ This order approves the proposed rule change, as... NASDAQ OMX Corporate Governance Guidelines, however, provide a different standard for uncontested... contained in the Corporate Governance Guidelines; contested elections would remain subject to the plurality...

  5. 77 FR 42533 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... corporate governance documents.\\8\\ \\7\\ See Section 3(a)(27) of the Act, 15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(27). \\8\\ See... Bylaws, along with other corporate documents, are rules of the Exchange \\7\\ and must be filed with the... Corporate Structure and Deletion of Duplicative or Obsolete Text The proposed rule changes reflect the...

  6. 75 FR 22169 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... the proxy card) must immediately tender his or her resignation from the Board. NYSE proposed to amend... Bylaws, the proxy card would change for an uncontested election, and the stockholders would be given the... counted as a vote either ``for'' or ``against'' such director's election). If any incumbent director fails...

  7. 75 FR 13170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... proxy card) must immediately tender his or her resignation from the Board. The Board will then decide..., the proxy card would change for an uncontested election, and the stockholders would be given the... counted as a vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' such director's election). In the event that any...

  8. 75 FR 38576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... were to be made available on the proxy card) must immediately tender his or her resignation from the.... Under the proposed amendment to the Bylaws, the proxy card would change for an uncontested election, and... director's election (with ``abstentions'' not counted as a vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' such...

  9. 78 FR 68116 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Liquidity Program November 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934... to establish a Retail Liquidity Program (``Program'' or ``proposed rule change'') to attract... new NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.44 to establish a Retail Liquidity Program to attract additional retail...

  10. 78 FR 59390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Amendment No. 1 Thereto, To Amend the Competitive Liquidity Provider Program September 20, 2013. On June 17...'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to establish the Competitive Liquidity... Liquidity Provider Program to apply only to corporate issues. On June 24, 2013, the Exchange submitted...

  11. 77 FR 20863 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... change is available on the Exchange's Web site, at the Exchange's principal office and in the Public... Member's order. Also, if the information available would enable tracing of some, but not all, of the... all comments on the Commission's Internet Web site ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/sro.shtml ). Copies of...

  12. Changes in Nutrition Policies and Dietary Intake in Child Care Homes Participating in Healthy Eating and Active Living Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kuo, Elena S; James, Paula; Lenhart, Kitty; Becker, Christina; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Rauzon, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. Pre- and post-intervention without control group. Measures taken at baseline and follow-up included structured observations and questionnaires regarding nutrition policies, practices, and environments; documentation of lunch foods served on 5 days; and lunch plate waste observations on 2 days. Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of change over time. Seventeen family child care homes in a low-income diverse community in Northern California; children aged 2-5 years who attended the family child care homes. Change in nutrition-related policies and practices, lunch foods served and consumed. Data was collected at 17 sites for an average of 5.2 children aged 2-5 years per site per day at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up for a total of 333 plate waste observations. There were significant increases in staff training, parental involvement, and several of the targeted nutrition-related practices; prevalence of most other practices either improved or was maintained over time. There were significant increases in the number of sites meeting Child and Adult Care Food Program meal guidelines, variety of fruit and frequency of vegetables offered, and reductions in frequency of juice and high-fat processed meats offered. Adequate portions of all food groups were consumed at both time points with no significant change over time. A simple, policy-focused intervention by a child care resource and referral agency was successful at reinforcing and improving upon nutrition-related practices at family child care homes. Children

  13. Changes of regulatory T cells, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Shen, Jian; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Liang, Ling; Bo, Chao-Sheng; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T lymphocyte cells (Treg) associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), yet the existing evidence remains unclear. Hereby we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the changes in T1DM patients. A total of 1407 T1DM patients and 1373 healthy controls from 40 case-control studies were eventually included in the pooling analysis. Compared with the controls, T1DM patients had decreased frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg (p=0.0003), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg (p=0.020), and the level of TGF-β (p=0.030). Decrease in IL-10 (p=0.14) was not significant. All the changes remained significant when the studies with low NOS scores and publication bias were excluded. In conclusion, peripheral Treg and serum TGF-β are reduced in type 1 diabetes mellitus whereas changes in serum IL-10 are not significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of inpatient rehabilitation changes after the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service 2010 regulatory updates contrasted with actual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Richard V; Roberts, Pamela S; DiVita, Margaret A; Niewczyk, Paulette; Granger, Carl V

