WorldWideScience

Sample records for change mitigation strategy

  1. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  2. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  3. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600–700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial. (letters)

  4. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  5. Energy strategies for mitigating global change. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working paper of the International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg (AT) deals with the 'Energy Strategies for Mitigating Global Changes'. The content of this report is: 1. Energy consumption and global warming; 2. Global energy needs; 3. Carbon dioxide emissions as a global 'resource'; 4. Equity issues implicit in reduction schemes; 5. Efficiency improvement and conservation; 6. Less carbon intensive energy options; 7. Carbon-free energy options; 8. Carbon scrubbing and removal; 9. Photosynthesis and afforestation; 9. Inventory of mitigating technologies. Some tabulations and graphics illustrate the investigation and results

  6. Strategies to mitigate climate change in a sustainable development framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategies that mitigate climate resulting from increasing concentration of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting sustainable and equitable development are needed to be taken rapidly and immediately by countries world-wide. Choice of strategies that are sensitive to regional and national needs is a major challenge because of diversities in responsibility and obligations and developmental needs in the world. However, large number of tools and techniques available which can assist countries and regions to determine such strategies. They will need to be continuously adapted so as to overcome the numerous barriers and threats that remain in implementing actions to mitigate for climate change. To ensure sustainable development for the vast majority in the world, local management of resources is crucial. (au)

  7. China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, China has made great efforts in energy saving and carbon emission reduction by pushing forward domestic sustainable development along with global climate change mitigation. The efforts have paid off with a dramatic decrease in carbon intensity. Nevertheless, China is still confronted with tough challenges in emission control due to the fast pace of industrialization, large total historical emission and high growth rate of emissions. Therefore, China should give priority to energy saving by improving energy efficiency and sectoral structure adjustment and upgrade, and develop sustainable and renewable energy to optimize energy mix and its carbon content. China should continue to regard significant reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity as the main objective in the near future, strive to achieve peak emissions around 2030, and realize a relatively sharp emissions reduction by 2050 in order to address climate change to meet the goal of making the warming less than 2°. During the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP), China will further strengthen measures to control the amount of energy consumption, establish a statistics, accounting and evaluation system of carbon emissions, and promote a market-based carbon emissions trading mechanism to facilitate the low-carbon transformation of China's economy. - Highlights: ► This paper studies China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation. ► We suggest that China should focus on reducing the energy intensity and carbon intensity of GDP, and optimization of energy mix in the near term. ► In the long term, China should achieve the peak emission around 2030, and realize a relative sharp emission reduction by 2050. ► The paper also concludes some important measures which China should take during the 12th Five-Year-Plan (2011–2015).

  8. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  9. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  10. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  11. Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Organic Agriculture (OA) as an adaptation strategy (AS) to Climate Change (CC) is a concrete and promising option for adaptation in rural communities. OA has additional potential as a mitigation strategy (MS). This text is a short review note on this topic. Adaptation and mitigation based on OA can build on well-established practice as OA is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of experience in several climate zones and under a wide range of specific local conditions. Given the larg...

  12. Climate change mitigation strategies in Germany. Integrated dynamic approach to the year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national strategy for mitigation of the consequences of a climate change has to take into account the national economic welfare. With regard to this, a cost effective greenhouse gas mitigation strategy that aims at maximizing the amount of CO2 reduced per German Mark invested is of paramount importance. The climate change, a sound economy, a sustainable environment and security of energy supply have to be taken as a unit, on which political and economic decisions should focus. The study presents different climate change mitigation options aiming at achieving environmentally and economically compatible solutions for abatement of energy related greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. (author). 5 figs

  13. Climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Congo basin forest of Cameroon : strategies for synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Eugene Loh

    2011-01-01

    Climate change mitigation through Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and land Degradation (REDD), is dominating climate policy processes in many tropical forests countries. However concerns have been stressed about the implications of these activities for the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities, who are already vulnerable to climatic and non-climatic stresses. Synergizing adaptation and mitigation to exploit win-win opportunities is a necessary but challenging strategy. Build on the...

  14. URBAN INDIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE: MITIGATION STRATEGIES TOWARDS INCLUSIVE GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sohail; Mack Joong CHOI

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has been emerged as a major challenge for the sustainable human settlement. The recent studies have established scientific evidences for climate change. This paper presents impacts of climate change in the urban India, which has about 30 percent of population and expected to grow over 800 million by next 50 years. Citizens are already facing adverse impact of climate change, which is evenly spread throughout the country and mostly to vulnerable citizens. India’s expenditure on ...

  15. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  16. Implications of land ecosystem-atmosphere interactions for strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to predicting climate change, assessing its impacts and planning mitigation strategies tends to be compartmentalized, leading to inadequate or incomplete advice for climate policy. Climate models used for future global warming predictions and attribution of past changes generally consider only global climate drivers, ignoring local drivers, such as land use change and urban effects. Impacts studies are generally carried out in isolation from each other and hence ignore i...

  17. What Role Should Black Carbon Play in Climate Change Mitigation Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelo, B. J.

    2006-12-01

    The uncertainties of the black carbon-climate linkage remain large with regard to emissions quantification, temporal and regional atmospheric concentrations, and net radiative and other climatic effects. Given these physical uncertainties plus other economic and emission control considerations, what is the appropriate role for BC and organic carbon in any climate change mitigation strategy? If the climate effects of BC are considered `large enough' (a judgment call) to warrant emission controls to mitigate climate change, additional considerations are necessary to determine how best to do this. First, BC cannot be singly targeted, as BC is co-emitted with OC in various ratios depending on fuel type and combustion technology. The climate effects of any control strategy will depend on the net BC and OC, plus possible greenhouse gas, co-effects, which in turn will vary by specific emission source, sector and region. Second, the extent to which air quality policies (primarily targeting particulate matter for health concerns) control BC and OC can determine whether additional emission mitigation is necessary, or if additional mitigation is best pursued within the context of air quality policies, rather than being introduced into the climate area. In the U.S., on-road and off-road diesel vehicles are the largest sources of BC, but these emissions are expected to decline substantially over the next few decades due to recently issued U.S. EPA standards. Third is the issue of costs of BC reductions relative to the costs of other mitigation strategies. Results will be presented on 1) near-term (out to 2020) emission projections for the U.S. taking into account recent air quality regulations; 2) emerging work from the Energy Modeling Forum Black Carbon Subgroup on global and regional projections by region and sector, and mitigation scenarios; and 3) the costs of potential BC mitigation options for the U.S.

  18. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Holmner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  19. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

  20. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. MOREKI; C.M. TSOPITO

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surf...

  1. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  2. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  3. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Holmner, Åsa; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today’s most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health inf...

  4. Climate change and eHealth : a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Åsa Holmner; Joacim Rocklöv; Nawi Ng; Maria Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of hea...

  5. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development. Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests.

  6. Changing business perceptions regarding biodiversity: from impact mitigation towards new strategies and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Houdet, Joël; Trommetter, Michel; Weber, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Business activities play a major role in biodiversity loss and, as a result, firms are under increasing pressures from stakeholders to reduce their negative impacts on living systems. In response, business attitudes, behaviors and strategies regarding biodiversity are progressively changing, suggesting that interactions between business and biodiversity could go beyond the search of a compromise between development and conservation. This paper proposes an analysis of business perceptions rega...

  7. Forest policy implications of climate change: Economic impacts and potential mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing mean global temperatures due to rising levels of carbon dioxide and other ''greenhouse'' gases in the atmosphere could affect the distribution of commercially important forests in North America significantly. The temperature increases might outpace the ability of forests to adapt, causing considerable stress and mortality to trees in the southern part of their range without a commensurate increase in growth across the expanding range. If realized, these potential biological impacts on forest distribution and health would affect management decisions substantially and could adversely impact forest-based economies in the United States. Specific effects on forest management include changes in the methods and costs of fire, insect, and disease protection; greater demands on forest lands for conversion to food production; and uncertain changes in site quality. One means of mitigating the effects of CO2 emissions is to establish tree plantations for carbon sequestration. Preliminary analyses suggest that a program aimed at marginal cropland in the South could store more than 563 million tons of carbon over 45 years, although 90 million tons would be lost due to risks associated with plantations

  8. Forest management considerations and climatic change in the Pacific Northwest: A framework for devising adaptation/mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for global climate change, especially in its regional and local manifestations, requires decision making in the face of uncertainty. It is demonstrated that in the Pacific Northwest region, the present climate forecasts are uncertain and probabilistic, and the ecological responses are equally uncertain, but a framework for analyzing and devising response strategies for future conditions is feasible in this context. A risk-based approach derived from classical decision analysis is suggested as the most rational response currently practicable to protect the forest resources of the Pacific Northwest. Lists of possible events are needed for two areas: the anticipated outcome of climate change and the possible responses of Pacific Northwest forests to these changes. Meaningful analysis requires estimates of the outcomes and responses, even if they remain subjective for some time, or at least until better and more reliable information becomes available. Once possible responses have been identified, an analysis of the valuation of the tradeoffs for various strategies needs to be made. This approach permits updating, revision, and even negation, but also provides a process that puts focus on information needs and priorities for action. It is concluded that it is highly unlikely that mitigation may be easier to implement than adaptation. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. 78 FR 21275 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 RIN 3150-AJ08 Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies... plant licensees' station blackout mitigation strategies. Appendix A of the draft regulatory basis... involving station blackout mitigation strategies, the NRC is making preliminary documents publicly...

  10. Assessing natural disaster preparedness and climate change mitigation strategies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur

    2013-01-01

    Global climate is changing continuously as a result of industrial revolution and rapid urbanisation in many countries of the world which has significant impacts on environment, socio-economic condition, physical and biological issues. Increase of global temperature, rainfall changes, sea level rise, occurrences of extreme weather events such as floods, cyclones, typhoons, droughts etc. are the major and direct consequences of climate change in the world (Pulhin et al., 2010, & Shaw et al., 20...

  11. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  12. Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

  13. Evaluation of forestry strategies for climate change mitigation in continental France. Scientific literature and main actors' positioning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work contributes to the current scientific debate regarding the optimization of the forest sector's contribution to mitigating climate change. A scientific literature review has pointed out some uncertainties on the contribution to emission reduction objectives in the short to medium-term of an increasing harvest of forest resources for wood construction and energy generation. Timing of mitigation benefits for a managed forest depends on forestry upstream characteristics(forest and soil type and silviculture method) and downstream characteristics (transport distance, use of wood, efficiency of wood based energy production, fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted,etc). A survey conducted among national forest experts points out debates concerning optimal silviculture practices to mitigating climate change. These discussions are due to the trades-off between sequestering carbon in forest ecosystems and climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and use of wood products to displace fossil emissions. (author)

  14. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  15. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  16. Climate change mitigation policies in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinaviciute, I.

    2003-09-01

    The Lithuanian climate change policy has to be considered in the framework of the Convention on Climate Change. The National Strategy for Implementation of Convention was the first step in evaluating the country's impact on climate change, adapting to the Convention and foreseeing the means and measures for climate change mitigation. The paper introduces main issues related to climate change mitigation policy in Lithuania. It presents an analysis of greenhouse gas emission trends in Lithuania and surveys institutional organizations as well as stakeholder associations related to climate change issues and their role in climate policy making. The main Lithuanian international environmental obligation and Lithuanian governmental climate change mitigation policy in the energy sector are presented as well. (Author)

  17. 78 FR 44035 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 RIN 3150-AJ08 Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies AGENCY: Nuclear... concerning nuclear power plant licensees' and applicants' station blackout mitigation strategies. The...-415- 4737, or by email to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The regulatory basis document, ``Station...

  18. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the 'regional' - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  19. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  20. Modeling postfire water erosion mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

    2012-09-01

    Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damages and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude becoming dangerous for human lives and ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last accounting also for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results show for the analyzed rehabilitation treatments their effect in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes.

  1. Modeling postfire water erosion mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rulli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damages and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude becoming dangerous for human lives and ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last accounting also for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures.

    Model results show for the analyzed rehabilitation treatments their effect in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes.

  2. Climate Change and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nibleus, Kerstin; Lundin, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Planet Earth has experienced repeated changes of its climate throughout time. Periods warmer than today as well as much colder, during glacial episodes, have alternated. In our time, rapid population growth with increased demand for natural resources and energy, has made society increasingly vulnerable to environmental changes, both natural and those caused by man; human activity is clearly affecting the radiation balance of the Earth. In the session “Climate Change and Mitigation” the speake...

  3. Integrating climate change mitigation, adaptation, communication and education strategies in Matanzas Province, Cuba: A Citizen Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Bueno, R. A.; Byrne, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Environment Service Center of Matanzas (ESCM), Cuba and the University of Lethbridge are collaborating on the development of climate mitigation and adaptation programs in Matanzas province. Tourism is the largest industry in Matanzas. Protecting that industry means protecting coastal zones and conservation areas of value to tourism. These same areas are critical to protecting the landscape from global environmental change: enhanced tropical cyclones, flooding, drought and a range of other environmental change impacts. Byrne (2014) adapted a multidisciplinary methodology for climate adaptation capacity definition for the population of Nicaragua. A wide array of adaptive capacity skills and resources were integrated with agricultural crop modeling to define regions of the country where adaptive capacity development were weakest and should be improved. In Matanzas province, we are developing a series of multidisciplinary mitigation and adaptation programs that builds social science and science knowledge to expand capacity within the ESCM and the provincial population. We will be exploring increased risk due to combined watershed and tropical cyclone flooding, stresses on crops, and defining a range of possibilities in shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy. The program will build ongoing interactions with thousands of Matanzas citizens through site visits carried out by numerous Cuban and visiting students participating in a four-month education semester with a number of Lethbridge and Matanzas faculty. These visits will also provide local citizens with better access to web-based interactions. We will evaluate mitigation and adaptive capacities in three municipalities and some rural areas across the province. Furthermore, we will explore better ways and means to communicate between the research and conservation staff and the larger population of the province.

  4. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage...... household data would supplement the analyses. Practical implications – Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of...

  5. Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 gave FDA the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) from manufacturers to...

  6. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  7. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Redman

    Full Text Available Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization.These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  8. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  9. Climate Change Mitigation in Swiss Agricultural Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Simone L. Karrer; Dominique Barjolle

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates farmers’ response to climate change mitigation strategies in Swiss agriculture. It reports the results of a discriminant analysis carried out using data from a survey (n = 1’909) among farmers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Thereby, the main focus lies on the role of risk perception and barriers to adoption within a conceptual model of decision- making based on the protection motivation theory.

