WorldWideScience

Sample records for change negotiations cop-2

  1. Climate change negotiations. COP-2 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The Second Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP-2), which met in Geneva during July, 1996, was only a partial success when considered in relation to its avowed aims, gaining acceptance of the Second Assessment Report by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), producing an agreed Ministerial Declaration, making real advances towards a protocol, and agreeing Rules of Procedure. This paper describes the main aims of COP-2, consideration of and response to the IPCC`s Second Assessment Report, the COP-2 Ministerial Declaration, some significant statements by individual country delegations at COP-2, lack of progress on Rules of Procedure for the Conference, realization of returning the greenhouse gas emissions in industrialized countries based on the Montreal Protocol, differing views among countries to the Convention on a protocol, prospects for achieving agreement on a legally binding protocol at COP-3 planned for Kyoto, Japan in December, 1997, and recent scientific and technical findings.

  2. Climate change negotiations. COP-2 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The Second Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP-2), which met in Geneva during July, 1996, was only a partial success when considered in relation to its avowed aims, gaining acceptance of the Second Assessment Report by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), producing an agreed Ministerial Declaration, making real advances towards a protocol, and agreeing Rules of Procedure. This paper describes the main aims of COP-2, consideration of and response to the IPCC`s Second Assessment Report, the COP-2 Ministerial Declaration, some significant statements by individual country delegations at COP-2, lack of progress on Rules of Procedure for the Conference, realization of returning the greenhouse gas emissions in industrialized countries based on the Montreal Protocol, differing views among countries to the Convention on a protocol, prospects for achieving agreement on a legally binding protocol at COP-3 planned for Kyoto, Japan in December, 1997, and recent scientific and technical findings.

  3. Can Climate Change Negotiations Succeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hovi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades of climate change negotiations have produced a series of global climate agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Accords, but have nevertheless made very limited progress in curbing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper considers whether negotiations can succeed in reaching an agreement that effectively addresses the climate change problem. To be effective, a climate agreement must cause substantial emissions reductions either directly (in the agreement's own lifetime or indirectly (by paving the way for a future agreement that causes substantial emissions reductions directly. To reduce global emissions substantially, an agreement must satisfy three conditions. Firstly, participation must be both comprehensive and stable. Secondly, participating countries must accept deep commitments. Finally, the agreement must obtain high compliance rates. We argue that three types of enforcement will be crucial to fulfilling these three conditions: (1 incentives for countries to ratify with deep commitments, (2 incentives for countries that have ratified with deep commitments to abstain from withdrawal, and (3 incentives for countries having ratified with deep commitments to comply with them. Based on assessing the constraints that characterize the climate change negotiations, we contend that adopting such three-fold potent enforcement will likely be politically infeasible, not only within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, but also in the framework of a more gradual approach. Therefore, one should not expect climate change negotiations to succeed in producing an effective future agreement—either directly or indirectly.

  4. Can Climate Change Negotiations Succeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hovi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades of climate change negotiations have produced a series of global climate agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Accords, but have nevertheless made very limited progress in curbing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper considers whether negotiations can succeed in reaching an agreement that effectively addresses the climate change problem. To be effective, a climate agreement must cause substantial emissions reductions either directly (in the agreement's own lifetime or indirectly (by paving the way for a future agreement that causes substantial emissions reductions directly. To reduce global emissions substantially, an agreement must satisfy three conditions. Firstly, participation must be both comprehensive and stable. Secondly, participating countries must accept deep commitments. Finally, the agreement must obtain high compliance rates. We argue that three types of enforcement will be crucial to fulfilling these three conditions: (1 incentives for countries to ratify with deep commitments, (2 incentives for countries that have ratified with deep commitments to abstain from withdrawal, and (3 incentives for countries having ratified with deep commitments to comply with them. Based on assessing the constraints that characterize the climate change negotiations, we contend that adopting such three-fold potent enforcement will likely be politically infeasible, not only within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, but also in the framework of a more gradual approach. Therefore, one should not expect climate change negotiations to succeed in producing an effective future agreement—either directly or indirectly.

  5. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Toward Paris: China and climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yuan Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the challenges and evolution of climate change governance by linking governance and diplomacy. The challenges of climate change involve not only international competition for new energy but also related adjustments of global governance in this area. To be specific, the carbon emission reductions are still problematic, and negotiations surrounding financing mechanisms between developed and developing countries hang in doubt. Furthermore, the attitude of the two sides toward CBDRs (common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capacities and INDCs (intended nationally determined contributions is disparate. Finally, this article outlines some diplomatic policies for China's future developmental trend.

  7. The organization of global negotiations: constructing the climate change regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, Joanna

    2005-02-15

    The basic assumption of this book is that the organization of a negotiation process matters. The global negotiations on climate change involve over 180 countries and innumerable observers and other participants, addressing enormously complex and economically vital issues with conflicting agendas. For the UN to create an effective and well-supported international regime has required enormous and very skilful organization: factors such as the role of the Chair, the choice of negotiating arenas, the rules for the conduct of business and the approach of negotiating texts are usually taken for granted, and rarely attract attention until something goes wrong. This book explores how the negotiations were organized to produce the Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Change Convention and the subsequent Bonn Agreements and Marrakesh Accords. The author draws out the lessons and implications for other intricate and far-reaching negotiations, not all of which have succeeded so far, such as the WTO trade negotiations at Seattle and Cancun. (Author)

  8. Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leigh L; Wang, Jiunwen; Gunia, Brian C

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation occurs whenever people cannot achieve their own goals without the cooperation of others. Our review highlights recent empirical research that investigates this ubiquitous social activity. We selectively review descriptive research emerging from social psychology and organizational behavior. This research examines negotiation behavior and outcomes at five levels of analysis: intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, organizational, and virtual. At each level, we review research on negotiation processes and outcomes, and we discuss the implications of various processes and outcomes for the two functions of negotiation: value creation (integrative negotiation) and value claiming (distributive negotiation).

  9. Towards a Better Understanding of Climate Change Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndís Arndal Woods

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of environmental economics literature applies non-cooperative game theory to examine the stability of International Environmental Agreements. Recently, a new trend has emerged in the literature whereby scholars use modified economic approaches to better account for ‘reality’ as such. This article builds upon the work of Hugh Ward, Frank Grundig and Ethan Zorick who conducted a mixed-method analysis to create a model of international climate change negotiations which could explain why policy change has been minimal in this issue area. The purpose of this article is to further develop the mixed-method approach in order to gain a better understanding of international climate change negotiations. Using the progression of the 2011 Durban negotiation session as our raw data, we demonstrate the usefulness of conducting qualitative and quantitative analyses simultaneously to best represent reality. Content and discourse analyses are applied to the Durban negotiations to identify the properties of the underlying game. The results are applied to the future of the negotiations in order to identify trends which need to be addressed to reach more progressive outcomes in the future. The main results of the qualitative analyses of the Durban negotiations included that players had modest expectations at the outset of the negotiations, which influenced the issues they addressed. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that players achieved a high degree of success at Durban; all players achieved their desired outcomes on at least half of the issues they addressed. Finally, the mixed-method approach identified important trends from the negotiations, most importantly the cracks exposed within the BASIC bloc and the role of the ‘middle ground’ alliance.

  10. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  11. The legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Christer; Hjerpe, Mattias; Parker, Charles; Linner, Bjorn-Ola

    2012-01-01

    Leadeship is an essential ingredient in reaching international agreements and overcoming the collective action problems associated with responding to climate change. In this study, we aim at answering two questions that are crucial for understanding the legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations. Based on the responses of the three consecutive surveys distributed at COPs 14-16, we seek first to chart which actors are actually recognized as leaders by climate change negotiation participants. Second, we aim to explain what motivates COP participants to support different actors as leaders. Both these questions are indeed crucial for understanding the role, importance, and legitimacy of leadership in the international climate change regime. Our results show that the leadership landscape in this issue area is fragmented, with no one clear-cut leader, and strongly suggest that it is imperative for any actor seeking recognition as climate change leader to be perceived as being devoted to promoting the common good.

  12. Managing Software Requirements Changes Based on Negotiation-Style Revision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Dian Mu; Weiru Liu; Zhi Jin; Jun Hong; David Bell

    2011-01-01

    For any proposed software project,when the software requirements specification has been established,requirements changes may result in not only a modification of the requirements specification but also a series of modifications of all existing artifacts during the development.Then it is necessary to provide effective and flexible requirements changes management.In this paper,we present an approach to managing requirements changes based on Booth's negotiation-style framework for belief revision.Informally,we consider the current requirements specification as a belief set about the systemto-be.The request of requirements change is viewed as new information about the same system-to-be.Then the process of executing the requirements change is a process of revising beliefs about the system-to-be.We design a family of belief negotiation models appropriate for different processes of requirements revision,including the setting of the request of requirements change being fully accepted,the setting of the current requirements specification being fully preserved,and that of the current specification and the request of requirements change reaching a compromise.In particular,the prioritization of requirements plays an important role in reaching an agreement in each belief negotiation model designed in this paper.

  13. Gender angle to the climate change negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamukonya, Njeri; Skutsch, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    The South is likely to suffer more from climate change than the North due to its already vulnerable situation and lack of the necessary resources to adapt to change. But do the interests of men and of women differ as regards climate change and does this have a South-North dimension? This paper attem

  14. Climate change: Update on international negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Policy

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the following: United Nations` framework convention on climatic change; the United States` climate change action plan; current issues to be resolved (targets/timetables, policies, advancing commitments of all parties, and compliance); and implications for clean coal technologies.

  15. Toward Paris:China and climate change negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-Yuan; ZHU Song-Li

    2015-01-01

    This article explains the challenges and evolution of climate change governance by linking governance and diplomacy. The challenges of climate change involve not only international competition for new energy but also related adjustments of global governance in this area. To be specific, the carbon emission reductions are still problematic, and negotiations surrounding financing mechanisms between developed and developing countries hang in doubt. Furthermore, the attitude of the two sides toward CBDRs (common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capacities) and INDCs (intended nationally determined contributions) is disparate. Finally, this article outlines some diplomatic policies for China's future developmental trend.

  16. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Product Change--Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION... add Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements to the Competitive Products List pursuant to... Service to Add Global Plus 1B and 2B Negotiated Service Agreements to the Competitive Product List, and...

  17. 77 FR 2573 - International Product Change-Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... International Product Change--Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Regulatory Commission to add Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements to the Competitive Products... of United States Postal Service to Add Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements to the...

  18. Negotiating over Technological Change in Banking and Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Edythe

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the provisions of recent negotiation agreements focusing on effects of technological developments in banking and insurance; general provisions; procedural provisions; and substantive provisions relating to job security, early retirement, working hours, retraining, downgrading, severance pay, and safety and health. (Author/SK)

  19. 78 FR 39344 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15649] POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY... Service Agreements in the Mail Classification Schedule's Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date... States Postal Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 60 to Competitive Product List. Documents...

  20. 78 FR 65392 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice... Return Service Contract 5 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at www.prc.gov ,...

  1. 75 FR 62896 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal ServiceTM. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service gives notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  2. 76 FR 396 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  3. 76 FR 80987 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  4. 77 FR 49032 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  5. 78 FR 65393 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  6. 77 FR 51583 - Product Change-First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... First-Class Package Service Contract 15 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  7. 78 FR 62714 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  8. 76 FR 396 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  9. 77 FR 4062 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  10. 78 FR 8599 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  11. 77 FR 28410 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  12. 77 FR 60731 - Product Change-First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... First-Class Package Service Contract 18 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  13. 77 FR 77122 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  14. 78 FR 4175 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM.\\ ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  15. 77 FR 58186 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  16. 78 FR 36796 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  17. 78 FR 13715 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  18. 76 FR 2930 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  19. 78 FR 59383 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  20. 77 FR 77121 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  1. 78 FR 76336 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  2. 78 FR 20361 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  3. 77 FR 38864 - Product Change-First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service Contract 8 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at www.prc.gov , Docket...

  4. 75 FR 81319 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  5. 78 FR 4174 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM.\\ ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  6. 78 FR 30344 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  7. 78 FR 26406 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  8. 77 FR 42780 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  9. 78 FR 56248 - Product Change-Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Select Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  10. 78 FR 76335 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  11. 77 FR 43868 - Product Change-First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...-Class Package Service Contract 10 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  12. 78 FR 13715 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  13. 75 FR 62896 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service gives notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  14. 75 FR 81318 - Product Change-Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Express Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory ] Commission to add a...

  15. 78 FR 43249 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  16. 75 FR 47317 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. Summary: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  17. 78 FR 79027 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  18. 78 FR 59382 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  19. 77 FR 60730 - Product Change-First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--First-Class Package Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... First-Class Package Service Contract 17 to Competitive Product List. Documents are available at...

  20. 76 FR 2931 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add a...

  1. 77 FR 64150 - Product Change-Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  2. 75 FR 71568 - Establishment of Negotiated Rulemaking Committee for Changes to Livestock Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... information valuable to the decision- making process. V. Requests for Nominations and Comments To comply with... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 59 Establishment of Negotiated Rulemaking Committee for Changes to Livestock Mandatory Reporting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Establishment...

  3. 75 FR 74755 - Product Change-Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Parcel Return Service Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add...

  4. Navigating terrains of violence: how South African male youngsters negotiate social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindegaard, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    How do male youngsters growing up on the Cape Flats in Cape Town avoid violence in their everyday lives? When are they perceived as a risk and at risk, and how is their way of navigating in those situations related to negotiations of social change? This paper seeks to explore, by way of insights gen

  5. Modelling the International Climate Change Negotiations: A Non-Technical Outline of Model Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underdal, Arild

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses in non-technical terms the overall architecture of a model that will be designed to enable the user to (1) explore systematically the political feasibility of alternative policy options and (2) to determine the set of politically feasible solutions in the global climate change negotiations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Negotiating Academic Teacher Identity Shifts during Higher Education Contextual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Susan Maree; Billot, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Higher education teachers' roles and identities are constantly shifting in response to contextual change. Pedagogy, values, and professional and personal narratives of self are all affected, particularly by technological change. This paper explores the role and identity shifts of academics during the introduction of large-class videoconferencing.…

  7. Reflections on small island states and the international climate change negotiations (COP21, Paris, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hoad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest and most significant round of multilateral climate negotiations (COP21 takes place in Paris (30/11 to 11/12/2015. Like other participants and signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, small island states have submitted contributions (INDCs towards reducing emissions as a precursor to the creation of a post-Kyoto global emissions framework. This reflection outlines their contributions and examines the underlying dynamics of small island INDCs as they attempt to engage with the process of international negotiation. Preliminary findings confirm the need for small island states to be supported financially and technically by global institutional mechanisms in order to develop the capacity to deal with climate change.

  8. Iterative functionalism and climate management regimes: From intergovernmental panel on climate change to intergovernmental negotiating committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1992-06-01

    This paper contends that an iterative ``functionalist`` regime -- comprised of international organizations that monitor the global climate and perform scientific and policy research on prevention, mitigation, and adaptation strategies for response to possible global warming -- has developed over the past decade. A common global effort by scientists, diplomats, and others to negotiate a framework convention that would reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other ``greenhouse gases`` has been brought about by this regime. Individuals that participate in this regime are engaged in several cooperative activities including: (1) international research on the causes and consequences of global change; (2) global environmental monitoring and standard-setting for analyses of climate data; and (3) negotiating a framework convention that places limits on greenhouse gas emissions by countries. The implications of this iterative approach for successful implementation of a treaty to forestall global climate change are discussed.

  9. Iterative functionalism and climate management regimes: From intergovernmental panel on climate change to intergovernmental negotiating committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center)

    1992-01-01

    This paper contends that an iterative functionalist'' regime -- comprised of international organizations that monitor the global climate and perform scientific and policy research on prevention, mitigation, and adaptation strategies for response to possible global warming -- has developed over the past decade. A common global effort by scientists, diplomats, and others to negotiate a framework convention that would reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases'' has been brought about by this regime. Individuals that participate in this regime are engaged in several cooperative activities including: (1) international research on the causes and consequences of global change; (2) global environmental monitoring and standard-setting for analyses of climate data; and (3) negotiating a framework convention that places limits on greenhouse gas emissions by countries. The implications of this iterative approach for successful implementation of a treaty to forestall global climate change are discussed.

  10. Negotiating for Change: Women's Movements and Education Reform in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic changes during the past 20 years in Taiwan offer a good example of how gender policy in education is facilitated by a combination of interrelated economic, political and social forces. Taiwan's policy on gender education emerged from the interaction of state, education, academic and non-academic feminist positions in reforms. This…

  11. Gender relations and couple negotiations of British men's food practice changes after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Lawrence W; Robertson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in the health of men diagnosed with prostate cancer and dietary interventions can therefore be a significant part of prostate cancer survivorship supportive care. Family food provision, however, involves complex social interactions, which shape how men engage with their diets and dietary interventions. The role that gender plays in shaping prostate cancer couples' food practices and men's diets after a prostate cancer diagnosis is thought to be important but is little understood. This study explored couples' accounts of nutrition information seeking and diet change to gain a better understanding of how gender relations shaped men's food practices after prostate cancer diagnosis. Qualitative health interviews with men and their partners were conducted and analysed using interpretive descriptive methods. Findings demonstrated how couples navigated food change journeys that involved seeking information, deciding what changes were warranted and implementing and regulating diet changes. Two overarching themes that illustrated couples' food negotiations were called 'Seeking information and deciding on food changes' and 'Monitoring food changes'. Additional sub-themes described who led food changes, women's filtering of information, and moderation or 'treats'. Throughout these food change journeys, interactions between men and women were at play, demonstrating how gender relations and dynamics acted to shape couples' food negotiations and men's food practices. Findings reveal that attention to gender relations and the men's family food dynamics should inform diet interventions for men with prostate cancer in order to improve uptake.

  12. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

  13. Negotiating climate change agreements - the view from the mineral wool sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loudon, Robert [Cadogan Consultants (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Trade associations representing energy-intensive industrial sectors in the UK have negotiated agreements with the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) to enable their members to receive an 80% rebate on the climate change levy (CCL) providing they meet agreed energy saving targets. Insulation manufacturing is represented by Eurisol and the Mineral Wool Energy Savings Company (MINESCO). Rock wool and glass wool manufacture uses energy for blending, melting, fiberising, curing, cooling, cutting and packaging. However the mineral wool sector has already made significant improvements in energy efficiency over the last 20 years. Confidentiality issues led to Eurisol appointing consultants to advise on how individual plants could achieve further energy savings. Cadogan Consultants developed a strategy that incorporated both qualitative and quantitative issues and allowed the energy saving potential at each site to be identified. MINESCO agreed energy saving targets with the DETR in December 2000, but much work remains to be done.

  14. Gendered Negotiations: Engagements with ‘Modernity’ and Identity Change amongst Chiapeneco Youth in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie-Leigh Ruse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to examine how changes have occurred in the processes of gendered identity construction amongst Mexican youths through examining local experiences of global, and specifically Mexican, modernities. Based on fieldwork carried out amongst youths in the city of San Cristobal de las Casas, in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas, my analysis addresses how youths plan for the future in the context of economic and political marginalisation, and how this affects the way in which they pursue different forms of romantic relationships. I also address changes that have occurred in youths’ understandings, perceptions and performances of their gendered identities in the context of a highly developed local tourist industry, the advent of mass media, and new online social worlds. My study shows how gendered identity construction amongst youths here becomes context-dependent, and how it encompasses individual agency whilst at the same time being negotiated through wider structural and social limitations. I also wish to demonstrate how changing gendered identities amongst youths are constantly constructed and renegotiated by individuals seeking to accommodate notions of modernity with perceptions of the traditional, and how these individuals balance contesting notions of gendered identities within themselves. This is, therefore, a study of local and gendered identity change amongst youths in the context of localised modernities and rapid social change.

  15. Agriculture in the climate change negotiations; ensuring that food production is not threatened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldowney, J; Mounsey, J; Kinsella, L

    2013-06-01

    With the human population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050, demand for food is predicted to more than double over this time period, a trend which will lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. Furthermore, expansion in food production is predicted to occur primarily in the developing world, where adaptation to climate change may be more difficult and opportunities to mitigate emissions limited. In the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 'ensuring that food production is not threatened' is explicitly mentioned in the objective of the Convention. However, the focus of negotiations under the Convention has largely been on reducing GHG emissions from energy, and industrial activities and realizing the potential of forestry as a carbon sink. There has been little attention by the UNFCCC to address the challenges and opportunities for the agriculture sector. Since 2006, concerted efforts have been made to raise the prominence of agriculture within the negotiations. The most recent The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and 'The Emissions Gap Report' by the UNEP highlighted the significant mitigation potential of agriculture, which can help contribute towards keeping global temperature rises below the 2°C limit agreed in Cancun. Agriculture has to be a part of the solution to address climate change, but this will also require a focus on how agriculture systems can adapt to climate change in order to continue to increase food output. However, to effectively realize this potential, systematic and dedicated discussion and decisions within the UNFCCC are needed. UNFCCC discussions on a specific agriculture agenda item started in 2012, but are currently inconclusive. However, Parties are generally in agreement on the importance of agriculture in contributing to food security and employment as well as the need to improve understanding of agriculture and how it can contribute to

  16. The Impacts of Climate Change Negotiation on Domestic Industrial Structure and International Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The world community adopted the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 at the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC). The main achievement was agreement by developed(Annex I) countries to reduce or limit their greenhouse gas emissions. To assist parties in meeting their emission targets the Protocol sanctions the use of economic instruments such as the clean development mechanism(CDM), joint implementation(JI) and emissions trading(ET). However, there is still significant uncertainty surrounding the Kyoto Protocol for much of the details in the Protocol remains to be negotiated. The challenge now facing those negotiating the Kyoto Protocol is to remove the uncertainty and secure ratification of the Protocol. After the negotiation reaches an agreement in near future, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments. The analysis presented in this report is based on the application of a global computable general equilibrium(CGE) model - GTEM-KOR. According to the analysis, compliance with Kyoto Protocol commitments, regardless of the emissions trading, is projected to impose economic costs on Annex I regions in the aggregate. Despite having no emission abatement commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, non-Annex I economies would be affected by emission abatement in Annex I regions undertaken as a result of entry into force of the Protocol. These effects would arise through trade and investment linkages between economies. Although the net impact for non-Annex I regions in aggregate is projected to be positive, there is a range of effects and the net impact for any one non-Annex I country will depend on its particular production and trade structure. As industrialized countries reduce their fossil fuel consumption to meet their emission reduction targets, their demand for fossil fuel imports from non-Annex I countries will decline, leading to lower fossil

  17. Negotiating Language Contact and Identity Change in Developing Tibetan-English Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Seonaigh

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the identity struggles of a community of Tibetan refugee women in the Indian Himalayas whose educational program combines a traditional Buddhist philosophical curriculum in Tibetan alongside a modern, secular bilingual curriculum in English-Tibetan. Ethnographic and action research data illustrate how negotiations of meanings…

  18. Proposal for a Change of Contractor for Facilities Management and to Negotiate a Contract for Access Control Activities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the change of contractor for the facilities management and the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a contract for the security and access control activities at CERN. In March 2002, the Finance Committee agreed to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium M+W ZANDER (DE) - AVIREAL (CH) for the execution of facilities management (CERN/FC/4550). For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm INGEST FACILITY (IT), the second lowest bidder, for the execution of the contract for facilities management, not including the security and access control activities, for an initial period of three years and for an amount not exceeding 24 396 000 euros (35 772 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two further one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the follow...

  19. Climate negotiators' and scientists' assessments of the climate negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Astrid; Zitzelsberger, Sonja; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Climate negotiation outcomes are difficult to evaluate objectively because there are no clear reference scenarios. Subjective assessments from those directly involved in the negotiations are particularly important, as this may influence strategy and future negotiation participation. Here we analyse the perceived success of the climate negotiations in a sample of 656 experts involved in international climate policy. Respondents were pessimistic when asked for specific assessments of the current approach centred on voluntary pledges, but were more optimistic when asked for general assessments of the outcomes and usefulness of the climate negotiations. Individuals who were more involved in the negotiation process tended to be more optimistic, especially in terms of general assessments. Our results indicate that two reinforcing effects are at work: a high degree of involvement changes individuals' perceptions and more optimistic individuals are more inclined to remain involved in the negotiations.

  20. Racial Negotiations: Potentials and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, W. Ellison

    The research focused on two questions: (1) Can blacks use the negotiating process to overcome white resistance to institutional change? How much and what kinds of change can be achieved by their use of the negotiating process? In this approach, can they take advantage of pressures for change that exist either inside or outside the institution? (2)…

  1. Negotiating Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Muniche, Mahad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how negotiations between the constituencies affect the processes and outcomes of lean projects in Danish public sector organisations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with managers and employ......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how negotiations between the constituencies affect the processes and outcomes of lean projects in Danish public sector organisations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with managers...... and employees who have participated in lean projects in the Danish public sector. Negotiated order theory serves as the overarching theoretical framework for the analysis. Findings – The paper concludes that the processes and outcomes of lean depend not only on the technology itself, but also the negotiation...... by exploring how negotiative processes influence the planning, implementation, and maintenance/development of lean projects....