    2014-01-01

    To compare and contrast subjective perceptions with objective compliance of the impact of the 2010 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service updates of the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual. Cross-sectional survey. An electronic survey was sent by the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation to all enrolled inpatient rehabilitation facility subscribers (n = 817). The survey was sent April 15, 2011, and responses were tabulated if they were received by May 15, 2011. Comparing and contrasting of the subjective perception to objective evaluation and/or compliance with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual on case mix index, length of stay, admissions by diagnostic category as well as perception of preadmission screening, postadmission evaluation, plan of care, and interdisciplinary conferencing. Twenty-five percent of the 817 facilities responded, for a total of 209 responses. Complete data were present in 148 of the respondents. For most diagnostic categories, perception of change did not mirror reality of change; neither did the perception between change in case mix index and length of stay. Perception did match reality in stroke and multiple trauma cases; respondents perceived an increase in admissions for the 2 impairments, and there was an overall increase in reality. Comparison with actual data identified that gaps exist between diagnostic category perceptions and actual diagnostic category admission performance. Regulations such as the 75%-60% rule and audit focus on non-neurologic conditions as well as actual inpatient rehabilitation facility program payment reports may have influenced respondents perceptions to change associated with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual modifications. This disparity between perception and actual data may have implications for programmatic planning, forecasting, and resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Red blood cell aggregation changes are depended on its initial value: Effect of long-term drug treatment and short-term cell incubation with drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyov, A V; Tikhomirova, I A; Maimistova, A A; Bulaeva, S V; Mikhailov, P V; Kislov, N V

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the red cell aggregation depends on its initial level under drug therapy or cell incubation with bioactive chemical compounds. Sixty six subjects were enrolled onto this study, and sub-divided into two groups: the first group of patients (n = 36) with cerebral atherosclerosis received pentoxifylline therapy (400 mg, thrice daily) for 4 weeks. The patients of the second group were initially treated with Epoetin beta 10,000 units subcutaneously thrice a week, for 4 weeks. The second group - adult anemic patients (n = 30) with the confirmed diagnosis of solid cancer (Hb treatment the red cell aggregation increased (p treatment with pentoxifylline reduced it markedly (p treatment 75% the anemic patients with initially high RBCA had an aggregation lowering. The drop of aggregation was about 34% (p treatment. The initially low red cell aggregation after incubation with epoetin-beta was markedly increased by 122% (p drugs depend markedly on the initial, pre-treatment aggregation status of the patients. These results demonstrate that the different red blood cell aggregation responses to the biological stimuli depend strongly on the initial, pre-treatment status of the subject and the most probably it is connected with the crosstalk between the adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway and Ca2+ regulatory mechanism.

  16. The Joint Military Medical Executive Skills initiative: an impressive response to changing human resource management rules of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Confronted with a sudden and substantial change in the rules regarding who could command a military medical treatment facility (MTF), the Military Health System (MHS) responded to the challenge with an impressive human resource management solution-the Joint Medical Executive Skills Program. The history, emergence, and continuing role of this initiative exemplifies the MHS's capacity to fulfill the spirit and intent of an arduous Congressional mandate while enhancing professional development and sustaining the career opportunities of medical officers. The MHS response to the Congressional requirement that candidates for MTF command demonstrate professional administrative skills was decisive, creative, and consistent with the basic principles of human resource management. The Joint Medical Executive Skills Program is a management success story that demonstrates how strategic planning, well-defined skills requirements, and structured training can assure a ready supply of qualified commanders for the military's MTFs.

  17. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite

  18. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action

  19. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, April 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action

  20. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action

  2. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action

  4. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  5. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  6. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  7. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Initial Weekly HRV Response is Related to the Prospective Change in VO2max in Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, M R; Flatt, A A; Nakamura, F Y

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the early response in weekly measures of HRV, when derived from a smartphone application, were related to the eventual change in VO2max following an off-season training program in female soccer athletes. 9 female collegiate soccer players participated in an 11-week off-season conditioning program. In the week immediately before and after the training program, each participant performed a test on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Daily measures of the log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals (lnRMSSD) were performed by the participants throughout week 1 and week 3 of the conditioning program. The mean and coefficient of variation (CV) lnRMSSD values of week 1 showed small (r=- 0.13, p=0.74) and moderate (r=0.57, p=0.11), respectively, non-significant correlations to the change in VO2max at the end of the conditioning program (∆VO2max). Significant and near-perfect correlation was found between the change in the weekly mean lnRMSSD values from weeks 1 and 3 (∆lnRMSSDM) and ∆VO2max (r=0.90, p=0.002). The current results have identified that the initial change in weekly mean lnRMSSD from weeks 1 to 3 of a conditioning protocol was strongly associated with the eventual adaptation of VO2max. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  10. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  11. Regulatory Promotion of Emergent CCS Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Lincoln; Uchitel, Kirsten; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing inevitability of climate change and the attendant need for mitigation strategies, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has yet to gain much traction in the United States. Recent regulatory proposals by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), limited in scope to new-build power plants, represent the only significant policy initiative intended to mandate diffusion of CCS technology. Phase I of this Project assessed barriers to CCS deployment as prioritized by the CCS community. That research concluded that there were four primary barriers: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. Phase II of this Project, as presented in this Report, assesses potential regulatory models for CCS and examines where those models address the hurdles to diffusing CCS technology identified in Phase I. It concludes (1) that a CCS-specific but flexible standard, such as a technology performance standard or a very particular type of market-based regulation, likely will promote CCS diffusion, and (2) that these policies cannot work alone, but rather, should be combined with other measures, such as liability limits and a comprehensive CCS regulatory regime.