  10. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on 'Climate Change Mitigation in Africa' between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  11. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  12. Climate change mitigation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-07-01

    China has been experiencing great economic development and fast urbanisation since its reforms and opening-up policy in 1978. However, these changes are reliant on consumption of primary energy, especially coal, characterised by high pollution and low efficiency. China's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) being the most significant contributor, have also been increasing rapidly in the past three decades. Responding to both domestic challenges and international pressure regarding energy, climate change and environment, the Chinese government has made a point of addressing climate change since the early 2000s. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of China's CO{sub 2} emissions and policy instruments for mitigating climate change. In the analysis, China's CO{sub 2} emissions in recent decades were reviewed and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis examined. Using the mostly frequently studied macroeconomic factors and time-series data for the period of 1980-2008, the existence of an EKC relationship between CO{sub 2} per capita and GDP per capita was verified. However, China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow over coming decades and the turning point in overall CO{sub 2} emissions will appear in 2078 according to a crude projection. More importantly, CO{sub 2} emissions will not spontaneously decrease if China continues to develop its economy without mitigating climate change. On the other hand, CO{sub 2} emissions could start to decrease if substantial efforts are made. China's present mitigation target, i.e. to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 compared with the 2005 level, was then evaluated. Three business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios were developed and compared with the level of emissions according to the mitigation target. The calculations indicated that decreasing the CO{sub 2} intensity of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 is a challenging but hopeful target. To

  13. Climate change and parasitic disease: farmer mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Eric R; Wall, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change predictions suggest that far-ranging effects might occur in the population dynamics and distributions of livestock parasites, provoking fears of widespread increases in disease incidence and production loss. However, several biological mechanisms (including increased parasite mortality and more rapid acquisition of immunity), in tandem with changes in husbandry practices (including reproduction, housing, nutrition, breed selection, grazing patterns and other management interventions), might act to mitigate increased parasite development rates, preventing dramatic rises in overall levels of disease. Such changes might, therefore, counteract predicted climate-driven increases in parasite challenge. Optimum mitigation strategies will be highly system specific and depend on detailed understanding of interactions between climate, parasite abundance, host availability and the cues for and economics of farmer intervention. PMID:19540163

  14. Revaluing unmanaged forests for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmanaged or old-growth forests are of paramount importance for carbon sequestration and thus for the mitigation of climate change among further implications, e.g. biodiversity aspects. Still, the importance of those forests for climate change mitigation compared to managed forests is under controversial debate. We evaluate the adequacy of referring to CO2 flux measurements alone and include external impacts on growth (nitrogen immissions, increasing temperatures, CO2 enrichment, changed precipitation patterns for an evaluation of central European forests in this context. Results We deduce that the use of CO2 flux measurements alone does not allow conclusions on a superiority of unmanaged to managed forests for mitigation goals. This is based on the critical consideration of uncertainties and the application of system boundaries. Furthermore, the consideration of wood products for material and energetic substitution obviously overrules the mitigation potential of unmanaged forests. Moreover, impacts of nitrogen immissions, CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere, increasing temperatures and changed precipitation patterns obviously lead to a meaningful increase in growth, even in forests of higher age. Conclusions An impact of unmanaged forests on climate change mitigation cannot be valued by CO2 flux measurements alone. Further research is needed on cause and effect relationships between management practices and carbon stocks in different compartments of forest ecosystems in order to account for human-induced changes. Unexpected growth rates in old-growth forests – managed or not – can obviously be related to external impacts and additionally to management impacts. This should lead to the reconsideration of forest management strategies.

  15. Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Seiner, John; Suzuki, Toshio; Lackner, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    There is a mounting consensus that human behavior is changing the global climate and its consequence could be catastrophic. Reducing the 24 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions from stationary and mobile sources is a gigantic task involving both technological challenges and monumental financial and societal costs. The pursuit of sustainable energy resources, environment, and economy has become a complex issue of global scale that affects the daily life of every citizen of the world. The present mitigation activities range from energy conservation, carbon-neutral energy conversions, carbon advanced combustion process that produce no greenhouse gases and that enable carbon capture and sequestion, to other advanced technologies. From its causes and impacts to its solutions, the issues surrounding climate change involve multidisciplinary science and technology. This handbook will provide a single source of this information. The book will be divided into the following sections: Scientific Evidence of Cl...

  16. Climate change mitigation and electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of mitigation scenarios with deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions have focused on expanded use of demand-side electric technologies, including battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and heat pumps. Here we review such “electricity scenarios” to explore commonalities and differences. Newer scenarios are produced by various interests, ranging from environmental organizations to industry to an international organization, and represent a variety of carbon-free power generation technologies on the supply side. The reviewed studies reveal that the electrification rate, defined here as the ratio of electricity to final energy demand, rises in baseline scenarios, and that its increase is accelerated under climate policy. The prospect of electrification differs from sector to sector, and is the most robust for the buildings sector. The degree of transport electrification differs among studies because of different treatment and assumptions about technology. Industry does not show an appreciable change in the electrification rate. Relative to a baseline scenario, an increase in the electrification rate often implies an increase in electricity demand but does not guarantee it. - Highlights: ► Until recently few mitigation scenarios paid attention to electrification. ► Recent scenarios show an increasing focus on demand-side electric technologies. ► They are represented by various interests. ► Level of electrification increases with stringency of climate policy. ► Prospect of electrification differs across sectors.

  17. How well do radon mitigation strategies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radon in homes can't be completely avoided, but it can be minimized. Indoor air quality researchers compared results of six popular ways to mitigate radon in houses in the Spokane River Valley and New Jersey. Over the course of the past decade, Americans have become aware of the health hazards from radon, a naturally occurring gas that can enter a home through a variety of pathways from the surrounding terrain. Recent research carried out at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and elsewhere suggests that radon mitigation is feasible but requires long-term monitoring to ensure lasting effectiveness. These studies compare the selection, installation, and performance evaluations of several common radon mitigation strategies

  18. Economic structure and strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation policy impacts the economic system directly in the short-term by altering relative prices and indirectly in the long-term by shifting the structure of the economy. There may also be adjustments to economic structure independent of policy intervention due to changes in population, consumption patterns, and global markets. The overall effectiveness of specific mitigation policy will partly depend on these indirect and exogenous changes to economic structure. This study develops a new measure linking economic development with its environmental effects. The technical cost of GHG mitigation under economic growth in an economy is calculated by combining traditional input-output (IO) analysis and a linear programming based sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to Northern Ireland (NI), producing an isoemission matrix that maps emission-neutral expansion paths for the economy. The measurement provides an indicator of the demand for technical improvement to achieve GHG mitigation at a national or regional level. The flexibility and transparency of the approach make it useful for evaluating potential GHG mitigation strategies. - Research highlights: ► This study develops a new measure linking economic structure and greenhouse gas mitigation. ► Input-output and sensitivity analysis are combined to establish a technical cost of abatement. ► Isoemission matrix maps emission-neutral expansion paths for an economy. ► The flexibility of the approach makes it beneficial to regional abatement strategy development.

  19. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

  20. Global climate change: Science, policy, and mitigation strategies. Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association international specialty conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was held April 5--8, 1994 in Phoenix, Arizona for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information relating to the global climate change. Human activities are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The buildup of greenhouse gases threatens to change the global climate system, perhaps raising sea levels, inflicting irreversible damage to ecosystems, and de-stabilizing agricultural production. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  1. Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in USA is required to mitigate the impact of global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto A. Pérez de León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  2. Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Cattle Fever Tick Eradication in USA is Required to Mitigate the Impact of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change. PMID:22712018

  3. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate. PMID:25366937

  4. Modeling postfire water erosion mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Rulli; L. Offeddu; Santini, M.

    2012-01-01

    Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damages and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude becoming dangerous for human lives and ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stres...

  5. Forest management strategies for CO₂ mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Backéus, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased since pre-industrial time and a further increase is expected to lead to profound global climate change. Forests can play an important role in counteracting green house gas emissions as they are ubiquitous and are one of the currently available mechanisms for mitigating the increase of atmospheric CO₂. This thesis focuses on how carbon sequestration considerations can be incorporated in forest management analysis and plannin...

  6. Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2004-01-01

    , the fundamental parameters contributing to the autogenous shrinkage and resultant early-age cracking of concrete are presented. Basic characteristics of the cement paste that contribute to or control the autogenous shrinkage response include the surface tension of the pore solution, the geometry of...... problem of early-age cracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Mitigation strategies discussed in this paper include: the addition of shrinkage-reducing admixtures more commonly used to control drying shrinkage, control of the cement particle size distribution, modification of the mineralogical composition of...... the field, it should be possible to minimize cracking due to autogenous shrinkage via some combination of the presented approaches....

  7. Climate Change Mitigation, Peacebuilding, and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Krampe, Florian

    2014-01-01

    How are our efforts to reduce the impact of climate change affecting post-conflict societies? Thinking and research about the possible impacts of climate change adaptation and mitigation on post-conflict societies is almost nonexistent. Most attention remains on climate change and variability and their link to war.1 In this article I discuss the link between climate change mitigation and building peace. Drawing on new empirical data of micro hydropower development in post-conflict Nepal I inq...

  8. Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2004-01-01

    , the fundamental parameters contributing to the autogenous shrinkage and resultant early-age cracking of concrete are presented. Basic characteristics of the cement paste that contribute to or control the autogenous shrinkage response include the surface tension of the pore solution, the geometry of......As the use of high-performance concrete has increased, problems with early-age cracking have become prominent. The reduction in water-to-cement ratio, the incorporation of silica fume, and the increase in binder content of high-performance concretes all contribute to this problem. In this paper...... problem of early-age cracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Mitigation strategies discussed in this paper include: the addition of shrinkage-reducing admixtures more commonly used to control drying shrinkage, control of the cement particle size distribution, modification of the mineralogical composition of...

  9. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  10. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa [Ministry of Forestry and Environment, GEF/UNDP Enabling Activity Project (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  11. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  12. [Thermovalorization: new technologies, impacts and mitigation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Loconte, V L; Signorelli, C

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades the quantity (in weight and volume) of solid waste is grown so rapidly to become a real problem especially in densely urbanized areas. The disposal of Municipal Solid Waste by incineration with energy recovery (WtE) is recognized as the most suitable system to process non-recyclable waste. However in several countries there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental impact of incinerators. Epidemiological studies, developed since the 80s, are still the subject of controversial discussion because the results of research often refer to old incinerators--built a few decades ago--and therefore more impactful. In fact inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control in these facilities tended to risk the health of plant workers and local environment. This situation furthermore contributes to increase public risk perception and the spread of the NIMBY (not in my backyard) syndrome while siting this unwanted but necessary facilities. Actually, new strategies as advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations, have resulted in large reductions in the amount of emissions. So the first aim of this work has been to understand if these high perception of risk have a reason to exist also in modern and new municipal waste incinerators. The second aim is to discover if the law, the new technologies and the mitigation strategies can really set a limit on the negative impacts on human health and on environment and if is it possible to improve or increase these strategies. Work has been divided into two parts. The first part focuses on analysis of waste environmental impact regulations, of plant operation systems and of epidemiological studies results. The second part involves the examination of the actual use of regulatory instruments, the most advanced technologies and the strategies for mitigation in the most effective new concept incinerators plants. For this verification

  13. Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Weaver, Haylee J

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is progressing and health impacts have been observed in a number of countries, including Australia. The main health impacts will be due to direct heat exposure, extreme weather, air pollution, reduced local food production, food- and vectorborne infectious diseases and mental stress. The issue is one of major public health importance. Adaptation to reduce the effects of climate change involves many different sectors to minimise negative health outcomes. Wide-scale mitigation is also required, in order to reduce the effects of climate change. In addition, future urban design must be modified to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Strategies for mitigation and adaptation can create co-benefits for both individual and community health, by reducing non-climate-related health hazard exposures and by encouraging health promoting behaviours and lifestyles. PMID:19261209

  14. Downhole corrosion mechanisms and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, D. [Baker Hughes Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pipeline corrosion refers to its deterioration because of a reaction with its environment. Although the physical condition of the metal at the anode initiates the corrosion process, it is the chemistry and composition of the electrolyte that controls the rate of the corrosion reaction and the severity of the corrosion. This presentation described the role of corrosion rate accelerators, with particular reference to dissolved gases such as oxygen, hydrogen sulfides and carbon dioxide, as well as pH levels, salinity, flow rate, temperature and presence of solids such as iron sulfides and sulfur. The effects of these accelerators were shown to be additive. Mitigation strategies include using materials such as resistant metal alloys or fiberglass, and applying coatings and chemical inhibitors. The importance of corrosion monitoring was also emphasized, with particular reference to the value of examining the number of corrosion related failures that have occurred over a fixed period of time. It was concluded that the ability to analyze samples of failed materials results in a better understanding of the cause of the failure, and is an integral part of designing any successful corrosion control program. tabs., figs.

  15. Climate change mitigation and sustainability: Educational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciegis, R.; Streimikiene, D.; Gineitiene, D. [Socio-Cultural Research Centre, Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania)

    2007-07-01

    There is a dual relationship between climate change and sustainable development policies, thus climate change mitigation should be considered in line with policies aiming to implement sustainable development. Training, education and raising awareness are the crucial issues in seeking to implement climate change mitigation and sustainable development policies and especially now, when environmental regulation tools are becoming voluntary and ethical public participation is the most important issue in implementing policies. Only an educated society, which understands the importance of climate change mitigation and sustainable development principles, can create a favourable situation for the development of corporate social responsibility and other voluntary measures. This chapter analyses the relationship between climate change and sustainable development and discusses the most important issues concerning education in this field. The analysis of the main problems and challenges of Parties to UNFCCC in climate change education is performed and comparison with Lithuania's situation in this field is provided. Base on analysis performed, the proposals for the development of education in Lithuania integrating climate change mitigation issues into the scope of sustainable development education were elaborated. (orig.)

  16. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O ampersand M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O ampersand M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R ampersand D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment)

  17. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O&M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R&D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment).