  2. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  3. Negotiating the Paris Agreement with the C-Learn Climate Simulator in an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    I teach an interdisciplinary course on modern climate change that attracts students from a variety of academic backgrounds. The class size is typically 20-25 students. The final exercise of the semester is an in-class simulation of the Paris Agreement negotiations, which integrates all of the topics the students have studied throughout the semester (science, politics, skeptic arguments, ethics, economics, etc.). For this exercise, we use the free online C-Learn climate simulator (https://www.climateinteractive.org/tools/c-learn/), but with several modifications from the suggested negotiation methodology. All but two students were assigned an individual country to represent within the larger groups "Developed," (e.g., US, EU, Australia), "Developing A" (e.g., China, India, Indonesia), and "Developing B" (e.g., Maldives, Haiti, Botswana). The remaining two students were assigned the roles of "Exxon Mobil" and "Greenpeace," to represent external lobbyists. Prior to the in-class negotiation, students completed an assignment on their individual role that required them to research their country's actual INDC and the projected impacts of a 2 degree C rise in average global temperature, as well as create "behavior rules" for their country to follow during the simulation. Lobbyists were given modified assignments. To make the simulation more complex and realistic, I assigned each actor an initial sum of money and created rules about the cost of emissions reductions. The goal of the simulation was to create an affordable timeline of emissions that kept the global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees C. Suggested emissions timelines were entered into the C-Learn online simulator during the activity to check progress toward the goal. Student feedback about the simulation was very positive. I had planned only one class period for the negotiations but students were so engaged that they asked for it to be extended into a second period. This exercise could easily be adapted to

  4. Negotiating Statehood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This article, which forms the introduction to a collection of studies, focuses on processes of state construction and deconstruction in contemporary Africa. Its objective is to better understand how local, national and transnational actors forge and remake the state through processes of negotiation...... of bureaucratic organizations in society, the symbolic and material dimensions of statehood and the importance of legitimacy. A heuristic framework entitled ‘negotiating statehood’ is proposed, referring to the dynamic and partly undetermined processes of state formation and failure by a multitude of social...... actors who compete over the institutionalization of power relations. The article then operationalizes this framework in three sections that partly conceptualize, partly illustrate who negotiates statehood in contemporary Africa (actors, resources and repertoires); where these negotiation processes occur...

  5. Negotiation strategies and skills in international business : a study of negotiators in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodi, Kosar

    2012-01-01

    The business world of today is changing constantly. The best way for people to deal with their differences is by negotiating. Negotiation is getting what you want from others. People negotiate with each other every day even when they do not realize it. They negotiate with family members, friends, salesmen, boss and businesses. Everybody is negotiator but for the purpose of getting better, one needs to practice and practice. Especially the cross-cultural communication difficulties make int...

  6. Negotiating the discursive intersection of the government of others and the government of self in the face of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    both a boundary and a constitutive moment of government, and, secondly, the realisation that governmentality is somehow intertwined with the continuous becoming of ethical subjects, or, in other words, with continuously negotiated practices of subjectivation. The paper pursues and enforces......-depth analysis of focus group data stemming from sessions in a small Danish village in which citizens accomplish the contested discursive intersection of, one the one hand, a municipal strategy aimed at ’greening’ the citizens’ transportation conduct and, on the other hand, the citizens attempt to conduct...... their own conduct. In this way unravelling the subjectivation that unfolds as the government of others and the government of the self intersect in discursive interaction in the face of climate change, the paper can be seen as contributing more specifically to the yet underdeveloped area of studies...

  7. Email Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    This paper investigates a set of email negotiations in order to explain a high number of deadlocks. The paper argues that one reason is the combination of cognitive effort characteristic of the e-mail genre, and the argumentative pattern found when two parties simultaneously try to persuade...... the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revisablity, the email format allows selective attention to the other party’s arguments, which can be shown...

  8. The Art of Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, George B.

    Successful negotiations are more likely to occur if a suitable climate exists. Five general elements influence this climate: (1) The history of working relationships among teachers, administrators, and board of education members, (2) the current status of these relationships, (3) the pressures from emerging teacher organizational changes, (4)…

  9. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  10. Negotiating skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G

    1996-01-01

    The Collins English Dictionary defines negotiation as "a discussion set up or intended to produce a "settlement or agreement." It is a skill everyone uses on a regular basis in daily life; often without realising. A plan to meet friends fo an evening meal for example involves agreeing a time and venue--this is negotiation. As it is the the process of coming to terms with the "other side" and trying to get the best deal possible it is necessary to accept the fact that a conflict of interest does exist. There is an atmosphere of uncertainty until the deal is completed and one side may gain and one may lose relative to their opening position. For this skill to be successfully applied when working with clinical management colleagues, a formal set of guidelines is necessary. In this article I highlight some of the problems which can arise and offer a systematic approach to this difficult but rewarding management activity. PMID:9091105

  11. Negotiating Curriculum Change in the French University: The Case of "Regionalising" Social Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the curricular change in French universities that has taken place over the last two decades and especially since the implementation of the "LMD Reform" in 2002. Curricula tend to become "regionalised-knowledge" courses, by regrouping disciplinary knowledge and looking forward to economic and social needs.…

  12. Climate Change and Everyday Life: Repertoires Children Use to Negotiate a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to…

  13. 40 CFR 35.938-5 - Negotiation of contract amendments (change orders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certify that proposed costs reflect complete, current, and accurate cost and pricing data applicable to... are complete, current, and accurate. EPA may, on a selected basis, perform a detailed cost analysis on... under cost reimbursement change orders, the contractor shall have an accounting system which...

  14. Life Sciences Teachers Negotiating Professional Development Agency in Changing Curriculum Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Samuel, Michael Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This article probes teacher responses to three curricular reform initiatives from a South African situated contextual perspective. It focuses on Life Sciences teachers who have initially reported feeling overwhelmed by this rapidly changing curriculum environment: adopting and re-adapting to the many expected shifts. The research question posed…

  15. Negotiating collaborative governance designs: a discursive approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mie Plotnikof

    2015-01-01

    .... This article contributes to theorizing discursive aspects of such processes by conceptualizing and exploring the meaning negotiations through which collaborative governance designs emerge and change...

  16. Gendered Negotiations: Engagements with 'Modernity' and Identity Change amongst Chiapeneco Youth in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie-Leigh Ruse

    2011-01-01

    "In this paper I wish to examine how changes have occurred in the processes of gendered identity construction amongst Mexican youths through examining local experiences of global, and specifically Mexican, modernities. Based on f eldwork carried out amongst youths in the city of San Cristobal de las Casas, in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas, my analysis addresses how youths plan for the future in the context of economic and political marginalisation, and how this affects the way in whic...

  17. Investigative negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepak; Bazerman, Max H

    2007-09-01

    Negotiators often fail to achieve results because they channel too much effort into selling their own position and too little into understanding the other party's perspective. To get the best deal -or, sometimes, any deal at al--egotiators need to think like detectives, digging for information about why the other side wants what it does. This investigative approach entails a mind-set and a methodology, say Harvard Business School professors Malhotra and Bazerman. Inaccurate assumptions about the other side's motivations can lead negotiators to propose solutions to the wrong problems, needlessly give away value, or derail deals altogether. Consider, for example, the pharmaceutical company that deadlocked with a supplier over the issue of exclusivity in an ingredient purchase. Believing it was a ploy to raise the price, the drugmaker upped its offer--unsuccessfully. In fact, the supplier was balking because a relative's company needed a small amount of the ingredient to make a local product. Once the real motivation surfaced, a compromise quickly followed. Understanding the other side's motives and goals is the first principle of investigative negotiation. The second is to figure out what constraints the other party faces. Often when your counterpart's behavior appears unreasonable, his hands are tied somehow, and you can reach agreement by helping overcome those limitations. The third is to view onerous demands as a window into what the other party prizes most--and use that information to create opportunities. The fourth is to look for common ground; even fierce competitors may have complementary interests that lead to creative agreements. Finally, if a deal appears lost, stay at the table and keep trying to learn more. Even if you don't win, you can gain insights into a customer's future needs, the interests of similar customers, or the strategies of competitors.

  18. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  19. Behind the veil of ignorance: Self-serving bias in climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Kriss

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowing climate change will almost certainly require a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but agreement on who should reduce emissions by how much is difficult, in part because of the self-serving bias---the tendency to believe that what is beneficial to oneself is also fair. Conducting surveys among college students in the United States and China, we show that each of these groups displays a nationalistic self-serving bias in judgments of a fair distribution of economic burdens resulting from mitigation. Yet, we also show, by disguising the problem and the identity of the parties, that it is possible to elicit perceptions of fairness that are not influenced by national interests. Our research reveals that the self-serving bias plays a major role in the difficulty of obtaining agreement on how to implement emissions reductions. That is, the disagreement over what constitutes fair climate policy does not appear to be due to cross-national differences in what constitutes a fair distribution of burdens. Interventions to mitigate the self-serving bias may facilitate agreement.

  20. Negotiating Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sniezek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from qualitative interviews with 40 engaged heterosexual couples, this paper examines how couples transform their relationship from “serious” to being “engaged to be married.” Social Scientists have developed relationship models designed to explain the transformation, but these models fail to adequately capture how couples transform their relationship and the context in which this behavior occurs. Using a constructionist framework, an alternative process model is offered. The five-process model captures the ongoing and fluid work couples perform to negotiate a redefinition of the relationship. Couples reflexively use a host of complex symbolic interaction including talk, rituals, relationships with others, testing, and use of time to construct their relationship in a new way. By examining the underlying reality construction process, rather than merely looking at the outcome, the social processes and human actions that shape relationships are revealed.

  1. NEGOTIATING IN A CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Medina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research on negotiation in the last 50 years has only considered that negotiation occurs in a stable economic environment. This paper analyses negotiation in changing contexts with a focus on two aspects: first, we examine the psychological processes affecting negotiation in a changing environment, whether one of prosperity or economic crisis; second, we study collective bargaining, focusing on the role of union representatives in a context of economic crisis. The first line of research is highly experimental; the second is applied and based on field studies using interviews and focus groups.

  2. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne Damkjær, Maja; Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  3. Negotiation for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Micah J; DeCherney, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    Physicians are involved in negotiations on a daily basis. Interactions with patients, support staff, nurses, fellow physicians, administrators, lawyers, and third parties all can occur within the context of negotiation. This article reviews the basic principles of negotiation and negotiation styles, models, and practical tools.

  4. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...

  5. Evaluation of the greenhouse effect. Climate changes: from models to negotiations; Le point sur l`effet de serre. Changement de climat: des modeles aux negociations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cointe, R. [Ministere de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Mission interministerielle de l`effet de serre

    1997-01-01

    This paper takes stock of scientific works and negotiations in progress about climatic changes linked with greenhouse effect. The scientists opinion about the noxiousness of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, tropospheric O{sub 3}, CFC and their substitutes) inducing climate warming (0,5 deg. C as an average during the 20. Century) is reported. The forecasting about the evolution and organisation of the international effort (United Nations Climate Convention, Berlin`s Commission), and the French contribution on this topic is analyzed. (N.K.).

  6. BUSINESS NEGOTIATION IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trajković

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Every day we are faced with some form of negotiation. Negotiation is a means of communication between two or more persons with the aim of achieving an adequate agreement that will be acceptable to both sides. Successful business negotiation in management is used in organizations of all types and sizes, at all organizational levels and in all sectors of business throughout the world. Management shall in all circumstances to plan, organize, lead and control in different ways according to their managerial position as well as the knowledge, abilities and skills that they possessed. Negotiation is an important part of communication which results should contribute to increasing the efficiency of business organizations. Any experienced negotiator in negotiation process has consciously and deliberately, and has a strategy of negotiation. The strategy represents a proactive approach to the negotiations, and the approach aims to influence the course of negotiations.

  7. International negotiations on climate change towards a new international deal?; Les negociations sur le changement climatique: vers une nouvelle donne internationale?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This document reports the work performed by the French 'Centre d'Analyse Strategique' until the first of November within the perspective of a new international agreement to struggle against climate change beyond 2012. The basic idea is that such an agreement will have a meaning only if it is signed and ratified by the both main greenhouse gas emitting countries, the United States and China. A first part of this report describes the context and the post-2012 negotiation perspectives, as well as the status of international cooperation in the field of climate change. The two following chapters present syntheses of the climate policies and negotiation postures of China and United States. Then, the authors give an overview of the strategic interests and postures of some other big countries like India, Brazil, Russia, Canada, OPEC countries, and so on. The last part deals with issues of rights of intellectual property applied to the elaboration of 'clean' technologies and to international technological transfers.

  8. Business Negotiation Strategies: the Concept, Definitions and Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Peleckis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The modern business is developing in the context of rapid social and political changes, which contributes to the changes in economic and cultural priorities as well as mindset and behaviour of people. This puts new requirements on development and implementation of business negotiation strategies, aiming to ensure that during bargaining, everything is done to understand the other party and related contexts, to achieve mutual understanding, to reach common agreement and eventually find the optimal negotiating decision. The author of this article researched and analysed negotiation process concepts in the global scientific literature and practice. The article examines negotiation and bargaining concepts. Also, the global analysis of the scientific literature revealed that there is no single negotiation planning concept. The author defines the basic conceptual negotiation planning concepts. The paper deals with negotiation strategy conceptions used by scientists around the world. Conclusions present the proposals for further business negotiation research.Article in Lithuanian

  9. International business: Raising cultural awareness in global negotiating

    OpenAIRE

    Jovana Gardašević; Jelena Vapa-Tankosić

    2015-01-01

    The global marketplace is a fast-growing and rapidly changing field. Global negotiation is a process where each party from two or more different countries involved in negotiating tries to gain an advantage for itself by the end of the process. The process of global negotiating differs from culture to culture in terms of language, different types of communication (verbal and nonverbal), negotiating style, approaches to problem – solving, etc. The aspects of culture that are of vital importance...

  10. Negotiation Skill Development Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Gregory E.; Chau, Ngan N.

    2017-01-01

    Conflict occurs naturally in all marketing related activities. When such conflict is handled well through proper negotiation, it helps solve problems and build stronger, deeper relationships between the negotiating parties. Nevertheless, many students feel uneasy about negotiating, yet they know it is a crucial skill that needs to be developed.…

  11. Negotiating Successfully in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benoliel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural negotiations are complex, challenging, and difficult to navigate because much of the Asian culture is unstated, implicit, and internalized in subtle behavioral patterns. It is like an iceberg; more is invisible and less is visible. To understand how the Asian negotiation values and practices are different from those in the West, I describe briefly the Asian cultural roots, highlight the major dimensions that differentiate cultures, explore the factors that influence the Asian negotiation processes and outcomes, and provide a list of practical suggestions for negotiating successful deals with Asian negotiators.

  12. The Antenarrative of Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Boje, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Within organizations, there are occasions where a contract negotiation is recognizable, e.g. a job offer. However, that situation is already embedded in other structures and negotiations. This article explores the nature of such embeddedness. We extend negotiation theory by adding an analysis...... of argumentation that underlie negotiation. We study a case of New Public Management in a university, as an organization with several layers of decision-makers and distributed responsibility for resource allocation. By examining the dynamic development of antenarrative, we contribute a theory of embeddedness...... that helps to develop strategic ‘bets on the future’ that practitioners can use as a preparation tool before negotiations....

  13. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  14. Helping UN negotiators protect the poorest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysinghe, Achala Chandani

    2011-07-15

    UN climate change negotiations are beehives of intense activity. Parallel negotiating sessions, contact groups, drafting sessions and side events all contribute to the complexity. During high-stake conferences like the one held in Copenhagen in 2009, negotiators labour through deadlocked all-night meetings. Adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer and finance are just a few of the controversial and technically challenging issues on the table. The UNFCCC process itself imposes an additional labyrinth that participants must learn. To meet these demands and participate in the negotiations effectively, countries need talented teams of negotiators and expert advisors. The most powerful countries send dozens of delegates: Japan's team has 114 members, and the United States has 155. But Gambia, which leads the 48 countries in the least developed countries (LDC) group, has only four. For the poorest countries, the UN provides funds to support just two delegates.

  15. Climate change negotiation simulations for students: responses across gender and age.A case study: San Francisco State University World Climate Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    For decades, role-play and simulation exercises have been utilized for learning and policy decision making. While the power of Model UN simulations in building first-person experience and understanding of complex international issues is well known, the effectiveness of simulations for inspiring citizen engagement in scientific public-policy issues is little studied. My work hypothesizes that climate-change negotiation simulations can enhance students' scientific literacy and policy advocacy. It aims to determine how age and gender influence the responsiveness of students to such simulations. During the 2015 fall semester, I am conducting World Climate exercises for fellow graduate and undergraduate students at San Francisco State University. At the end of the exercise, I will have collected the responses to an anonymous questionnaire in which the participants indicate age and gender. The questionnaire asks participants to describe their hopes and fears for the future and to propose public and personal actions for achieving a strong climate change agreement. I am tracking differences to determine whether participants' age and gender correlate with particular patterns of feeling and thinking. My future research will aim to determine whether and how strongly the World Climate Exercise has affected participants' actual policy engagement. This work will also reflect on my experiences as a World Climate facilitator. I will describe the facilitation process and then discuss some of my observations from the sessions. I will specify the challenges I have encountered and suggest strategies that can strengthen the learning process. World Climate is a computer-simulation-based climate change negotiations role-playing exercise developed by Climate Interactive in partnership with the System Dynamics Group at the MIT Sloan School of Management.

  16. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  17. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  18. Bargain strategies for agent automated negotiation in an e-business environment

    OpenAIRE

    Radu, Serban; Adina Magda FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    An automated negotiation environment, in which agents employ dierent bargaining strategies is described. During negotiation, as more information is exchanged in the negotiation rounds, the agents can change the preferences for certain attributes of the negotiation object. The multi-agent system is developed for a real estate agency business model and several use cases scenarios, using intelligent software agents, are implemented.

  19. Patterns of Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Suresh; Pattinson, Hugh

    Traditionally, face-to-face negotiations in the real world have not been looked at as a complex systems interaction of actors resulting in a dynamic and potentially emergent system. If indeed negotiations are an outcome of a dynamic interaction of simpler behavior just as with a complex system, we should be able to see the patterns contributing to the complexities of a negotiation under study. This paper and the supporting research sets out to show B2B (business-to-business) negotiations as complex systems of interacting actors exhibiting dynamic and emergent behavior. This paper discusses the exploratory research based on negotiation simulations in which a large number of business students participate as buyers and sellers. The student interactions are captured on video and a purpose built research method attempts to look for patterns of interactions between actors using visualization techniques traditionally reserved to observe the algorithmic complexity of complex systems. Students are videoed negotiating with partners. Each video is tagged according to a recognized classification and coding scheme for negotiations. The classification relates to the phases through which any particular negotiation might pass, such as laughter, aggression, compromise, and so forth — through some 30 possible categories. Were negotiations more or less successful if they progressed through the categories in different ways? Furthermore, does the data depict emergent pathway segments considered to be more or less successful? This focus on emergence within the data provides further strong support for face-to-face (F2F) negotiations to be construed as complex systems.

  20. International business: Raising cultural awareness in global negotiating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Gardašević

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The global marketplace is a fast-growing and rapidly changing field. Global negotiation is a process where each party from two or more different countries involved in negotiating tries to gain an advantage for itself by the end of the process. The process of global negotiating differs from culture to culture in terms of language, different types of communication (verbal and nonverbal, negotiating style, approaches to problem – solving, etc. The aspects of culture that are of vital importance for global negotiating are attitudes and beliefs, religion, material culture, and language. This paper should encourage better understanding of the process of negotiation: it defines the negotiation process, identifies the issues that are subject to negotiation and mentions the stages of negotiation. It discusses the importance of developing cultural awareness prior to negotiating internationally through descriptive overview of all aspects of culture. It gives examples of differences in global negotiating and doing business worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to show theoretically the connection between these terms and provide information that will prevent business people from making mistakes and pitfalls in international negotiation process.

  1. STRATEGIES FOR SMALL ENTERPRISES NEGOTIATING WITH LARGE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Anca Stan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All around the world business is changing. All traditional business practices have been called into question as markets, customers competitors, problems and solutions have changed. As a result, business practices we once took for granted, like traditional negotiating approaches are falling by the wayside in favor of more collaborative, equally beneficial, win-win strategies. A new negotiation paradigm away from negotiating a deal and toward negotiating a relationship is needed for the twenty first century. Business can no longer stay on top by negotiating short term victories. The key to winning unbeatable, long term results is to negotiate solid, long term relationship. Smart business owners are trying to find ways to leverage their assets, and one important way is to negotiate for long - term relationships. Traditional knowledge and skills remain important. Yet global managers can better respond to global demands by learning continuously managing diversity, and developing a global mindset.

  2. BUSINESS NEGOTIATION IN MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Trajković; Milos Nikolić

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are faced with some form of negotiation. Negotiation is a means of communication between two or more persons with the aim of achieving an adequate agreement that will be acceptable to both sides. Successful business negotiation in management is used in organizations of all types and sizes, at all organizational levels and in all sectors of business throughout the world. Management shall in all circumstances to plan, organize, lead and control in differe...

  3. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  4. 重庆谈判期间中共对绥远地区的策略变化%The CCP’s Strategic Changes of Fighting for Suiyuan Region in Chongqing Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泰

    2014-01-01

    抗战胜利后,全国和平呼声高涨。国共双方出于各种因素都需要和谈,从8月下旬开始到10月结束,重庆和谈的举行可以说是全国瞩目。随着和谈开始,中共在绥远地区的策略也不断变化,无论是和平争取还是冲突争夺都在绥远地区有所体现。而谈判走向与每一个策略变化是密切相关的,绥远地区的局势也因此不断改变。%After the success of Anti-Japanese war, more and more people wanted the internal peace. Because of many various reasons, both the CCP and KMT needed to negotiate. From the late August to October, Chongqing Negotiation attracted remarkable attention in China. With the negotiation, CCP also changed the strategies in Suiyuan. While the orientation of the negotiation had close relation with the changes of strategies, the situation of Suiyuan also changed by the orientation.

  5. Negotiating power: agenda ordering and the willingness to negotiate in asymmetric intergroup conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Saguy, Tamar; Sidanius, James; Taylor, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    In this research, we investigated how group power influences the way members of groups in asymmetrical conflict approach intergroup negotiations. Drawing on theories of negotiations and of intergroup power, we predicted that group power would interact with features of the proposed negotiating agenda to influence willingness to come to the table. Based on the negotiation literature, we focused on 2 types of sequential negotiation agendas: 1 beginning with the discussion of consequential issues before less consequential issues (consequential first) and 1 leaving the discussion of consequential issues until after less consequential issues are discussed (consequential later). Because they are motivated to advance changes to their disadvantaged status quo, we expected low-power group members to favor consequential first over consequential later invitations to negotiate. High-power group members, motivated to protect their advantage, were expected to show the reverse preference. Converging evidence from 5 experiments involving real-world and experimental groups supported these predictions. Across studies, participants received an invitation to negotiate from the other group involving either a consequential first or consequential later agenda. Low-power group members preferred consequential first invitations because these implied less stalling of change to the status quo, and high-power group members preferred consequential later invitations because these invitations seemed to pose less threat to their position. Theoretical and practical implications for negotiations research and conflict resolution are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Conversational implicature in business negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀云

    2008-01-01

    Conversational implicature is a feature of language in use. This paper is trying to explore the conversational implicature phenomenonin business negotiation. From pragmatics view, it analyses the potential meaning of break off the Negotiation and carry on the negotiation in business negotiation. Through carefully selected examples, it manages to show how to behave politely in business negotiation. It's hoped that this paper can help those who are in such field to achieve successful negotiation.

  7. How employees negotiate : job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy related to integrative negotiation and negotiation results in employment relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether satisfaction with psychological contract breach does more depend on good negotiation skills or on a well-designed job, we first investigated the effect of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation with survey data from employees of a telecom company. We developed a measuring instrument for negotiation self-efficacy. Subsequently, we examined the relationship between integrative negotiation with psychological contract breach. Employees negotiate m...

  8. Integrating Interaction Framework for Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正光; 王振杰; 徐良贤

    2003-01-01

    Agent negotiation has become increasingly important since the advent of electronic commerce.There are two kinds of interactions in the process of agent negotiation.One is the interaction between different agents,and the other is the interaction between the agent and the human user.In this paper,firstly,we introduce Q language,a scenario description language for designing interactions between agents and human users.Then we propose an integrating interaction framework for agent negotiation,in which both kinds of interactions are described by Q scenario.Our framework can make the interaction process open and easy to be understood by the users.Users can understand how the negotiation process goes and what is happening in the system including some erroneous or inappropriate actions caused by the negotiation agent.This gives the users a chance to terminate or change the behavior of negotiation agent in time to avoid unfavorable negotiation outcome.In addition,users can customize the agent's behaviors through visible interactions with it.

  9. Countries in transition and the developing countries in the negotiation on the climatic change. Stakes of the Kyoto conference; Les pays en transition et les pays en developpement dans la negociation sur le changement climatique. Les enjeux de la conference de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.; Cavard, D.; Faudry, D.; Girod, J.; Menanteau, P.; Viguier, L

    1997-10-01

    This document presents the positions of the countries in transition and the developing countries in the phase of the negotiations on the climatic change between 1994 and 1997, then takes stock on the pilot phase of the actions of the associated implementation. The negotiations stakes and the frame of the discussions are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  10. Negotiation Games: Acquiring Skills by Playing

    OpenAIRE

    Pacios Alvarez, Antonia; Cobo Benita, José Ramón; Ortiz Marcos, Isabel; Vargas Funes, Jose María

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the research done at the School of Industrial Engineers (ETSII) of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in two consecutive academic courses. In this negotiation game each team is formed by three students playing different roles, with a different degree of complexity. The game is played three different times changing the conditions and doing the Zones of Possible Agreement (ZOPA) smaller so the negotiation is going “harder” and it was more difficult for the team to achiev...

  11. Plans of Global Climate Change Negotiations%全球气候变化谈判变局之谋——坎昆会议后的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳丽; 昂丽; 杨富强

    2011-01-01

    The article set forth the result of Cancun climate change negotiation conference.It analyses new trends of main countries and political union on climate change problem.It looks into South Africa Durban climate change negotiation convention.The article suggests that the climate change negotiation is faced by how to make alliance.It points out the second battle lines addressing climate changes should be opened up.And it should encourage non-governmental organization and non-governmental organization (NGO) to play their positive role.%文章阐述了坎昆气候变化谈判会议的结果,分析了主要国家和政治联盟在气候变化问题上的新动态,展望了南非德班气候变化谈判会议,提出气候变化谈判的合纵连横,指出要开辟应对气候变化的第二条战线,积极发挥非政府组织和民间团体的作用.