  12. Dealing with change and uncertainty within the regulatory frameworks for flood defense infrastructure in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Goytia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas existing literature on the interactions among law, adaptive governance, and resilience in the water sector often focuses on quality or supply issues, this paper addresses adaptation in national water laws in relation to increasing flood risks. In particular, this paper analyzes the extent to which legal rules governing flood defense infrastructure in a selection of European countries (England, France, Sweden, and The Netherlands allow for response and adaptation to change and uncertainty. Although there is evidence that the legal rules on the development of new infrastructure require that changing conditions be considered, the adaptation of existing infrastructure is a more complicated matter. Liability rules fail to adequately address damages resulting from causes external to the action or inaction of owners and managers, in particular extreme events. A trend toward clearer, and in some cases, increased public powers to ensure the safety of flood defense infrastructure is observed. The paper concludes that legal rules should ensure not only that decisions to build flood defenses are based on holistic and future-oriented assessments, but also that this is reflected in the implementation and operation of these structures.

  13. Anti-regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells—termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)—that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune...... reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells......Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host...

  14. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation process as a probable mechanism for the diurnal regulatory changes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Vidal, J; Le Marechal, P; Gadal, P; Queiroz, O; Kluge, M; Kruger, I

    1986-04-14

    Day and night forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) (PEPC) were extracted from leaves of the CAM plants Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. tubiflora and K. blossfeldiana previously fed with [32P] labelled phosphate solution. A one-step immunochemical purification followed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography showed that, in all species, the night form of the enzyme was phosphorylated and not the day form. Limited acid hydrolysis of the night form and two-dimensional separation identified predominantly labelled phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. In vitro addition of exogenous acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) to desalted night form-containing extracts resulted within 30 min in a shift in PEPC enzymic properties similar to the in vivo changes from night to day form. It is suggested that phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the enzyme could be the primary in vivo process which might explain the observed rhythmicity of enzymic properties.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of initial red wine composition on changes in color and anthocyanin content during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Echávarri, José-Federico; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-12-15

    Sixteen commercial red wines, selected to cover a different range of color and total polyphenols index (TPI), were stored at 25°C during 6months under controlled and different oxygen additions (0, 1.1, 3.1, 10.6 and 30.4mgL(-1)) during the bottling process. Changes in color and the anthocyanic composition were evaluated using transmittance spectra and UPLC-MS-UV/Vis respectively. Results reveal a general pattern in the evolution of wines. However, different patterns of evolution related to initial wine composition, especially to TPI, were observed. Wines with higher TPI had a lower evolution, whereas wines with lower TPI showed a higher evolution and greater variability in behavior. In general, oxygen seemed to accelerate all changes observed during aging although the oxygen effect was more limited than the effect of the storage time. These results are relevant for wine experts and help explain the evolution of wine at the bottling stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of the Bolivian regulatory changes for the future of natural gas in Brazil; Impacto na relacao Brasil-Bolivia com a nacionalizacao dos hidrocarbonetos bolivianos de 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Berrnardo Pestana Mello C.; Saraiva, Thiago Carvalho; Bone, Rosemarie Broker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to clarify and understand the reasons for the current economic policy and trade between Bolivia and Brazil, the latter represented by PETROBRAS, as the year 2006. Focuses on the regulatory change in Bolivia that culminated in a period of re-nationalization of its mineral wealth as opposed to international interests, including Brazilians, and agreements entered into during the opening of the market in the country. Thus, set in the Latin American actual situation, we undertake to understand the process and its consequences for Brazil, which, even with the third largest gas reserves in the region, in the short term, it follows as an importer of this feature. To have a concrete base with foundations and analyze what happens today, we must understand the political history of Bolivia and their internal changes. So we divided the work into two parts: first, we analyze the neo liberal period, and the agreements signed with Brazil in the hydrocarbon sector, for mutual benefits. In the second part, we understand the political rise of Evo Morales and the nationalization process of national wealth and the consequent crisis that developed with the international oil companies, especially with PETROBRAS, to the final outcome on the price, production and export of gas.