  18. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Eric; Burruss, Robert; Faulkner, Stephen; Gleason, Robert; Harden, Jennifer; Kharaka, Yousif; Tieszen, Larry; Waldrop, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This increase in atmospheric CO2 - from about 280 to more than 380 parts per million (ppm) over the last 250 years - is causing measurable global warming. Potential adverse impacts include sea-level rise; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff; and disturbance of coastal marine and other ecosystems. Rising atmospheric CO2 is also increasing the absorption of CO2 by seawater, causing the ocean to become more acidic, with potentially disruptive effects on marine plankton and coral reefs. Technically and economically feasible strategies are needed to mitigate the consequences of increased atmospheric CO2. The United States needs scientific information to develop ways to reduce human-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

  19. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to changeMitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  20. The Paradox of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2012-01-01

    as a climate mitigation strategy has therefore been carried out in relation to future climate change scenarios. It is shown that severe indoor comfort problems can occur, ques-tioning the relevance of passive solar energy as a climate mitigation strategy. In con-clusion, a theoretical study of the interplay...

  1. Seismic Mitigation Strategies for Existing School Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, D. B.; Krimgold, F.; Green, M.

    California provides the paradigm for lessening devastating earthquake damage in U.S. buildings. This document examines specific examples of the seismic mitigation process, a process showing that seismic retrofit in existing schools in other parts of the country are possible and could lead to more general seismic rehabilitation in other buildings.…

  2. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Bright, Ryan; Cherubini, Francesco; Chum, Helena; Corbera, Esteve; Delucchi, Mark; Faaij, Andre; Fargione, Joseph; Haberl, Helmut; Heath, Garvin; Lucon, Oswaldo; Plevin, Richard; Popp, Alexander; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Rose, Steven; Smith, Pete; Stromman, Anders; Sangwon, Suh; Masera, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...... met, large-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and...

  3. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Agriculture Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, Subash; Hongmin, Dong;

    Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project (http://tech-action.org) that is assisting developing countries in identifying and analysing the priority technology needs for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The TNA process involves different stakeholders in a consultative process, enabling all......This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts in...... the areas of crops, livestock, emissions, and economics, and we are grateful for their efforts in producing this cross disciplinary work. This publication is part of a technical guidebook series produced by the UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC) as part of the...

  4. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran;

    2015-01-01

    met, large-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and......Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...

  5. China's carbon mitigation strategies: Enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the largest CO2 emitter in the world, China has made great achievements in carbon mitigation over the past eight years (2005–2013). Through a comprehensive and detailed overview of China's carbon mitigation strategies, this paper presents China's carbon mitigation achievements and strategies, including adjustment to the industrial structure, saving energy, optimizing energy structure, increasing forest carbon sinks, building foundational capacity, innovating technologies and practicing mitigation efforts in localities and sectors. Having been in place for some years already, the results of many of these measures and policies are now plateauing. China is facing challenges including inevitable emissions growth, shrinking of mitigation potential from technological progress, difficulty in further adjusting the industrial structure and economic development mode, continued dominance of coal in the energy mix, local governments’ reluctance to adopt measures to reduce carbon emissions, etc. Through policy diagnosis it is found that the root causes of these problems and challenges are the facts that policy-making is done primarily on the production side and there is an absence of co-benefits in the decision-making process. Therefore, it is recommended that translating mitigation targets to the consumption level and mainstreaming mitigations’ co-benefits into decision-making processes are needed to quickly enhance the results of mitigation work in China. - Highlights: • Key aspects of China's carbon mitigation strategies were outlined. • China's carbon mitigation achievements were summarized. • Challenges to meet further mitigation were investigated. • Strategic suggestions to quickly enhance China's mitigation ambition were given

  6. Technology Prizes for Climate Change Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Richard; Wilson, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    We analyze whether technology inducement prizes could be a useful complement to standard research grants and contracts in developing climate change mitigation technologies. We find that there are important conceptual advantages to using inducement prizes in certain circumstances. These conceptual inferences are borne out by an examination of the track record of prizes inducing research into public goods, including relevant energy technologies. However, we also find that the prizes’ successes ...

  7. Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

    2013-06-01

    Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (-75%) and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

  8. Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rulli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland–urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (−75% and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

  9. Wake Mitigation Strategies for Optimizing Wind Farm Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilip, Deepu; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Although wind turbines are designed individually for optimum power production, they are often arranged into groups of closely spaced turbines in a wind farm rather than in isolation. Consequently, most turbines in a wind farm do not operate in unobstructed wind flows, but are affected by the wakes of turbines in front of them. Such wake interference significantly reduces the overall power generation from wind farms and hence, development of effective wake mitigation strategies is critical for improving wind farm efficiency. One approach towards this end is based on the notion that the operation of each turbine in a wind farm at its optimum efficiency might not lead to optimum power generation from the wind farm as a whole. This entails a down regulation of individual turbines from its optimum operating point, which can be achieved through different methods such as pitching the turbine blades, changing the turbine tip speed ratio or yawing of the turbine, to name a few. In this study, large-eddy simulations of a two-turbine arrangement with the second turbine fully in the wake of the first are performed. Different wake mitigation techniques are applied to the upstream turbine, and the effects of these on its wake characteristics are investigated. Results for the combined power from the two turbines for each of these methods are compared to a baseline scenario where no wake mitigation strategies are employed. Analysis of the results shows the potential for improved power production from such wake control methods. It should be noted, however, that the magnitude of the improvement is strongly affected by the level of turbulence in the incoming atmospheric flow.

  10. SEU mitigation strategies for SRAM-based FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Zhang, Jian

    2011-08-01

    The type of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) technology and device family used in a design is a key factor for system reliability. Though antifuse-based FPGAs are widely used in aerospace because of their high reliability, current antifuse-based FPGA devices are expensive and leave no room for mistakes or changes since they are not reprogrammable. The substitute for antifuse-based FPGAs are needed in aerospace design, they should be both reprogrammable and highly reliable to Single Event Upset effects (SEUs). SRAM-based FPGAs are widely and systematically used in complex embedding digital systems both in a single chip industry and commercial applications. They are reprogrammable and high in density because of the smaller SRAM cells and logic structures. But the SRAM-based FPGAs are especially sensitive to cosmic radiation because the configuration information is stored in SRAM memory. The ideal FPGA for aerospace use should be high-density SRAM-based which is also insensitive to cosmic radiation induced SEUs. Therefore, in order to enable the use of SRAM-based FPGAs in safety critical applications, new techniques and strategies are essential to mitigate the SEU errors in such devices. In order to improve the reliability of SRAM-based FPGAs which are very sensitive to SEU errors, techniques such as reconfiguration and Triple Module Redundancy (TMR) are widely used in the aerospace electronic systems to mitigate the SEU and Single Event Functional Interrupt (SEFI) errors. Compared to reconfiguration and triplication, scrubbing and partial reconfiguration will utilize fewer or even no internal resources of FPGA. What's more, the detection and repair process can detect and correct SEU errors in configuration memories of the FPGA without affecting or interrupting the proper working of the system while reconfiguration would terminate the operation of the FPGA. This paper presents a payload system realized on Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA which mitigates SEU effects in the

  11. Mitigating climate change: The Philippine case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of the Philippines signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate change on June 12, 1992 and the Philippine Congress ratified it in 1994. The Philippine Government has also subsequently created the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC). The GOP is currently preparing the Philippine Country Study to address climate change. The first phase of the work was financed by a grant from the US Country Studies Program which is led by the US Department of Energy. The Study includes the following elements: a) development of a National Inventory of GHG emission and Sinks; b) vulnerability assessment and evaluation of adaptations of coastal resources; c) identification of alternative programs and measures to promote mitigation and/or adaptation to climate change; d) public information and education campaign; and e) development of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. (au)

  12. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  13. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  14. Integrating uncertainties for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-04-01

    The target of keeping global average temperature increase to below 2°C has emerged in the international climate debate more than a decade ago. In response, the scientific community has tried to estimate the costs of reaching such a target through modelling and scenario analysis. Producing such estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well-known, but ill-quantified uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on one side, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other side, has worked on achieving an increasingly better understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty for the cost of mitigation scenarios but has only been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in a rudimentary manner, i.e., for equilibrium conditions. To bridge this gap between the two research communities, we generate distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific temperature limits, taking into account uncertainties in multiple dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. In other words, uncertainties resulting from our incomplete knowledge about how the climate system precisely reacts to GHG emissions (geophysical uncertainties), about how society will develop (social uncertainties and choices), which technologies will be available (technological uncertainty and choices), when we choose to start acting globally on climate change (political choices), and how much money we are or are not willing to spend to achieve climate change mitigation. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by

  15. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  16. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  17. Equity Concerns over Climate Change Mitigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying; Pan Jiahu

    2004-01-01

    As a complicated concept with ethical implications, equity or fairness in the field of climate change mitigation concerns the relations not only between individual human beings but also between human beings and the nature. In this paper, after the review of equity between individuals, market and non-market attributes of emissions rights are distinguished and discussed. Based on the argument of equal per capita emissions rights, three types of emissions rights and the concept of minimum emissions rights as social security are proposed.

  18. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  19. Impacts and mitigation strategies during and after site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are substantial differences in the types of activities that DOE will be carrying out during, as opposed to after, site characterization. There are also substantial differences in the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (the Act) for assessing and mitigating socioeconomic impacts during the two periods. This paper discusses, briefly, the differences between the site characterization phase and the repository construction and operation phase, and indicate how those differences may affect impacts and potential mitigation. It also discusses the role of impact assessment and monitoring programs in implementing effective mitigation strategies and the respective roles of DOE and affected parties in carrying out both parallel as well as cooperative efforts to project, identify, avoid and mitigate negative impacts. It concludes that as the level of DOE's site specific activities increases, so should the extent to which it is engaged in close consultation with affected parties about its activities and their potential impacts

  20. 1999 Leak Detection, Monitoring, and Mitigation Strategy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented

  1. 1999 Leak Detection and Monitoring and Mitigation Strategy Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHL, P.C.

    1999-09-23

    This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented.

  2. National action to mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 170 participants from 60 countries met for three days in Copenhagen from 7 to 9 June 1994 to discuss howe the aims of the United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change can be translated into practical action. The Conference was organised by the UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE), with financial support from the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. The main objective of the conference was to identify common approaches to national mitigation analysis for countries to use in meeting their commitments under the FCCC, and in setting priorities for national actions. Although addressing a broader theme, the conference marked the completion and publication of the second phase on UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study. (au)

  3. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  4. Climate Change Mitigation A Balanced Approach to Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a fresh and innovative perspective on climate change policy. By emphasizing the multiple facets of climate policy, from mitigation to adaptation, from technological innovation and diffusion to governance issues, it contains a comprehensive overview of the economic and policy dimensions of the climate problem. The keyword of the book is balance. The book clarifies that climate change cannot be controlled by sacrificing economic growth and many other urgent global issues. At the same time, action to control climate change cannot be delayed, even though gradually implemented. Therefore, on the one hand climate policy becomes pervasive and affects all dimensions of international policy. On the other hand, climate policy cannot be too ambitious: a balanced approach between mitigation and adaptation, between economic growth and resource management, between short term development efforts and long term innovation investments, should be adopted. I recommend its reading. Carlo Carraro, President, Ca�...

  5. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogner, J.P.; Pipatti, R.; Hashimoto, S.;

    2008-01-01

    14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental......, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions...

  6. The Urban Heat Island Phenomenon and Potential Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Gorsevski, Virginia; Russell, Camille; Quattrochi, Dale; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A survey of urban heat island research is provided to describe how heat islands develop, urban landscape and meteorological characteristics that facilitate development, use of aircraft remote sensing data, and why heat islands are of interest to planners, elected officials, and the public. The roles of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal agencies, national laboratories and universities, state and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOS) in studying the urban heat island effect and developing mitigation strategies are explored. Barriers that hamper mitigation efforts and case studies in Atlanta and Salt Lake City are discussed.

  7. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.farahani@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Hamedan-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-14

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  8. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  9. Economy of climatic change. From mitigation to adaptation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change adaptation policies are the subject of this thesis. It has been showed that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the response strategies construction are characteristic of a pollutionist approach. This approach led to envision the question of climate change as a classic pollution and environment issue. As a result, this approach has generated a double bias to the disadvantage of adaptation compared to mitigation policies: adaptation has been confined in a secondary and marginal role in climate policies structuring, and with an inoperative conceptual and methodological framework for its implementation. The thesis proposes a deconstruction of this climate change conceptualization. Moreover, the major limits that characterize mitigation policies call into question the predominance given to them in climate policies construction. The 'pollutionist' approach deconstruction allows at first to show that adaptation policies definition and operationalization need to go beyond (i) the standard analytic framework of climate policies and, (ii) the climate change conceptualization as a classic pollution and environment management issue. The thesis then argues that adaptation has to be integrated in development promoting policies, which means that adaptation needs to be conceptualized no longer as an ad hoc management of pollution effects issue, but as a development issue. Whether in the proper context of adaptation policies, or more largely of climate policies, the thesis leaves open the questions of the viability, but also of the organization and financing modalities, of a climate regime which fits within development promoting. (author)

  10. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  11. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; FRITZ, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes significantly to global warming through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, livestock is an invaluable source of nutrition and livelihood for millions of poor people. Therefore, climate mitigation policies involving livestock must be designed with extreme care. Here we demonstrate the large mitigation potential inherent in the heterogeneity of livestock production systems. We find that even within existing systems, autonomous transitions from ext...

  12. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments...

  13. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  14. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Coninck, H.C. de; Puig, D.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systema...

  15. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  16. 应对全球变化的中国地质灾害综合减灾战略研究%Integrated Landslide Mitigation Strategies Study for Global Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石菊松; 吴树仁; 张永双; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integrated mitigation strategies for catastrophic landslide induced by the extreme weather events, to enhance the capability of science, technology and management of initiative landslide prevention and mitigation, which as activities undertaken to strengthen response capacities to landslide under the global change condition in China. Based on the presentation and discussion of the participants of workshop on Global catastrophic event and mitigation strategy for major landslide, combination with the major landslide events in recent years, this paper will analyze the impact of neotectonics movement and seismic activity, climate change, population growth and urbanization process, try to explore why there were so many and frequently landslide occurred in 2010 and make a macro judgment of the overall situation of landslide prevention in the future. Comprehensive analysis preliminary revealed that; (T) In recent years, the global tectonic movement and seismic activity were into a new relative active period, China is located at the intersection area of the Eurasian seismic belt and the circum-Pacific seismic belt, where is the strongest response area of current tectonic activity and earthquake. Especially, due to the Indian plate intense activity, the margin of the Tibetan Plateau region trend to frequently seismic activity, enhanced intensity of fault activity and hence, more frequently landslide occurrence by interaction of internal and external motivation in the recent future. (2) With the impact of global climate change, extreme and abnormal patterns weather conditions make the mechanism of landslide tend to diverse and complex, due to China is the largest convergence of continental climate and oceanic climate zone, also the wariest climate difference region caused by height difference of landscape, especially in 2010, a long time drought followed with concentration high-intensity and long duration rainfall in the raining

  17. IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokona, Youba

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

  18. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... large challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters...... explain in further debt these policies and their effects as well as a number of additional policies and initiatives related to climate mitigation and transport. The private sector and local government has proven important in connection with an efficient transport sector. Hence selected local and regional...