  12. Silence in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娅琼; 杨敭

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ、Introduction Silence is the relative or total lack of audible sound.In our daily life, it is an indispensable part of communication, in reference to non verbal communication. When used in business negotiation, silence is the rhetorical practice of saying nothing when an opponent expects something to be said.Poorly executed, it can be very offensive, which would even bring a negotiation into a deadlock.However, well-timed silence can completely throw an opponent and give the negotiator the upper hand.

  13. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  14. Conflicts and Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Israel adopts a two-pronged strategy to dominate the Middle East situation Recently, Israel has had several conflicts with its Middle East neighbors. At the same time, however, it has prepared to begin direct negotiations with the Palestinians.

  15. Negotiating for Critical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartunek, Frank P.

    1994-01-01

    School districts dependent on outside resources must develop skills for securing educational resources, including competencies in collaborative, creative, and principled resource management. Constructive negotiations between local and provincial levels of government can improve relationships and support the development of collaborative…

  16. EGOTIATION IS THE NEW NEGOTIATION: THE CONCEPT OF NEGOTIATION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jagodzinska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition of negotiation has already been broadly examined in literature and varies from one author to another. However, there does not exist a complete conceptualization, which would grasp all the essential constituents of negotiation. This article aims to fill this niche by revisiting the concept of negotiation and broadening it by the elusive element that, if not properly addressed, too often causes negotiations to fail: the ego factor.Consequently, this paper introduces the novel concept of egotiation. The new conceptual framework provides a straightforward and user-friendly reference that can be used when preparing for a negotiation or at any time during a negotiation to help better understand all the dynamics behind the negotiation process.Furthermore, this article unravels what negotiation really is based on the responses collected from a multicultural audience, and shows how these results align with the novel concept of negotiation.

  17. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk.

  18. After Kyoto: equity stakes and efficiency in the negotiation on the climatic change; Au-dela de Kyoto: enjeux d'equite et d'efficacite dans la negociation sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie - IEPE-CNRS/ Universite Pierre Mendes-France, 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommetter, M. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2000-07-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper aims to show that facing the different interests of each countries, a single rule of differentiation is not possible. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part proposes the quantification of a scenario of the emission licenses attribution for 2030 for all the world countries. (A.L.B.)

  19. Negotiating Islamisation and resistance : a study of religions, politics and social change in West Java from the early 20th Century to the present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamualim, Chaider S.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how Islamisation took place and how it was contested and negotiated in West Java. It focuses on three important religious variants: Islam, Aliran Kebatinan and Christianity and covers the early twentieth century to the present, with the emphasis on the period after 1965. Conflicts

  20. Negotiating Islamisation and resistance : a study of religions, politics and social change in West Java from the early 20th Century to the present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamualim, Chaider S.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how Islamisation took place and how it was contested and negotiated in West Java. It focuses on three important religious variants: Islam, Aliran Kebatinan and Christianity and covers the early twentieth century to the present, with the emphasis on the period after 1965. Conflicts b

  1. Discourses on Inclusion, Citizenship and Categorizations of "Special" in Education Policy: The Case of Negotiating Change in the Governing of Vocational Special Needs Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Katariina

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the negotiation process deciding the institutional organization of vocational special needs education and training in Finland. Traditionally, the state has been a strong actor in organizing vocational special needs education in Finland. At the beginning of 2009, however, all five state-maintained vocational special schools…

  2. EGOTIATION IS THE NEW NEGOTIATION: THE CONCEPT OF NEGOTIATION REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Jagodzinska

    2016-01-01

    The definition of negotiation has already been broadly examined in literature and varies from one author to another. However, there does not exist a complete conceptualization, which would grasp all the essential constituents of negotiation. This article aims to fill this niche by revisiting the concept of negotiation and broadening it by the elusive element that, if not properly addressed, too often causes negotiations to fail: the ego factor.Consequently, this paper introduces the novel ...

  3. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law. An opportu......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... should consider tendering out PPP projects in the spirit of joint utility because joint utility can increase the concept of more value for money; the cornerstone of the PPP concept. This paper discusses the positive gains from negotiation and compares it with the upcoming possibilities in the EU public...

  4. Negotiating Life Chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    becoming. Aspirations prevail over political interests: young people navigate and negotiate their engagement in party and community politics by making calculations concerning their own mobility, life strategies and obligations to kin. In this way, young men engage in, but also balance and shift...... to and negotiate both educational and labour mobility - both of which are associated with the chance of a better life. This thesis is about young people (aged 16-31): How they negotiate their life chances and how they contribute to transformations of the socio-political space of their communities in two villages...... and their staying. Even though working abroad in particular has become an important way of rationalizing a respectable social status for young men, many have deliberately positioned themselves as stayers and returnees, rationalizing this choice through the need to develop their own community and Nepal itself. Women...

  5. Interaction as Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in interaction design principles for ubiquitous computing environments, specifically implications related to situated and mobile aspects of work. We present 'Interaction through Negotiation' as a general Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) paradigm, aimed...... at ubiquitous/pervasive technology and environments, with focus on facilitating negotiation in and between webs of different artifacts, humans and places. This approach is concerned with the way technology presents itself to us, both as physical entities and as conceptual entities, as well as the relations...... on several extensive empirical case studies, as well as co-operative design-sessions, we present a reflective analysis providing insights into results of the "Interaction through Negotiation" design approach in action. A very promising area of application is exception handling in pervasive computing...

  6. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions for nego......The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...

  7. A policy-based automated negotiation for privileges in grid environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To maintain the global consistency of the authorizing is a challenge when the system authorization is changed in grid environments. This paper proposes a policy-based automatically negotiating method to deal with this issue. An effective system framework, which includes the certificate management, the access policy repertory, the negotiator and the automatically negotiating mechanism, is designed and implemented. The experimental results show that automated negotiation can quickly regain the global authoriz...

  8. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  9. Negotiation for Strategic Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Afiouni, Einar Nour; Ovrelid, Leif Julian

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.

  10. Acceptance conditions in automated negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties has to accept an offer to avoid a break off. A break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, therefore it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept. Whe

  11. How employees negotiate : job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy related to integrative negotiation and negotiation results in employment relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether satisfaction with psychological contract breach does more depend on good negotiation skills or on a well-designed job, we first investigated the effect of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation with survey data from employees of a telecom company. We

  12. How employees negotiate : job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy related to integrative negotiation and negotiation results in employment relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether satisfaction with psychological contract breach does more depend on good negotiation skills or on a well-designed job, we first investigated the effect of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation with survey data from employees of a telecom company. We

  13. Teaching Negotiation in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Brian Ibbotson

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his experiences and the lessons he learned from a 2-week stint teaching negotiation in Lithuania. He learned that for anyone older than about 25, and that constituted most of the class, being part of the Soviet Union for more than half a century seems to have left deep wounds that have not yet healed.…

  14. Negotiating the morass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2014-01-01

    This contribution examines the co-ordination mechanisms which central governments have established to develop positions and cast votes in negotiations in the European Union (EU). Conceptually, the contribution discusses how different traits of EU co-ordination mechanisms can be defined and measured...

  15. Moments of Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,

  16. Moments of Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement, wh

  17. Licensing and negotiating: exploring unfamiliar ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, N.; Stone, G.; Anderson, R.; Feinstein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade the scene in which librarians have had to operate has completely changed. Librarians have migrated from book-buyers to licence-negotiators, from circulation experts to providers of digital services. This chapter tries to map some of the fields that they have entered and to ident

  18. Issues Primer. EEE708 Negotiated Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Leonie

    This issues primer is structured around a series of 20 contemporary concerns in the changing world of work and training in Australia in the early 1990s. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Negotiated Study Program, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). Information on each issue is…

  19. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs: A Discursive Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2015-01-01

    the meaning negotiations of local designs, discursive tensions and resistance generate changes in the organizing. The article shows that a discursive approach offers concepts valuable for refining the understanding of the emergence of collaborative governance in practice, and proposes approaching this process...

  20. Getting past yes: negotiating as if implementation mattered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Danny

    2004-11-01

    Many deals that look good on paper never materialize into value-creating endeavors. Often, the problem begins at the negotiating table. In fact, the very person everyone thinks is pivotal to a deal's success--the negotiator--is often the one who undermines it. That's because most negotiators have a deal maker mind-set: They see the signed contract as the final destination rather than the start of a cooperative venture. What's worse, most companies reward negotiators on the basis of the number and size of the deals they're signing, giving them no incentive to change. The author asserts that organizations and negotiators must transition from a deal maker mentality--which involves squeezing your counterpart for everything you can get--to an implementation mind-set--which sets the stage for a healthy working relationship long after the ink has dried. Achieving an implementation mind-set demands five new approaches. First, start with the end in mind: Negotiation teams should carry out a "benefit of hindsight" exercise to imagine what sorts of problems they'll have encountered 12 months down the road. Second, help your counterpart prepare. Surprise confers advantage only because the other side has no time to think through all the implications of a proposal. If they agree to something they can't deliver, it will affect you both. Third, treat alignment as a shared responsibility. After all, if the other side's interests aren't aligned, it's your problem, too. Fourth, send one unified message. Negotiators should brief implementation teams on both sides together so everyone has the same information. And fifth, manage the negotiation like a business exercise: Combine disciplined negotiation preparation with post-negotiation reviews. Above all, companies must remember that the best deals don't end at the negotiating table--they begin there.

  1. Tracing society in climate change: Societal negotiations and physical dynamics of water under climate change conditions in the Cordillera Blanca region, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuburger, Martina; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Maussion, Fabien; Singer, Katrin; Kaser, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Natural scientists observe and project changes in precipitation and temperature at different spatio-temporal scales and investigate impacts on glaciers and hydrological regimes. Simultaneously, social groups experience ecological phenomena as linked to climate change and integrate them into their understanding of nature and their logics of action, while political actors refer to scientific results as legitimization to focus on adaptation and mitigation strategies on global, national and regional/local level. However, natural and socio-political changes on various scales (regarding time and space) are not directly interlinked, but are communicated by energy and material flows, by discourses, power relations and institutional regulations. In this context, it remains still unclear how natural dynamics are (dis)entangled with societal processes in their historical dimensions and in their interrelations from global via national to regional and local scales. Considering the Cordillera Blanca region in Peru as an example, we analyze the intertwining of scales (global, national, regional, local) and spheres (natural, political, societal) to detect entanglements and disconnections of observed processes. Using the methodology of a time line, we present precipitation variability and glacier recession at different scales, estimate qualitative water availability and investigate the links to the implementation of international and national political programs on climate change adaptation in the Cordillera Blanca region focusing on water and agrarian programs. Finally, we include supposedly contradictory reports of rural population on climate change and related impacts on water availability and agricultural production to analyze the (dis)entanglement due to changing power relations and dominant discourses.

  2. A technique for lowering risks during contract negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    In this day and age of sophisticated weapon and space system procurements, negotiations of the statement of work, technical requirements, and schedule may be as protracted as the negotiation of costs and profit. A major problem facing the program manager during contract negotiations is what affect changes in schedule, technical requirements, and contract terms have on the price. In many instances, after the statement of work has been redrafted, the contractor will be obliged to reprice the work, either on the spot or after a short recess in the negotiations. In this paper, a method for organizing the negotiation process is presented to reduce the risks incurred by the seller. The method is built upon regression analysis and two illustrative examples of its use are provided.

  3. Negotiating work identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsen Saayman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study explored the dynamics of work identity negotiation and construction.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate identity tensions and demands that mobilise identity work in the work environment.Motivation for the study: The study hoped to improve the understanding of the dynamics of identity construction and negotiation.Research design, approach and method: Using grounded theory methodology in the context of qualitative field research, the researchers conducted two unstructured interviews with 28 employees of a South African manufacturing company.Main findings: The five primary dimensions the data yielded were personal identity, individual agency, social identity, social practice and job.Practical/managerial implications: This study has implications for organisations that want to improve productivity through understanding work identity.Contribution/value-add: The article presents a conceptual model of the demands and tensions that influence work identity.

  4. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity......The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...

  5. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  6. Negotiating Life Chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    Young people in rural eastern Nepal have experienced a recent civil war (1996-2006) and are still living in a situation of continuous political instability, regional ethnic activism, slow development and remoteness. Nevertheless, they are also the first generation for whom the majority can aspire...... to and negotiate both educational and labour mobility - both of which are associated with the chance of a better life. This thesis is about young people (aged 16-31): How they negotiate their life chances and how they contribute to transformations of the socio-political space of their communities in two villages...... of Nepal's Panchthar District. The research sheds light on rural and non-activist young men and women, in contrast to prevailing studies of the urban young, or the young as either revolutionary or as combatants. The findings show that mobility has come to be seen as a way of reaching an appropriate social...

  7. Suffering Beyond Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that design in therapeutic domains (in a broad sense) depends on an understanding of the background for the engagement of the various users involved. It is specifically argued that an understanding of the life transforming process, or trajectory as opposed to design process...... center stage that is not based in the negotiation between rationalities. The paper draws examples from design based research projects over the last 5 years....

  8. 76 FR 66880 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Negotiator Nominations and Schedule of Committee Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... CFR Chapter VI Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Negotiator Nominations and Schedule of Committee... set a schedule for committee meetings. DATES: We must receive your nominations for negotiators to...: Notice of establishment of negotiated rulemaking committee. SUMMARY: We announce our intention...

  9. A policy-based automated negotiation for privileges in grid environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-lian Zhang; Xiao-nian Wu; Xiao-she Dong

    2009-01-01

    To maintain the global consistency of the authorizing is a challenge when the system authorization is changed in grid environments. This paper proposes a policy-based automatically negotiating method to deal with this issue. An effective system framework, which includes the certificate management, the access policy repertory, the negotiator and the automatically negotiating mechanism, is designed and implemented. The experimental results show that automated negotiation can quickly regain the global authorization consistency and only cause a little system overhead increasing. Compared with the manual authorization maintaining, the presented method can reduce the negotiating time significantly, and reduce the meaningless grid jobs because the inconsistent privileges are controlled timely.

  10. [Negotiating safer sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G; Charnock, D

    1991-01-01

    Women have generally assumed responsibility for contraception since the appearance of oral contraceptives and IUDs. But AIDS prevention programs are now asking women to assume responsibility for safer sex through use of condoms, a male method. Women are being asked to carry condoms, to negotiate their use each time they have sex, and to insist if the partner resists. The problem with this strategy is that frequently it is the male partner who makes sexual decisions, and women have less negotiating power. Women are considered feminine if they assume a passive role in sexual activity. This work suggests strategies to improve the negotiating power of women. Options and problems of speaking about safer sex vary in accordance with the nature of the relationship. A woman with a new partner can try to ascertain his sexual history, but may gain no information on his probable health even if he tells her the truth. It may be easier to convince him to use a condom at least in the beginning of the romance. Women working in the sex industry often have greater trouble convincing their friends and lovers to use a condom than their clients. Some family planning workers have begun to speak of safer sex with all their clients. Role playing and workshops or discussions with small groups of women having similar problems may help women overcome their reticence about discussing sexual topics. Some general suggestions to help women negotiate safer sex include choosing an opportune moment and planning in advance what to say; daring to speak directly without beating around the bush (the partner may also be gathering courage to speak); practicing placing condoms on objects and if necessary placing one on the partner without speaking; being honest with the partner about sex, love, and fidelity; and remembering that protection from condoms is mutual given that it is not possible to know who is infected. Until now, programs to help women practice safer sex have concentrated on sex industry

  11. How to negotiate with your hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziran, Bruce H; Bray, Timothy J

    2012-09-01

    The orthopaedic trauma market place and career track have changed considerably over the last 10 years. There is an increasing demand from community hospitals for orthopaedic trauma. Understanding how to assess the practice opportunity and engage prospective employers is key to developing a successful and sustainable program and career. The article reviews the market place changes and how to approach negotiations. Lessons from other aspects of life and business are highlighted.

  12. Cultural Factors in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to the intercultural business negotiation,a correct understanding of the cultural differences between the east and the west and the appropriate approach to the cultural conflicts are the preconditions for the success.This paper aims at putting forward effective strategies to tackle cross-cultural obstacles in the business negotiation through the comparative study of cultural factors in business negotiations.

  13. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by th...... transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment....

  14. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority...

  15. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority...

  16. New Mechanism for Multiagent Extensible Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Aknine, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Multiagent negotiation mechanisms advise original solutions to several problems for which usual problem solving methods are inappropriate. Mainly negotiation models are based on agents' interactions through messages. Agents interact in order to reach an agreement for solving a specific problem. In this work, we study a new variant of negotiations, which has not yet been addressed in existing works. This negotiation form is denoted extensible negotiation. In contrast with current negotiation m...

  17. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired...... by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural...... learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal...

  18. AN EDUCATIONAL GAME IN CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT NEGOTIATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ren-Jye Dzeng; Pei-Ru Wang

    2013-01-01

    .... This study addressed that shortcoming by developing a portfolio negotiation game in which students play different roles and actively make decisions while proceeding through a simulated negotiation...

  19. History-based trust negotiation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-zhu; ZHAO Yan-hua; LU Hong-wei

    2009-01-01

    Trust negotiation (TN) is an approach to establish trust between strangers through iterative disclosure of digital credentials. Speeding up subsequent negotiations between the same negotiators is a problem worth of research. This paper introduces the concept of visiting card, and presents a history-based trust negotiation (HBTN) model. HBTN creates an account for a counterpart at the first negotiation and records valid credentials that the counterpart disclosed during each trust negotiation in his historical information base (HIB). For the following negotiation, no more credentials need to be disclosed for both parties. HBTN speeds up subsequent negotiations between the entities that interact with each other frequently without impairing the privacy preservation.

  20. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  1. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  2. The Application of Classroom Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongQingwen

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the necessity and feasibility of classroom negotiation between the teacher and students with regard to teaching plan design and classroom activities in English class of China's universities. The necessity of negotiation is inquired into from two perspectives: a most widely accepted principle of syllabus design and the present

  3. On Cultural Differences in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴丽静

    2011-01-01

    International business negotiation is playing a more and more important role in modem society.We can see clearly that there are great differences in international business negotiation.Specially,culture can influence negotiating styles in different ways,because negotiators from another nation are different in language,beliefs,behaviors manners,and way of thinking,value and attitudes and so on.Different cultures express different ways of doing business.Even though negotiators are well prepared,it is not so easy to reach a satisfactory agreement between negotiators across cultures.Negotiations can be easily broken down due to a lack of mutual understanding of the cultures.Culture affects negotiation even before negotiators meet face to face.Therefore,learning the opponent’s culture and having a good understanding of how cultural differences affect negotiation will be critically important if one wants to succeed in cross-cultural negotiations.

  4. Negotiation mastery tools for the 21st century negotiator

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Evil dolphins, the discovery of Viagra, the negotiating tactics of Genghis Khan, words of wisdom from Val Doonican''s mum, how to set up your own cult and a love affair with a crocodile - just some of the stories used to illustrate the principles involved in becoming a negotiation master. Most inexperienced negotiators and many experienced ones believe that, whilst in theory win-win is the best approach, in practice it can be too soft and leaves you open for the other side to take advantage. ...

  5. Negotiated interactive observation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the possibilities and limitations of the ethnographer participating in the different on-going activities and events in highly specialised healthcare systems. The concept of participant observation is based on a number of assumptions, particularly that the ethnographer...... will become one of ‘them’ to be able to follow the steps belonging to the accepted ethnographic research practice of doing fieldwork. The character of fieldwork in highly specialised healthcare systems does not fit well with this assumption. I suggest that we need to rethink the concept of participant...... observation and I propose negotiated interactive observation as a more appropriate way to describe ethnographic fieldwork in a setting such as the hospital or the clinic....

  6. Negotiation in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    related to interaction, mobility, and transit that focus on notions of the “mobile with,” “negotiation in motion,” “mobile sense making,” and “temporary congregations.” The theoretical approach aims at seeing public transit spaces as sites where cars, pedestrians, mopeds, and bikes on a regular basis...... “negotiate” not only routes in and across the space but also express dynamic flows of interaction in motion. The claim is that what seems like ordinary urban movement patterns are more than this. By moving in the city among buildings, objects, and people, one interacts with the “environment,” making sense...

  7. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap `Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study—which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey—examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  8. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap 'Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study-which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey--examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  9. 7 CFR 1726.203 - Multiparty negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiparty negotiation. 1726.203 Section 1726.203... negotiation. Multiparty negotiation may only be used where permitted under subpart F of this part or where... negotiation: (a) Selection of qualified bidders. The borrower (acting through its engineer, if...

  10. 48 CFR 1615.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 1615.070 Section 1615.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... NEGOTIATION 1615.070 Negotiation authority. The authority to negotiate FEHB contracts is conferred by 5...

  11. 48 CFR 2115.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 2115.070 Section 2115.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 2115.070 Negotiation authority. The authority to negotiate FEGLI Program...

  12. Designing Generic and Efficient Negotiation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhonov, D.

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is the design of generic and efficient automated strategies for two-party negotiations in which negotiating parties do not reveal their preferences explicitly. A strategy for negotiation is the decision mechanism for determining the actions of a negotiator. Generic ref

  13. The Chinese Approach to International Business Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates what Chinese negotiators are trained to do in the global marketplace by examining China's international business negotiation textbooks used in their training programs. Indicates that Chinese negotiators are taught a large variety of communication techniques for negotiation arrayed along a continuum from the relationship-based win-win…

  14. Multilateral Mediated Negotiation Protocols with Feedback (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydogan, R.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to bilateral negotiation in which the dispute is between only two parties. However, automated multilateral negotiation in which more than two negotiating parties need to reach a joint agreement, has received relatively less attention, even though such negotiations are

  15. Negotiation Techniques (That Really Work!)

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffman, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Sales is all about negotiation. Price. Delivery. Terms. And every day, salespeople leave money on the table. They just don't have the skills to get what they want. Now Stephan Schiffman, drawing on years of experience, shows you how to nail the sale, hit quotas, and boost the bottom line. Schiffman-style negotiation is all about getting the best deal. And he outlines specific techniques to get there. Things can be tough out there. But with Schiffman's negotiation skills in your pocket, you can do battle and win.

  16. Application of Negotiation Theories in Negotiating Across Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Tian

    2014-01-01

    This easy has investigated six main issues of a negotiation practice by reviewing the literatures of research on these aspects. It highlighted the importance of utilizing strategy and acquiring information from opponent side in distributive negotiating process. In addition, the essay has found out that, throughout the distributive bargaining, weak planning about financial issue was a disadvantage. Strategies such as higher aspiration level and contribution in group dynamics have been recommended.

  17. Response Generation in Collaborative Negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chu-Carroll, J; Chu-Carroll, Jennifer; Carberry, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    In collaborative planning activities, since the agents are autonomous and heterogeneous, it is inevitable that conflicts arise in their beliefs during the planning process. In cases where such conflicts are relevant to the task at hand, the agents should engage in collaborative negotiation as an attempt to square away the discrepancies in their beliefs. This paper presents a computational strategy for detecting conflicts regarding proposed beliefs and for engaging in collaborative negotiation to resolve the conflicts that warrant resolution. Our model is capable of selecting the most effective aspect to address in its pursuit of conflict resolution in cases where multiple conflicts arise, and of selecting appropriate evidence to justify the need for such modification. Furthermore, by capturing the negotiation process in a recursive Propose-Evaluate-Modify cycle of actions, our model can successfully handle embedded negotiation subdialogues.

  18. A belief revision approach for argumentation-based negotiation agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilotti Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is an interaction that happens in multi-agent systems when agents have conflicting objectives and must look for an acceptable agreement. A typical negotiating situation involves two agents that cannot reach their goals by themselves because they do not have some resources they need or they do not know how to use them to reach their goals. Therefore, they must start a negotiation dialogue, taking also into account that they might have incomplete or wrong beliefs about the other agent’s goals and resources. This article presents a negotiating agent model based on argumentation, which is used by the agents to reason on how to exchange resources and knowledge in order to achieve their goals. Agents that negotiate have incomplete beliefs about the others, so that the exchange of arguments gives them information that makes it possible to update their beliefs. In order to formalize their proposals in a negotiation setting, the agents must be able to generate, select and evaluate arguments associated with such offers, updating their mental state accordingly. In our approach, we will focus on an argumentation-based negotiation model between two cooperative agents. The arguments generation and interpretation process is based on belief change operations (expansions, contractions and revisions, and the selection process is a based on a strategy. This approach is presented through a high-level algorithm implemented in logic programming. We show various theoretical properties associated with this approach, which have been formalized and proved using Coq, a formal proof management system. We also illustrate, through a case study, the applicability of our approach in order to solve a slightly modified version of the well-known home improvement agents problem. Moreover, we present various simulations that allow assessing the impact of belief revision on the negotiation process.

  19. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar Rajavel; Mala Thangarathinam

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, co...

  20. Personality Determinants of Manipulative Behavior in the Negotiation Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monich Maria S; Matveeva Lidiya V

    2012-01-01

      Negotiations are an inalienable component of human society in the modern world, so studying those personal characteristics of negotiators that influence their choice of negotiating strategy, tactics...

  1. Negotiation without Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El artículo propone una reflexión filosófica inspirada en la actual situación de fragilidad institucional colombiana. Se arguye en él: (1 Que hay un elemento pragmático y uno normativo en la idea de que las instituciones políticas y sociales establecen y aseguran la vida humana y la hacen duradera. (2 Que la tradición de la negociación con agentes armados en Colombia en los últimos años se ha caracterizado por la ruptura del equilibrio entre este elemento pragmático y el normativo.Abstract:The paper presents a philosophical reflection inspired by Colombia’s ongoing institutional fragility. It argues: (1 that the idea of political and social institutions for establishing and safeguarding human life contains both a pragmatic and a normative element, and (2 that Colombia’s tradition of negotiation with armed actors has been characterized in the last years by a breakdown in the balance between these pragmatic and normative elements.

  2. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Hake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.