  17. Beware: The empire striking back: An update of regulatory changes in Ontario`s gas and electricity business as at February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, K. [Gowling, Strathy and Henderson, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    A review of what is happening with regard to deregulation of the gas and electricity industry in Ontario was presented. Recently, a series of government actions in Ontario have recommended fundamental changes in the gas and electric power sector. Prior to the October 31, 1985 agreement, no competitive market existed within local distribution franchises in Ontario or elsewhere in Canada. The Agreement created gas on gas competition and enabled consumers to purchase natural gas from producers at negotiated prices. The Ontario government`s proposed legislation and implementation schedule forecasts even more fundamental changes for the province`s electric power industry. Essentially, the legislation proposes to break up Ontario Hydro into several different entities and transfer regulatory authority to the Ontario Energy Board. The pending legislation also envisages the structural separation of local distribution companies into natural monopolies which will compete in the marketplace. The possibility of privatizing part or all of Ontario`s nuclear assets is also part of the ongoing debate. It was the author`s view that unless there is immediate and complete structural separation of all monopoly services within the gas and electric utilities, the market will not be truly competitive. Instead, regulated monopoly pricing would be replaced by unregulated oligopoly pricing. 1 tab.

  18. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is considered an essential element in pursuit of its vision to become a world class regulatory body. Since its inception in 2001, PNRA has continuously endeavoured to invest in its people, develop training infrastructure and impart sound knowledge and professional skills with the aim to improve its regulatory effectiveness. The use of nuclear and radioactive material in Pakistan has increased manifold in recent years, thus induction of more manpower was needed for regulatory oversight. PNRA adopted two pronged approach for meeting the manpower demand (a) employment of university graduates through fast track recruitment drive and (b) induction of graduates by offering fellowships for Master degree programs. Although, the newly employed staff was selected on the basis of their excellent academic qualifications in basic and applied sciences, but they required rigorous knowledge and skills in regulatory perspectives. In order to implement a structured training program, PNRA conducted Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and identified competency gaps of the regulatory staff in legal, technical, regulatory practice and behavioural domains. PNRA took several initiatives for capacity building which included establishment of a training centre for sustainability of trainings, initiation of a fellowship scheme for Master program, attachment of staff at local institutes for on-the-job training and placement at foreign regulatory bodies and organizations for technical development with the assistance of IAEA. The above strategies have been very beneficial in competence building of the PNRA staff to perform all regulatory activities indigenously for nuclear power plants, research reactors and radiation facilities. Provision of vibrant technical support to IAEA and Member States in various programs by PNRA is a landmark of these competence development efforts. This paper summarizes PNRA initiatives and the International Atomic

  19. Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Beresford, Shirley A; Frank, Gail; Jones, Bobette; Rodabough, Rebecca J; Snetselaar, Linda; Thomson, Cynthia; Tinker, Lesley; Vitolins, Mara; Prentice, Ross

    2006-01-04

    Obesity in the United States has increased dramatically during the past several decades. There is debate about optimum calorie balance for prevention of weight gain, and proponents of some low-carbohydrate diet regimens have suggested that the increasing obesity may be attributed, in part, to low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets. To report data on body weight in a long-term, low-fat diet trial for which the primary end points were breast and colorectal cancer and to examine the relationships between weight changes and changes in dietary components. Randomized intervention trial of 48,835 postmenopausal women in the United States who were of diverse backgrounds and ethnicities and participated in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial; 40% (19,541) were randomized to the intervention and 60% (29,294) to a control group. Study enrollment was between 1993 and 1998, and this analysis includes a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (through August 31, 2004). The intervention included group and individual sessions to promote a decrease in fat intake and increases in vegetable, fruit, and grain consumption and did not include weight loss or caloric restriction goals. The control group received diet-related education materials. Change in body weight from baseline to follow-up. Women in the intervention group lost weight in the first year (mean of 2.2 kg, Pfruit servings, and a nonsignificant trend toward weight loss occurred with increasing intake of fiber. A low-fat eating pattern does not result in weight gain in postmenopausal women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00000611.

  20. NASA GISS Climate Change Research Initiative: A Multidisciplinary Vertical Team Model for Improving STEM Education by Using NASA's Unique Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    CCRI is a year-long STEM education program designed to bring together teams of NASA scientists, graduate, undergraduate and high school interns and high school STEM educators to become immersed in NASA research focused on atmospheric and climate changes in the 21st century. GISS climate research combines analysis of global datasets with global models of atmospheric, land surface, and oceanic processes to study climate change on Earth and other planetary atmospheres as a useful tool in assessing our general understanding of climate change. CCRI interns conduct research, gain knowledge in assigned research discipline, develop and present scientific presentations summarizing their research experience. Specifically, CCRI interns write a scientific research paper explaining basic ideas, research protocols, abstract, results, conclusion and experimental design. Prepare and present a professional presentation of their research project at NASA GISS, prepare and present a scientific poster of their research project at local and national research symposiums along with other federal agencies. CCRI Educators lead research teams under the direction of a NASA GISS scientist, conduct research, develop research based learning units and assist NASA scientists with the mentoring of interns. Educators create an Applied Research STEM Curriculum Unit Portfolio based on their research experience integrating NASA unique resources, tools and content into a teacher developed unit plan aligned with the State and NGSS standards. STEM Educators also Integrate and implement NASA unique units and content into their STEM courses during academic year, perform community education STEM engagement events, mentor interns in writing a research paper, oral research reporting, power point design and scientific poster design for presentation to local and national audiences. The CCRI program contributes to the Federal STEM Co-STEM initiatives by providing opportunities, NASA education resources and