  19. Assessing effects of mitigation strategies for global climate change with an intertemporal model of the U.S. forest and agriculture sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of product and land markets in US forest and agricultural sectors is used to examine the private forest management, land use, and market implications of carbon sequestration policies implemented in a 'least social cost' fashion. Results suggest: policy-induced land use changes may generate compensating land use shifts through markets; land use shifts to meet policy targets need not be permanent; implementation of land use and management changes in a smooth or regular fashion over time may not be optimal; and primary forms of adjustment to meet carbon policy targets involve shifting of land from agriculture to forest and more intensive forest management in combinations varying with the policy target. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs

  20. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  1. Efficient mitigation strategies for epidemics in rural regions

    CERN Document Server

    Scoglio, Caterina; Schumm, Phillip; Easton, Todd; Chowdhury, Sohini Roy; Sydney, Ali; Youssef, Mina

    2010-01-01

    Containing an epidemic at its origin is the most desirable mitigation. Epidemics have often originated in rural areas, with rural communities among the first affected. Disease dynamics in rural regions have received limited attention, and results of general studies cannot be directly applied since population densities and human mobility factors are very different in rural regions from those in cities. We create a network model of a rural community in Kansas, USA, by collecting data on the contact patterns and computing rates of contact among a sampled population. We model the impact of different mitigation strategies detecting closely connected groups of people and frequently visited locations. Within those groups and locations, we compare the effectiveness of random and targeted vaccinations using a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered compartmental model on the contact network. Our simulations show that the targeted vaccinations of only 10% of the sampled population reduced the size of the epidemic by 34....

  2. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics......Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute...

  3. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Susan C; Peterson, Janet; Yektashenas, Behin

    2012-02-01

    The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices. PMID:22171604

  4. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  5. Indonesian National Policy on Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2015-01-01

    From its arousal, the issue of climate change or global warming has become a distinct global trend setter in multidisciplinary discussion, including in the law perspective. Within legal discourse, the issue of climate change developed rapidly into several aspect, not only about adaptation nor mitigation, especially since the plurality of moral conviction relevant to the climate change facts. As a global matter, each country has the responsibility to adapt and mitigate with its own characte...

  6. Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Rulli; L. Offeddu; Santini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland–urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from spla...

  7. Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing this final rule to require domestic and foreign food facilities that are required to register under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) to address hazards that may be introduced with the intention to cause wide scale public health harm. These food facilities are required to conduct a vulnerability assessment to identify significant vulnerabilities and actionable process steps and implement mitigation strategies to significantly minimize or prevent significant vulnerabilities identified at actionable process steps in a food operation. FDA is issuing these requirements as part of our implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). PMID:27236872

  8. Disruptions in ITER and strategies for their control and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnen, M., E-mail: michael.lehnen@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Aleynikova, K.; Aleynikov, P.B.; Campbell, D.J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Drewelow, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald branch, EURATOM Ass., D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Eidietis, N.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Gasparyan, Yu. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Granetz, R.S. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gribov, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hartmann, N. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Hollmann, E.M. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Izzo, V.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Jachmich, S. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, Association EURATOM – Belgian State, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Kim, S.-H.; Kočan, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Koslowski, H.R. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kovalenko, D. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Kruezi, U. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-15

    The thermal and electromagnetic loads related to disruptions in ITER are substantial and require careful design of tokamak components to ensure they reach the projected lifetime and to ensure that safety relevant components fulfil their function for the worst foreseen scenarios. The disruption load specifications are the basis for the design process of components like the full-W divertor, the blanket modules and the vacuum vessel and will set the boundary conditions for ITER operations. This paper will give a brief overview on the disruption loads and mitigation strategies for ITER and will discuss the physics basis which is continuously refined through the current disruption R&D programs.

  9. Disruptions in ITER and strategies for their control and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal and electromagnetic loads related to disruptions in ITER are substantial and require careful design of tokamak components to ensure they reach the projected lifetime and to ensure that safety relevant components fulfil their function for the worst foreseen scenarios. The disruption load specifications are the basis for the design process of components like the full-W divertor, the blanket modules and the vacuum vessel and will set the boundary conditions for ITER operations. This paper will give a brief overview on the disruption loads and mitigation strategies for ITER and will discuss the physics basis which is continuously refined through the current disruption R&D programs

  10. Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Antipas T. S. Massawe

    2012-01-01

    Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

  11. Slowing global warming. Mitigation strategy for the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, a range of human activities that characterize modern economic systems are leading to emissions of greenhouse gases. For some activities like the cultivation of paddy rice in flooded soils, there is reason to believe that there are no economically viable or practical alternatives to the current methods which produce these emissions. However, there are several other areas of human activity ranging from the generation of electricity to the provision of passenger and freight transport, in which there clearly exists the potential for preparing the agenda for change which would mitigate global warming. The objective of this paper is to discuss and evaluate a suitable mix of innovative measures which would make efficient use of scarce resources and maximize returns from the resources invested to limit CO2 emissions. In particular, this paper evolves a three phase approach for mitigating CO2 emissions that can be widely applied to reorient economic development policies in the developing world. Comprising an agenda for change, it underlines specific failures in national policies, identifies thrust areas for mitigating CO2 emissions and suggests policy responses in major sectors of the economy. The guiding premise here is simple and straightforward - the energy sector (inclusive of the services provided by energy rather than energy per se) which has been a major cause for invoking the threat of climate change and global warming, must now become a part of the solution. (au) 11 refs

  12. IDB-9: IDB Integrated Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, and Sustainable and Renewable Energy Title: IDB-9: Estrategia Integrada del BID de Mitigación y Adaptación al Cambio Climático y Energía Sostenible y Renovable

    OpenAIRE

    John Redwood; Lourdes Alvarez Prado; Veronica Gonzalez Diez

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the Inter-American Development Bank¿s Integrated Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, and Sustainable and Renewable Energy (CCS). The Strategy was produced as a requirement of the IDB-9 Agreement and approved by Board of Executive Directors in March 2011. Management produced an Action Plan for the CCS in February 2012. Although the IDB-9 also mentions "food security" as a sector priority, the CCS does not include this topic, nor does it discuss "protection...

  13. Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin B.; Sorensen, Marten

    2014-05-01

    Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia Namibia is the most arid country south of the Sahara, with scarce rainfall and perennial rivers only at its borders, > 80% of the area relies solely on groundwater. This has had devastating economic effects limiting opportunities for sustainable rural livelihoods that keep the population majority living below the World Bank poverty line (IFAD, 2013). A primary example of climatic variability which affects agrarian productivity is increased bush encroachment of Namibia's arid grazing land. The result has been a severe biodiversity loss, increased desertification and diminished water-use efficiency and underground water tables. Given these factors, Namibia's arid lands provide a unique opportunity to assess and test innovative / appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Working toward sustainable management, restoration, and maintenance of balanced, resilient arid ecosystems in Namibia will also be a means to support and expand economic sectors incl. opportunities for job creation and potentially provide a model for similar arid regions. Main vegetation zones are: desert (46%), savannah (37%), and dry woodlands and forests (17%), i.e. dimensions of management strategies within stakeholder groups using participatory approaches. 3. Determine science-based alternatives for adaptive land management strategies and test their acceptability to local communities and within the current policy framework. 4. Integrate identified indigenous knowledge with appropriate science and new emerging technologies to develop a training toolkit of effective strategies relevant to all stakeholders. 5. Utilize training sessions, education workshops, curriculum revisions, and appropriate information and communication technologies (ICTs) including social media outlets to disseminate the toolkit strategies. 6. Apply a modified logic model approach within a value chain analysis process to evaluate program effectiveness and impacts at

  14. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy : Conservation implications for European birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-e

  15. Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation-mitigation dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many policy-makers view nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, however, interact with existing and new nuclear power plants, and these installations must contend with dilemmas between adaptation and mitigation. This paper develops five criteria to assess the adaptation-mitigation dilemma on two major points: (1) the ability of nuclear power to adapt to climate change and (2) the potential for nuclear power operation to hinder climate change adaptation. Sea level rise models for nine coastal sites in the United States, a review of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission documents, and reports from France's nuclear regulatory agency provided insights into issues that have arisen from sea level rise, shoreline erosion, coastal storms, floods, and heat waves. Applying the criteria to inland and coastal nuclear power plants reveals several weaknesses. Safety stands out as the primary concern at coastal locations, while inland locations encounter greater problems with interrupted operation. Adapting nuclear power to climate change entails either increased expenses for construction and operation or incurs significant costs to the environment and public health and welfare. Mere absence of greenhouse gas emissions is not sufficient to assess nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. - Research Highlights: → The adaptation-mitigation criteria reveal nuclear power's vulnerabilities. → Climate change adaptation could become too costly at many sites. → Nuclear power operation jeopardizes climate change adaptation. → Extreme climate events pose a safety challenge.

  16. Response policy and strategy for mitigating CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate change resulting from greenhouse gas emissions is one of the most important global environmental problems. The issues of China's emissions and national response policy and strategy for mitigating CO2 emissions are closely related to the global environment. As one of the largest developing countries, China is making great effort to realize its ambitious socioeconomic development. With economic development and population growth, energy consumption will inevitably increase, as will the amount of CO2 emissions. Therefore, it will be a difficult task for China to formulate energy development strategies and policies for a sound environment and climate. This paper will outline the current energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and analyze the factors influencing energy demand and CO2 emissions. Finally, response policy and strategy for mitigating CO2 emissions will be assessed in detail

  17. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  18. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  19. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  20. Framework for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaption in Cities by Utilizing Green Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Davidson, Cliff I.; Jindal, Ranjina;

    Climate change has threatened global security of ecosystems, human health and natural resources. These threats have increased demand for various mitigation technology solutions as well as effective strategies for adapting to anticipated impacts. Green infrastructure (GI) technologies such as green...... roofs and urban forestry are viewed as ones of the best climate adaptation strategies in cities. This study aims to develop a framework for climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) in cities by using green infrastructure technologies. The framework is established by integrating existing green...... infrastructure frameworks with indicators from green building rating systems (LEED 2009, BCA Green Mark 4.0, CASBEE, and TREES-NC 1.0). The climate change mitigation and adaptation framework addresses benefits from applying different GI technologies as well as limitations in existing rating systems and the green...

  1. Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar

    2009-07-01

    For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

  2. Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

  3. Radiation effects and mitigation strategies for modern FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field Programmable Gate Array devices have become the technology of choice in small volume modern instrumentation and control systems. These devices have always offered significant advantages in flexibility, and recent advances in fabrication have greatly increased logic capacity, substantially increasing the number of applications for this technology. Unfortunately, the increased density (and corresponding shrinkage of process geometry), has made these devices more susceptible to failure due to external radiation. This has been an issue for space based systems for some time, but is now becoming an issue for terrestrial systems in elevated radiation environments and commercial avionics as well. Characterizing the failure modes of Xilinx FPGAs, and developing mitigation strategies is the subject of ongoing research by a consortium of academic, industrial, and governmental laboratories. This paper presents background information of radiation effects and failure modes, as well as current and future mitigation techniques. In particular, the availability of very large FPGA devices, complete with generous amounts of RAM and embedded processor(s), has led to the implementation of complete digital systems on a single device, bringing issues of system reliability and redundancy management to the chip level. Radiation effects on a single FPGA are increasingly likely to have system level consequences, and will need to be addressed in current and future designs.

  4. Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

  5. Volume 3 Chapter 1: Mitigation and adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Nakicenovic, N.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the needs and opportunities as well as the constraints and barriers with respect to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While the chapter concentrates mainly on Austria, information is provided on the global and EU level to the extent they are relevant for Austria. Section 1.1 discusses the targets already specified for mitigation at the global level, as well as technologies that are already available or are emerging with the potential to meet the challenges a...

  6. Balancing expenditures on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change : an exploration of Issues relevant to developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lecocq, Franck; Shalizi, Zmarak

    2007-01-01

    Although climate policies have been so far mostly focused on mitigation, adaptation to climate change is a growing concern in developed and developing countries. This paper discusses how adaptation fits into the global climate strategy, at the global and national levels. To do so, a partial equilibrium optimization model of climate policies-which includes mitigation, proactive adaptation (...

  7. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy : Conservation implications for European birds

    OpenAIRE

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-economic impacts which arise through habitat modification by land use change. While the debate continues, the separate or simultaneous impacts of both climate change and bioenergy on biodiversity ha...

  8. Strategic and legal framework in forestry and related sectors: Climate change mitigation in European Union and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Nenad; Stanišić Mirjana; Nedeljković Jelena; Nonić Dragan

    2016-01-01

    The important role of forests in mitigating and adapting to climate changes is recognized and widely accepted. Therefore, it becomes a subject of universal interest and support. However, in the national strategies relating to climate change, the importance of the forestry sector in mitigating these changes is quite often not discussed in detail. In addition, the problem of climate change is not fully represented and included in national forestry policies. T...