  3. Optimization of Multiple Related Negotiation through Multi-Negotiation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Miao, Chunyan; Shen, Zhiqi

    In this paper, a Multi-Negotiation Network (MNN) and a Multi- Negotiation Influence Diagram (MNID) are proposed to optimally handle Multiple Related Negotiations (MRN) in a multi-agent system. Most popular, state-of-the-art approaches perform MRN sequentially. However, a sequential procedure may not optimally execute MRN in terms of maximizing the global outcome, and may even lead to unnecessary losses in some situations. The motivation of this research is to use a MNN to handle MRN concurrently so as to maximize the expected utility of MRN. Firstly, both the joint success rate and the joint utility by considering all related negotiations are dynamically calculated based on a MNN. Secondly, by employing a MNID, an agent's possible decision on each related negotiation is reflected by the value of expected utility. Lastly, through comparing expected utilities between all possible policies to conduct MRN, an optimal policy is generated to optimize the global outcome of MRN. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the global outcome of MRN in a successful end scenario, and avoid unnecessary losses in an unsuccessful end scenario.

  4. Cultural Barriers to International Business Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    Studies in international business negotiation acquire unprecedented significance, as globalization closely connects vari⁃ous business fields into a dynamic whole. Cultural factors play a vital role in international business negotiation. This paper begins with a brief introduction to business negotiation, international business negotiation and significance of cultural barriers to interna⁃tional business negotiation. It then explores two fundamental cultural differences of China and western countries:value differenc⁃es and thinking-pattern differences, which pose cultural barriers. The author then puts forward three strategies to help remove the cultural barriers and achieve successful negotiations.

  5. How Culture Can Influence Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王草

    2014-01-01

    International business negotiation is a process of problem solving between both parties based on their benefits. It becomes more and more important to know how to communicate with each party during business negotiation. When negotiating in an international background, we should take so many things into consideration. I think the most important thing is ‘Culture”. International business negotiation can be called intercultural business negotiation. In this study, we are going to talk about how “Culture” can influence international business negotiation.

  6. Definitions and Carbon Stocks Accounting Approaches of Harvested Wood Products in Climate Change Negotiation%气候变化谈判中木质林产品的相关概念及其碳储量核算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白彦锋; 姜春前; 张守攻; 雷静品

    2011-01-01

    Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change ( UNFCCC ), all parties are required to report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals. The carbon stocks of harvested wood products (HWP) are also a part of greenhouse gases (GHG) inventory. Forest harvest and wood product consumption play an important role in the carbon balance between forests and atmosphere. Consumption of wood products emits carbon, especially they are used in the landfill. However, the definitions and accounting approaches of HWP are still uncertainty. The implication of approaches applying in different countries is unclear. To impulse the ongoing international negotiation, this paper discussed the definitions and accounting approaches within the documents of UNFCCC and intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) report, and also expanded the implication of HWP from a new position, which gave prominence to equity. In addition, this paper firstly put forward the new definition of carbon quality.%@@ 森林在维持全球碳平衡中发挥着重要的作用.采伐后木质林产品(harvested wood products,HWP)以下简称木质林产品.木质林产品是森林资源利用的自然延伸.

  7. Predicting Paris: Multi-Method Approaches to Forecast the Outcomes of Global Climate Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Kallbekken, S.; Stokman, Franciscus; Saelen, H.; Thompson, R

    2016-01-01

    We examine the negotiations held under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change in Paris, December 2015. Prior to these negotiations, there was considerable uncertainty about whether an agreement would be reached, particularly given that the world’s leaders failed to

  8. EFL Learners’ Negotiation of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Saeed Rashid Al Hosni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating EFL learners’ frequency of negotiation of meaning when performing focused and unfocused communication tasks. The sample consists of thirty learners divided into ten groups. Three research instruments were used to collect data; communication tasks, field notes and interviews. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the frequency of negotiation of meaning between the two task types. This is due to the fact that, learners performed both task types as unfocused tasks and they were able to use some communication strategies to keep communication flowing and to go round the target structure. Amazingly, despite the existence of the trigger of negotiation, the indicator of misunderstanding, an important negotiation phase, was absent in many cases from the conversations in both task types. Subsequently, the research findings suggest providing learners with opportunities that urge them to perform as language users rather than language learners. Keywords:  communication; focused communication tasks; unfocused communication tasks; negotiation of meaning

  9. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  10. Negotiating autonomy at the margins of the state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    in their claims for a larger share of forest resources. By stressing the unfolding relationship between local ethnic elites and the state, and their different strategies in negotiating and claiming authority over forests within Indonesia's changing forest regimes, the paper examines how local-level politics has...... examines how current local elite strategies and networks can be related back to the period of border militarization in the 1960s and, once again, how these seem to challenge the exclusivity of the Indonesian-Malaysian border. The main argument is that central authority in the borderland has never been...... absolute, but waxes and wanes, and thus that state rules and laws are always up for local interpretation and negotiation, although the degree of such negotiation changes depending on the strength of the central state....

  11. Identifying training objectives: the role of negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C; Hennessy, D

    1997-09-01

    Current training initiatives for health care professionals tend to be based on management assumptions of need or on the wish-list demands of potential course attenders. Each approach has major disadvantages, in that neither has the capacity to simultaneously satisfy the organization's objectives, whilst maintaining the motivation and commitment of the participants. This short report discusses an alternative approach that used a valid and reliable training needs analysis instrument with nurses and managers to inform Nurse Practitioner development. The results facilitated the commissioning of relevant education courses, clarified new role boundaries and acted as an agent for negotiation and change between the two groups.

  12. Negotiating Visualizations in Briefing and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mads; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    and prescription, changing their roles and configurations, and intersecting and affecting the project process in characteristic ways. Visual representations play a temporary role, and ‘time’ and ‘phase’ set boundaries for them. For practice, the analysis suggests the implication that communitarian management......Building on an in-depth ethnographic study and the approaches of ‘practice-based studies’ and ‘science and technology studies’, the role of visual representations is explored in briefing and design processes. Three characteristic ways in which drawings contribute to ongoing negotiations...

  13. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation....

  14. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Contract negotiation....

  15. Cultural Differences in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.

  16. Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

  17. Interdependence in negotiation : Effects of exit options and social motive on distributive and integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E.; de Dreu, C.K W; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study extends past research on the impact of alternatives in dyadic negotiation by (a) providing negotiators with the mere possibility to negotiate with an outside party and (b) examining the moderating role of the negotiators' social motive. Business students engaged in face-to-face negotiatio

  18. Interdependence in negotiation : Effects of exit options and social motive on distributive and integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E.; de Dreu, C.K W; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study extends past research on the impact of alternatives in dyadic negotiation by (a) providing negotiators with the mere possibility to negotiate with an outside party and (b) examining the moderating role of the negotiators' social motive. Business students engaged in face-to-face negotiatio

  19. 76 FR 66248 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Negotiator Nominations and Schedule of Committee Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... CFR Chapter VI Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Negotiator Nominations and Schedule of Committee... meetings. DATES: We must receive your nominations for negotiators to serve on the committee on or before..., Department of Education. ACTION: Intent to establish negotiated rulemaking committees. SUMMARY: We...

  20. Negotiation: a necessary art for dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, William G; Renshaw, John; Batchelor, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This brief paper explains why the art of negotiation has become far more important for general dental practitioners. It explains that negotiations take place with patients, with practice staff, and with funding agencies such as Primary Care Trusts. It sets out the principles for successful negotiation and gives two examples of how they can be applied. It concludes that negotiation is a skill that can be learned and that it will be a key skill as the profession faces future challenges.

  1. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  2. Significant differences in cross cultural negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Vochita

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance of different factors that influences cross cultural negotiations. Learning about the components of a cross cultural negotiation process to increase negotiators’ success in avoiding barriers and failures in the international business arena is one of the most challenging achievements of the negotiators in the global environment. In the second part, the paper focuses on the one of the most important componenet of cross cultural business negotiations: difference...

  3. A Framework on Impression Management in Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Ditte Dahl; Esbjerg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome.......In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome....

  4. Complexity in electronic negotiation support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmair, Michele; Strunk, Guido; Vetschera, Rudolf; Koeszegi, Sabine T

    2011-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the medium influences the way we communicate and negotiation research directs considerable attention to the impact of different electronic communication modes on the negotiation process and outcomes. Complexity theories offer models and methods that allow the investigation of how pattern and temporal sequences unfold over time in negotiation interactions. By focusing on the dynamic and interactive quality of negotiations as well as the information, choice, and uncertainty contained in the negotiation process, the complexity perspective addresses several issues of central interest in classical negotiation research. In the present study we compare the complexity of the negotiation communication process among synchronous and asynchronous negotiations (IM vs. e-mail) as well as an electronic negotiation support system including a decision support system (DSS). For this purpose, transcripts of 145 negotiations have been coded and analyzed with the Shannon entropy and the grammar complexity. Our results show that negotiating asynchronically via e-mail as well as including a DSS significantly reduces the complexity of the negotiation process. Furthermore, a reduction of the complexity increases the probability of reaching an agreement.

  5. Third-Party Contract Negotiations for CEOs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe

    1990-01-01

    New and incumbent presidents sometimes are reticent about discussing the specifics of compensation and benefit packages. Third-party negotiators might help bring these issues into the open. A negotiation process and nine specific topics for inclusion in negotiation discussions are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  6. 40 CFR 35.937-5 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation. 35.937-5 Section 35.937-5... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-5 Negotiation. (a) Grantees are responsible for negotiation of their contracts for architectural or engineering services....

  7. 49 CFR 1144.1 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiation. 1144.1 Section 1144.1 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTRAMODAL RAIL COMPETITION § 1144.1 Negotiation. (a) Timing. At least 5 days... intending to initiate such action must first seek to engage in negotiations to resolve its dispute with...

  8. 25 CFR 225.21 - Negotiation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation procedures. 225.21 Section 225.21 Indians... SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.21 Negotiation procedures. (a) An Indian mineral... information during the negotiation process. The Secretary shall provide advice, assistance, and information...

  9. 32 CFR 756.6 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation. 756.6 Section 756.6 National... INVOLVING NON-APPROPRIATED FUND ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES § 756.6 Negotiation. (a) General. Claims from... contracted third-party claims administrator (TPA) will normally conduct negotiations with claimants. The...

  10. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INFORMATION AND THE PROCESS OF BANK NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Lindemann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of the administration of information, identifying deficiencies in the information systems, used in the negotiation process for concession of bank credit, to small and mid-sized companies, under the business managers' perspective. The results make the deficiencies evident and confirm the need for change in the systems of administration of information, in order to allow for both an improvement in the negotiation process of bank credit as well as a larger economical efficiency of the available resources.

  11. Identity formation in multiparty negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, R; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the recently proposed Interactive Model of Identity Formation, we examine how top-down deductive and bottom-up inductive identity formations influence intentions and behaviour in multiparty negotiations. Results show that a shared identity can be deduced from the social context through reco

  12. Step 5: Award Negotiation & Issuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before a grant can be awarded and accepted, several pre-award activities must happen to formalize the partnership. Ensuring compliance with federal laws, a review of costs and a negotiation of the appropriate funding level must all happen in order to rece

  13. Integrating Writing and Negotiation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Carolena Lyons

    2002-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students must integrate writing and negotiation skills with proposal development. Notes that many students have been able to share their problem-solving skills by implementing their proposal at their workplace. Notes students liked the opportunity to select a topic of interest to them. (SG)

  14. Negotiating Meaning in Technical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peterlicean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of language is to exchange information within a given community of users. Thus, the process of communication takes language users through a complex process that starts with the perception of entities from the surrounding world and continues with a negotiation of meaning. This paper highlights some considerations about how representations of entities are reflected in language use.

  15. Micropolitical Negotiations within School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This case study examines the micropolitical strategies that a coach and seven teachers utilized to negotiate ideological and epistemological beliefs during required common planning time meetings for the period of one semester in an urban middle school. Theories of micropolitics and critical discourse analysis guided the development of the research…

  16. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common...

  17. A social negotiation of hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian; Esson, James

    2017-01-01

    argue that young people’s efforts to make it abroad and “become a somebody” through football is not merely an individual fantasy; it is rather a social negotiation of hope to overcome widespread social immobility in the region. It is this collective practice among a large cohort of young males...

  18. Negotiating the Contested Terrain of Equity-Focused Change Efforts in Schools: Critical Race Theory as a Leadership Framework for Creating More Equitable Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Terry M.; Zirkel, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Educational leaders attempting to enact equity-focused change in their schools are frequently met with fierce opposition by politically powerful parents whose children are well served by the status quo. The purpose of this conceptual article is to: (a) explore the utility of "Critical Race Theory" as a framework for helping K-12 school…

  19. 24/7 Negotiation in couples' transition to parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    How do couples negotiate about their division of paid and unpaid work when they become parents? The division of work among couples has significantly changed in the past decades. This study focused on the underlying processes that lead couples to a certain division of paid and unpaid work. To unravel

  20. Adaptive Game-based Agent Negotiation in Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In the emerging deregulated energy paradigm enabled by the Smart Grid, energy provisioning will change drastically. Energy contracts will be negotiated between a potential multitude of parties at high frequency (e.g., several times per day) based on local needs and micro-generation production facili

  1. 24/7 Negotiation in couples' transition to parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    How do couples negotiate about their division of paid and unpaid work when they become parents? The division of work among couples has significantly changed in the past decades. This study focused on the underlying processes that lead couples to a certain division of paid and unpaid work. To unravel

  2. Struggling with a depression diagnosis: Negotiations with diagnostic categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Mette

    2017-01-01

    and complicated struggles with, a psychiatric diagnosis stand out, as she continu- ously struggles to articulate an oppositional stance to the dominant diagnostic categories. The negotiations take place in a complex network where medical authorities, the workplace and the diagnostic cultures play a crucial part...... of persons’ ongoing and changing responses to diagnostic labels over time....

  3. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  4. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  5. Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation provides advice and strategies for effective cross-cultural negotiations. Written from a multicultural perspective, this guidebook explores cross-cultural communication for problem solving and negotiations. This resource includes real-life stories and examples compiled from over thirty years of domestic and global experience from both authors, including Chris Moore, a well-known international negotiator and best selling author. This step-by-step guide to negotiation provides practical recommendations, advice, and globally proven strategies to pr

  6. A Machine Learning Approach to Automated Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huaxiang(张化祥); Zhang Liang; Huang Shangteng; Ma Fanyuan

    2004-01-01

    Automated negotiation between two competitive agents is analyzed, and a multi-issue negotiation model based on machine learning, time belief, offer belief and state-action pair expected Q value is developed. Unlike the widely used approaches such as game theory approach, heuristic approach and argumentation approach, This paper uses a machine learning method to compute agents' average Q values in each negotiation stage. The delayed reward is used to generate agents' offer and counteroffer of every issue. The effect of time and discount rate on negotiation outcome is analyzed. Theory analysis and experimental data show this negotiation model is practical.

  7. A meta-analysis on gender differences in negotiation outcomes and their moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazei, Jens; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Bilke, Lena; Hertel, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates gender differences in economic negotiation outcomes. As suggested by role congruity theory, we assume that the behaviors that increase economic negotiation outcomes are more congruent with the male as compared with the female gender role, thereby presenting challenges for women's negotiation performance and reducing their outcomes. Importantly, this main effect is predicted to be moderated by person-based, situation-based, and task-based influences that make effective negotiation behavior more congruent with the female gender role, which should in turn reduce or even reverse gender differences in negotiation outcomes. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis includes 123 effect sizes (overall N = 10,888, including undergraduate and graduate students as well as businesspeople). Studies were included when they enabled the calculation of an effect size reflecting gender differences in achieved economic negotiation outcomes. As predicted, men achieved better economic outcomes than women on average, but gender differences strongly depended on the context: Moderator analysis revealed that gender differences favoring men were reduced when negotiators had negotiation experience, when they received information about the bargaining range, and when they negotiated on behalf of another individual. Moreover, gender differences were reversed under conditions of the lowest predicted role incongruity for women. In conclusion, gender differences in negotiations are contextually bound and can be subject to change. Future research is needed that investigates the underlying mechanisms of new moderators revealed in the current research (e.g., experience). Implications for theoretical explanations of gender differences in negotiation outcomes, for gender inequalities in the workplace, and for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  9. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  10. Conflicting social motives in negotiating groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Laurie R; Brett, Jeanne M; Olekalns, Mara; Smith, Philip L

    2007-12-01

    Negotiators' social motives (cooperative vs. individualistic) influence their strategic behaviors. In this study, the authors used multilevel modeling and analyses of strategy sequences to test hypotheses regarding how negotiators' social motives and the composition of the group influence group members' negotiation strategies. Four-person groups negotiating a 5-issue mixed-motive decision-making task were videotaped, and the tapes were transcribed and coded. Group composition included 2 homogeneous conditions (all cooperators and all individualists) and 3 heterogeneous conditions (3 cooperators and 1 individualist, 2 cooperators and 2 individualists, 1 cooperator and 3 individualists). Results showed that cooperative negotiators adjusted their use of integrative and distributive strategies in response to the social-motive composition of the group, but individualistic negotiators did not. Results from analyses of strategy sequences showed that cooperators responded more systematically to others' behaviors than did individualists. They also redirected the negotiation depending on group composition.

  11. Institutional dynamics and the negotiation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops the argument for analyzing negotiations from an institutional perspective. A major theme of the argument being advanced in the paper is that the institutional perspective provides a more comprehensive understanding of the negotiation process in its entirety. The negotiation...... process can be broken down into three distinct components, namely (a) the pre negotiation phase; (b) the negotiating phase; and (c) the post negotiation evaluation. Each of these phases is critically influenced by a specific component or components of the institutional environment. Scott's distinction...... and their implications for negotiating processes in these countries. Choosing India and China to illustrate the utility of this framework is justified by the fact that India and China are both in the process of transforming their economies and although confronted with similar challenges they have dealt with them in very...

  12. Predicting Paris: Multi-Method Approaches to Forecast the Outcomes of Global Climate Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef F. Sprinz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the negotiations held under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change in Paris, December 2015. Prior to these negotiations, there was considerable uncertainty about whether an agreement would be reached, particularly given that the world’s leaders failed to do so in the 2009 negotiations held in Copenhagen. Amid this uncertainty, we applied three different methods to predict the outcomes: an expert survey and two negotiation simulation models, namely the Exchange Model and the Predictioneer’s Game. After the event, these predictions were assessed against the coded texts that were agreed in Paris. The evidence suggests that combining experts’ predictions to reach a collective expert prediction makes for significantly more accurate predictions than individual experts’ predictions. The differences in the performance between the two different negotiation simulation models were not statistically significant.

  13. Predicting Paris: Multi-Method Approaches to Forecast the Outcomes of Global Climate Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef F. Sprinz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the negotiations held under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change in Paris, December 2015. Prior to these negotiations, there was considerable uncertainty about whether an agreement would be reached, particularly given that the world’s leaders failed to do so in the 2009 negotiations held in Copenhagen. Amid this uncertainty, we applied three different methods to predict the outcomes: an expert survey and two negotiation simulation models, namely the Exchange Model and the Predictioneer’s Game. After the event, these predictions were assessed against the coded texts that were agreed in Paris. The evidence suggests that combining experts’ predictions to reach a collective expert prediction makes for significantly more accurate predictions than individual experts’ predictions. The differences in the performance between the two different negotiation simulation models were not statistically significant.

  14. "You Are a Part of the Solution": Negotiating Gender-Based Violence and Engendering Change in Urban Informal Settlements in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Proshant; Daruwalla, Nayreen; Jayaraman, Anuja; Pantvaidya, Shanti

    2016-08-04

    This article explores how women front-line workers engage with domestic and gender-based violence in the urban informal settlements of Dharavi in Mumbai, India. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 voluntary front-line workers, along with ethnographic fieldwork in Dharavi, as a part of a pilot study. Our findings contribute to literature on context-specific approaches to understanding gender-based violence and "models" to prevent domestic violence in urban micro-spaces. Furthermore, we also discuss notions of "change" (badlaav) that the front-line workers experience. Finally, this article presents implications for socially engaged ethnographic research, as well as contextual and grounded insights on ways to reduce gender-based and domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Changes in Japan's Position on International Climate Negotiations and their Underlying Causes%日本在国际气候谈判中的立场转变及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫笠俐

    2012-01-01

    Japan is a key participant in international climate change talks.After the United States withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol,Japan ultimately decided to ratify the Protocol in order to receive recognition and praise from the international community for demonstrating responsibility as the host country of the Kyoto Climate Talks at a critical juncture.However,Japan was negative to the future of the protocol during the post Kyoto climate negotiation.This paper analyzes why Japan's position in international climate talks shifted from enthusiastic to unenthusiastic,and offers insights into the international climate talks based on Japan's attitude.%日本是国际气候谈判的主要参与国家之一,在美国退出《京都议定书》的情况下日本最终选择批准议定书,让国际社会对作为京都会议东道国的日本在关键时刻表现出的担当态度赞赏有加。然而《京都议定书》的第一承诺期还未过去,日本就对《京都议定书》的未来表现出消极态度。文章试图分析日本在国际气候谈判中的立场由积极转变为不积极的原因,并在此基础上提出日本的谈判态度对国际气候谈判的启示。

  16. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  17. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  18. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  19. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  20. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  1. The Negotiation of Basel III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2015-01-01

    While the Basel Accords of 1988 and 2004 (Basel I and Basel II) ostensibly set out to regulate bank risk at the international level, they were effectively in the grip of neoliberal beliefs in the self-regulating potential of free markets. In 2009–2011, the Basel Accords were revised once more wit...... agency, the empirical argument is substantiated through textual–intertextual analysis of the rhetorical circulation of affective signs in the Basel III negotiations....

  2. Media diplomacy: the negotiator's dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Abigail S.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The concept of Media Diplomacy is examined, focusing on the influence of the media in the realm of international relations in general, and the military negotiator, in particular. Three geo-political government types are discussed, the United States as representative of a democratic government answerable to a free press; the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a state controlled system in the midst of transition to a liberated press...

  3. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Rajkumar; Thangarathinam, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, context-dependent, and fuzzy similarity approaches. For some extent, these approaches can maximize the success rate and minimize the communication overhead among the participants. To further optimize the success rate and communication overhead, the proposed research work introduces a novel probabilistic decision making model for optimizing the negotiation conflict in the long-term negotiation context. This decision model formulates the problem of managing different types of negotiation conflict that occurs during negotiation process as a multistage Markov decision problem. At each stage of negotiation process, the proposed decision model generates the heuristic decision based on the past negotiation state information without causing any break-off among the participants. In addition, this heuristic decision using the stochastic decision tree scenario can maximize the revenue among the participants available in the cloud service negotiation framework. PMID:26543899

  4. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Rajkumar; Thangarathinam, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, context-dependent, and fuzzy similarity approaches. For some extent, these approaches can maximize the success rate and minimize the communication overhead among the participants. To further optimize the success rate and communication overhead, the proposed research work introduces a novel probabilistic decision making model for optimizing the negotiation conflict in the long-term negotiation context. This decision model formulates the problem of managing different types of negotiation conflict that occurs during negotiation process as a multistage Markov decision problem. At each stage of negotiation process, the proposed decision model generates the heuristic decision based on the past negotiation state information without causing any break-off among the participants. In addition, this heuristic decision using the stochastic decision tree scenario can maximize the revenue among the participants available in the cloud service negotiation framework.

  5. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, context-dependent, and fuzzy similarity approaches. For some extent, these approaches can maximize the success rate and minimize the communication overhead among the participants. To further optimize the success rate and communication overhead, the proposed research work introduces a novel probabilistic decision making model for optimizing the negotiation conflict in the long-term negotiation context. This decision model formulates the problem of managing different types of negotiation conflict that occurs during negotiation process as a multistage Markov decision problem. At each stage of negotiation process, the proposed decision model generates the heuristic decision based on the past negotiation state information without causing any break-off among the participants. In addition, this heuristic decision using the stochastic decision tree scenario can maximize the revenue among the participants available in the cloud service negotiation framework.

  6. AN EDUCATIONAL GAME IN CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jye Dzeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Project managers are frequently required to negotiate during the procurement of construction materials and drawing up of contractual agreements. Training in negotiation training requires hands-on experience and interaction with multiple parties. However, in the conventional curriculum on construction management, negotiation is taught merely through lectures and case studies. This study addressed that shortcoming by developing a portfolio negotiation game in which students play different roles and actively make decisions while proceeding through a simulated negotiation process in a competitive context. The proposed game would be the first negotiation game within the domain of the construction industry. During the pilot study, 46 students (with or without industrial working experience played the game; the results showed an increase in learning interest, satisfaction, and effectiveness.

  7. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  8. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  9. Politeness of English Modals in Business Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-ying

    2016-01-01

    With the development of global economy, more and more business negotiations are proceeding in which conflicts and disputes are inevitable. Business negotiations involve interpersonal relationships, which is usually expressed by mood and mo-dality. Modal verbs, as an essential approach for expressing politeness with rich meanings of modality, are widely employed in business negotiations. This paper focuses on analyzing the polite usages of modal verbs in business negotiations by Politeness Principle. Based on this theory, three interpersonal functions expressed by modal verbs are to be studied:Cost-and-Benefit, Humor and Choice.