  1. Changes in physical functioning in the Active Living Every Day program of the Active for Life Initiative®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Wegley, Stacy; Buchner, David M; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Alisa; Schwamberger, Karen; Bazzarre, Terry L

    2011-09-01

    Physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of physical functional limitations in older adults. There are limited data that evidence-based physical activity interventions can be successfully translated into community programs and result in similar benefits for physical functioning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of the Active Living Every Day program on physical functioning and physical functional limitations in a diverse sample of older adults. As a part of the Active for Life initiative, the Council on Aging of Southwestern Ohio implemented Active Living Every Day (ALED), a group-based lifestyle behavior change program designed to increase physical activity. Performance-based physical functioning tests (30-s Chair Stand Test, eight Foot Up-and-Go Test, Chair Sit-and-Reach Test, 30-Foot Walk Test) were administered to participants at baseline and posttest. Baseline to post-program changes in physical functioning and impairment status were examined with repeated measures analysis of covariance. Interactions tested whether change over time differed according to race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and baseline impairment status. Participants significantly increased their performance in all four physical functioning tests. The percentage of participants classified as "impaired" according to normative data significantly decreased over time. Physical functioning improved regardless of BMI, race/ethnicity, or baseline impairment status. ALED is an example of an evidenced-based physical activity program that can be successfully translated into community programs and result in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in performance-based measures of physical functioning.

  2. Modeling Dynamic Regulatory Processes in Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Jarman, Kenneth; Taylor, Ronald; Lancaster, Mary; Shankaran, Harish; Vartanian, Keri B.; Stevens, Susan L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P.; Sanfilippo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The ability to examine the behavior of biological systems in silico has the potential to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery in diseases, such as stroke, where in vivo analysis is time intensive and costly. In this paper we describe an approach for in silico examination of responses of the blood transcriptome to neuroprotective agents and subsequent stroke through the development of dynamic models of the regulatory processes observed in the experimental gene expression data. First, we identified functional gene clusters from these data. Next, we derived ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from the data relating these functional clusters to each other in terms of their regulatory influence on one another. Dynamic models were developed by coupling these ODEs into a model that simulates the expression of regulated functional clusters. By changing the magnitude of gene expression in the initial input state it was possible to assess the behavior of the networks through time under varying conditions since the dynamic model only requires an initial starting state, and does not require measurement of regulatory influences at each time point in order to make accurate predictions. We discuss the implications of our models on neuroprotection in stroke, explore the limitations of the approach, and report that an optimized dynamic model can provide accurate predictions of overall system behavior under several different neuroprotective paradigms. PMID:23071432

  3. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and changes in the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins induced by cerium oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahanavaj; Ansari, Anees A.; Rolfo, Christian; Coelho, Andreia; Abdulla, Maha; Al-Khayal, Khayal; Ahmad, Rehan

    2017-12-01

    Cerium oxide nanocrystals (CeO2-NCs) exhibit superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic activities. Based on these catalytic activities, CeO2-NCs have been suggested to have the potential to treat various diseases. The crystalline size of these materials is an important factor that influences the performance of CeO2-NCs. Previous reports have shown that several metal-based nanocrystals, including CeO2-NCs, can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. To characterize the anticancer activities of CeO2-NCs, several assays related to the mechanism of cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis has been performed. Here, we have carried out a systematic study to characterize CeO2-NCs phase purity (X-ray diffraction), morphology (electron microscopy), and optical features (optical absorption, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence) to better establish their potential as anticancer drugs. Our study revealed anticancer effects of CeO2-NCs in HT29 and SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.26 and 121.18 μg ml-1, respectively. Reductions in cell viability indicated the cytotoxic potential of CeO2-NCs in HT29 cells based on inverted and florescence microscopy assessments. The mechanism of cytotoxicity confirmed by estimating possible changes in the expression levels of Bcl2, BclxL, Bax, PARP, cytochrome c, and β-actin (control) proteins in HT29 cells. Down-regulation of Bcl2 and BclxL and up-regulation of Bax, PARP, and cytochrome c proteins suggested the significant involvement of CeO2-NCs exposure in the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, biocompatibility assay showed minimum effect of CeO2-NCs on human red blood cells.