  9. Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin B.; Sorensen, Marten

    2014-05-01

    Mitigating Climate Change in the Arid Lands of Namibia Namibia is the most arid country south of the Sahara, with scarce rainfall and perennial rivers only at its borders, > 80% of the area relies solely on groundwater. This has had devastating economic effects limiting opportunities for sustainable rural livelihoods that keep the population majority living below the World Bank poverty line (IFAD, 2013). A primary example of climatic variability which affects agrarian productivity is increased bush encroachment of Namibia's arid grazing land. The result has been a severe biodiversity loss, increased desertification and diminished water-use efficiency and underground water tables. Given these factors, Namibia's arid lands provide a unique opportunity to assess and test innovative / appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Working toward sustainable management, restoration, and maintenance of balanced, resilient arid ecosystems in Namibia will also be a means to support and expand economic sectors incl. opportunities for job creation and potentially provide a model for similar arid regions. Main vegetation zones are: desert (46%), savannah (37%), and dry woodlands and forests (17%), i.e. management strategies currently used by rural communities. 2. Capture and assess cultural and gender dimensions of management strategies within stakeholder groups using participatory approaches. 3. Determine science-based alternatives for adaptive land management strategies and test their acceptability to local communities and within the current policy framework. 4. Integrate identified indigenous knowledge with appropriate science and new emerging technologies to develop a training toolkit of effective strategies relevant to all stakeholders. 5. Utilize training sessions, education workshops, curriculum revisions, and appropriate information and communication technologies (ICTs) including social media outlets to disseminate the toolkit strategies. 6. Apply a modified logic

  10. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications. PMID:23113627

  11. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats. PMID:27054192

  12. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  13. Methane emissions by livestock in India and mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India 92% enteric methane (CH4) is emitted by cattle and buffalo, about 7% by sheep and goats and only a very small fraction (less than 1%) is attributed to other ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores like yak, mithun, pig, horse, mules, ass, etc. Therefore the strategies to be adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions by livestock are primarily centred around cattle and buffalo. Keeping in mind the agricultural practices in India, the major mitigation techniques which might have some scope for practical application include replacement of non-productive or low productive animals with superior livestock, improving the quality of feeds offered to animals and the use of plant secondary metabolites which are present in many tropical plants. After screening more than 150 plant extracts, it was found that Terminalia chebula, Sapindus mukorossi, Populus deltoides, Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, Allium sativum, Psidium guajava, Mentha piperita and Eucalyptus globulus were capable of inhibiting methanogenesis and ciliate protozoa in an in vitro gas production test. Although these plant extracts exhibited more than 50% inhibition in in vitro experiments, the same plants/ plant extracts either showed no effect or a very poor effect in in vivo experiments. Probable reasons include the different concentrations of plant secondary metabolites used in in vivo and in vitro experiments and large variations in the chemical composition of different accessions of the plant products. Therefore, detailed experiments are needed to optimise the doses of plant secondary metabolites required to produce significant inhibition of CH4 emissions without adversely affecting animal performance. (author)

  14. PUBLIC PRIVATE COLLABORATION ON CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    How can local governments influence companies to reduce their climate change impacts? This overall problem is examined in this PhD thesis. The PhD thesis is based on the experiences of seven Danish municipalities participating in the EU Life+ project, Carbon 20. Analyses are made of the...... companies to implement energy savings • Options for municipal environmental officers to address climate change and energy as part of the direct environmental regulation of companies • Cooperation between municipalities and energy utilities on providing free of charge energy screenings • The municipalities......’ activities to combine local business support with the climate and environmental agenda under the concept of green growth • The learning and competences of the municipal officers. The insights from these five analyses are combined into the sixth analysis as an assessment of the competencies needed to assist...

  15. Climate change mitigation in the energy sector of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. (EG)

  16. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    , etc.) interact to analyse and solve important decision problems by applying methodologies. A simple framework is used to identify several sources of contradictions that may have a significant impact on studies carried out in the single countries as well on the implementation of abatement measures....... Some methodological principles are suggested to address such contradictions, structure, and change th einteractions between the different dimensions of hte social process framework. Two studies are mentioned in which ideas are presented on how to deal with the central contradictions. Applying such...... methodologies to case studies is seen as one way of improving the chances of understanding and handling environmental problems...

  17. 78 FR 78067 - Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public Meeting on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... 16 and 121 Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public... CFR Parts 16 and 121 Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration... intentional adulteration caused by acts of terrorism. Along with this public meeting, FDA is...

  18. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  19. Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

  20. Benefits of interrelationships between climate change mitigation and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lea Ravnkilde; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2014-01-01

    and product 2: climate change adaptation. The production possibilities frontier (PPF) summarises the production benefits of the two products. The case study of the paper is the replanting of mangrove forests in the coastal wetland areas of Peam Krasaob Wildlife Sanctuary in Cambodia. The benefits of...... climate change mitigation will be estimated on the basis of the amount of carbon sequestrated in the replanted area. The benefits of climate change adaptation are the replanted area’s ability to protect the local community from storms and sea level rise, including the co-benefits of enhanced productivity...... estimated benefits of climate change mitigation and adaptation are tested under different climate change scenarios, seeing as the impact and frequency of storms can have a significant effect on coastal wetland areas and the replanting of the mangrove forests and therefore also on the joint benefits of...

  1. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  2. China–Europe Relations in the Mitigation of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Axel; Fischer, Doris; Lema, Rasmus;

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large-scale investments of both China and the EU in climate-change mitigation and renewable-energy promotion, the prevailing view on China–EU relations is one of conflict rather than cooperation. In order to evaluate the prospects of cooperation between China and the EU in these policy...

  3. A country framework for analyzing climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once the global community accepted the threat of global climate change as a serious one, many countries began to study its possible consequences and the scope for national action that could help mitigate it. Governments will find that national climate change studies are useful quite apart from helping them to fulfill commitments under the FCCC. All countries, developed and developing, will benefit from an understanding of the sacrifice they need to make for the greater benefit of climate change mitigation. This sacrifice - that is, the set of trade-offs or the 'added burden' - is what economists refer to as the 'incremental cost' of climate change mitigation actions. All countries will benefit from knowing what these costs are and from knowing how much their national action will matter. Using measures of cost and mitigation, they will be able to choose from among their alternative national actions those with the greatest effect and the lowest incremental cost. Eligible countries can also use these measures to negotiate the amount of financial assistance they need from the financial mechanism of the FCCC or other sources. A country framework for medium-term considerations will yield results useful for investment planning, policy choice, and financial reimbursement (where appropriate). This is the focus of the framework outlined in this paper. (EG) 15 refs

  4. Strategic and legal framework in forestry and related sectors: Climate change mitigation in European Union and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of forests in mitigating and adapting to climate changes is recognized and widely accepted. Therefore, it becomes a subject of universal interest and support. However, in the national strategies relating to climate change, the importance of the forestry sector in mitigating these changes is quite often not discussed in detail. In addition, the problem of climate change is not fully represented and included in national forestry policies. The aim of this research was to determine the compliance and differences of strategic and legislative frameworks in forestry and related sectors, relating to climate change mitigation in the EU and Serbia. At the EU level, there are two strategies and a policy framework, and in Serbia, eight sectoral strategies, referring and discussing the climate change mitigation through forestry. At the same time, these issues are highlighted as the primary objective, only in the Climate and Energy Package of the EU and the Forestry Development Strategy in Serbia. In terms of legislative framework in Serbia, two laws have climate change mitigation through forestry as the primary objective, while for the analyzed relevant EU legislation, this is a secondary objective. In Serbia, only the Forest law has a direct impact on climate change mitigation through forestry, while at EU level, there is no regulation, directive or communication, with the same direct influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studies of climate changes and their impact on the environment-monitoring impacts, adaptation and mitigation, podprojekat, 43007/16-III: Socio-economic development, mitigation and adaptation to climate change

  5. Policy progress in mitigation of climate change in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make an active contribution to the global effort in mitigation of climate change, Taiwan government has implemented the 'Frameworks for Sustainable Energy Policy-An Energy-Saving and Carbon-Reduction Action Plan' in June 2008. It has made a commitment of a stepwise reduction of nationwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which returns the nationwide GHG emission to 2008 levels by 2020, then reduces to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally cuts 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. The fundamental strategy is to reduce the GHG emission under acceptable economic development and energy security to achieve generation-spanning triple-win in energy, environment and economy. The major policy instruments such as 'Statute for Renewable Energy Development', 'GHG Reduction Law (draft),' 'Regulation for Energy Tax (draft),' and 'Energy Management Act' have been either implemented or scheduled for legislative reviewing. The purpose of this paper is to present an updated review of the outcomes of GHG emission reduction in Taiwan. In addition, the progress and priority of policy instruments in GHG emission reduction are analyzed as well. - Research highlights: →Taiwan has made a commitment of stepwise targets of GHG emission reduction to contribute to the global efforts in combating climate change in 2008. →The near-term target returns the nationwide GHG emissions back to 2008 levels during years of 2016-2020. Then, emission levels are cut to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. →In addition to finish legislative review of the 'GHG Reduction Act', Taiwan has prepared a comprehensive action plan to reduce the national GHG emissions, involving improvement of the efficiency in energy use, development of the sustainable energy, and taxation of carbon on fossils.

  6. Potential Risks and Mitigation Strategies Before the Conduct of a Clinical Trial: An Industry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Seema; Kapatkar, Vaibhavi K; Mourya, Meenakshi; Roy, Sucheta; Jha, Shailendra; Reddy, Rajasekhar; Kadhe, Ganesh; Mane, Amey; Sawant, Sandesh

    2016-01-01

    Conduct of clinical trials has undergone substantial changes over the last two decades. Newer markets, evolving guidelines and documentation and high cost involved in conducting the trials have led pharmaceutical companies to prepare a risk mitigation plan. Extensive monitoring of potential risks is an essential element of clinical trials which helps to ensure quality and integrity of a clinical investigation. Every clinical trial has pre (before the trial), conduct and post phase. This article which has been developed as a result of extensive research at ground level by a reputed pharmaceutical company to identify the potential stages of risks that could affect the overall quality and safety of a trial and its outcome during the pre-phase of trial (the stage of the trial where the study design is being planned before initiation of the clinical trial). It includes risks associated with basic study concept, protocol design, Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) and Clinical Trial Authorization (CTA) application signing, vendors of central drug laboratory, site and investigator selection, Clinical Research Coordinator (CRC) meet, Informed Consent Form (ICF), Case Report Form (CRF)/ Status Report Form (SRF) preparation, Ethics Committee (EC) submission, etc. have been highlighted. The risk based mitigation strategy (to develop an effective risk monitoring plan before staring a clinical trial) has also been suggested by authors. A well-tailored and integrated plan, recognition of potential risks and their mitigation strategy can result in the pre exclusion or end to end solution of all the risks associated with pre- phase of clinical trials. PMID:26435140

  7. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.;

    2014-01-01

    for discussing how a multi objective policy paradigm can contribute to future climate change mitigation. The paper includes country case studies from Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, South Korea and the United States covering renewable energy options......, industry, transportation, the residential sector and cross-sectoral policies. These countries and regions together contribute more than two thirds of global GHG emissions. The paper finds that policies that are nationally driven and that have multiple objectives, including climate-change mitigation, have...... been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...

  8. How much climate change can be avoided by mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Warren M.; Knutti, Reto; Meehl, Gerald A.; Teng, Haiyan; Tebaldi, Claudia; Lawrence, David; Buja, Lawrence; Strand, Warren G.

    2009-04-01

    Avoiding the most serious climate change impacts will require informed policy decisions. This in turn will require information regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions required to stabilize climate in a state not too much warmer than today. A new low emission scenario is simulated in a global climate model to show how some of the impacts from climate change can be averted through mitigation. Compared to a non-intervention reference scenario, emission reductions of about 70% by 2100 are required to prevent roughly half the change in temperature and precipitation that would otherwise occur. By 2100, the resulting stabilized global climate would ensure preservation of considerable Arctic sea ice and permafrost areas. Future heat waves would be 55% less intense, and sea level rise from thermal expansion would be about 57% lower than if a non-mitigation scenario was followed.

  9. Regrets or No Regrets -- That is the Question: Is Conservation an Costless CO2 Mitigation Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Rose; Shih-Mo Lin

    1995-01-01

    Based on sectoral, or partial equilibrium, analyses, energy conservation has been offered as a "no regrets" CO2 mitigation strategy. Ours is the first study to isolate key features of conservation strategies in a general equilibrium context. The results indicate that conservation would have slightly negative! effects on the U.S. economy overall, in addition to sizable negative effects on most energy industries. Thus, while conservation may be a worthy CO2 mitigation strategy, it should not be...

  10. Energy efficiency as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the best strategy for New Zealand to follow in order to meet obligations under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The New Zealand government's current policy is to rely on the increased carbon storage in commercial tree plantings to meet 80% of FCCC obligations with the balance being met by policy measures including voluntary energy efficiency agreements with industry and enhanced state support for energy efficiency activities. If targets are not on track for achievement by 2000, the government will introduce a carbon charge in 1997. An alternative strategy involving microeconomic reforms in the electricity and transport sectors and tradable abatement obligations including credits for emission reductions and carbon storage is proposed. 1 fig., 11 refs

  11. The effectiveness of cool and green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect at the city-scale is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in conjunction with the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM). Specifically, the cooling impacts of green roof and cool (white/high-albedo) roof strategies over the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area during a heat wave period (7 June–10 June 2008) are assessed using the optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM described in the companion paper by Li and Bou-Zeid (2014). Results indicate that the surface UHI effect (defined based on the urban–rural surface temperature difference) is reduced significantly more than the near-surface UHI effect (defined based on urban–rural 2 m air temperature difference) when these mitigation strategies are adopted. In addition, as the green and cool roof fractions increase, the surface and near-surface UHIs are reduced almost linearly. Green roofs with relatively abundant soil moisture have comparable effect in reducing the surface and near-surface UHIs to cool roofs with an albedo value of 0.7. Significant indirect effects are also observed for both green and cool roof strategies; mainly, the low-level advection of atmospheric moisture from rural areas into urban terrain is enhanced when the fraction of these roofs increases, thus increasing the humidity in urban areas. The additional benefits or penalties associated with modifications of the main physical determinants of green or cool roof performance are also investigated. For green roofs, when the soil moisture is increased by irrigation, additional cooling effect is obtained, especially when the ‘unmanaged’ soil moisture is low. The effects of changing the albedo of cool roofs are also substantial. These results also underline the capabilities of the WRF-PUCM framework to support detailed analysis and diagnosis of the UHI phenomenon, and of its different mitigation strategies. (letter)

  12. The effectiveness of cool and green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect at the city-scale is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in conjunction with the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM). Specifically, the cooling impacts of green roof and cool (white/high-albedo) roof strategies over the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area during a heat wave period (7 June-10 June 2008) are assessed using the optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM described in the companion paper by Li and Bou-Zeid (2014). Results indicate that the surface UHI effect (defined based on the urban-rural surface temperature difference) is reduced significantly more than the near-surface UHI effect (defined based on urban-rural 2 m air temperature difference) when these mitigation strategies are adopted. In addition, as the green and cool roof fractions increase, the surface and near-surface UHIs are reduced almost linearly. Green roofs with relatively abundant soil moisture have comparable effect in reducing the surface and near-surface UHIs to cool roofs with an albedo value of 0.7. Significant indirect effects are also observed for both green and cool roof strategies; mainly, the low-level advection of atmospheric moisture from rural areas into urban terrain is enhanced when the fraction of these roofs increases, thus increasing the humidity in urban areas. The additional benefits or penalties associated with modifications of the main physical determinants of green or cool roof performance are also investigated. For green roofs, when the soil moisture is increased by irrigation, additional cooling effect is obtained, especially when the ‘unmanaged’ soil moisture is low. The effects of changing the albedo of cool roofs are also substantial. These results also underline the capabilities of the WRF-PUCM framework to support detailed analysis and diagnosis of the UHI phenomenon, and of its different mitigation strategies.