  10. Climate change issue in Convention on Biological Diversity: negotiations and focuses%《生物多样性公约》下的气候变化问题:谈判与焦点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军; 张称意; 徐海根

    2011-01-01

    近年来,生物多样性与气候变化的关系逐渐成为《生物多样性公约》下的焦点议题,各缔约方就此问题展开了激烈的多边谈判.本文梳理了《生物多样性公约》下气候变化问题谈判的发展历程,探讨了其中的焦点问题及各方的主要立场,指出以欧盟为代表的发达国家和以巴西、哥伦比亚、中国为代表的发展中生物多样性大国是针锋相对的两大主要谈判集团.谈判焦点问题主要包括:(1)气候变化问题的扩大化.欧盟希望将气候变化问题扩大化,使其全面渗透到《生物多样性公约》下的各议题中,并促进《生物多样性公约》、《联合国气候变化框架公约》和《联合国防治荒漠化公约》(简称里约三公约)之间的联合;而发展中国家对此比较谨慎和保守.(2)地球工程(geoengineering)和海洋施肥(ocean fertilization).欧盟提出全面禁止地球工程,并建立全球管制框架;而发展中国家认为可遵循“预先防范”原则.(3)减少森林砍伐和森林退化的碳排放机制.欧盟要求为该机制建立“生物多样性保障”制度,而发展中国家表示反对.两大集团产生分歧的原因主要是发展中国家担心欧盟的快速推进会使自己将来受到制约,这也反映了在环境领域发达国家和发展中国家之间的固有矛盾,而这种矛盾未来还会继续深化.本文最后还就我国的应对策略和工作方向提出了建议:(1)要加强国内相关主管部门之间的沟通与协调;(2)要总结和宣传我国在气候变化领域成功的做法和经验;(3)要加强对减少森林砍伐和森林退化的碳排放机制的研究.%Recently, the issue of biodiversity and climate change is becoming a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and parties to the convention have carried out heavy multilateral negotiations on the issue. This paper reviews the background pertaining to biodiversity and climate

  11. A bargaining game analysis of international climate negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory; Sandler, Ronald L.; Forber, Patrick; Basl, John

    2014-06-01

    Climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have so far failed to achieve a robust international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Game theory has been used to investigate possible climate negotiation solutions and strategies for accomplishing them. Negotiations have been primarily modelled as public goods games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma, though coordination games or games of conflict have also been used. Many of these models have solutions, in the form of equilibria, corresponding to possible positive outcomes--that is, agreements with the requisite emissions reduction commitments. Other work on large-scale social dilemmas suggests that it should be possible to resolve the climate problem. It therefore seems that equilibrium selection may be a barrier to successful negotiations. Here we use an N-player bargaining game in an agent-based model with learning dynamics to examine the past failures of and future prospects for a robust international climate agreement. The model suggests reasons why the desirable solutions identified in previous game-theoretic models have not yet been accomplished in practice and what mechanisms might be used to achieve these solutions.

  12. Beach or Office? Where shall we negotiate? : The impact of location on negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, Per; Hong, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The central question in this study was to what extent the formality of the location where the negotiation takes place influences the negotiation strategies used. We studied the role of formality in an experimental setting, where a negotiation simulation took place either in an office room or at the

  13. The Culturally Intelligent Negotiator: The Impact of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) on Negotiation Sequences and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Lynn; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2010-01-01

    Although scholars and practitioners have repeatedly touted the importance of negotiating effectively across cultures, paradoxically, little research has addressed what predicts intercultural negotiation effectiveness. In this research, we examined the impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on intercultural negotiation processes and outcomes,…

  14. Modeling Negotiation Using "Narrative Grammar": Exploring the Evolution of Meaning in a Simulated Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobb, S.; Laws, D.; Sluzki, C.

    2013-01-01

    Negotiation research, drawing on rational choice theory, provides a wealth of findings about how people negotiate successfully, as well as descriptions of some of the many pitfalls associated to negotiation failures. Building on narrative theory, this paper attempts to expand the theoretical base of

  15. The Culturally Intelligent Negotiator: The Impact of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) on Negotiation Sequences and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Lynn; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2010-01-01

    Although scholars and practitioners have repeatedly touted the importance of negotiating effectively across cultures, paradoxically, little research has addressed what predicts intercultural negotiation effectiveness. In this research, we examined the impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on intercultural negotiation processes and outcomes,…

  16. Modeling Negotiation Using "Narrative Grammar": Exploring the Evolution of Meaning in a Simulated Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobb, S.; Laws, D.; Sluzki, C.

    2013-01-01

    Negotiation research, drawing on rational choice theory, provides a wealth of findings about how people negotiate successfully, as well as descriptions of some of the many pitfalls associated to negotiation failures. Building on narrative theory, this paper attempts to expand the theoretical base of

  17. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  18. 76 FR 4393 - Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Financial Services negotiated service agreement to the market dominant product list. This notice addresses... 3020, et seq., to add a Discover Financial Services (DFS) negotiated service agreement to the...

  19. Negotiating gender roles through media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    phones are “emerging as the first extensive form of electronic communication system in many regions of Africa and Asia” (Tenhunen 2008). Mobile phone use and media consumption in general is strongly intertwined with everyday life, yet research on the appropriation of new media in an everyday life setting....... The interviews deal both with media use and gender and the aim of this paper is to connect the two in order to better grasp how media becomes a platform where gender roles are discussed and negotiated, how media content, whether it is soap operas or call in shows on radio, are used to reflect on one’s own...

  20. Emotional regulation strategies and negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between profit achievement and emotional regulation strategies, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure profit achievement. The game involves bargaining for the prices of three products. Emotional Regulation Strategies were measured by The Emotional Regulation Questionnaire. Scores were obtained from 104 lower level managers of a bank in Turkey. Their average age was 32.0 yr. (SD=3.7), (39 women and 65 men). A correlation of .65 (p<.01) was obtained between scores on profit achievement with scores on Cognitive Reappraisal strategy and -.50 (p<.01) with scores on Suppression strategy.

  1. RESEARCH ON NEGOTIATION-BASED PARTNER SELECTION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The key problem in the construction of virtual enterprises (VEs) is how to select appropriate partners. The negotiation-based approach is proposed to support partner selection in the construction of VEs . The negotiation model is discussed from three main aspects respectively, i.e., negotiation protocol, negotiation goal and negotiation decision-making model. And the generic mathematical description of the negotiation model is formally presented. Finally, a simple example is used to validate the approach's availability.

  2. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues.

  3. The mind and heart (literally) of the negotiator: personality and contextual determinants of experiential reactions and economic outcomes in negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Conlon, Donald E; Ilies, Remus

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed and tested a model proposing that negotiator personality interacts with the negotiation situation to influence negotiation processes and outcomes. In 2 studies, the authors found that negotiators high in agreeableness were best suited to integrative negotiations and that negotiators low in agreeableness were best suited to distributive negotiations. Consistent with this person-situation fit argument, in Study 1 the authors found that negotiators whose dispositions were a good fit to their negotiation context had higher levels of physiological (cardiac) arousal at the end of the negotiation compared with negotiators who were "misplaced" in situations inconsistent with their level of agreeableness, and this arousal was in turn related to increased economic outcomes. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1, finding that person-situation fit was related to physiological (heart rate), psychological (positive affect), and behavioral activation (persistence) demonstrated during the negotiation, and these measures in turn were related to the economic outcomes achieved by participants.

  4. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  5. Intercultural Negotiation: The “Nomadic” Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. WALKER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has a strong impact on international negotiation. Negotiators must manage situationswhere they may have to deal with several people coming from many different cultures. It is thusnecessary to manage diversity during the negotiation processes and interactions to achieve asufficiently high level of performance to be competitive in world markets.Researchers have tended to focus on the importance of cultural knowledge to internationalnegotiators. Many articles describe different styles of negotiations according to countries, regionsor even cultural groupings, such as for Anglo-Saxon or Arab negotiating partners.However, researchers have given less attention to the notion of intercultural competence and howcompanies could develop the ability to adapt to any culture, even if a negotiator has little priorinformation concerning their partners. This skill is universal across all cultures and could be addedto the profile of a successful negotiator. It is an attitude based on openness towards people comingfrom a different culture. This paper describes negotiators who adopt this attitude: the way of a‘nomad’.

  6. Negotiation strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on then negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant supply chain management (SCM) literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated...

  7. Negotiation Strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of this paper This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on the negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant SCM literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated for on previous no...

  8. Tolerance of ambiguity, information, and negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, G

    2001-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between the tolerance of ambiguity and the outcomes of negotiation and the misrepresentation of information. The data were obtained from 98 middle managers of a bank in Turkey. A positive correlation of .74 (p tolerance of ambiguity with the outcomes of negotiation and a negative correlation of -.66 (p < .01) with misrepresentation of information.

  9. An Examination of PRC Business Negotiating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    The current rapid economic development in mainland China strongly demands that the world understand the People's Republic of China's (PRC) negotiating behaviors to ensure a successful business transaction. This study examined the PRC business negotiating behaviors by interviewing 16 Hong Kong businesspersons who have experiences in doing business…

  10. The consequences of faking anger in negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Côté; I. Hideg; G.A. van Kleef

    2013-01-01

    Past research has found that showing anger induces cooperative behavior from counterparts in negotiations. We build on and extend this research by examining the effects of faking anger by surface acting (i.e., showing anger that is not truly felt inside) on the behavior of negotiation counterparts.

  11. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  12. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  13. The mind and heart of the negotiator

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Leigh L

    2015-01-01

    For undergraduate and graduate-level business courses that cover the skills of negotiation. Delve into the mind and heart of the negotiator in order to enhance negotiation skills. The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator is dedicated to negotiators who want to improve their ability to negotiate-whether in multimillion-dollar business deals or personal interactions. This text provides an integrated view of what to do and what to avoid at the bargaining table, facilitated by an integration of theory, scientific research, and practical examples. This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. Here's how: *Provide Students with Practical Real-World Examples: Each chapter opens with a case study that illustrates a real business situation.*Offer In-Depth Information on Business Negotiation Skills: This text provides practical take-away points for the manager and executive on integrative negotiation and contains a series of hands-on principles that have been proven to incre...

  14. Handbook of group decision and negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The growing field of Group Decision and Negotiation is best described as the empirical, formal, computational, and strategic analysis of group decision-making and negotiation, especially from the viewpoints of Management Science and Operations Research. The topic crosses many traditional disciplinary boundaries. It has connections to business administration and business strategy, management science, systems engineering, computer science, mathematics, and law, as well as economics, psychology, and other social sciences. This defining handbook provides an up-to-date reference on new approaches to the principles and practice of negotiation, group decision-making, and collaboration, including the origins, development, and prospects of electronic negotiation, as well as the associated development of on-line or computer-based arbitration systems. It also provides a current and comprehensive reference on how traditional issues in negotiation, such as knowledge, language, strategy, fairness and justice, have been tra...

  15. A Logic-Program-Based Negotiation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chen; Ming-Yi Zhang; Mao-Nian Wu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a logic-program-based mechanism of negotiation between two agents. In this mechanism an extended logic program (ELP) is regarded as an agent. The negotiation process between two agents is then modelled as multiple encounters between two ELPs, each of which selects an answer set as its initial demand. Both agents mutually revise the original sets of demands through accepting part of the opponent's demand and/or giving up part of its own demand. The overall dynamics can be regarded as mutual updates between two extended logic programs. A deal to achieve an appropriate negotiation solution is put forward. The conditions of existence and terminability of an appropriate negotiation are given. Properties of a negotiation solution are discussed, including its weak Pareto optimality.

  16. Agent Communication Language for Automated Negotiation Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukun Cao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research in automated negotiation is lack of a unified technical standard, which is an obstacle for the system to be applied practically. The existing standard KQML (Knowledge Query Manipulation Language has obvious flaws in its semantics definition; moreover, its function is insufficient for describing negotiation. The contribution of the work is twofold. On one hand, it expands the speech acts of KQML, and defines semantics of the new proposed speech acts. On the other hand, it designs a general interaction mechanism among negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language and ontology used by agents is defined. The work has been attempted in such a way so as to provide general support for a wide variety of commercial negotiation circumstances, and therefore to be particularly suitable for electronic commerce.

  17. A spatial web/agent-based model to support stakeholders' negotiation regarding land development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooyandeh, Majeed; Marceau, Danielle J

    2013-11-15

    Decision making in land management can be greatly enhanced if the perspectives of concerned stakeholders are taken into consideration. This often implies negotiation in order to reach an agreement based on the examination of multiple alternatives. This paper describes a spatial web/agent-based modeling system that was developed to support the negotiation process of stakeholders regarding land development in southern Alberta, Canada. This system integrates a fuzzy analytic hierarchy procedure within an agent-based model in an interactive visualization environment provided through a web interface to facilitate the learning and negotiation of the stakeholders. In the pre-negotiation phase, the stakeholders compare their evaluation criteria using linguistic expressions. Due to the uncertainty and fuzzy nature of such comparisons, a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is then used to prioritize the criteria. The negotiation starts by a development plan being submitted by a user (stakeholder) through the web interface. An agent called the proposer, which represents the proposer of the plan, receives this plan and starts negotiating with all other agents. The negotiation is conducted in a step-wise manner where the agents change their attitudes by assigning a new set of weights to their criteria. If an agreement is not achieved, a new location for development is proposed by the proposer agent. This process is repeated until a location is found that satisfies all agents to a certain predefined degree. To evaluate the performance of the model, the negotiation was simulated with four agents, one of which being the proposer agent, using two hypothetical development plans. The first plan was selected randomly; the other one was chosen in an area that is of high importance to one of the agents. While the agents managed to achieve an agreement about the location of the land development after three rounds of negotiation in the first scenario, seven rounds were required in the second

  18. Negotiating

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Philip; Scott-Barrett, Fiona

    1993-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  19. Complex Automated Negotiations Theories, Models, and Software Competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2013-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations are a widely studied, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. In general, automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. For this book, we solicited papers on all aspects of such complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This book includes two parts, which are Part I: Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiations and Part II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. Each chapter in Part I is an extended version of ACAN 2011 papers after peer reviews by three PC members. Part II includes ANAC 2011 (The Second Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents who have different negotiation strategies and implemented by different developers are automatically negotiate in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of...

  20. A theory of international bioethics: the negotiable and the non-negotiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    1998-09-01

    The preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal presents the argument that "moral fundamentalism," the position that international bioethics rests on "basic" or "fundamental" moral prinicples that are universally accepted in all eras and cultures, collapses under a variety of multicultural and postmodern critiques. The present article looks to the contractarian tradition of Hobbes and Locke -- as reinterpreted by David Gauthier, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls -- for an alternative justification for international bioethics. Drawing on the central themes of this tradition, it is argued that international bioethics can be rationally reconstructed as a negotiated moral order that respects culturally and individually defined areas of nonnegotiability. Further, the theory of a negotiated moral order is consistent with traditional ideals about human rights, is flexible enough to absorb the genuine insights of multiculturalism and postmodernism, and yet is strong enough to justify transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments, including the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg. This theory also is consistent with the history of the ethics of human subjects experimentation and offers insights into current controversies such as the controversy over changing the consent rule for experiments in emergency medicine and the controversy over exempting certain clinical trials of inexpensive treatments for preventing the perinatal transmission of AIDS from the ethical standards of the sponsoring country.

  1. An innovative method to assess negotiation skills necessary for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Prathibha; Gupta, Priyanka; Bennet, Kevin E

    2008-01-01

    Quality improvement (QI) initiatives require leaders who can facilitate change through negotiation. Although a few education programs teach these skills, there is no published literature on methods to assess competency in negotiation. This study's purpose was to determine the psychometric properties of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess negotiation skills. The OSCE uses an actor trained to respond to the learner in a standardized fashion. The negotiation station was part of an 8-station QI OSCE piloted in the Mayo Clinic Endocrinology and Preventive Medicine fellowship programs. External experts judged the content validity to be excellent. Interrater reliability was outstanding for the global competency assessment (0.80) and moderate for checklist scores (0.53). All participating faculty strongly agreed (33.3%) or agreed (66.7%) that the OSCE station was an authentic assessment tool. Further research is needed to study the predictive validity of such an OSCE and its application to assessing other quality improvement competencies.

  2. Meaning Negotiations of Collaborative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie; Zandee, Danielle P.

    2016-01-01

    engages with recent debates about the complexity of such new governance forms, as well as discussions on the relationship between discourse and materiality and the calls made to develop multi-method approaches to study complex organizational phenomena. In effect, the chapter develops empirical......This chapter explores the potential for developing organizational discourse approaches through ethnographic fieldwork in the context of collaborative governance: a procedure to involve stakeholders in public problem solving of, for example, policy and service innovation. In doing so, the researcher...... and analytical approaches to unfold discourse-material aspects of the negotiations of meanings and matters of such new governance form in practice. The chapter provides examples based on ethnographic fieldwork in collaborations across actors from the welfare area of education. In conclusion, the author reflects...

  3. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  4. Meaning Negotiations of Collaborative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie; Zandee, Danielle P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential for developing organizational discourse approaches through ethnographic fieldwork in the context of collaborative governance: a procedure to involve stakeholders in public problem solving of, for example, policy and service innovation. In doing so, the researcher...... and analytical approaches to unfold discourse-material aspects of the negotiations of meanings and matters of such new governance form in practice. The chapter provides examples based on ethnographic fieldwork in collaborations across actors from the welfare area of education. In conclusion, the author reflects...... engages with recent debates about the complexity of such new governance forms, as well as discussions on the relationship between discourse and materiality and the calls made to develop multi-method approaches to study complex organizational phenomena. In effect, the chapter develops empirical...

  5. 3-D negotiation. Playing the whole game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, David A; Sebenius, James K

    2003-11-01

    What stands between you and the yes you want? According to negotiation experts David Lax and James Sebenius, executives face obstacles in three common and complementary dimensions. The first dimension is tactics, or interactions at the bargaining table. The second is deal design, or the ability to draw up a deal at the table that creates lasting value. And the third is setup, which includes the structure of the negotiation itself. Each dimension is crucial in the bargaining process, but most executives fixate on only the first two: 1-D negotiators focus on improving their interpersonal skills at the negotiating table--courting their clients, using culturally sensitive language, and so on. 2-D negotiators focus on diagnosing underlying sources of value in a deal and then recrafting the terms to satisfy all parties. In this article, the authors explore the often-neglected third dimension. Instead of just playing the game at the bargaining table, 3-D negotiators reshape the scope and sequence of the game itself to achieve the desired outcome. They scan widely to identify elements outside of the deal on the table that might create a more favorable structure for it. They map backward from their ideal resolution to the current setup of the deal and carefully choose which players to approach and when. And they manage and frame the flow of information among the parties involved to improve their odds of getting to yes. Lax and Sebenius describe the tactics 3-D negotiators use--such as bringing new, previously unconsidered players into a negotiation--and cite examples from business and foreign affairs. Negotiators need to act in all three dimensions, the authors argue, to create and claim value for the long term.

  6. Alliances of cooperation: negotiating New Hampshire nurse practitioners' prescribing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Nurse practitioner legislation varies among states, particularly in relation to practice without physician oversight, altering the legal environment within which nurse practitioners can use knowledge and skills to meet patient needs. Using New Hampshire as a case study, this historical analysis of nurse practitioners' negotiations over time for independent practice, defined in state practice acts, illuminates the complex social and economic factors affecting nurses' struggle to gain legal rights over their own professional practice without supervision and intervention from another profession. In New Hampshire, not only did organized medicine oppose nurses rights to practice, but pharmacists demanded the right to control all aspects of medication management, including who could prescribe and under what circumstances prescribing could occur. Shifting social and political terrain as well as changes in legislative and state professional board leadership affected the environment and negotiations of a small group of nurses who were ultimately successful in obtaining the right to define their own professional practice.

  7. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  8. 48 CFR 315.372 - Preparation of negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of negotiation... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.372 Preparation of negotiation memorandum. The Contracting Officer shall prepare a negotiation memorandum, or summary...

  9. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  10. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: Persuasive arguments and cultural differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from l

  11. Techniques and Strategies of Language Use In Global Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许泽芳

    2012-01-01

    A successful negotiation needs the perfect combination of appropriate language use and flexible negotiation strategies.This paper,through discussing techniques of language use in global business negotiation a with some examples,tries to help improve the efficiency of international business negotiation.

  12. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.

  13. Learning How to Ask: Women and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Bajaj, Anureet K

    2017-03-01

    Women are less likely to reach top-level leadership positions, and more likely to leave academic positions, than men, and are likely to earn less money than men. Women are also less likely to initiate a negotiation-a process that is crucial for professional advancement. This reluctance to ask hinders their advancement and can have long-lasting consequences-both financial and professional. The reasons that women do not ask are multifactorial. In this article, we will explore reasons why women are less likely to negotiate, the barriers they face when they do, and strategies that women can apply to improve their negotiation skills.

  14. China-ASEAN investment agreement negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huiping

    2006-01-01

    China and the ASEAN are negotiating to establish a free trade area and an investment agreement is an integral part of it.The ongoing investment agreement negotiations have achieved some basic consensus as to specific contents of the agreement.However,due to the procedural obstacles and substantive controversies,the negotiations have become stagnant.In order to reach a final and successful conclusion of the investment agreement,the procedural obstacles should be' overcome and the substantive controversies be settled since the agreement has economic and political implications for both China and the ASEAN.

  15. A Discussion on the Relational Process of Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茜

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that business negotiation is an indispensable part in international trade and probably the most com⁃mon type of negotiation. Generally speaking, business negotiation is a process which business negotiators would make the interac⁃tion in order to get specific exchange goals. Because of the important role of business negotiations in business world, many Chi⁃nese researchers have engaged in study of business and achieved many useful findings. Although there are many researches in the field of business negotiation, focusing on the analysis of relational process of business negotiation is less, which is the main con⁃cern of this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to find the language mechanism and characteristic of business negotiation. At the mean⁃time, negotiators are more likely to attain the deep perception in choosing the better words and structure among the negotiation.

  16. Negotiator Risk: Sources of Uncertainty and the Impact of Reference Points on Negotiated Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom

    1998-11-01

    The settlement of a complex business negotiation inevitably requires the parties to assume substantial risks. Bargaining experiments, including those studying framing effects, have not. Two experiments examined the impact of reference points on negotiator tactics, concessions, and settlements in games with nondeterministic payoffs. In these experiments, subjects negotiated over chances to win a prize rather than directly over shares of the prize. In a reversal of the conventional findings with deterministic games, loss frame negotiators were more cooperative and more likely to settle. In the second experiment, subjects negotiated simultaneously over three linked lotteries, providing an opportunity to create value through risk spreading. In another reversal from deterministic games, loss frame negotiators created more integrative agreements. The impact of framing is clearly not uniform across all types of negotiations. It depends on the source of uncertainty confronting the parties. These experiments further establish and clarify the importance of variable risk preferences in understanding the negotiator framing effect. They also modify the conventional prescriptions given to negotiators and mediators regarding how to frame outcomes. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Modern approaches to agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Aydoğan, Reyhan; Hadfi, Rafik

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses several important aspects of complex automated negotiations and introduces a number of modern approaches for facilitating agents to conduct complex negotiations. It demonstrates that autonomous negotiation is one of the most important areas in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Further, it presents complex automated negotiation scenarios that involve negotiation encounters that may have, for instance, a large number of agents, a large number of issues with strong interdependencies and/or real-time constraints.

  18. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  19. Models for intercultural collaboration and negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sycara, Katia; Abbe, Allison

    2013-01-01

    This book bridges the gap in modelling collaboration and negotiation between computational sciences and social sciences. It opens up the field for cross fertilization of ideas and methods in both communities.

  20. Interdepartmental negotiation behavior in manufacturing organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A; Sanders, K

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine individual, relational, and organizational determinants of negotiation behavior (problem solving, contending, yielding, and avoiding) between planning and marketing departments in manufacturing organizations. Results from a study among 41 managers and 85 plannin

  1. 32 CFR 644.83 - Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will include, as a minimum, the following items: (1) Definition of the term “fair market value.” (2) An... negotiating patterns, and keeping in mind that counteroffers must be justified as being just and...

  2. Korea's Negotiations on Government Procurement in Telecommunications Sector: Evaluation and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Young Lie

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available KT, the major telecom service provider in Korea, was transformed into a purely private company in August 2002, in accordance with the complete divestiture of government's shares. Thereafter, KT has been entitled to manage its businesses with full degree of freedom with no government intervention or influence as long as its anti-competitive conducts are not concerned. However, it is worth noting that KT's procurement in fact is still being bound by bilateral and multilateral Government Procurement Agreements(GPAs which legally cover government or public entities only. This paper, motivated by the contradictory state of affairs, seeks to evaluate and get some lessons from the Korean government's negotiation strategies through scrutinizing its former GPAs negotiations in telecom sector and as well its recent follow-up negotiations for the exclusion of KT from them. Based upon the findings of this paper, the Korean government is generally responsible for the delay of follow-up negotiations from the perspectives as follows: first, it accepted 'Agreement' as a legal formality in the past, which is hard to modify in accordance with the change of procurement market environment; second, existing bilateral and multilateral GPAs lack the criteria for the exclusion of committed entities, while there was no such efforts made to arrange those in GPAs after taking effect; third, it lost appropriate timing to launch follow-up negotiations to exclude KT from GPAs; and finally, it lingered around in preparing negotiation leverages to turn the tables in the follow-up negotiations even after the complete privatization of KT. In this context, we could regard it as an effective and irreversible action for marking a new phase that the Korean government revised the domestic regulation affecting KT's procurement of telecom equipments around the end of 2003. What is important for the future bilateral negotiations is to target the termination of the Agreements rather than

  3. Implicit negotiation beliefs and performance: experimental and longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Laura J; Haselhuhn, Michael P

    2007-07-01

    The authors argue that implicit negotiation beliefs, which speak to the expected malleability of negotiating ability, affect performance in dyadic negotiations. They expected negotiators who believe negotiating attributes are malleable (incremental theorists) to outperform negotiators who believe negotiating attributes are fixed (entity theorists). In Study 1, they gathered evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the implicit negotiation belief construct. In Study 2, they examined the impact of implicit beliefs on the achievement goals that negotiators pursue. In Study 3, they explored the causal role of implicit beliefs on negotiation performance by manipulating negotiators' implicit beliefs within dyads. They also identified perceived ability as a moderator of the link between implicit negotiation beliefs and performance. In Study 4, they measured negotiators' beliefs in a classroom setting and examined how these beliefs affected negotiation performance and overall performance in the course 15 weeks later. Across all performance measures, incremental theorists outperformed entity theorists. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, incremental theorists captured more of the bargaining surplus and were more integrative than their entity theorist counterparts, suggesting implicit theories are important determinants of how negotiators perform. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Fuzzy Neural Networks for Decision Support in Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakas, D. P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2008-11-01

    There is a large number of parameters which one can take into account when building a negotiation model. These parameters in general are uncertain, thus leading to models which represents them with fuzzy sets. On the other hand, the nature of these parameters makes them very difficult to model them with precise values. During negotiation, these parameters play an important role by altering the outcomes or changing the state of the negotiators. One reasonable way to model this procedure is to accept fuzzy relations (from theory or experience). The action of these relations to fuzzy sets, produce new fuzzy sets which describe now the new state of the system or the modified parameters. But, in the majority of these situations, the relations are multidimensional, leading to complicated models and exponentially increasing computational time. In this paper a solution to this problem is presented. The use of fuzzy neural networks is shown that it can substitute the use of fuzzy relations with comparable results. Finally a simple simulation is carried in order to test the new method.