  4. Covering Risks in the Public Administration – an In-Depth Analysis of the Regulatory Changes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cocosatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing in a trans-disciplinary manner the institutional and functional changesof the public administration under crisis. The current analysis looks in depth of the financial, economic, and,more importantly, social crisis in relation to the reforms imposed by both the internal and externalstakeholders. The decision-makers have not taken into account the risk factors, triggering legislativeincoherence and instability due to the challenging and approval as non-constitutional of many such normativeacts by the Romanian Constitutional Court. The research objectives search to clear up the measures’coherence in the context of a declining public budget and a negative growth period, when the shrunk publicfunds need to be properly allocated. Therefore, the answer that our research is looking for should pertain tothe following concern: can the government’s actions be considered solutions to the problems raised by thecurrent context? The answers shall aim at both restoring the legal and economic balance, as defined in theworking hypothesis. The lax fiscal policy of the expenditures brings about an involuntary fiscal contraction inthe event of an economic downturn (Rosen and Gayer, 2010, as it was the case in Romania. Those lack ofprudence shall be addressed in our analysis, with specific reference to the already established literatureexplanations involving the decision-makers trust in the „good days shall be around forever”, which triggers abelief that the expenditures’ expansion can be permanent. Regarding the paper methodology, this study isproceeding via bibliographical research, so that the reasoning behind the paper is clearly underlined as thisresearch is actually triggered by the radical changes made by both legislatures and practitioners as a responseto crisis. Further, the manuscript makes use of direct observation and legislative analysis and extensivedocumentary research of national tax policy and statistics relevant

  5. Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxby, Alison C; Fredricks, David N; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Masese, Linnet; Fiedler, Tina L; De Rosa, Stephen; Jaoko, Walter; Kiarie, James N; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-04-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation. In a cohort of HIV-negative Kenyan women, we collected monthly vaginal swabs over 1 year before and after DMPA. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared quantities of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, Gardnerella vaginalis, and total bacterial load (16S ribosomal RNA gene levels). Six vaginal immune mediators were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trends in the detection and quantity of bacteria were estimated by logistic and linear mixed-effects regression. From 2010 to 2012, 15 HIV-seronegative women initiated DMPA, contributing 85 visits (median, 6 visits/woman; range, 3-8 visits/woman). The median time of DMPA-exposed follow-up was 8.4 months (range, 1.5-11.6 months). Seven women (46%) had bacterial vaginosis within 70 days before DMPA start. L. iners was detected in 13 women (87%) before DMPA start, but other lactobacilli were rarely detected. Gardnerella vaginalis decreased by 0.21 log10 copies per swab per month after DMPA exposure (P = 0.01). Total bacterial load decreased by 0.08 log10 copies per swab per month of DMPA (P = 0.02). Sustained decreases in interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.04), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P vaginal bacterial concentrations and levels of inflammatory mediators. Further studies are warranted to outline components of the vaginal microbiota influenced by DMPA use and impact on HIV susceptibility.

  6. Using behavior change communication to lead a comprehensive family planning program: the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Susan; Cobb, Lisa; Babalola, Stella; Odeku, Mojisola; Kusemiju, Bola

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI), a 6-year comprehensive family planning program (2009–2015) in 4 cities, intentionally applies communication theories to all program elements, not just the demand generation ones, relying mainly on a theory called ideation—the concept that contraceptive use is influenced by people's beliefs, ideas, and feelings and that changing these ideational factors can change people's behavior. Program Description: The project used multiple communication channels to foster dialogue about family planning, increase social approval for it, and improve accurate knowledge about contraceptives. Mobile service delivery was started in the third year to improve access to clinical methods in slums. Methods: Data from representative baseline (2010–11) and midterm (2012) surveys of women of reproductive age in the project cities were analyzed. We also used propensity score matching to create a statistically equivalent control group of women not exposed to project activities, and we examined service delivery data from NURHI-supported clinics (January 2011–May 2013) to determine the contribution of mobile services to total family planning services. Results: Three years into the initiative, analysis of longitudinal data shows that use of modern contraceptives has increased in each city, varying from 2.3 to 15.5 percentage points, and that the observed increases were predicted by exposure to NURHI activities. Of note is that modern method use increased substantially among the poorest wealth quintiles in project cities, on average, by 8.4 percentage points. The more project activities women were exposed to, the greater their contraceptive use. For example, among women not using a modern method at baseline, contraceptive prevalence among those with no exposure by midterm was 19.1% vs. 43.4% among those with high exposure. Project exposure had a positive dose-response relationship with ideation, as did