  13. Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R L M; Eriksen, Jørgen; Ledgard, S F;

    2013-01-01

    options in this paper have been structured along these N pathways. Mitigation technologies involving diet-based intervention include lowering the CP content or increasing the condensed tannin content of the diet. Animal-related mitigation options also include breeding for improved N conversion and high...... comprise breeding efforts for increased N-use efficiency and the use of pastures with N2-fixing clover. It is important to recognize that all N2O mitigation options affect the N and carbon cycles of livestock systems. Therefore, care should be taken that reductions in N2O emissions are not offset...

  14. Should policy-makers allocate funding to vehicle electrification or end-use energy efficiency as a strategy for climate change mitigation and energy reductions? Rethinking electric utilities efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States by an order of magnitude, a portfolio of mitigation strategies is needed. Currently, many utilities pursue energy efficiency programs. We study a case where utilities could choose whether to allocate their energy efficiency budget to either end-use efficiency or vehicle electrification as a means to reduce CO2 emissions. We build a decision space that displays the conditions under which utilities should pursue either strategy. To build such decision space, assumptions are needed on how consumers respond to electric vehicle incentives, and what would be the baseline vehicle selected by consumers if no incentives were in place. Since these two aspects are highly uncertain, we treat them parametrically: if consumers are replacing a conventional vehicle with a PHEV, utility incentive programs to induce PHEV adoption appear to be cost-effective for a wide range of efficiency program costs and grid emissions factors. - Highlights: • We compare subsidies for CO2 cuts with electric efficiency and plug-in hybrid vehicles. • Our model focuses PHEVs with a 20 km range and residential electric efficiency. • The subsidy choice depends on technical, economic, and regulatory factors. • These include grid emissions factor, size of subsidy, and efficiency program costs. • PHEV grants of $800-1000/vehicle make sense in most U.S. states without decoupling

  15. Using Local Stories as a Call to Action on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Generation: A Will Steger Legacy and the University of Minnesota's Regional Sustainability Development Partnerships (RSDP) have developed a novel approach to engaging rural Minnesotans on climate change issues. Through the use of personal, local stories about individuals' paths to action to mitigate and or adapt to climate change, Climate Generation and RSDP aim to spur others to action. Minnesota's Changing Climate project includes 12 Climate Convenings throughout rural Minnesota in a range of communities (tourism-based, agrarian, natural resources-based, university towns) to engage local populations in highly local conversations about climate change, its local impacts, and local solutions currently occurring. Climate Generation and RSDP have partnered with Molly Phipps Consulting to evaluate the efficacy of this approach in rural Minnesota. Data include pre and post convening surveys examining participants' current action around climate change, attitudes toward climate change (using questions from Maibach, Roser-Renouf, and Leiserowitz, 2009), and the strength of their social network to support their current and ongoing work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change. Although the Climate Convenings are tailored to each community, all include a resource fair of local organizations already engaging in climate change mitigation and adaptation activities which participants can participate in, a welcome from a trusted local official, a presentation on the science of climate change, sharing of local climate stories, and break-out groups where participants can learn how to get involved in a particular mitigation or adaptation strategy. Preliminary results have been positive: participants feel motivated to work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change, and more local stories have emerged that can be shared in follow-up webinars and on a project website to continue to inspire others to act.

  16. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani, E-mail: nova.zp@gmail.com, E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id [Visual Communication Design Study Program, Faculty of Art and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesa No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  17. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia

  18. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...... further developed include knowledge development, legitimation and marketformation. These could be focal areas for the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. We recommendthat, in future programmes, part of the funding is dedicated to programmes doingresearch and development as well as capability development....

  19. Diagnosis and antiviral intervention strategies for mitigating an influenza epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have amassed antiviral stockpiles for pandemic preparedness. Despite extensive trial data and modelling studies, it remains unclear how to make optimal use of antiviral stockpiles within the constraints of healthcare infrastructure. Modelling studies informed recommendations for liberal antiviral distribution in the pandemic phase, primarily to prevent infection, but failed to account for logistical constraints clearly evident during the 2009 H1N1 outbreaks. Here we identify optimal delivery strategies for antiviral interventions accounting for logistical constraints, and so determine how to improve a strategy's impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We extend an existing SEIR model to incorporate finite diagnostic and antiviral distribution capacities. We evaluate the impact of using different diagnostic strategies to decide to whom antivirals are delivered. We then determine what additional capacity is required to achieve optimal impact. We identify the importance of sensitive and specific case ascertainment in the early phase of a pandemic response, when the proportion of false-positive presentations may be high. Once a substantial percentage of ILI presentations are caused by the pandemic strain, identification of cases for treatment on syndromic grounds alone results in a greater potential impact than a laboratory-dependent strategy. Our findings reinforce the need for a decentralised system capable of providing timely prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: We address specific real-world issues that must be considered in order to improve pandemic preparedness policy in a practical and methodologically sound way. Provision of antivirals on the scale proposed for an effective response is infeasible using traditional public health outbreak management and contact tracing approaches. The results indicate to change the transmission dynamics of an influenza epidemic with an antiviral intervention, a decentralised system is required for

  20. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis ...

  1. Role of Biodiversity in Climate Change Mitigation (ROBIN). Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest landscapes are hot spots for biodiversity and hold substantial stores of carbon. They are used by forestry, agriculture, nature conservation and other sectors, and they must provide for peoples’ health, well-being and economic security. The aim of the EC’s ROBIN project was to reconcile these many and potentially conflicting demands by understanding, measuring and quantifying the role of biodiversity in mitigating climate change and in providing other benefits to people. It ad...

  2. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-01-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust...

  3. Does leadership promote cooperation in climate change mitigation policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Saul, U; C. Seidel

    2011-01-01

    In the run-up to the Copenhagen negotiations, commentators, politicians and the public had great expectations of some state taking the lead towards a new global climate deal. Is there something in such a call for leadership? In two steps, this article provides an empirically informed answer to that question. The first part develops a theoretical account of the relation between leadership and cooperation in international climate change mitigation policy (ICCMP). Starting from a five-dimensiona...

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in Brazil for land-use change, livestock and agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, C. C.,; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Maia, S. M. F.,; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Costa, Ciniro Junior,; Feigl, B. J.,; Frazao, L. A.; Mello, F. F. D.,; Galdos, M. V.; Moreira, C. S.,; Carvalho, J. L. N.,

    2010-01-01

    National inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (implementation of the National Communications) are organized according to five main sectors, namely: Energy, Industrial Processes, Agriculture, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) and Waste. The objective of this study was to review and calculate the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in Brazil for the Agricultural and LUCF. The first step consisted in an analysis of Brazilian official and unofficial document...

  5. Consumerization of IT: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Good Practices. Responding to the Emerging Threat Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lioy, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This report presents security policies that can be deployed to mitigate risks that are related with the trend of Consumerization of IT (COIT) and Bring Your Own Device (BYOD). The aim of this document is to identify mitigation strategies, policies and controls for the risks identified in this area

  6. Local-scale analysis of carbon mitigation strategies: Tompkins County, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs and potential for several carbon mitigation options were analyzed for Tompkins County, NY, within several categories: terrestrial carbon sequestration, local power generation, transportation, and energy end-use efficiency. The total county emissions are about 340 Gg C/year, with current biomass sequestration rates of about 121 Gg C/year. The potential for mitigation with the options examined, assuming full market penetration, amounts to at least 234 Gg C/year (69%), with 100 Gg C/year (29%) at no net cost to the consumer. Effective carbon mitigation strategies for this county based on costs per mg carbon and maximum potential include reforestation of abandoned agricultural lands for terrestrial carbon sequestration, biomass production for residential heating and co-firing in coal power plants, changes in personal behavior related to transportation (e.g., carpooling or using public transportation), installation of numerous residential energy-efficient products and development of local wind power. The principal barriers to the implementation of these approaches are discussed and policies for overcoming these barriers are analyzed

  7. Comparison of RFI Mitigation Strategies for Dispersed Pulse Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Hogden, John; Bower, Geoffrey C; Michalak, Sarah; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a "Fly's Eye" mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most...

  8. Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Lundmark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  9. Climate change effects on mitigation measures: The case of extreme wind events and Philippines’ biofuel plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel production has increased dramatically over the past decade, among other to mitigate climate change. However, climate change vulnerability may currently not be sufficiently accounted for in national biofuel strategies, hence neglecting a possible link between mitigation and adaptation to climate change. To the best of our knowledge this potential link has received very little attention in the literature. One example is the Philippines, which is currently implementing an ambitious program of biofuel production. Its aim is to reduce dependency on imported fuel, increase rural employment and incomes, and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The Philippines is frequently battered by tropical typhoons and from 1975 to 2002 the annual average damage to agriculture was 3.047 billion pesos. We calculate wind damage on biofuel feedstock production, and assess the effect that a future potential increase in tropical cyclone intensity would have on energy security, rural development and climate change mitigation in the Philippines. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain the future expected development of typhoon impacts. Based on the Philippines legislated target of 10% biodiesel blend in gasoline by 2011, simulation of the affected area for each feedstock, and expected biofuel feedstock damage is computed for the Philippine's 80 provinces in 2050, for two different typhoon climate change scenarios. Additional indirect economic effects are assessed in a tentative way. The results suggest a modest decrease in biofuel feedstock productivity at the national level, but with strong local differences that are shown to affect the Philippine's policy goals. In a broader perspective the paper accentuates a so far little described link between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation. This link may merit further attention by policy makers and development planners in order to ensure that policies are economically sound not only in the short but also medium term.

  10. An Integrated Fuzzy Approach for the Evaluation of Supply Chain Risk Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Competing in an increasingly uncertain business environment, organizations need to mitigate its supply chain risks to enhance their resiliency. However, it is important to implement appropriate strategies to meet business needs. This paper presents a novel approach that integrates fuzzy risk assessment and fuzzy Delphi for the evaluation of strategies in order to mitigate supply chain risks. The novelty of the model lies in the fact that an analytical tool enables the s...

  11. Methane emission by livestock in India and mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has 226.1 million cattle, 96.9 million buffaloes, 59 million sheep and 124.5 million goats, 18.5 million pigs, 0.9 million each of camels and donkeys, 0.8 million horses/ponies and small a number of yak, mithun, and mules (FAO Production Year Book, Vol. 57: 2003). These animals produce 13.46 Tg methane/year (including emissions from animal wastes). The methane emission factors (kg/head/year) for different categories of animals in India are lower than in Europe and North America. Based on the studies conducted at Indian Veterinary Research Institute, methane emission factors for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat varied from 25.6 to 57.6, 28.9 to 52.7, 2.6 to 4.1 and 3.3 to 4.3, respectively. These variations are mainly due to differences in body weight, type of feed (high vs. low fibre) and individual behaviour (high or low methane producers) of the animals. Mitigation of methane emission is essential to protect the environment from the greenhouse effect and at the same time improve feed conversion efficiency. Strategies to mitigate methanogenesis: - Non-productive or low productive animals should be replaced with either high producing indigenous cattle/buffalo or high producing crossbred cattle. If we target to enhance the population of high producing cattle from the present figure of 23 million to 46 million within next 5 years, the excretion of wastes and methane will be increased by only 3.2% and 1.7% respectively, but the production of excreta and methane per unit of livestock productivity will be considerably reduced. - Any effort made to enhance degradability of poor quality feeds results in an improvement in nutrient availability accompanied with a decrease in methanogenesis. For example, urea ammoniation of straw may serve three purposes, firstly it enhances degradability of straw, secondly the supplemented non-protein nitrogen source stimulates microbial protein synthesis in the rumen and lastly it reduces methanogenesis. - Plant secondary metabolites

  12. Acrylamide mitigation strategies: critical appraisal of the FoodDrinkEurope toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, M; Gökmen, V; De Meulenaer, B; Ciesarová, Z; Zhang, Y; Pedreschi, F; Fogliano, V

    2016-06-15

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D resources, however no comments about the pro and cons of the different measures were provided to advise the potential users. Experts of the field are aware that not all the strategies proposed have equal value in terms of efficacy and cost/benefit ratio. This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. Five authors from different geographical areas having a publication record on acrylamide mitigation strategies worked independently ranking the efficacy of the acrylamide mitigation strategies taking into account three key parameters: (i) reduction rate; (ii) side effects; and (iii) applicability and economic impact. On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. As expected, all strategies selected in the Toolbox turned out to be useful, however, not at the same level. The use of enzyme asparaginase and the selection of low sugar varieties were considered the best mitigation strategies in bakery and in potato products, respectively. According to authors' opinion most of the other mitigation strategies, although effective, either have relevant side effects on the sensory profile of the products, or they are not easy to implement in industrial production. The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context. PMID:26666890

  13. Climate change, mitigation and adaptation with uncertainty and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major issues in climate change policy is how to deal with the considerable uncertainty that surrounds many of the elements. Some of these uncertainties will be resolved through the process of further research. This process of learning raises a crucial timing question: should society delay taking action in anticipation of obtaining better information, or should it accelerate action, because we might learn that climate change is much more serious than expected. Much of the analysis to date has focussed on the case where the actions available to society are just the mitigation of emissions, and where there is little or no role for learning. We extend the analysis to allow for both mitigation and adaptation. We show that including adaptation weakens the effect of the irreversibility constraint and so, for this model, makes it more likely that the prospect of future learning should lead to less action now to deal with climate change. We review the empirical literature on climate change policy with uncertainty, learning, and irreversibility, and show that to date the effects on current policy are rather small, though this may reflect the particular choice of models employed

  14. Disease Propagation Analysis and Mitigation Strategies for Effective Mass Dispensing*

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eva K.; Chen, Chien H; Pietz, Ferninand; Benecke, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Mass dispensing of medical countermeasures has been proven to be an effective and crucial means to contain the outbreak of highly infectious disease. The large influx of individuals to the point-of dispensing (POD) centers to receive vaccinations or prophylactic treatment, however, raises the potential risk of serious intra-facility cross-infections. To mitigate the effect, a thorough understanding of how disease propagates during the dispensing under different transmission parameters versus ...