  5. Managerial Roles and Functions in Negotiation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kozina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on negotiation processes performed in a company and presents author’s concept of the description of the roles and functions accomplished by managers within those processes and being of significant importance from the point of view of negotiations’ outcomes. Such a concept aims at providing the analysis and conducting of business negotiations with effective support. Firstly (following introduction, the concept, types, and comprehensive model of such negotiations is presented as a useful methodological framework for specifying managerial roles and functions. Secondly, some classic concepts of those roles are reviewed, drawing special attention to the ones that concern negotiation process. Thirdly, general managerial functions within that process are described. Fourthly, those functions are precised by relating them to typical hierarchical levels. Fifthly, peculiar managerial functions within negotiating team are discussed. Finally, specific issue of the role of manager as a mediator is addressed. Summing up the paper, the crucial areas for subsequent research were pointed out. In order to elaborate the presented concept the author carried out the comparative study of negotiation literature as well as developed his original ideas.

  6. Hostage (crisis) negotiation: the potential role of negotiator personality, decision-making style, coping style and emotional intelligence on negotiator success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.

  7. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  8. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  9. Teaching the Art of Negotiation: Improving Students' Negotiating Confidence and Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Burns, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    Negotiation classes are one way in which many of today's managers try to develop negotiation skills. Despite the popularity of such courses, relatively little research has assessed their effectiveness in improving trainee self-confidence and posttraining transfer. The results of 2 data collection efforts indicate that students in a typical…

  10. Teaching the Art of Negotiation: Improving Students' Negotiating Confidence and Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Burns, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    Negotiation classes are one way in which many of today's managers try to develop negotiation skills. Despite the popularity of such courses, relatively little research has assessed their effectiveness in improving trainee self-confidence and posttraining transfer. The results of 2 data collection efforts indicate that students in a typical…

  11. The Social Negotiation of Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzounian, Gerard [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Gaston, Didier; Vindimian, Eric [INERIS, Vemeuil-en-Halatte (France); Brugnot, Gerard [CEMAGREF, St-Martin-d' Heres (France); Masure, Philippe [BRGM, Orleans (France)

    2001-07-01

    The prevention of risk and the necessary protection against its consequences require a sound scientific and technical approach that may only be achieved once all stakeholders mutually agree on the means to be used. Those means depend on a social structure that relies on their accessibility and on the nature of the risks that society is ready to assume. Such a structure raises a series of different questions, all with various connotations: Technical: Do we have solutions to prevent risk and limit its consequences? Scientific: What do we know about risk and to what extent is it possible to foresee an event and its potential consequences? Economical: What financial means can we allocate to risk prevention? Insurance: What types of risk may be covered? Political and ethical: What is the significance of the community concerned? What types of risk are acceptable? Legal: What liabilities stand with regard to risk prevention and protection? Societal and political: What process needs to be adopted? In a democracy, who may hold the responsibility to decide on behalf of the population? Any approach that would restrict unduly any of those parameters would lead inevitably to a series of contentions resulting from neglected aspects - and eventually to failure. That explains why several projects had to be abandoned or rejected in recent decades, simply because of insufficient consultation or interaction. The third phase involves qualitative and quantitative predictions of impacts on relevant targets (human beings, ecosystem, industrial or capital goods). After adopting a probabilistic approach (hierarchisation of causes according to more or less probabilistic scenarios) and rating effects on a severity scale, the assessment may proceed with the fourth phase where risks are evaluated, rated and categorised based on acceptable thresholds that lie at the core of the social negotiation. Once the risk assessment is over, the risk manager is able to take preventive, protective and

  12. 欧盟与美国气候变化公约谈判进程跟踪与我国林业对策研究%The US and EU Negotiation Process of the Climate Change Convention and the Research of China Forestry Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢琳琳; 梁丹

    2016-01-01

    为研究我国林业领域减排的对应策略,对欧盟与美国气候谈判提案进行分析,结合欧美土地利用、土地利用变化和林业(LULUCF)领域减排的目标和预测,比较分析了中国林业在减排方面需要考虑的困难和挑战。参考欧盟、美国等国家的相关做法与关键技术,进行谈判模拟情景分析,考虑并结合全球气候政治格局和国际森林政治格局变化等诸多因素,把握和引导我国应对气候变化的国际进程方向,促进林业领域减排机制的构建与谈判,得出有利的国际减排制度安排。%With the purpose of researching the strategy of emission reduction in China’s forestry field,the paper analyzes the climate negotiation proposal between the US and EU,Combining the land use,the change of land use and the targets and prediction of forestry emission reduction in Europe and the US,the conclusion is drawn through the comparative analysis. For the aspect of China’s emission reduction in for-estry,we need to consider possible difficulties and challenges. Through referring to the practice and key technology of other countries such as EU and the US,the paper analyzes the simulated negotiation situa-tion. Considering the pattern of global politics and climate,and the pattern of international forestry and politics and many other factors,we hold and lead the correct international process direction to response to the climate change,and promote the construction and negotiation of the mechanism of emission reduction in forestry field to develop a beneficial arrangement of the international emission reduction institution.

  13. WEB SERVICES COMPOSING BY MULTIAGENT NEGOTIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Composing web services is gained daily attention in Service Oriented Computing.It includes the dynamic discovery,interaction and coordination of agent-based semantic web services.The authors first follow Function Ontology and Automated Mechanism Design for service agents aggregating.Then the problem is formulated but it is ineffective to solve it from the traditional global view.Because the complexity is NP-complete and it is difficult or even impossible to get some personal information.This paper provides a multi-agent negotiation idea in which each participant negotiates under the condition of its reservation payoff being satisfied.Numerical experiment is given and well evaluates the negotiation.

  14. Contract Negotiations Supported Through Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio A.; Vaz, Marco A.; Souza, Jano M.

    Many clients often view software as a commodity; then, it is critical that IT sellers know how to create value into their offering to differentiate their service from all the others. Clients sometimes refuse to contract software development due to lack of technical understanding or simply because they are afraid of IT contractual commitments. The IT negotiators who recognize the importance of this issue and the reason why it is a problem will be able to work to reach the commercial terms they want. Therefore, this chapter aims to stimulate IT professionals to improve their negotiation skills and presents a computational tool to support managers to get the best out of software negotiations through the identification of contract risks.

  15. Citizen Participation in School District Negotiations--Boon or Boondoggle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Advocates public involvement in the whole collective negotiations process, and the formation of a citizens advisory committee on collective negotiation to advise the school board on the issues being proposed or discussed at the bargaining table. (Author/MLF)

  16. Next frontier in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on automated negotiations based on multi-agent systems. It is intended for researchers and students in various fields involving autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as e-commerce tools, decision-making and negotiation support systems, and collaboration tools. The contents will help them to understand the concept of automated negotiations, negotiation protocols, negotiating agents’ strategies, and the applications of those strategies. In this book, some negotiation protocols focusing on the multiple interdependent issues in negotiations are presented, making it possible to find high-quality solutions for the complex agents’ utility functions. This book is a compilation of the extended versions of the very best papers selected from the many that were presented at the International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations.

  17. New Trends in Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Fatima, Shaheen; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2012-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations represent an important, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. Automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. These factors include the number of issues, dependencies between these issues,  representation of utilities, the negotiation protocol, the number of parties in the negotiation (bilateral or multi-party), time constraints, etc. Software agents can support automation or simulation of such complex negotiations on the behalf of their owners, and can provide them with efficient bargaining strategies. To realize such a complex automated negotiation, we have to incorporate advanced Artificial Intelligence technologies includes search, CSP, graphical utility models, Bayes nets, auctions, utility graphs, predicting and learning methods. Applications could include e-commerce tools, decision-making support tools, negotiation support tools, collaboration tools, etc. This book aims to pro...

  18. Communication & Negotiation Skills Workshop for Women II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.

  19. Communication & Negotiation Skills Workshop for Women I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.

  20. Negotiating in a managed care world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barbara F; Roettele, Steve

    2005-10-01

    Medical managed care, once thought to be a passing influence affecting large urban markets only, has proven to be a dominating factor in virtually every medical practice in the country. Discounted rates, steerage, utilization management, pay for performance, and other managed care strategies are likely to be a provider's reality for the foreseeable future. It is imperative that physicians develop negotiating skills and educate themselves about how to negotiate not only rates but also the other components discussed herein that ultimately determine the economic viability of a managed care agreement.

  1. Obligation of negotiation and facultative arbitration as part of constitutional law content on collective negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Boza Pró

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies constitutional bases of two essential institutions of Collective Labor Law: employer’s obligation to negotiate collectively and facultative arbitration. In relation to the first one, using tools provided bythe Theory of Law, it is argued that the section 28º of Peruvian Constitution establishes a collective negotiation concept as claim (not as permission so, employers legal obligation of collective negotiation is constitutional. In theother hand, regarding facultative arbitration, it has constitutional support on state’s obligation to promote pacific ways to labor conflicts; even though, it is questioned that a «sub constitutional» rule has restrictively regulated this institution.

  2. International Business Negotiation Under The Impact of Cultural Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Danciu

    2011-01-01

    The negotiation is part of the international business which plays the role of turn-table inside the working model of international relationships. The differences between the cultures of the negotiators, known as cultural distance, are the most subtle influences on negotiation. The problems that are generated by the cultural distance could be identified at the different levels of the hierarchy of various factors for success, negotiation styles, thinking processes and decision making. The cultu...

  3. Negotiating a successful return to work program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guida, A W

    1995-02-01

    This article has examined selected reasons why companies resist implementation of return to work programs. The reasons include many fears that companies can readily justify. Nearly all the fears can be eliminated when the occupational health nurse applies both nursing and management principles. As a specialized line manager in the company, with a specialty in people and systems management, the occupational health nurse is the most likely person to plan and implement a successful program. To design, implement, and manage the plan to a successful end, the occupational health nurse must enhance skills in language, salesmanship, and quantifying results. Success must be measured in both people and dollar terms to have relevance to the company, its bottom line, and its employees. People results, the harder of the two to measure, have value in helping to establish positive attitudes of program participants toward the company. People results also help prevent the development of disability syndrome by ill or injured employees by keeping them connected to work and productivity. People results also can be measured by the change in culture the return to work program is likely to produce among managers and employees. The resulting culture will reflect a sense of caring by the company about employees, and expectation that manipulation of the company by opportunists will be reduced, as scarce company resources will be conserved. The early return to work program is managed within employee capabilities in a therapeutic environment during the recovery process. In the long term, financial success of the return to work program can be measured by reduced costs per claim annually. Using the nursing, management, financial, and marketing principles discussed in this article, the occupational health nurse can improve chances of negotiating implementation of a successful early return to work program.

  4. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... memorandum. 49.110 Section 49.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  5. 32 CFR 644.85 - General negotiation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General negotiation procedures. 644.85 Section... negotiation procedures. (a) Provisions of Military Construction Appropriation Act. (1) Section 108 of the... of Pub. L. 91-646 and this chapter. (c) Negotiations on the basis of ownership;...

  6. 48 CFR 570.105-1 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 570.105-1 Section 570.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... by negotiation. Contracting by negotiation is usually appropriate for acquiring space in a...

  7. 48 CFR 15.406-3 - Documenting the negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... negotiation. 15.406-3 Section 15.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.406-3 Documenting the negotiation. (a) The contracting officer shall document in the contract file the principal elements of...

  8. 48 CFR 852.273-71 - Alternative negotiation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative negotiation....273-71 Alternative negotiation techniques. As prescribed in 873.110(b), insert the following provision: Alternative Negotiation Techniques (JAN 2003) The contracting officer may elect to use the...

  9. 48 CFR 36.520 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation... by negotiation. The contracting officer shall insert in solicitations for construction the provision at 52.236-28, Preparation of Offers—Construction, when contracting by negotiation....

  10. 12 CFR 269.9 - Mediation of negotiation impasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of negotiation impasses. 269.9... RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.9 Mediation of negotiation impasses. In the event of an impasse in negotiations between the parties for a collective...

  11. Consulting on Negotiation: Teaching Business Students Basic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, Jacqueline M.

    2009-01-01

    The art of negotiation is understood by few people or regularly utilized, and yet most people negotiate several times a day. Each time a person buys a product or service, an internal as well as external negotiation occurs. People barter professionally, personally, and psychologically with little or no thought of improving this much-needed skill.…

  12. 48 CFR 215.406-3 - Documenting the negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... negotiation. 215.406-3 Section 215.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.406-3 Documenting the negotiation. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.406-3...

  13. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and...

  14. 48 CFR 970.1504-2 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 970... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-2 Price negotiation. (a) Management and operating contract prices (fee) and DOE obligations to support...

  15. Rethinking TBLT in Context: The Negotiation of Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The idea that task-based learning can be facilitated through negotiated interaction has been a major object of research amongst scholars interested in task-based language teaching for at least 30 years. In this article, I focus largely on one particular type of negotiation--the negotiation of form (hereafter NoF). My purpose is not to cast doubt…

  16. International Negotiation Simulations: An Examination of Learning Processes and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Ron; Sharland, Alex; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Negotiation skills are valuable tools especially in the international business context. However, the extent to which negotiation simulations build new skills rather than augment existing skills is unclear. This empirical study focuses on the extent to which Mexican students and U.S. students learned from a negotiation simulation. The results…

  17. 25 CFR 1001.3 - Priority ranking for negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Priority ranking for negotiations. 1001.3 Section 1001.3... PROGRAM § 1001.3 Priority ranking for negotiations. In addition to the eligibility criteria identified above, a tribe or consortium of tribes seeking priority ranking for negotiations must submit...

  18. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  19. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  20. A Study of Metadiscourse in Business English Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ya-nan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis uses Hyland’s (2008) interpersonal model of metadiscourse to collect and analyze the metadiscourse resourc-es employed in BE negotiation. The author aims to analyze the distribution and the utilization of metadiscourse resources in BE negotiation and wishes this research would play a positive and useful role in coming up with better strategies for the efficient and successful BE negotiation.

  1. Let's dans! An analytic framework of negotiation dynamics and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.; Tykhonov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The “negotiation dance”, as Raiffa calls the dynamic pattern of the bidding, has an important influence on the outcome of the negotiation. The current practice of evaluating a negotiation strategy is to focus on fairness and quality aspects of the agreement. In this article we present the framework

  2. Acute Effects of Walking Exercise on Stair Negotiation in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Marcos R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Bobbert, Maarten F; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-07-01

    In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n = 15) and physically active older adults (n = 15) after prolonged exercise. Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill. Foot clearances were compared before and after exercise and between the groups. Sedentary older adults presented larger (0.5 cm for lead and 2 cm for trail leg) toe clearances in ascent, smaller (0.7 cm) heel clearance in the leading foot in descent, and larger (1 cm) heel clearance in the trailing foot in descent than physically active. Sedentary older adults negotiate stairs in a slightly different way than active older adults, and 30 min walking at preferred speed does not affect clearance in stair negotiation.

  3. Group Member Prototypicality and Intergroup Negotiation: How One's Standing in the Group Affects Negotiation Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); W. Steinel (Wolfgang); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); M.A. Hogg (Michael); A. Svensson

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow does a representative's position in the group influence behaviour in intergroup negotiation? Applying insights from the social identity approach (specifically self-categorization theory), the effects of group member prototypicality, accountability, and group attractiveness on competi

  4. If not negotiation, then what? Gender equality and the organization of everyday life in Swedish couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Evertsson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Freed from the bonds of traditional gendered norms, responsibilities and obligations, it has been argued that negotiation is a key concept for understanding how modern couples organize their common life together. Interviews with Swedish couples cause us to question this assumption. In this article we argue that negotiations are relatively unusual in couple relationships. We found that couples seldom experience the reason, room space or need to negotiate. This can in part be understood from the perspective of seeing everyday life as a matter of practical coordination, i.e. as something we strive to master rather than something we try to change or critically reflect upon. We found that routines and rituals were a guiding force in how couples organize their everyday lives. “Doing gender”, “doing couple”, external circumstances and agreement were all central aspects in making the everyday lives of the couples we interviewed work.

  5. The influences of new commercial premises within the European Union over trade negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur, I. G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of alignment with European Union standards, commercial activities become true instruments of market mechanisms regulation within which commercial negotiation is expanding the role of a central pillar in facing highly competitive and continued restructuring generator market. Taking this into consideration, we found necessary to examine the influences of these new coordinates that generate economic and structural changes of commercial negotiation process, in the idea of positive dimensioning of a commercial transaction profitability curve.We will therefore proceed at highlighting the economic consequences generated by the new trade coordinates influences, from the European States level, over commercial negotiation process, also coupled with the amplification of the current economic and financial crisis.

  6. "How Are You?": Negotiating Phatic Communion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Justine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines phatic processes in elderly people's response to the question "How are you?" as "negotiation" following the conversation analysis tradition of research on greetings and troubles-telling, rather than as conventionalized and desemanticized discourse. Implications for gerontological and medical research of discourse…

  7. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  8. Negotiating Identity Development among Undocumented Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lauren Marie

    2010-01-01

    This purpose of this qualitative dissertation study was to capture the meaning and various dimensions related to being an undocumented immigrant youth in the United States, and to develop a grounded theory regarding how undocumented immigrant students negotiate their identity development in light of these dimensions. A semi-structured interview…

  9. 75 FR 25150 - NVOCC Negotiated Rate Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... requirement inhibits the beneficial effects of competition for shippers (NYNJFFF&BA at 3); that the tariff... shippers can rely on tariff rates to be accurate, complete and in effect for 30 days; in the event of a... exemption for non-vessel-operating common carriers agreeing to negotiated rate arrangements from...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.519 - Negotiation impasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the HSLRB's regulations will provide for a single, integrated process to address all matters... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiation impasses. 9701.519 Section 9701.519 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM...

  11. M&A Negotiations and Lawyer Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, C.; Malmendier, U.; Sautner, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We use proprietary data to look into the "black box" of M&A negotiations and to shed light on the effects of lawyer expertise on M&A contract design, the bargaining process, and acquisition pricing. Measuring the effects of buyer relative to seller lawyer expertise, we document that more expertise i

  12. The Negotiation of Meaning in Epistemic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a commentary on a model for negotiation in teaching-learning dialogues (Baker 1994) that traces its origins and developments over the past 20 years. The first main section of the paper describes the research background out of which the model arose, within the "credo" of individualised tutoring of the 1980s. This is…

  13. 77 FR 59343 - Contracting by Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 188 (Thursday, September 27, 2012)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 59343-59344] [FR Doc No: 2012-23944] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 3415 Contracting by Negotiation CFR Correction In Title 48 of the Code of...

  14. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  15. Formula Approaches for Market Access Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); W. Martin (William)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of the large tariff reductions achieved in multilateral trade negotiations have involved tariff-cutting formulas such as the "Swiss" formula. However, wide variations in initial tariff rates between active participants call for new approaches under the Doha Development Agenda. This

  16. The hostage experience: implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Noelanders, Sigrid; Vervaeke, Geert

    2005-01-01

    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  17. How to manage your negotiating team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne M; Friedman, Ray; Behfar, Kristin

    2009-09-01

    You are leading a negotiating team for your company. When you sit down with the other party, someone on your side of the table blurts out: "Just tell us--what do we need to do to get more of your business?" And in that moment, you know you've lost the upper hand. Gaffes like this are more common than most businesspeople would care to admit, management professors Brett, Friedman, and Behfar have found in their research. Even though team members are all technically on the same side, they often have different priorities and imagine different ideal outcomes: Business development just wants to close the deal. Finance is most concerned about costs. Legal is focused on patents and intellectual property. The authors recommend taking four steps, either singly or in tandem, to align those goals: Map out each person's priorities, work out conflicts directly with departments, employ a mediator if that doesn't work, and use data to resolve differences. Once you are all on the same page, you can take steps to make sure everyone is coordinated during the negotiations themselves. Try simulating the negotiation beforehand, assigning roles to team members that take advantage of their strengths, and establishing the signals you will use to communicate with one another during the session. The payoff from working as a cohesive group is clear. With access to greater expertise and the ability to assign members to specialized roles, teams can implement more-complex strategies than a sole negotiator could ever pull off.

  18. The hostage experience : Implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E; Noelanders, S; Vervaeke, G

    2005-01-01

    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  19. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  20. Fighting Back: Negotiating under the Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Gary E.; Henry, Roderick; Kolnick, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This January, the Inter Faculty Organization, the union representing nearly 3,300 faculty members at the seven Minnesota state universities, took the unusual step of making an offer that broke dramatically with past practice and with typical union negotiating. The Minnesota faculty offered to accept a pay freeze while holding current contract…

  1. Unpacking the CRT in Negotiating White Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton; Rhodes, Billye; Brown, Corliss

    2011-12-01

    In this forum, we summarize CRT's origins, tenets common to most CRT writings, and CRT's evolution. We discuss Yerrick's article Negotiating White Science with respect to certain CRT premises. Specifically, we use the CRT tenet of racism as emphasized in first- and second-generation CRT and CRT elements liberal racial ideology and voices of color to critically examine Yerrick's propositions.

  2. Formula Approaches for Market Access Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); W. Martin (William)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of the large tariff reductions achieved in multilateral trade negotiations have involved tariff-cutting formulas such as the "Swiss" formula. However, wide variations in initial tariff rates between active participants call for new approaches under the Doha Development Agenda. This

  3. 48 CFR 36.606 - Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.606 Negotiations. (a... seek advance agreement (see 31.109) on any charges for computer-assisted design. When the firm's proposal does not cover appropriate modern and cost-effective design methods (e.g., computer-assisted...

  4. Negotiation Performance: Antecedents, Outcomes, and Training Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    64 Morris & Gelfand (2004): Culture and Cognition in Negotiation ...................................65 Brett & Gelfand (2006): A...lead to erroneous attributions about their preferences ( Morris , Larrick, & Su, 1999), a failure to maximize joint gain (Thompson & Hrebec, 1996...genesis in the axioms of individual utility derived from Bayesian Decision Theory (Morgenstern & von Neumann, 1947; deGroot , 1970). Early game

  5. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  6. Negotiating Your Syllabus: Building a Collaborative Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.; Renard, Monika K.

    2015-01-01

    We provide instruction for engaging students in negotiating their course syllabus. In contrast to the common conceptualization of the syllabus as an instructor-determined contract, we involve our students in developing the collaborative contract under which they will be evaluated. We discuss our successful facilitation of this activity and how to…

  7. An Intimate Encounter: Negotiating Subtitled Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Flynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of subtitling has received little attention in Film Studies, despite being the primary means by which foreign-language cinema is experienced. Current literature focuses on important matters of language and translation, but there are other aspects that exceed these matters when we watch subtitled films, aspects which are able to affect and move viewers without relying on explanation through translation. My paper shows how viewers have to negotiate these affective elements in order to apprehend foreign-language films, with special attention on their indeterminate characteristics that escape representation. It considers the negotiation of subtitled cinema from numerous theoretical perspectives. Gilles Deleuze’s film-philosophy is popular in Film Studies for its theoretical flows and lines of flight, but this paper engages another Deleuzian thread—one of gaps and fissure—in order to explore the indeterminate negotiations of subtitled films. But in thinking about subtitling, we also have to reconsider the constitution of media. Cinema is not just made up of individual parts; rather, it is made of many interacting media, which cannot be separated. I argue that subtitled cinema consists of multiple affective elements that go beyond the interpretive methods of language and translation, and that the practice of negotiation is one way to apprehend them. In conclusion, this article, by exploring non-linguistic issues, argues that subtitling is not simply supplementary to cinema.

  8. Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yujeong

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair…

  9. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a price providing the contractor the greatest incentive for efficient and economical performance... profit or fee negotiated to achieve a total result—a price that is fair and reasonable to both the... affect the profit or fee objective. Because profit or fee is only one of several interrelated...

  10. Fighting Back: Negotiating under the Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Gary E.; Henry, Roderick; Kolnick, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This January, the Inter Faculty Organization, the union representing nearly 3,300 faculty members at the seven Minnesota state universities, took the unusual step of making an offer that broke dramatically with past practice and with typical union negotiating. The Minnesota faculty offered to accept a pay freeze while holding current contract…

  11. Negotiating the Curriculum: Surviving the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Molly Poland is a first year English and Home Economics teacher who began her career in a small Far North Queensland town. In this article, she writes about her first year teaching and the last year of her degree and the challenges she faced as both teacher and student. Reading Boomer's "Negotiating the Curriculum" forced her to…

  12. Setting up Conditions for Negotiation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Bennett, William; Mendez, Claudia Aguirre; Hand, Brian

    2010-01-01

    When using an argument based inquiry approach like the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, argumentation between peers and with a teacher will provide great opportunities for students to experience negotiation of meaning in relation to science content. However, students do not automatically engage in dialogue and argumentation with…

  13. Business negotiations on different culture context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐芳

    2015-01-01

    With economic globalization and China’s entry into WTO, commercial contacts among various countries are bound to be increasingly substantial. As a result, negotiation among people who come from different cultural backgrounds will certainly become a universal issue that arouses concern among people in different countries.