  7. Changes of Regulatory T Cells and of Proinflammatory and Immunosuppressive Cytokines in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-chao Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of regulatory T cells (Treg, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. We performed a comprehensive search up to July 2016 for all clinical studies about the changes of Treg, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, and TNF-α in T2DM patients versus healthy controls. Results. A total of 91 articles (5642 cases and 7378 controls were included for this meta-analysis. Compared with the controls (all p<0.001, the patients had increased serum levels of IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α but decreased the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg and serum IL-10 level. Furthermore, the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg (p<0.001 and serum IL-10 level (p=0.033 were significantly lower in the patients with complication and in the patients without complication, respectively. No significant changes about the percentage of CD4+CD25+Treg (p=0.360 and serum IL-17 level (p=0.459 were found in T2DM patients. Conclusions. T2DM patients have decreased the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg and levels of serum IL-10 but elevated serum levels of IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. Presence of diabetic complications further lowers the peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg number.

  8. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ?18 years old, smoking ?25 of the last 30 days, smoking ?5 cigarettes pe...

  9. Changes in Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviour: A Critical Review of Research into the Impacts of Environmental Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralton, Anna; Sinclair, Mark; Purnell, Ken

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the impact of environmental education initiatives on learners' attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. The review focuses on initiatives involving learners of all ages and school-aged learners in particular. The review shows two things. There is some evidence that environmental education initiatives are…

  10. A new MCM modification cycle regulates DNA replication initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-03-01

    The MCM DNA helicase is a central regulatory target during genome replication. MCM is kept inactive during G1, and it initiates replication after being activated in S phase. During this transition, the only known chemical change to MCM is the gain of multisite phosphorylation that promotes cofactor recruitment. Because replication initiation is intimately linked to multiple biological cues, additional changes to MCM can provide further regulatory points. Here, we describe a yeast MCM SUMOylation cycle that regulates replication. MCM subunits undergo SUMOylation upon loading at origins in G1 before MCM phosphorylation. MCM SUMOylation levels then decline as MCM phosphorylation levels rise, thus suggesting an inhibitory role of MCM SUMOylation during replication. Indeed, increasing MCM SUMOylation impairs replication initiation, partly through promoting the recruitment of a phosphatase that decreases MCM phosphorylation and activation. We propose that MCM SUMOylation counterbalances kinase-based regulation, thus ensuring accurate control of replication initiation.

  11. Data processing for the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer and initial scientific results from Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chun-Lai; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Zou, Yong-Liao; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is an important payload mounted on the Yutu rover, which is part of the Chang'e-3 mission. The scientific objective of APXS is to perform in-situ analysis of the chemical composition of lunar soil and rock samples. The radioactive sources, 55Fe and 109Cd, decay and produce α-particles and X-rays. When X-rays and α-particles interact with atoms in the surface material, they knock electrons out of their orbits, which release energy by emitting X-rays that can be measured by a silicon drift detector (SDD). The elements and their concentrations can be determined by analyzing their peak energies and intensities. APXS has analyzed both the calibration target and lunar soil once during the first lunar day and again during the second lunar day. The total detection time lasted about 266 min and more than 2000 frames of data records have been acquired. APXS has three operating modes: calibration mode, distance sensing mode and detection mode. In detection mode, work distance can be calculated from the X-ray counting rate collected by SDD. Correction for the effect of temperature has been performed to convert the channel number for each spectrum to X-ray energy. Dead time correction is used to eliminate the systematic error in quantifying the activity of an X-ray pulse in a sample and derive the real count rate. We report APXS data and initial results during the first and second lunar days for the Yutu rover. In this study, we analyze the data from the calibration target and lunar soil on the first lunar day. Seven major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe, have been identified. Comparing the peak areas and ratios of calibration basalt and lunar soil the landing site was found to be depleted in K, and have lower Mg and Al but higher Ca, Ti, and Fe. In the future, we will obtain the elemental concentrations of lunar soil at the Chang'e-3 landing site using APXS data.

  12. 76 FR 12283 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... written comment on the codification of the Texas authorized RCRA program by the close of business April 6.... 30 TAC 305.45(a)(8) intro.--(a)(8)(B).. 40 CFR 270.13(l) related. 30 TAC 305.50(a)(6) 40 CFR 270.17(b.... The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., as added by the Small Business Regulatory...