  15. Roadmap to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) success

    OpenAIRE

    Balian, John D.; Wherry, Janice C.; Malhotra, Rachpal; Perentesis, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Medical safety-related risk management is a rapidly evolving and increasingly important aspect of drug approval and market longevity. To effectively meet the challenges of this new era, we describe a risk management roadmap that proactively yet practically anticipates risk-management requirements, provides the foundation for enduring yet appropriately flexible risk-management practices, and leverages these techniques to efficiently and effectively utilize risk evaluation and mitigation strate...

  16. Comparison of RFI Mitigation Strategies for Dispersed Pulse Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hogden, John; Wiel, Scott Vander; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Michalak, Sarah; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between differ...

  17. Long-Term Strategies for Mitigating Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Nakicenovic, N.; Grubler, A.; Inaba, A; Messner, S; Nilsson, S.; Nishimura, Y.(University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Kashiwa, Japan); Rogner, H.-H.; Schaefer, A; L. Schrattenholzer; Strubegger, M.; Swisher, J.; D.G. Victor; Wilson, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews technological options for mitigating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The options analyzed include efficiency improvements, renewable energies, clean fossil and zero-carbon technologies, carbon sequestration and disposal, enhancement of natural carbon sinks (halting deforestation, afforestation, and other sink enhancement options), and geo-engineering measures to compensate for increases in CO2 concentrations. Reduction potentials, costs, and the relative contribution of i...

  18. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.

    2007-09-27

    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Towards food, feed and energy crops mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Laurent; Hallin, Sara

    2011-09-01

    Agriculture is an important source of anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and crops can affect the microbial processes controlling these emissions in many ways. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of plant-microbe interactions in relation to the CH(4) and N(2)O budgets and show how this is promoting new generations of crop cultivars that have the potential to mitigate GHG emissions for future agricultural use. The possibility of breeding low GHG-emitting cultivars is a paradigm shift towards sustainable agriculture that balances climate change and food and bioenergy security. PMID:21700487

  20. Mitigating the Urban Heat Island under Climate Change through Urban Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Lee, X.; Oleson, K. W.; Schultz, N. M.; Smith, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) represents ubiquitous urban warmth compared to surrounding rural areas. This phenomenon, when compounded with future climate warming, will exacerbate heat stress on urban residents who will comprise 70% of the world's population by 2070. At the same time, urban climate adaptation plans have shown great potential for reducing the impacts of global change. In this study, we assess three mitigation strategies, including reflective roofs, green roofs, and street trees, to ameliorate the warming under climate change through both "online" and "offline" methods. The "online" method compares modeling results from a modified urban roof albedo configuration (ALB-MOD) where the roof albedo is raised to a high reflective value to the modeling results from the default configuration (CTRL), both using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Three pairs of simulations under current climate forcing and two future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are conducted. The "offline" method uses a surface temperature attribution solution derived previously for partitioning the UHI intensity to assess the efficacy of the mitigation strategies. The "offline" method supplements the "online" method in assessing green roof and street tree strategies, because the current design of CESM does not have explicit vegetation in the urban canopy configuration. The excellent agreement between the "online" and "offline" results confirms the validity of the offline scheme, supporting that the "offline" method can be used to predict the impacts of various urban adaptation strategies for development planning. Results show that albedo management is the most effective and viable way to mitigate UHIs, whereas although green roof and street trees strategies have evaporative cooling effects, the cooling is compensated by vegetation's lower albedo, showing much less effectiveness on UHI mitigation. Although convection efficiency associated with the surface roughness is an important

  1. Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Clarke, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions. This model was then used together with land use scenarios from the MiniCAM integrated assessment model in a global analysis of climate change mitigation options. MiniCAM evaluated mitigation strategies within a set of policy environments aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100 under a suite of technology and development scenarios. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. In the reference case with no climate policy, conversion of agricultural land from conventional cultivation to no tillage over the next century in the United States results in C sequestration of 7.6 to 59.8 Tg C yr-1, which doubles to 19.0 to 143.4 Tg C yr-1 under the most aggressive climate policy. Globally, with no carbon policy, agricultural C sequestration rates range from 75.2 to 18.2 Tg C yr-1 over the century, with the highest rates occurring in the first fifty years. Under the most aggressive global climate change policy, sequestration in agricultural soils reaches up to 190 Tg C yr-1 in the first 15 years. The contribution of agricultural soil C sequestration is a small fraction of the total global carbon offsets necessary to reach the stabilization targets (9 to 20 Gt C yr-1) by the end of the century. This integrated assessment provides decision makers with science-based estimates of the potential magnitude of terrestrial C sequestration relative to other greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in all sectors of the global economy. It also provides insight into the

  2. Mapping of soil organic carbon stocks for spatially explicit assessments of climate change mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current methods for assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally not well suited for understanding variations in SOC stocks in landscapes. This is due to the tedious and time-consuming nature of the sampling methods most commonly used to collect bulk density cores, which limits repeatability across large areas, particularly where information is needed on the spatial dynamics of SOC stocks at scales relevant to management and for spatially explicit targeting of climate change mitigation options. In the current study, approaches were explored for (i) field-based estimates of SOC stocks and (ii) mapping of SOC stocks at moderate to high resolution on the basis of data from four widely contrasting ecosystems in East Africa. Estimated SOC stocks for 0–30 cm depth varied both within and between sites, with site averages ranging from 2 to 8 kg m−2. The differences in SOC stocks were determined in part by rainfall, but more importantly by sand content. Results also indicate that managing soil erosion is a key strategy for reducing SOC loss and hence in mitigation of climate change in these landscapes. Further, maps were developed on the basis of satellite image reflectance data with multiple R-squared values of 0.65 for the independent validation data set, showing variations in SOC stocks across these landscapes. These maps allow for spatially explicit targeting of potential climate change mitigation efforts through soil carbon sequestration, which is one option for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Further, the maps can be used to monitor the impacts of such mitigation efforts over time. (letter)

  3. Mitigating Corporate Water Risk: Financial Market Tools and Supply Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

  4. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  5. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation. (letter)

  6. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement

  7. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  8. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  9. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkyi, Nana S.A.; Sekyere, Daniel [CSIR-FORIG, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST Box 63 (Ghana); Okyere, Philip Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Darkwa, Nicholas A. [FRNR, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Nketiah, Samuel K. [TROPENBOS International (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  10. Simulation Comparison of Wake Mitigation Control Strategies for a Two-Turbine Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gebraad, Pieter M. O. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Lee, Sang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Wingerden, Jan-Willem [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Johnson, Kathryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Churchfield, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michalakes, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spalart, Philippe [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Wind turbines arranged in a wind plant impact each other through their wakes. Wind plant control is an active research field that attempts to improve wind plant performance by coordinating control of individual turbines to take into account these turbine–wake interactions. High-fidelity simulations of a two-turbine fully waked scenario are used to investigate several wake mitigation strategies, in this paper, including modification of yaw and tilt angles of an upstream turbine to induce wake skew, as well as repositioning of the downstream turbine. The simulation results are compared through change relative to a baseline operation in terms of overall power capture and loading on the upstream and downstream turbine. Results demonstrated improved power production for all methods. Moreover, analysis of control options, including individual pitch control, shows potential to minimize the increase of, or even reduce, turbine loads.

  11. Workshop in adaptation and mitigation strategies - approaching global warming: A review of the adaptation and mitigation perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate within the scientific, policy, and environmental communities on what, if anything, to do about global warming appears to be focused on whether to adapt to climate change in the future or to mitigate climate change in the present. As the issue has become increasingly politicized, the debate over these two approaches has become polarized. The two approaches, however, are not mutually exclusive; in fact, there is much common ground between them. But differences can be found in how proponents of each approach view the risks of global climate change and the values that underpin these perceptions of risk. In this paper, the author will briefly outline the progression of global warming from an obscure scientific concern into a leading international political issue. The author will also review some previous efforts by social scientists to assess attitudes and positions on global warming. He will then examine in detail the adaptation and mitigation perspectives and assess how they differ on the basis of different conceptions of uncertainty and risk, equity, and technology. Finally, he will examine the adaptation and mitigation approaches from the perspective of developing countries

  12. U.S. EPA's global climate change program: Landfill emissions and mitigation research. Rept. for Aug 90-May 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's global climate change program, concentrating on global landfill methane (CH4) emissions and mitigation research. The EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) has begun research on developing more reliable emission estimates of the key greenhouse gas sources that are amenable to cost-effective control. Research has been initiated on biomass and CH4 utilization, tropospheric ozone, and evaluation of potential mitigation opportunities for emissions contributing to global climate change. The emissions program has begun to identify and quantify emission sources of greenhouse gases for anthropogenic sources including landfills, coal mines, natural gas production/distribution, cookstoves, and biomass burning. Development of enhanced emission estimates will improve the understanding of atmospheric chemistry and feedback effects, target mitigation opportunities, and ensure cost-effective mitigation strategies

  13. An Architectural Strategy for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond M., Ed.

    This volume presents the proceedings of the preconference institute of the Architecture for Public Libraries Committee of Library Administration Division's Building and Equipment section. The keynote address raises questions about architecture in a strategy for change. The remaining 14 articles and presentations are divided into five sections:…

  14. Deterministic and Nondeterministic Behavior of Earthquakes and Hazard Mitigation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes exhibit both deterministic and nondeterministic behavior. Deterministic behavior is controlled by length and time scales such as the dimension of seismogenic zones and plate-motion speed. Nondeterministic behavior is controlled by the interaction of many elements, such as asperities, in the system. Some subduction zones have strong deterministic elements which allow forecasts of future seismicity. For example, the forecasts of the 2010 Mw=8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake and the 2012 Mw=7.6, Costa Rica, earthquake are good examples in which useful forecasts were made within a solid scientific framework using GPS. However, even in these cases, because of the nondeterministic elements uncertainties are difficult to quantify. In some subduction zones, nondeterministic behavior dominates because of complex plate boundary structures and defies useful forecasts. The 2011 Mw=9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake may be an example in which the physical framework was reasonably well understood, but complex interactions of asperities and insufficient knowledge about the subduction-zone structures led to the unexpected tragic consequence. Despite these difficulties, broadband seismology, GPS, and rapid data processing-telemetry technology can contribute to effective hazard mitigation through scenario earthquake approach and real-time warning. A scale-independent relation between M0 (seismic moment) and the source duration, t, can be used for the design of average scenario earthquakes. However, outliers caused by the variation of stress drop, radiation efficiency, and aspect ratio of the rupture plane are often the most hazardous and need to be included in scenario earthquakes. The recent development in real-time technology would help seismologists to cope with, and prepare for, devastating tsunamis and earthquakes. Combining a better understanding of earthquake diversity and modern technology is the key to effective and comprehensive hazard mitigation practices.

  15. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

  16. United States policy for mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this paper is to explain current US policy on global climate change. US Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to implement this policy are described. A secondary objective of this paper is to discuss from a US perspective the social and political efforts which must be initiated in order for ocean storage of CO2 to be considered as a viable CO2 mitigation option. The fact that the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has not been successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now recognized. Thus, US policy has shifted towards the development of binding medium-term emissions targets and long-term atmosphere concentration goals. The US believes these goals can be accomplished through the adoption of cost-effective joint implementation agreements and international emissions trading mechanisms. Studies are currently underway to assess specific targets and timetables for emissions reductions. Voluntary efforts on the part of US industry have proven to be extremely successful in reducing US CO2-emissions. The US electric utility industry has taken the lead in voluntarily lowering greenhouse gas emissions under the DOE Climate Challenge Program. Areas of research interest to DOE include the development of high efficiency advanced power generation cycles and CO2 sequestration technology. The US currently spends $1.6 billion on understanding global climate phenomena and only $1.6 million on CO2 mitigation research. A number of socio-political considerations must be looked at in assessing the feasibility of ocean storage of CO2. Developing public trust appears to be a major concern in establishing the acceptability of ocean storage. Uncertainties in the effects of CO2 on marine life, potential safety hazards associated with pipelining, and ship transport of CO2 are all issues which must be dealt with as soon as possible. Some hidden costs associated with ocean disposal is also discussed

  17. North American Soil Degradation: Processes, Practices, and Mitigating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Baumhardt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil can be degraded by several natural or human-mediated processes, including wind, water, or tillage erosion, and formation of undesirable physical, chemical, or biological properties due to industrialization or use of inappropriate farming practices. Soil degradation occurs whenever these processes supersede natural soil regeneration and, generally, reflects unsustainable resource management that is global in scope and compromises world food security. In North America, soil degradation preceded the catastrophic wind erosion associated with the dust bowl during the 1930s, but that event provided the impetus to improve management of soils degraded by both wind and water erosion. Chemical degradation due to site specific industrial processing and mine spoil contamination began to be addressed during the latter half of the 20th century primarily through point-source water quality concerns, but soil chemical degradation and contamination of surface and subsurface water due to on-farm non-point pesticide and nutrient management practices generally remains unresolved. Remediation or prevention of soil degradation requires integrated management solutions that, for agricultural soils, include using cover crops or crop residue management to reduce raindrop impact, maintain higher infiltration rates, increase soil water storage, and ultimately increase crop production. By increasing plant biomass, and potentially soil organic carbon (SOC concentrations, soil degradation can be mitigated by stabilizing soil aggregates, improving soil structure, enhancing air and water exchange, increasing nutrient cycling, and promoting greater soil biological activity.

  18. Market Strategies for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still reflect the political, non-market components. Using empirical information from the largest multinational companies worldwide, this article examines current market responses, focusing on the drivers (threats and opportunities) and the actions being taken by companies to address climate change. It also develops a typology of climate strategies that addresses the market dimensions, covering both the aim (strategic intent) and the degree of cooperation (form of organisation). The aim turns out to be either innovation or compensation, while the organisational arrangements to reach this objective can be oriented at the company level (internal), at companies' own supply chain (vertical) or at cooperation with other companies (competitors or companies in other sectors - horizontal). The typology can assist managers in deciding about the strategic option(s) they want to choose regarding climate change, also based on the insights offered by the paper about the current state of activities of other companies worldwide.