  14. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  15. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the negotiation of the sick role is a social process. In this process, GPs not only use traditional biomedical diagnostic tools but also rely on their own opinions and evaluations of a patient...

  16. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pannebakker, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and acceptance to the formation of contract in the context of negotiations. The paper argues that while the doctrine of offer and acceptance is designed to assess the issues related to the substance of the ...

  17. The Power and Challenge of Facilitating Reframing: Applications in Teaching Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Reframing is the ability to identify and significantly change assumptions or perspectives. It is a powerful skill but can be difficult to learn and apply. This article presents two experiential exercises for teaching reframing in negotiations: the Rental Home case and the Multiplex Saw case. These exercises are designed to produce frame-shifting…

  18. Simulation of Climate Negotiation Strategies between China and the U.S. Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Gang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Jin, Z.-G., W.-J. Cai, and C. Wang, 2014: Simulation of climate negotiation strategies between China and the U.S. based on game theory.Adv. Clim. Change Res.,5(1, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.034.

  19. COP21 climate negotiators' responses to climate model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Weber, Elke; Berger, Loïc; Budescu, David V.; Liu, Ning; Tavoni, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Policymakers involved in climate change negotiations are key users of climate science. It is therefore vital to understand how to communicate scientific information most effectively to this group. We tested how a unique sample of policymakers and negotiators at the Paris COP21 conference update their beliefs on year 2100 global mean temperature increases in response to a statistical summary of climate models' forecasts. We randomized the way information was provided across participants using three different formats similar to those used in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports. In spite of having received all available relevant scientific information, policymakers adopted such information very conservatively, assigning it less weight than their own prior beliefs. However, providing individual model estimates in addition to the statistical range was more effective in mitigating such inertia. The experiment was repeated with a population of European MBA students who, despite starting from similar priors, reported conditional probabilities closer to the provided models' forecasts than policymakers. There was also no effect of presentation format in the MBA sample. These results highlight the importance of testing visualization tools directly on the population of interest.

  20. Personality determinants of manipulative behavior in the negotiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila V. Matveeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations are an inalienable component of human society in the modernworld, so studying those personal characteristics of negotiators that infl uencetheir choice of negotiating strategy, tactics, and style is relevant and signifi cant.Knowledge of the patterns of a partner’s choice of one strategy of behavior or anotherinfl uences on successful negotiation process and assists in achieving goals.We did research on the connections among level of anxiety, motivation to succeedand to avoid failure, and self-esteem to the level of Machiavellianism. This articlediscusses the personal characteristics that infl uence the choice of manipulativetactics of behavior in negotiations.

  1. Re-negotiation of the International Space Station Agreements—1993-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Gibbs, Graham

    2003-12-01

    During the Spring of 1993, at the request of the US President, the Space Station partners, under the leadership of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), undertook a fundamental redesign of the Space Station and the manner by which NASA would manage the program. Coincident with the 1993 redesign, NASA initiated discussions with the Russian Federation with the view to Russia becoming a partner in the Space Station Program. This resulted in the partners (the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan) issuing, on December 6, 1993, an invitation to Russia to enter into negotiations to become a partner in the International Space Station Program. Originally, the negotiations were intended to center exclusively around the changes required to the government and agency-level Space Station Agreements to bring Russia into the partnership, and to reflect the changes resulting from the 1993 redesign. After the commencement of the negotiations it became necessary to also reflect changes due to restructuring of the European and Canadian partners' programs, and various desires of the partners to confirm in the legal framework new provisions for dealing with cost control and common operations activities. This paper provides a summary of the complex legal and programmatic multinational negotiations that took place between 1993 and 1997 on a multilateral Intergovernmental Agreement and four bilateral space agency-level Memoranda of Understanding. This paper puts these most recent negotiations in the context of the first set of agreements which were signed in September 1988, explains the process the original partners put in place for the 1993-1997 Round of negotiations, and the substantive issues that resulted together with the solutions agreed. The paper captures in one document the most relevant aspects of these important international negotiations, and complements those papers previously presented by the authors at the 45th and 47th Congresses of the

  2. Cognitive Negotiation Schemata in the IT Industries of Japan and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Baber, William W.; Ojala, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature emphasizes the importance of negotiation skills in the field of IT. However, negotiation and negotiation styles in the IT industry have received limited attention. This original empirical research compares the negotiation schemata of Finnish and Japanese IT business people. The study identifies negotiation schemata used in one or both culture groups. Negotiators with greater experience and power in the negotiation process command more schemata. However, ...

  3. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members' roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining-a previously undocumented process-to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants' efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity's hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition.

  4. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members’ roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining—a previously undocumented process—to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants’ efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity’s hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition. PMID:26273105

  5. Automated negotiation system for tourism enterprises based on RBR and CBR technology%融合RBR和CBR的旅游服务企业自动谈判系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓文; 于瑾

    2012-01-01

    针对旅游服务企业间的自动谈判问题,引入规则推理和案例推理技术,提出一种新的自动谈判系统.对存在契约规则的谈判活动,引入RBR技术利用契约规则简化自动谈判过程;对不存在契约规则的谈判活动,引入CBR技术利用谈判案例库中的相似案例提取自动谈判策略.详细阐述了该系统的总体框架、自动谈判流程、谈判知识库和核心Agent的设计.%The negotiation subject and elements of tourism enterprises is changed relatively small and is easy to transform into rules or cases. For these features, an automated negotiation system for tourism service enterprises based on RBR and CBR is proposed to improve the negotiation efficiency. For negotiations which have contract rules stored in rule base, the system will simplify the negotiation process employing the rules. The system will generate the automated negotiation strategy from the negotiation case base when there are no contract rules existing in the negotiation entities. The system architecture, automated negotiation process, design of negotiation case base and core agents is elaborated.

  6. Producing Appropriation: Negotiating Islam-Sunda in Terebang Sejak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneng Yanti Khozanatu Lahpan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is an ethnographic account of my research on negotiating Islam and Sunda in Islamic Sundanese music. By taking special case of Terebang Sejak, I draw my attention on the issue based on my fieldwork in Cikeusal village, TasikMalaya, West Java. Observations and interviews are the main tools I used in gathering information. By presenting particularity of Terebang Sejak, this paper aims to present complexity and negotiations that are formed from the interaction between Islam and Sunda in the music in the village. In this context, presenting the idea of the truism of marginalizing Islam on local culture is in accordance with the idea of Indonesian modernity, which has parallelism with the mission of modernist Islam. While many scholars describe Islam in Indonesia with the idea of syncretism to depict the religion as ‘not really Islam’, in this article I provide different interpretation of localizing Islam by which people produce their own interpretation and appropriation in response to social and political changes in their environs. This interpretation will contribute to new understanding in addressing the particularity of meanings based on local knowledge, among Cikeusal people that forms what coded as ‘identity’ of being Muslim-Sunda. Here, Islamic text of Kitab Mulud in the music has played an agentive role to acknowledge the music as Islamic, thus continues to be part of ritual. 

  7. Nursing home negotiations and narrations in challenging, transnational situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Swane, Christine E.; Algreen-Petersen, Eva

    Nursing home negotiations and narrations in challenging, transnational situations In the city of Copenhagen a public nursing home is developing a new profile that aims at attracting older migrants and refugees together with other ethnic Danes in order to spend their last months or years in an ins......Nursing home negotiations and narrations in challenging, transnational situations In the city of Copenhagen a public nursing home is developing a new profile that aims at attracting older migrants and refugees together with other ethnic Danes in order to spend their last months or years...... in an institutional setting. For more than 100 years Denmark has offered public nursing homes to frail older persons and hence represents a culture where institutional caretaking is accepted and expected. Today, the major part of homecare and nursing homes in Denmark are public or subsidised by state....... The methodological approach is phenomenological through ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews. The aim is to follow the discourses and practices related to concepts of diversity as they may change during the three years, as well as the everyday life communication, care routines and rituals related...

  8. Negotiating autonomy at the margins of the state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent processes of decentralization have dramatically changed local political configurations and access to resources throughout Indonesia. In particular, the resource-rich regions at the margins of the state have, in the name of regional autonomy, experienced new spaces for manoeuvre...... in their claims for a larger share of forest resources. By stressing the unfolding relationship between local ethnic elites and the state, and their different strategies in negotiating and claiming authority over forests within Indonesia's changing forest regimes, the paper examines how local-level politics has...... taken on its special configuration in the remote border region of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The author demonstrates this by focusing on the ongoing struggle over forest resources and by tracking the fate of a political movement for a new district in this resource-rich region. The paper further...

  9. Evolution with reinforcement learning in negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Zhan, Wenjie; Shao, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive behavior depends less on the details of the negotiation process and makes more robust predictions in the long term as compared to in the short term. However, the extant literature on population dynamics for behavior adjustment has only examined the current situation. To offset this limitation, we propose a synergy of evolutionary algorithm and reinforcement learning to investigate long-term collective performance and strategy evolution. The model adopts reinforcement learning with a tradeoff between historical and current information to make decisions when the strategies of agents evolve through repeated interactions. The results demonstrate that the strategies in populations converge to stable states, and the agents gradually form steady negotiation habits. Agents that adopt reinforcement learning perform better in payoff, fairness, and stableness than their counterparts using classic evolutionary algorithm.

  10. Intercultural health care as reflective negotiated practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey

    2003-11-01

    This interpretive study sought to understand how intercultural health care to immigrants can be practically conceptualized in multicultural populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 Canadian health service informants, and 12 interviews were staged during 31 months with a multicultural coordinator in an Australian teaching hospital. Transcripts of 11 previously conducted group discussions with 34 staff members from this same Australian hospital were also included. Interpretation was based on these data as well as on the literature and the author's own experience. It was concluded that intercultural health care can be practically conceptualized as reflective health worker practice. Through this practice, responsive care can be situationally negotiated between the health worker and the client in a framework of jointly considered needs. For implementation, the barriers to negotiation must be addressed.

  11. The Function of Negotiation in Iranian EFL Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is believed to play a key role in language learning in general and vocabulary learning in particular. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of types of instructions (negotiation, non-negotiation, or in isolation on learning and recalling of new words by Iranian learners. Using a quasi-experimental research design, 39 EFL students of a secondary school were sampled and assigned into three experimental groups: the input plus negotiated group (IPN, the input without negotiated group (IWN, and the elaborative, un-instructed input group (EUI. The first group had the chance for negotiated interaction; the second one received the input without any negotiation with their instructor and the last group received elaborative input without any interaction with their teachers. The groups were rated on their degree of comprehension and the acquisition of vocabulary items. The results revealed that negotiation had a non-significant effect over non-negotiation tasks. However, the results indicated that negotiation was significantly effective against un-instruction task. Thus, in acquisition and retention of new vocabulary, IPN group was not significantly different than IWN group, but they outperformed those learners who used their own strategy to learn new words (EUI.

  12. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  13. impacts of cultural differences on intemational business negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦碳

    2011-01-01

    today,the world is fast developing in the age of economic globalization.business contacts among nations get increasingly close,which has brought more and more opportunities for business field.economic interdependence is much productive to the cooperation between companies.and the successful business,to a great extent,depends on the mutually beneficial negotiation.negotiators from different countries come together and discuss their common and conflicting interests; meanwhile,they bring different cultures to the negotiating table,which have important impacts on negotiation.culture forges values and religious belief that define one' s thinking and behavior.therefore,negotiators with different cultural backgrounds employ different negotiating strategies.cultural differences will certainly result in cultural conflicts,especially for enormous differences between the eastern culture and western culture.thus,to negotiate effectively,negotiators should have a good understanding of culture and cultural differences.more importantly,they should know how negotiation is affected by culture.in doing so,negotiators can predict the process and adjust strategies in order to reach a satisfactory agreement

  14. Tangoing All the Way: Is Everything Negotiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Bonfield

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available “Negotiation seems like dancing the Tango, two steps forward, two steps back and suddenly three surprising steps forward.” — Margot Wallström Smart, well-intentioned people often have good reasons for saying stupid things. Who hasn’t been swept up in an election, worried that there will be terrible consequences if we put the wrong person in the [...

  15. Tangoing All the Way: Is Everything Negotiable?

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Bonfield

    2011-01-01

    Negotiation seems like dancing the Tango, two steps forward, two steps back and suddenly three surprising steps forward.” — Margot Wallström Smart, well-intentioned people often have good reasons for saying stupid things. Who hasn’t been swept up in an election, worried that there will be terrible consequences if we put the wrong person in the [...

  16. Managing motivation at the workplace through negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Davide Rua; Paulo NOVAIS; Zeleznikow, John; Andrade, Francisco Carneiro Pacheco; Neves, José

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that our performance and satisfaction at work depends more on motivational factors than the number of hours or the intensity of the work. In this paper we propose a framework aimed at managing motivation to improve workplace indicators. The key idea is to allow team managers and workers to negotiate over the conditions of the tasks so as to find the best motivation for the worker within the constraints of what the organization may offer. This work is pa...

  17. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  18. Cultural Impact on International Business Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Thörnblom, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    Background: The increasing global business competitiveness thoroughly intensifies the demand for improvements of communication and negotiation skills in order to adjust competence to successfully conduct the work of getting treaties of cooperation and business development to work everywhere. It is simply a matter of survival for an increasing amount of multinational companies operating in all kinds of different locations and businesses around the world. This state of nature also holds for Swe...

  19. Metropolitan Pollution Reduction by Intelligent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei; WANG Yun; WANG Cheng-dao

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of pollution reduction in metropolises by means of intelligent negotiation in multi-agent systems.For situations of complete information, it gives a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm for computing the pollution-reduction solutions; For situations of incomplete information, it puts forward a genetic algorithm for computing the best solutions for every plants subjectively and proposes market-mechanism-based algorithm for computing the emission-redistribution solutions objectively.

  20. Gendered Negotiations of Competences and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Tanggard Andersen, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present some results from our studies of wage formation in four large Danish private businesses. Our aim is to show how the evaluation of employees, which appears to be gender-neutral, in reality follows gender divisions, for example according to ideas of gendered parenting....... The article discusses how negotiations of competences and management affect women's and men's opportunities in work-life, especially women's opportunities in terms of reaching the executive level in Danish business....

  1. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Negotiation of identities in intercultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janík Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of identities in communication entails affirming the identities we want others to recognize in us and ascription of identities we mutually assign to each other in communication. The study of intercultural communication focuses on cultural identity as the principal identity component that defines intercultural communication. In this article, the assumption that cultural group membership factors determine the context of intercultural communication is questioned. The article examines how intercultural interlocutors negotiate their identities in various intercultural interactions. The aims of the research presented in this paper are: 1 to examine which identities - cultural, personal, or social - intercultural interlocutors activate in intercultural communication; 2 to determine whether interlocutors’ intercultural communication is largely influenced by their cultural identities; 3 and to identify situations in which they activate their cultural identities (3. The research data were collected from 263 international students studying at Masaryk University in Brno in the years 2010 - 2016. Although the research results are not conclusive, they indicate that cultural identities predominate in the students’ ethnocentric views and that stereotypes constrain the students’ cultural identities and affect the negotiation of identities in intercultural communication.

  3. An Information Technology Tool to Support Negotiating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Montanana

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses computer-supported large-scale negotiation, in particular, negotiation with advisers. It is claimed that better communication within negotiating teams should lead to longer, more productive sessions than the current ones. To this end, an information technology environment should be provided for the negotiation. The paper introduces SHINE, a collaborative software system developed at the University of Chile. This software has many features to allow rich interactions among advisers belonging to the same team, among negotiators and also between a negotiator and his advisers. Emphasis is placed on the design features to enable and ease these interactions. The facilities include WYSIWIS windows, enhanced electronic mail to send and receive text or video messages with several urgency levels, an evaluation procedure and various ways to state comments and ideas. SHINE has been implemented as a prototype on Sun Sparc workstations.

  4. Transitivity Study-Material Process in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茜

    2013-01-01

    Since China entered into the World Trade Organization and became a member of this institution, business negotiation has become the important implement in communicating and information exchanging in business market. Compared with the past time, more and more companies involve in the business negotiation at present. This paper uses Halliday* s transitivity theory-material process as its theoretical framework to analyze business negotiation. As soon as reading this thesis totally, English teacher, especially business English teachers should add the awareness on considering unconscious points of business negotiation. They should be led to hold the deep cognition and language choice. Moreover, it is hoped for negotiators to have the understanding for choosing the better words and structure in order to make an agreement in business negotiation.

  5. Negotiations among Chinese and Germans - An Experimental Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Hennig-Schmidt; Gari Walkowitz

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand negotiation behaviour between Germans and Chinese. We study intra- and inter-cultural bargaining in negotiations with asymmetric outside options. Our analysis is based on team decisions and verbal transcripts of video-recorded within- and between-team discussions. The data show the importance of aspiration formation in combination with equity concerns. Before the negotiation starts, all teams already have formulated goals that can be traced during the subs...

  6. Creative thinking in negotiations : what is the challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Sribna, Tetyana

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the attempt to explore theoretically the nature of creativity in negotiation process in order to find out what is the biggest challenge for creativity there. Negotiation process as a context for exercising creativity has been presented and some challenges for creativity there have been pointed out. Further, theories of creativity have been reviewed and their implications or negotiation process have been discussed. It has been found that the main problem with creativi...

  7. Effective acceptance conditions in real-time automated negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Baarslag, Tim; Hindriks, Koen; Jonker, Catholijn

    2014-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties must accept an offer to avoid a break off. As a break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept. When designing such conditions, one is faced with the acceptance dilemma: accepting the current offer may be suboptimal, as better offers may still be presented before time runs out. On the other hand, accepti...

  8. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  9. Decision Making and Negotiation Processes in the Food Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander STELZER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific study focuses on the economic and especially the psychosocial factors of success in negotiation processes between buyers (procurers and suppliers (producers in the food trade. In particular, it examines the economic and mental satisfaction in the decision-making and in the negotiation processes for efficient food supply. It studies primarily transparency in addition to the Harvard concept at annual meetings (or during the year favoring a satisfactory result for both negotiators. In a structural equation model, the Harvard negotiating points are brought together with transparency in communication, in terms of successful economic experiences and socio-mental satisfaction.

  10. Interactive Approach to Negotiating Styles Dependent on Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grabowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was of a theoretical character and aimed at presenting various descriptions of the interactions between all possible pairs of four well-known negotiating styles dependent on personality traits. Methodology: This study was based on analysis of the interactions as well as authors’ experiences from their observations and analyses on human behaviors during numerous negotiations and roleplay exercises arranged at the courses for practitioners. The stress was put on analyzing the interactions occurring between people representing both different and the same negotiating styles. Findings: The attempt at describing such interactions was successful and promising for farther research. The concept constitutes a useful tool for analyzing human behavioral aspects of different types of business negotiations, within the process of their planning, conduct and evaluation. Nevertheless, the concept will be a subject of subsequent authors’ research, focusing on its improvement mainly by searching more precise features of negotiating styles and interactions between them. Practical implications: The concept can be applied to analyze many real negotiation situations as well as within the experiment to be arranged by the authors to examine those interactions within the hundreds of pairs of negotiators solving particular case studies. Thus the description of such interactions can be treated as a specifc hypothesis. Originality: In general, the suggestion for solving complex, diffcult and essential issues of negotiating styles was presented but was rarely investigated in the literature on negotiations. In particular, an original concept of describing the interactions between those styles was suggested,.

  11. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entered into through negotiation rather than formal advertising. The Foundation's contracting officer may... international cooperation or national security.” Contracts or their modifications entered into under...

  12. Negotiation style, speech accommodation, and small talk in Sino-Western business negotiations: A Hong Kong case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes authentic negotiation encounters between a Danish buyer and several predominantly Chinese sellers at a jewelry fair in China. Three recurring themes were identified in the data: different negotiation styles (a preference for an indirect mitigated style in the Chinese...... negotiators as opposed to a preference for a direct unmitigated approach in the Western negotiator), linguistic accommodation, and small talk about the interlocutor's place of residence, which is interpreted as strategic communication in which negotiators are allowed to check the interlocutor's financial...... viability without loss of face. The article acknowledges that claims about the importance of negotiators' cultural backgrounds need to be demonstrated rather than presumed, but it also argues that an analysis of predominant Chinese cultural value systems (such as face and the guanxi-concept) is likely...

  13. Negotiating Content with Learners Using Technology Enhanced Teaching and Learning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines issues around learning ‘content’ and its place in the new digital learning culture. We focus on the increasing demands of digital learners for content that is relevant and the challenges this poses if educators are to stay relevant to them. We say ‘relevance’ is best achieved when content is negotiated with learners in collaboration with instructors. We describe strategies in which technology enhanced teaching and learning solutions have enabled learners to negotiate and create digitised learning content that is educationally, culturally and socially relevant. We cite two case studies that exemplify this approach: a trial of negotiated content with primary school aged digital learners at Brisbane School of Distance Education (BSDE, Australia, and the content decision-making processes used for the development of e-learning courses for hearing health professionals and Auditory-Verbal Therapy at Hear and Say WorldWide Brisbane, Australia. We focus on the changing demands and skill sets of digital learners, their learning managers and subject matter experts, and the use of technology enhanced teaching and learning solutions as the negotiating tool in the development of digital content that is academically rigorous and also learner friendly.

  14. A new entity for the negotiation of public procurement prices for patented medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Wirtz, Veronika J; Reich, Michael R; Terrazas, Paulina; Ortiz, Maki

    2012-10-01

    As countries expand health insurance coverage, their expenditures on medicines increase. To address this problem, WHO has recommended that every country draw up a list of essential medicines. Although most medicines on the list are generics, in many countries patented medicines represent a substantial portion of pharmaceutical expenditure. To help control expenditure on patented medicines, in 2008 the Mexican Government created the Coordinating Commission for Negotiating the Price of Medicines and other Health Inputs (CCPNM), whose role, as the name suggests, is to enter into price negotiations with drug manufacturers for patented drugs on Mexico's list of essential medicines. Mexico's public expenditure on pharmaceuticals has increased substantially in the past decade owing to government efforts to achieve universal health-care coverage through Seguro Popular, an insurance programme introduced in 2004 that guarantees access to a comprehensive package of health services and medicines. Since 2008, the CCPNM has improved procurement practices in Mexico's public health institutions and has achieved significant price reductions resulting in substantial savings in public pharmaceutical expenditure. The CCPNM has successfully changed the landscape of price negotiation for patented medicines in Mexico. However, it is also facing challenges, including a lack of explicit indicators to assess CCPNM performance; a shortage of permanent staff with sufficient technical expertise; poor coordination among institutions in preparing background materials for the annual negotiation process in a timely manner; insufficient communication among committees and institutions; and a lack of political support to ensure the sustainability of the CCPNM.

  15. Negotiating knowledges and expertise in refugee resettlement organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Steimel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with both refugees and organizational staff in two nonprofit refugee resettlement organizations in the United States reveal the ways in which knowledge(s and expertise are crafted, threatened, and understood in refugee organizations. Refugee-participants described the need for knowledgeable communication, barriers to the communication of knowledge, and processes of negotiating whose expertise is involved. Organizational staff participants described the duty of communicating expert knowledge, the limits of knowledge as expertise, and alternative communications of expertise. These tensions surrounding “knowing” in refugee resettlement organizations highlights the need for a more complex theoretical understanding of the processes of knowing present in refugee resettlement. These tensions also suggest areas in which refugee resettlement agencies and other nonprofit staff can make on-the-ground changes to better facilitate refugee resettlement processes.

  16. Empowerment and bariatric surgery: negotiations of credibility and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Terragni, Laura; Foss, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Today obesity is understood as a chronic illness. Programs developed to deal with obesity often build on an explicit aim to "empower" patients to take increased responsibility for their health, in line with contemporary neoliberal discourses. There is little empirically based knowledge about this so-called empowering process. In this article we focus on how an empowering program for patients diagnosed as morbidly obese worked on individuals' identity. The program encompassed a course in lifestyle change, bariatric surgery, and aftercare. We conducted qualitative interviews with 9 individuals at different stages of their treatment process and applied discourse analysis to interpret their constructions and negotiations as they progressed through the program. We found that dimensions of control and credibility framed the respondents' identity work. Based on the findings we suggest that contemporary discourses of empowerment as practice might leave the participants "trapped" within the ambivalence of freedom and control.

  17. A Novel Admission Control Algorithm Based on Negotiation and Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Deng-yin; ZHANG Li; TANG Zhi-yun

    2005-01-01

    Admission control algorithm is a key component of a media server which supports Quality of Service(QoS).In this paper we present an admission control algorithm that exploits the elastic properties of the user requirements and the changing properties of system conditions.The characteristic of the algorithm can be expounded from these aspects:First,it provides multiple services to satisfy the different users' requirements regarding QoS and price.Second,it uses a worth function to select from media services with different QoS characteristics in the negotiation process.Finally,it employs a novel price policy to compute the charge for the service,which has a great effect on restricting the greediness of the users and therefore increase the overall user benefit.In the end of the paper,we compare the user benefit attained by our algorithm with that of other method.

  18. A Brief Study of the Potential Problems in Cross-cultural Business Nego-tiations and Recommendations for Chinese Negotiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明瑞强

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has become a hot topic in the world economy realm. As international trade booms worldwide, especially in China, it requires negotiators despite their genders, regions, ethics or ages to sit together around the table and achieve their goals. Various problems do occur in this process. This paper is going to study the potential problems in cross-culture business ne-gotiations and put forward some workable suggestions and recommendations for Chinese negotiators with the view to clearing the situation up.