  13. The usefulness of changing focus during examination using Gram staining as initial diagnostic clue for infective tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsukawa, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Sayoko; Asahara, Miwa; Ishigaki, Shinobu; Tanaka, Takashi; Ono, Yasuo; Nishiya, Hajime; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Koga, Ichiro; Ota, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa

    2011-08-01

    Gram staining is a useful technique for detecting bacteria but is highly questionable in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its detection generally requires special staining, such as Ziehl-Neelsen staining. We experienced three cases in which tuberculosis was first suggested by Gram staining of sputum or pus, confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction or culture. To find colorless tubercle bacilli in clinical samples with various organisms, varying the focus to slightly longer and shorter during study of the slides is indispensable. We present criteria for detecting infective pulmonary tuberculosis in Gram staining. First, in the ordinary focus, weakly stained, thin, gram-positive bacilli are found; second, with a slightly longer focus distance, the thin, cord-like, conspicuous gram-positive bacilli can be observed; and third, with a shorter focus distance, the gram-positive bacilli have changed into the brightened, colorless, or ghost ones. Four laboratory technologists each evaluated 20 Gram-stained samples after being lectured on the criteria, with no prior information about the sample. They accurately evaluated the presence of the bacilli in Gram-stained preparations in more than 90% of samples containing 3+ bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Gram staining is available as an easy and rapid initial clue to recognize highly infective tuberculosis.

  14. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A Methodology for Assessing Atmospheric Correction Processors Based on In-Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Doerffer, Roland; Fomferra, Norman; Franz, Bryan A.; Grant, Mike G.; Groom, Steve B.; Melin, Frederic; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative intends to provide a long-term time series of ocean colour data and investigate the detectable climate impact. A reliable and stable atmospheric correction procedure is the basis for ocean colour products of the necessary high quality. In order to guarantee an objective selection from a set of four atmospheric correction processors, the common validation strategy of comparisons between in-situ and satellite derived water leaving reflectance spectra, is extended by a ranking system. In principle, the statistical parameters such as root mean square error, bias, etc. and measures of goodness of fit, are transformed into relative scores, which evaluate the relationship of quality dependent on the algorithms under study. The sensitivity of these scores to the selected database has been assessed by a bootstrapping exercise, which allows identification of the uncertainty in the scoring results. Although the presented methodology is intended to be used in an algorithm selection process, this paper focusses on the scope of the methodology rather than the properties of the individual processors.

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INITIAL PROBING DEPTH AND CHANGES IN THE CLINICAL PARAMETERS FOLLOWING NON-SURGICAL PERIODONTAL TREATMENT IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Emre MESELİ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between initial probing depth (IPD and changes in clinical parameters following non-surgical periodontal treatment (NPT in chronic periodontitis patients. Subjects and Methods: A total of 1672 periodontal pockets having 3mm≤IPD≤9mm of depth in 15 chronic periodontitis patients were included. NPT consisting of oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planing was applied in two sessions. Probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level, gingival recessions (GR were measured before and eight weeks after treatment. Pocket sites were grouped according to their IPD and root number as single- or multi-rooted teeth. Results: Other than the sites having 3 mm IPD, PD reduction and GR increase were significant in all groups (p<0.001. Attachment gains (AG were significant in all single-rooted teeth (p<0.001 again except those having IPD=3mm. However, AG was significant in multi-rooted teeth having only 7mm≤IPD≤9mm (p<0.05. Positive correlations were observed between IPD and PD reduction, GR increase and AG in single-rooted teeth (p<0.001. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between IPD and PD reduction and GR increase in multi-rooted teeth (p<0.001, but there was no correlation between IPD and AG. Conclusion: NPT may lead to positive association between IPD and PD reduction as well as GR increase, which is independent from tooth root anatomy.

  16. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January/February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Mayer, S.J.; Salk, M.S.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives impacting environmental, health, and safety management responsibilities. the table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  17. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January/February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Mayer, S.J.; Salk, M.S.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives impacting environmental, health, and safety management responsibilities. the table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action

  18. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  19. Changes in Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Regulatory Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD) Enzymes Following Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in the Neonatal Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hannah X; Jones, Nicole M

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxia leads to activation of many cellular adaptive processes which are regulated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 consists of HIF-1α and HIF-1ß subunits and levels of HIF-1α protein are regulated by HIF prolyl-hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, 2, 3). The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of HIF-1α and PHDs at various time points after hypoxia-ischemia (HI), using a neonatal rat model of HI brain injury. Sprague-Dawley rat pups (postnatal day 7) were anaesthetized and underwent right carotid artery occlusion and were then exposed to 6 % oxygen for 2.5 h at 37 °C. HI injured animals demonstrated a significant reduction in the size of the ipsilateral hemisphere, compared to sham controls. Protein analysis using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that 24 h after HI, there was a significant increase in PHD3 protein and an increase of HIF-1α compared to controls. At the 72 h time point, there was a reduction in PHD3 protein, which appeared to relate to cellular loss. There were no changes in PHD1 or PHD2 protein levels after HI when compared to age-matched controls. Further studies are necessary to establish roles for the HIF-1 regulatory enzyme PHD3 in brain injury processes.

  20. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1