  19. The Impact of Team Characteristics on the Course and Outcome of Intergroup Price Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, K.; van Doorn, J.; Wilken, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and Methodology. Both academic research and managerial practice devote attention to the topic of negotiation, and price negotiations have particular salience in business relations. Despite frequent negotiations between buying and selling centers in practice, the impact of team characteristic

  20. The Impact of Team Characteristics on the Course and Outcome of Intergroup Price Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, K.; van Doorn, J.; Wilken, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and Methodology. Both academic research and managerial practice devote attention to the topic of negotiation, and price negotiations have particular salience in business relations. Despite frequent negotiations between buying and selling centers in practice, the impact of team characteristic

  1. The Impact of Team Characteristics on the Course and Outcome of Intergroup Price Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, K.; van Doorn, J.; Wilken, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and Methodology. Both academic research and managerial practice devote attention to the topic of negotiation, and price negotiations have particular salience in business relations. Despite frequent negotiations between buying and selling centers in practice, the impact of team

  2. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pannebakker (Ekaterina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and accep

  3. Mixed parentage: Negotiating identity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Bang Appel, Helene

    2016-01-01

    are characterised by commonality and contestation: Are they Danish, migrants, or mixed? The chapter deals with the dynamics of being placed between two socially recognized categories. Which alternative categories of ethnicity, race or nationality are acceptable for these children? What are the strategies...... for negotiating their social space? How is mixedness contextualized in Denmark? With as starting point in the historical aspects for dealing with mixedness in Danish context, these questions are answered. Based on ten qualitative interviews with 10-18 years old children in Copenhagen and suburbs, the chapter...

  4. "PMA sounds fun": negotiating drug discourses online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Allen, Matthew; Lenton, Simon

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, a young woman, Annabel Catt, died after consuming a capsule sold as "ecstasy" that contained para-methoxyamphetamine. In this paper, we describe how this death was depicted in online drug-user communities and illustrate how the meanings of drug use are negotiated in online settings. News articles, public online discussions, and online fieldwork formed the data. This paper demonstrates how dominant drug discourses may be resisted by drug users, drawing on theories of health resistance and Kane Race's concept of counterpublic health. Online environments may offer ways of engaging people who use drugs that acknowledge both pleasure and safety. The study's limitations are noted.

  5. Negotiating Socially Optimal Allocations of Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endriss, U; Sadri, F; Toni, F; 10.1613/jair.1870

    2011-01-01

    A multiagent system may be thought of as an artificial society of autonomous software agents and we can apply concepts borrowed from welfare economics and social choice theory to assess the social welfare of such an agent society. In this paper, we study an abstract negotiation framework where agents can agree on multilateral deals to exchange bundles of indivisible resources. We then analyse how these deals affect social welfare for different instances of the basic framework and different interpretations of the concept of social welfare itself. In particular, we show how certain classes of deals are both sufficient and necessary to guarantee that a socially optimal allocation of resources will be reached eventually.

  6. Communication and Negotiations as an Ssential Prerequisite for the Development of International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Maciukevičienė, Liuda; Pipirienė, Vida

    2011-01-01

    In today's global markets it is very important to understand how to communicate effectively with partners from various cultures in order to be successful in the business world. Negotiating success largely depends on: pre-negotiation of a negotiating strategy and tactics of choice and flexibility in the negotiations and the ability to make influence. The article examines the concept of negotiation in international business, makes consistent analysis of the phases of the negotiations. Negotiati...

  7. College students' use of science content during socioscientific issues negotiation: Impact of evolution understanding and acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Samantha R.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the evolution science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. Specific research questions were, (1a) what specific evolutionary science content do college students evoke during SSI negotiation, (1b) what is the depth of the evolutionary science content reflected in college students. SSI negotiation, and (2) what is the nature of the interaction between evolution understanding and evolution acceptance as they relate to depth of use of evolution content during SSI negotiation? The Socioscientific Issues Questionnaire (SSI-Q) was developed using inductive data analysis to examine science content use and to develop a rubric for measuring depth of evolutionary science content use during SSI negotiation. Sixty upper level undergraduate biology and non-biology majors completed the SSI-Q and also the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS: Anderson, Fisher, & Norman, 2002) to measure evolution understanding and the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE: Rutledge & Warden, 1999) to measure evolution acceptance. A multiple regression analysis tested for interaction effects between the predictor variables, evolution understanding and evolution acceptance. Results indicate that college students primarily use science concepts related to evolution to negotiate biology-based SSI: variation in a population, inheritance of traits, differential success, and change through time. The hypothesis that the extent of one's acceptance of evolution is a mitigating factor in how evolution content is evoked during SSI negotiation was supported by the data. This was seen in that evolution was the predominant science content used by participants for each of the three SSI scenarios used in this study and used consistently throughout the three SSI scenarios. In addition to

  8. 77 FR 14016 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...] General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation of... Negotiation of Subcontracting Plans; Correction. Correction In the information collection document...

  9. 15 CFR 930.157 - Mediation and informal negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation and informal negotiations. 930.157 Section 930.157 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Activities Having Interstate Coastal Effects § 930.157 Mediation and informal negotiations. The...

  10. Intersectional Identity Negotiation: The Case of Young Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana

    2017-01-01

    We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…

  11. The interpersonal effects of anger and happines in negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Kleef; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice perspective

  12. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  13. 78 FR 12108 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to the existing Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 11 Negotiated Service Agreement. This notice informs the public...

  14. The influence of culture on ABMP negotiation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2011-01-01

    Negotiations are known to proceed differently across cultures. A realistic agent model of international negotiations has to take cultural differences into account. This paper presents an agent-based model that tackles this challenge. The context is a trade game where commodities with a hidden qualit

  15. The influence of Culture on ABMP Negotiation Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations are known to proceed differently across cultures. A realistic agent model of international negotiations has to take cultural differences into account. This paper presents an agent-based model that tackles this challenge. The context is a trade game where commodities with a hidden qualit

  16. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  17. 25 CFR 162.605 - Negotiation of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of leases. 162.605 Section 162.605 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.605 Negotiation of leases. (a) Leases of individually owned land or tribal land may...

  18. 17 CFR 200.735-7 - Negotiation for employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation for employment. 200.735-7 Section 200.735-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Employees and Former Members and Employees of the Commission § 200.735-7 Negotiation for employment. (a)...

  19. Intersectional Identity Negotiation: The Case of Young Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana

    2017-01-01

    We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…

  20. 48 CFR 253.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 253.215 Section 253.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 253.215 Contracting by negotiation....

  1. Effective Technique for Consistent Evaluation of Negotiation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Diana; Mukherjee, Arup

    2009-01-01

    Negotiation is an important managerial skill. Teaching negotiations is challenging in the class room environment because of the need to create learning experiences that enable students to practice this critical skill. However, experience of teaching this course over four years, suggests that the more difficult task is to measure student…

  2. 48 CFR 2453.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracting by negotiation. 2453.215 Section 2453.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.215 Contracting by negotiation....

  3. 48 CFR 53.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 53.215 Section 53.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.215 Contracting by negotiation....

  4. 25 CFR 89.31 - Negotiation of contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of contract. 89.31 Section 89.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.31 Negotiation of contract. That person or governing entity...

  5. 48 CFR 853.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 853.215 Section 853.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 853.215 Contracting by negotiation....

  6. 14 CFR 1261.403 - Consultation with appropriate officials; negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with appropriate officials; negotiation. 1261.403 Section 1261.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... appropriate officials; negotiation. (a) The authority pursuant to § 1261.402 to determine to forego...

  7. 31 CFR 10.31 - Negotiation of taxpayer checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation of taxpayer checks. 10.31 Section 10.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE... § 10.31 Negotiation of taxpayer checks. A practitioner who prepares tax returns may not endorse...

  8. Experiments in human multi-issue negotiation: analysis and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on experiments in (human) multi-issue negotiation and their analysis, and to present a generic software environment supporting such an analysis. First, the paper presents a System for Analysis of Multi-Issue Negotiation (SAMIN). SAMIN is designed to analyse neg

  9. Is stair negotiation measured appropriately in functional assessment scales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Mulley, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decline in mobility may result in problems with the negotiation of stairs, which can potentially be hazardous. In practice, stair negotiation is an important aspect of daily living and therefore needs to be assessed carefully. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to

  10. Getting Recognised: Teachers Negotiating Professional Identities as Learners through Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study on teachers' negotiation of professional identity through talk with colleagues at an urban, public, Midwestern school in the United States. The purpose of the research was to identify discourse strategies the teachers used to negotiate local significances for their professional identities.…

  11. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  12. Negotiating Authority through Jointly Constructing the Course Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how authority is negotiated in teacher education classrooms can inform efforts to foster democratic teacher education practices and prepare future teachers to teach democratically. We know very little, however, about how authority is negotiated in different classroom contexts, particularly in teacher education settings. This…

  13. Critical Moments in Negotiating Authority: Grading, Accountability, and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding teacher educators' reasoning about critical moments in negotiating authority can inform efforts to foster democratic teacher education practices and prepare future teachers to teach democratically. We know very little, however, about critical moments in negotiating authority, particularly in teacher educators' practices. The purpose…

  14. Construction of Negotiation Protocols for E-Commerce Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatev, Z.V.; Diakov, N.K.; Pokraev, S.

    A company doing e-business needs capabilities to negotiate electronically the parameters of its deals in order to fully utilize the potential of the Information and Communication technology (ICT). This paper focuses on construction of negotiation protocols for e-commerce with the following

  15. Construction of Negotiation Protocols for E-commerce Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatev, Z.V.; Diakov, N.K.; Pokraev, S.

    2004-01-01

    A company doing e-business needs capabilities to negotiate electronically the parameters of its deals in order to fully utilize the potential of the Information and Communication technology (ICT). This paper focuses on construction of negotiation protocols for e-commerce with the following

  16. English for Specific Purposes: Negotiating Needs, Possibilities, and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Spencer; Mercado, Leonardo A.; Ouedraogo, Lynn Hanson; Musetti, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    The authors espouse the need for negotiation in designing and delivering English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programs. Such negotiations take into account learners' needs as well as structural limitations of the context and candid assessment of ESP providers. The article explores lessons from the field and the importance of needs analysis.

  17. Negotiating compensation packages. Bargaining to get the best offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, S

    2001-01-01

    You worked hard to search for a job--sending out resumes, networking with your peers and contacting recruiters. But when the offer finally comes, your work isn't done. Now it's time to negotiate the best salary and employment contract. Take a look at today's standard compensation packages, including bonuses, stock options, relocation expenses and other features. What's negotiable and what's not?

  18. Budget Time: A Gender-Based Negotiation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkacs, Linda L.; Barkacs, Craig B.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a gender-based negotiation simulation designed to make participants aware of gender-based stereotypes and their effect on negotiation outcomes. In this simulation, the current research on gender issues is animated via three role sheets: (a) Vice president (VP), (b) advantaged department head, and (c) disadvantaged department…

  19. A Plan to Reduce Arbitration and Negotiation Impasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCugna, Charles S.

    This manual presents a proposal to reduce arbitration or negotiation impasses and to accommodate conflicting interests by selecting a permanent neutral to monitor labor relations both during the term of the agreement and during contract negotiations. Part 1 describes the role of the permanent neutral during the term of the collective bargaining…

  20. The impact of negotiated exchange on trust and trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera, Davide

    2007-01-01

    Negotiated exchanges and trust problems can be regarded as two different forms of exchange, the former representing exchanges with negotiation and binding contracts, the latter representing asymmetric transactions in which one actor has the opportunity to deceive the other. Both forms of exchange

  1. Encounters and Places: Project Negotiations in Galessa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Birgit; Felt, Ulrike; Vogl, Christian R.; Bekele, Kassahun; Mekonnen, Kindu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reflections on negotiation processes between farmers and scientists in research projects provide insights into issues of participation, power and equity. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how actors chose places to meet, negotiate and represent technologies. Design/methodology/approach: The research involved semi-structured…

  2. Negotiation of values as driver in community-based PD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronvall, Erik; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    and design things; and different accounts of values in design. Inspired by the concept of design things, and as a consequence of the need for continuous negotiation of values observed in all three cases, we suggest the concept of thinging as fruitful for creating productive agonistic spaces with a stronger...... attention towards the process of negotiating values in community-based PD....

  3. Negotiating over bundles and prices using aggregate knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somefun, D.J.A.; Klos, T.B.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Combining two or more items and selling them as one good, a practice called bundling, can be a very effective strategy for reducing the costs of producing, marketing, and selling goods. In this paper, we consider a form of multi-issue negotiation where a shop negotiates both the contents and the pri

  4. Negotiation of Meaning to Comprehend Hypertexts through Peer Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Hsieh, Pei-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Many college students who study English as a Foreign Language (EFL) are less-proficient readers as they have few opportunities to negotiate their perspectives for creating meaning through peer questioning in onsite instruction. This study reports on using online peer questioning to enhance less-proficient college students' negotiation of meaning…

  5. Ajna: negotiating forms in the making of a musical cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernaeus, Ylva; Vallgårda, Anna

    2014-01-01

    creators as well as on observations of Ajna performing in different contexts. From the perspective of interaction design, we first analyse the process of its making through the negotiations between physical form, temporal from, and the interactive gestalts. Lastly, we place these negotiations in a larger...

  6. Asymmetric negotiation in structured language games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2008-02-01

    We propose an asymmetric negotiation strategy to investigate the influence of high-degree agents on the agreement dynamics in a structured language game, the naming game. We introduce a model parameter, which governs the frequency of high-degree agents acting as speakers in communication. It is found that there exists an optimal value of the parameter that induces the fastest convergence to a global consensus on naming an object for both scale-free and small-world naming games. This phenomenon indicates that, although a strong influence of high-degree agents favors consensus achievement, very strong influences inhibit the convergence process, making it even slower than in the absence of influence of high-degree agents. Investigation of the total memory used by agents implies that there is some trade-off between the convergence speed and the required total memory. Other quantities, including the evolution of the number of different names and the relationship between agents’ memories and their degrees, are also studied. The results are helpful for better understanding of the dynamics of the naming game with asymmetric negotiation strategy.

  7. Process ambiguities in Sino-Danish Business Negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by process ambiguities in Sino-Danish business negotiations. Process ambiguities refer to perceived expectational inconsistencies concerning (1) appropriate forms of behavior; (ii) attributional judgments; and (iii) structuring of the negotiation process....... These ambiguities stem from differences in negotiation scripts across Danish and Chinese cultures. The essential argument being advanced here is that it is the effective and/or the ineffective management of process ambiguities that shapes the evolution of the negotiating dynamic between the Danish and the Chinese...... businesspeople. An inductive model of sino-Danish negotiations is developed that is based on 24 interviews conducted with Danish expatriate managers in China and 4 interviews with Chinese working in Danish companies. Implications for research and practice are discussed...

  8. Towards host-to-host meeting scheduling negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Megasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different scheme of meeting scheduling negotiation among a large number of personnel in a heterogeneous community. This scheme, named Host-to-Host Negotiation, attempts to produce a stable schedule under uncertain personnel preferences. By collecting information from hosts’ inter organizational meeting, this study intends to guarantee personnel availability. As a consequence, personnel’s and meeting’s profile in this scheme are stored in a centralized manner. This study considers personnel preferences by adapting the Clarke Tax Mechanism, which is categorized as a non manipulated mechanism design. Finally, this paper introduces negotiation strategies based on the conflict handling mode. A host-to-host scheme can give notification if any conflict exist and lead to negotiation process with acceptable disclosed information. Nevertheless, a complete negotiation process will be more elaborated in the future works.

  9. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  10. Organizational Change in Distance Higher Education: the Re-negotiation of Employee's Psychological Contract Cambio Organizacional en la Educación Superior a Distancia: la Re-negociación del Contrato Psicológico de los Empleados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Topa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore empirical relationships of employees' attitudes towards organizational change, the perceived breach of the psychological contract and outcomes such as burnout, job satisfaction and OCB. The proposed model suggests that organizational identification will be a mediator variable in these relationships. Results of an empirical study conducted among university staff (N =150 showed that the model was an adequate fit to the data. Organizational identification mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and outcomes while attitudes towards organizational change had a direct impact on outcomes. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es explorar las relaciones empíricas entre las actitudes ante el cambio organizacional, la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados tales como burnout, satisfacción laboral y conductas de ciudadanía organizacional. El modelo propuesto sugería que la identificación organizacional sería una variable mediadora en estas relaciones. Los resultados de un estudio empírico llevado a cabo con personal universitario (N=150 mostraron que el modelo ajustaba adecuadamente a los datos. La identificación organizacional mediaba la relación entre la ruptura de contrato psicológico y los resultados, mientras que las actitudes ante el cambio tenían un impacto directo en los resultados.

  11. Concurrent negotiation and coordination for grid resource coallocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong; Shi, Benyun

    2010-06-01

    Bolstering resource coallocation is essential for realizing the Grid vision, because computationally intensive applications often require multiple computing resources from different administrative domains. Given that resource providers and consumers may have different requirements, successfully obtaining commitments through concurrent negotiations with multiple resource providers to simultaneously access several resources is a very challenging task for consumers. The impetus of this paper is that it is one of the earliest works that consider a concurrent negotiation mechanism for Grid resource coallocation. The concurrent negotiation mechanism is designed for 1) managing (de)commitment of contracts through one-to-many negotiations and 2) coordination of multiple concurrent one-to-many negotiations between a consumer and multiple resource providers. The novel contributions of this paper are devising 1) a utility-oriented coordination (UOC) strategy, 2) three classes of commitment management strategies (CMSs) for concurrent negotiation, and 3) the negotiation protocols of consumers and providers. Implementing these ideas in a testbed, three series of experiments were carried out in a variety of settings to compare the following: 1) the CMSs in this paper with the work of others in a single one-to-many negotiation environment for one resource where decommitment is allowed for both provider and consumer agents; 2) the performance of the three classes of CMSs in different resource market types; and 3) the UOC strategy with the work of others [e.g., the patient coordination strategy (PCS )] for coordinating multiple concurrent negotiations. Empirical results show the following: 1) the UOC strategy achieved higher utility, faster negotiation speed, and higher success rates than PCS for different resource market types; and 2) the CMS in this paper achieved higher final utility than the CMS in other works. Additionally, the properties of the three classes of CMSs in

  12. Mobilizing collective identity to reduce HIV risk among sex workers in Sonagachi, India: the boundaries, consciousness, negotiation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Toorjo; Swendeman, Dallas; George, Sheba; Chowdhury, Debasish

    2008-07-01

    The significantly low rate of HIV infection and high rate of condom use among sex workers in Kolkata, India is partially attributable to a community-led structural intervention called the Sonagachi Project which mobilizes sex workers to engage in HIV education, formation of community-based organizations and advocacy around sex work issues. This research examines how Sonagachi Project participants mobilize collective identity and the manner in which collective identity influences condom use. Using purposive sampling methods, 46 Sonagachi Project participants were selected in 2005 for in-depth qualitative interviews. Taylor and Whittier's (Taylor, V & Whittier, N (1992). Collective identities in social movement communities: lesbian feminist mobilization. In A. Morris & C. Mueller (Eds.) Frontiers in social movement theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) model of identity-formation through boundaries, consciousness and negotiation was used to interpret results. Subjects mobilized collective identity by (1) building boundaries demarcating in-group sex workers from out-group members, (2) raising consciousness about sex work as legitimate labor and the transformative change that results from program participation, and (3) negotiating identity with out-group members. This research establishes a conceptual link between the boundaries, consciousness and negotiation framework of collective identity mobilization and condom use. Condom use among sex workers is motivated by each element of the boundaries, consciousness and negotiation model: condoms mark boundaries, enunciate the consciousness that sex with clients is legitimate labor, and help negotiate the identity of sex workers in interactions with clients.

  13. Toward a culture-by-context perspective on negotiation: negotiating teams in the United States and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Brett, Jeanne; Gunia, Brian C; Imai, Lynn; Huang, Tsai-Jung; Hsu, Bi-Fen

    2013-05-01

    Within the United States, teams outperform solos in negotiation (Thompson, Peterson, & Brodt, 1996). The current research examined whether this team advantage generalizes to negotiators from a collectivist culture (Taiwan). Because different cultures have different social norms, and because the team context may amplify the norms that are salient in a particular culture (Gelfand & Realo, 1999), we predicted that the effect of teams on negotiation would differ across cultures. Specifically, we predicted that since harmony norms predominate in collectivist cultures like Taiwan, the team context would amplify a concern with harmony, leading Taiwanese teams to negotiate especially suboptimal outcomes. In support, 2 studies showed that Taiwanese teams negotiated less-optimal outcomes than Taiwanese solos. We also used a moderated-mediation analysis to investigate the mechanism (Hayes, 2012), documenting that the interactive effect of culture and context on outcomes was mediated by harmony norms. By showing that the same situational conditions (team negotiations) can have divergent effects on negotiation outcomes across cultures, our results point toward a nuanced, sociocontextual view that moves beyond the culture-as-main-effect approach to studying culture and negotiations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of the Negotiator's Social Power as a Function of the Counterpart's Emotional Reactions in a Computer Mediated Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Hareli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A negotiator’s own power and their counterpart’s emotional reaction to the negotiation both influence the outcome of negotiations. The present research addressed the question of their relative importance. On one hand, social power should be potent regardless of the other’s emotions. On the other hand, the counterpart’s emotional reactions inform about the ongoing state of the negotiation, and as such are more diagnostic than the more distal power cue. In a simulated computer mediated negotiation, 248 participants assumed the role of a vendor of computerized avionics test equipment and their objective was to negotiate the price, the warranty period, and the number of software updates that the buyer will receive free of charge. Participants negotiated the sale after being primed with either high or low power or not primed at all (control condition. They received information that their counterpart was either happy or angry or emotionally neutral. The findings showed that even though power was an important factor at the start of negotiations, the informative value of emotion information took precedence over time. This implies that emotional information may erase any advantage that counterparts have in a negotiation thanks to their higher social power.

  15. When Negotiation of Meaning is Also Negotiation of Task: Analysis of the Communication in an Applied Mathematics High School Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Iben Maj

    1997-01-01

    The negotiation of meaning presupposes a taken-to-be-shared understanding of a situation. Uses an example to illustrate how negotiation of meaning and task may be linked in ways inappropriate to the learning of modeling and critical reflections. Contains 16 references. (Author/ASK)

  16. Seeking a Role for the Ocean and Ocean Scientists in the Future of International Climate Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, N.; Eddebbar, Y.; Le, J. T.; Netburn, A. N.; Niles, J. O.; Sato, K.; Wilson, S.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    The oceans cover 71% of the world and are essential to the climate regulation of the planet, but they are severely underrepresented in international climate negotiations. While marine ecosystems were mentioned in the preamble to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), they have since been left out of the text of the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Treaty, and ocean-focused events are lacking at UNFCCC meetings. However, marine ecosystems sustain severe impacts from climate change including warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, and these changes have economic implications for ocean-dependent nations including on tourism, fisheries sustainability, shoreline protection, and human livelihood. Ocean scientists from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and members of Ocean Scientists for Informed Policy have partnered with the newly-formed Ocean and Climate Platform to raise ocean issues at the UNFCCC meeting in Paris through both official side event presentations within the meeting venue and offsite events for the public. This study focuses on how the role and recognition of the ocean in the UNFCCC negotiations has evolved from COP19 (2013) to COP21 (2015), what may be expected for the role of the ocean in international climate negotiations beyond the Paris Agreement, and addresses what role ocean scientists can play in this conversation.

  17. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the negotiation of the sick role is a social process. In this process, GPs not only use traditional biomedical diagnostic tools but also rely on their own opinions and evaluations of a patient......’s particular circumstances in deciding whether that patient is legitimately sick. The doctor is thus a gatekeeper of legitimacy. This article presents results from a qualitative interview study conducted in Denmark with GPs concerning their approach to patients with MUS. We employ a symbolic interaction...... approach that pays special attention to the external validation of the sick role, making GPs’ accounts of such patients particularly relevant. One of the article’s main findings is that GPs’ criteria for judging the legitimacy of claims by those patients that present with MUS are influenced by the extent...

  18. Negotiation and Contracting in Collaborative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Inês; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    Due to the increasing market turbulence, companies, organizations and individuals need to tune their actuation forms so that they can prevail. It is particularly essential to create alliances and partnerships for collaborative problem solving when responding to new businesses or collaborative opportunities. In all types of alliances it is necessary to establish agreements that represent the rights and duties of all involved parts in a given collaboration opportunity. Therefore, it is important to deeply understand the structures and requirements of these alliances, i.e. what kind of members does the alliance have, what kind of protocols may be implied, how conflicts may possibly be resolved, etc. Moreover to these requirements, also the required support tools and mechanisms have to be identified. For that, this paper presents a research work that is being carried in the negotiation and contracting field, in order to promote agility in collaborative networks.

  19. DIPLOMACY AS A SKILL OF NEGOTIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA SIMJANOSKA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diplomacy in the XXI century is transformed and expanded from peaceful method of relations among states into a general tool of communication between globalized societies. At the beginning it was practiced only by professional diplomats as an art in leading affairs of state. Today, because of the growing number of participants in international relations (states, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, transnational companies, the media, academia, etc., focus of traditional diplomacy is augmented, while the monopoly by traditional diplomacy is fading. The policy and diplomacy have not lost their ability to actively modulate the decisions required by the state, but they need to justify their superior ability, and thus their legitimacy to solve community problems through modern means and methods such as negotiations.

  20. A Review of Negotiation Agents in e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ebadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of World Wide Web and the increasing human demand on online trading, there is a pressing need for complex systems that are capable of handling the client needs in e-commerce. In recent years, numbers of Multi Agent System (MAS developers arise to fulfill this mission by performing a huge number of studies on agent negotiation systems. However, far too little attention has been paid to provide a rich review as a repository for developers to distinguish the aspect and scope of MAS. The purpose of this paper is to do a review of progressing agent negotiation technology in e-commerce. In order to achieve our aim we propose different classification schemata and interpret different models according to the proposed classifications. Popular methods for optimizing negotiation agents have been introduced and the effect of relative techniques has been analyzed. The result of analysis shows that genetic algorithm is the most effective learning technique in optimizing negotiation models. Moreover, we interpret the most prominent negotiation models according to the main parameters on which any negotiation agent model depends. The result of these analysis supplies a resource of differentiating competing alternatives for the area of negotiation agent’s models to exploit. Finally, a range of open issues and future challenges are highlighted.