  19. Tank S-102 waste retrieval leak detection and monitoring and mitigation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a proactive and mitigative strategy for the identification and management of potential S-102 waste leaks during the S-102 Waste Retrieval and the basis for this approach. The strategy is based on preventing leakage, minimizing leak volumes if a lead should occur, and providing the best available leak detection and monitoring technologies. Ex-tank leak detection will use the baseline borehole gamma and neutron drywell logging trucks, supplemented with manually deployed neutron moisture measurements. Waste mitigation includes management of the retrieval fluids in a manner that limits the risk for a potential leak

  20. Adaptation and mitigation strategies in Northern Eurasian boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    A. Shvidenko; F. Kraxner; Obersteiner, M.; D. Schepaschenko

    2011-01-01

    Boreal forests of Northern Eurasia are experiencing ongoing changes in climate, strong impacts by humans including transformation of previously untouched landscapes, and dramatically accelerating disturbance regimes. Current global and regional climatic models predict for this region the most dramatic climatic change over the globe. Unregulated and often destructive anthropogenic impacts on the environment and natural landscapes may substantially accelerate the negative consequences of climat...

  1. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  2. Implications of small modular reactors for climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving climate policy targets will require large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy technologies, including nuclear power. The small modular reactor (SMR) is viewed as a possible solution to the problems of energy security as well as climate change. In this paper, we use an integrated assessment model (IAM) to investigate the evolution of a global energy portfolio with SMRs under a stringent climate policy. Technology selection in the model is based on costs; we use results from previous expert elicitation studies of SMR costs. We find that the costs of achieving a 2 °C target are lower with SMRs than without. The costs are higher when large reactors do not compete for market share compared to a world in which they can compete freely. When both SMRs and large reactors compete for market share, reduction in mitigation cost is achieved only under advanced assumptions about SMR technology costs and future cost improvements. While the availability of SMRs could lower mitigation costs by a moderate amount, actual realization of these benefits would depend on the rapid up-scaling of SMRs in the near term. Such rapid deployment could be limited by several social, institutional and behavioral obstacles. - Highlights: • Costs of achieving a 2 °C target are lower with SMRs than without. • Costs are higher when large reactors do not compete for market share. • Under competition, cost is reduced only with advanced SMR technology. • Realization of benefits will depend on rapid near term up-scaling of SMRs

  3. Mitigating strategies for CO/sub 2/ problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B

    1980-08-01

    Vast uncertainties surround the ability to predict the social effects of increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere during the next century; fossil fuel combustion rates will change, predicting global climate changes is difficult, and predicting the resulting social reactions to these change is essentially impossible. Unfortunately, the effects of carbon dioxide are likely to be insidious and difficult to connect to climate change. Myriad effects, both good and bad are unlikely to be recognized as caused by carbon dioxide. Conscious adaptation policies have the government or other social institutions act directly to mandate change in behavior through laws, fines, or subsidies. Unfortunately, such actions cannot be tailored to achieve precise objectives; they are blunt tools that should be used only for important goals and then sparingly. Unconscious adaptation takes place through behavioral changes induced by the market place or social institutions. These mechanisms can be swift and powerful, but are difficult to manipulate. Actions such as monitoring climate change and taking care to inform important groups of the current state of knowledge on carbon dioxide induced climate changes can help to speed adaptation along with contingency planning and development of nonfossil fuel technologies can speed adaptation. More important are plans which would set unconscious adaptation into motion, such as plans to disseminate information on the problem and behavior which will help individuals or firms. Of greatest importance is having a society that can quickly perceive and adapt to the new regime. This means a strong economy, high scientific and engineering capabilities, a well educated population, and a more flexible, resilient capital stock. Carbon dioxide can serve as a catalyst in promoting policies that are justified for a host of reasons.

  4. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing mechanism (contributions from Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Environment (DOE), Ministlry of Environment and forest, Government of the people's Republic of Bangladesh made a request for a grant to the U.S. Government for studying various aspects of climate change and its implications for Bangladesh. Upon its subsequent approval, a country Study on Climate Change (Bangladesh Climate Change study) was launched in October 1994 to address the following major issues: Preparation of a country-specific inventory of greenhouse gases (GHGs); Assessment of vulnerability of the country, with special respect to climate change; Assessment of mitigation options to develop appropriate strategies and policies for reducing GHG emission into the atmosphere; Recommendations for an appropriate awareness and dissemination programme based on findings of the above components. (au)

  5. An Optimal Mitigation Strategy Against the Asteroid Impact Threat with Short Warning Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) Phase 2 study entitled "An Innovative Solution to NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development." This NIAC Phase 2 study was conducted at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) of Iowa State University in 2012-2014. The study objective was to develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation strategy for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (less than 5 years). The mitigation strategy described in this paper is intended to optimally reduce the severity and catastrophic damage of the NEO impact event, especially when we don't have sufficient warning times for non-disruptive deflection of a hazardous NEO. This paper provides an executive summary of the NIAC Phase 2 study results.

  6. Setting priorities for land management to mitigate climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttcher Hannes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No consensus has been reached how to measure the effectiveness of climate change mitigation in the land-use sector and how to prioritize land use accordingly. We used the long-term cumulative and average sectorial C stocks in biomass, soil and products, C stock changes, the substitution of fossil energy and of energy-intensive products, and net present value (NPV as evaluation criteria for the effectiveness of a hectare of productive land to mitigate climate change and produce economic returns. We evaluated land management options using real-life data of Thuringia, a region representative for central-western European conditions, and input from life cycle assessment, with a carbon-tracking model. We focused on solid biomass use for energy production. Results In forestry, the traditional timber production was most economically viable and most climate-friendly due to an assumed recycling rate of 80% of wood products for bioenergy. Intensification towards "pure bioenergy production" would reduce the average sectorial C stocks and the C substitution and would turn NPV negative. In the forest conservation (non-use option, the sectorial C stocks increased by 52% against timber production, which was not compensated by foregone wood products and C substitution. Among the cropland options wheat for food with straw use for energy, whole cereals for energy, and short rotation coppice for bioenergy the latter was most climate-friendly. However, specific subsidies or incentives for perennials would be needed to favour this option. Conclusions When using the harvested products as materials prior to energy use there is no climate argument to support intensification by switching from sawn-wood timber production towards energy-wood in forestry systems. A legal framework would be needed to ensure that harvested products are first used for raw materials prior to energy use. Only an effective recycling of biomaterials frees land for long

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR CONTAINER SHIPPING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shimin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the onset of the first ever Greenhouse Gas (GHG regulation for ships by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO in 2011, the container shipping industry requires the combined use of technical and operational emissions reduction measures to improve the environmental performance of its vessels. Studies show that most existing measures are cost effective with a range of emissions reduction potential. However, the level of implementation is not depicted and the potential of the measures may be over-estimated. An evaluation of the emissions reduction measures is conducted through the examination of 3 factors, namely level of implementation, emissions reduction potential and cost effectiveness. Strategies to overcome the critical barriers of implementation are suggested in this study. Lastly, recommendations for companies with regards to GHG issues are made. The strong link between cost effectiveness and level of implementation is highlighted in this study. It is also shown that there is immense potential to reduce emissions from ships given the availability of measures with significant reduction potential. However, the top barriers of implementation, namely cost of measure and lack of information, need to be addressed for a higher level of adoption. This report serves as the first step to map strategy for managing GHG in the shipping industry. The importance of cost effectiveness in decision making from a ship operators perspective prompts the adoption of measures that are the most cost effective first before measures with high emissions reduction potential. It is prudent for shipping companies to adopt a more environmentally friendly operation as green is the way forward in the shipping industry.

  8. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Penuelas, J.; Niinemets, Ü.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 72-75. ISSN 1360-1385 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystem services * urban forest * open-lab * climate change * urban–rural gradient Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 12.929, year: 2014

  9. Optimising fusion's contribution to economically efficient climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ambience within which fusion development planning is undertaken is changing. Recent publications by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and by the Stern Review (by the former Vice-President and Chief Economist of the World Bank) have removed most of the residual uncertainties about the reality, causation, pace and cost of climate change. European and Governmental decisions, and demonstrations of public support, have displayed increasing commitment to mitigating climate-changing emissions. It is becoming more widely appreciated that during the second two-thirds of this century continued world economic development, and continued growth in energy consumption, must co-exist with the reduction of carbon emissions to very low levels, and that this will give rise to large political and economic forces. The concluding of the ITER Treaty and the Broader Approach Agreement has removed much uncertainty relating to the near-term steps of fusion development. Concerns over energy security and diversity of supply have also markedly increased. Thus, it has become reasonable to plan on the assumption that in twenty years time ITER and IFMIF will have been successful and the world will be eager for clean, secure energy supplies. Previously published 'fast track' scenario studies all assumed a sequential model of fusion development, severely constrained by funding. The present paper explores the economic justification for relaxing these assumptions, drawing on the lessons to be learnt from self-consistent energy/environment/economics modelling, and the resulting potential for more rapid, but cost-effective, fusion deployment. This includes the consideration of the acceptability of reduced targets for the economic performance of the first generation of power plants (as might be evinced, for example, by pulsed operation or ITER design-basis plasma physics, lower fluence-limited lifetime for some components, and lower power density), and overlapping of

  10. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  11. The role of nuclear energy in Lithuania under various post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: dalia@mail.lei.lt

    2008-07-15

    The article aims to evaluate the potential role of nuclear energy in Lithuania under various post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. Seeking to achieve this target the analysis of possible energy sector development scenarios in Lithuania was performed and CO{sub 2} emission projections for these scenarios were developed. The analysis of post-Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures was performed and the requirements of these possible climate change mitigation regimes for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in Lithuania were assessed. Based on these assessments the potential role of new nuclear power in Lithuania was identified under various future climate change mitigation regimes.

  12. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, Paul; Brorby, Gregory P.; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed com...

  13. The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, Daniel; Purbopuspito, Joko; Kauffman, J. Boone; Warren, Matthew W.; Sasmito, Sigit D.; Donato, Daniel C.; Manuri, Solichin; Krisnawati, Haruni; Taberima, Sartji; Kurnianto, Sofyan

    2015-12-01

    Mangroves provide a wide range of ecosystem services, including nutrient cycling, soil formation, wood production, fish spawning grounds, ecotourism and carbon (C) storage. High rates of tree and plant growth, coupled with anaerobic, water-logged soils that slow decomposition, result in large long-term C storage. Given their global significance as large sinks of C, preventing mangrove loss would be an effective climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy. It has been reported that C stocks in the Indo-Pacific region contain on average 1,023 MgC ha-1 (ref. ). Here, we estimate that Indonesian mangrove C stocks are 1,083 +/- 378 MgC ha-1. Scaled up to the country-level mangrove extent of 2.9 Mha (ref. ), Indonesia’s mangroves contained on average 3.14 PgC. In three decades Indonesia has lost 40% of its mangroves, mainly as a result of aquaculture development. This has resulted in annual emissions of 0.07-0.21 Pg CO2e. Annual mangrove deforestation in Indonesia is only 6% of its total forest loss; however, if this were halted, total emissions would be reduced by an amount equal to 10-31% of estimated annual emissions from land-use sectors at present. Conservation of carbon-rich mangroves in the Indonesian archipelago should be a high-priority component of strategies to mitigate climate change.

  14. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper......For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and...

  15. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in the state of Morelos, Mexico: a first approximation for establishing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, María Luisa; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the authors report the first greenhouse gas emission inventory of Morelos, a state in central Mexico, in which the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been identified using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were estimated as CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq) for the years 2005, 2007, and 2009, with 2005 being treated as the base year. The percentage contributions from each category to the CO2 eq emissions in the base year were as follows: 38% from energy, 30% from industrial processes, 23% from waste, 5% from agriculture, and 4% from land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF). As observed in other state inventories in Mexico, road transportation is the main source of CO2 emissions, wastewater handling and solid waste disposal are the main sources of CH4 emissions, and agricultural soils are the source of the most significant N2O emissions. The information reported in this inventory identifies the main emission sources. Based on these results, the government can propose public policies specifically designed for the state of Morelos to establish GHG mitigation strategies in the near future. PMID:24344573

  17. Air pollution may alter efforts to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy, considered in the past as a mitigation option to climate change by reducing carbon emission, is now becoming a source of energy security and competing fossil fuels in many areas of the world. According to recent reports (e.g., IEA, IRENA, REN21), renewable energy has reached in 2014 a historical record of power generation capacity. With 1712 GW installed capacity in 2014, renewable energy represents 27.7% of the world's power generating capacity. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy, conversion of solar light to electricity through solar panels, has increased to reach 177 GW mostly due to the political engagement for the deployment of renewable through targeted programs and the decrease of PV panels prize in the market (roughly 80% decrease since 2008 according to IRENA's report). Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), reaching a total capacity of 4.4 GW in 2014 (REN21 Report), is also demonstrating a clear growth and progresses have been made with regards to the efficiency, the storage capacity and the cost. In order to reduce the energy consumption and carbon emissions, water solar heaters are being installed in the rooftop of households and a total capacity of 406 GW thermal was recorded in 2014 (REN21 Report).

  18. Impacts on Canadian Competitiveness of International Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Somerville

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes and provides additional perspective on a study that contributes to the growing body of analyses of the costs of limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The study estimates the economic costs to Canada of six planning scenarios. Four of these scenarios involve the use of tradable emission permits and two involved a carbon tax. In each case, the mechanism's target is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at some percentage of 1990 levels (100% or 90% by either 2010 or 2015. Policies that impose greater constraints on carbon dioxide emissions lead to higher economic costs in terms of foregone output. These costs, however, vary for the same objective, depending on the mechanism chosen and the economic assumptions made. In one typical scenario, in which tradable emission permits are used to achieve stabilization at 1990 levels by 2010, GDP is depressed from the "business-as-usual" scenario by about 2% for the first decade, after which it recovers to business-as-usual levels. Generally, for all scenarios, the economic impact of climate change mitigation imposes a transition cost on the economy, but the long-term productive capacity of the economy is not significantly affected.

  19. The incremental cost of climate change mitigation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three recent international environmental treaties - the Montreal Protocol, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), and the Convention on Biological diversity - include provisions to make available to developing countries financial resources for global environmental benefits. They specify that these resources shall be for 'incremental costs' that are 'agreed' upon by the financial mechanism of the treaties and the country where the project or intervention is to be undertaken. The paper presents a taxonomy of mitigation options based on the work of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) of the GEF, introduces the definition of incremental costs, and applies it to five potential projects. The examples and calculations are intentionally kept simple to illustrate the concepts involved; possible complications in estimating costs and benefits are mentioned but not elaborated upon. As the examples in this paper demonstrate, a case-by-case approach in the calculation of incremental costs seems inevitable. Factors unique to each situation greatly influence the calculation, underlining the need for 'agreement' between the host country and the implementing agency for projects involving both incremental costs and incremental global benefits. (EG) 14 refs

  20. Flicker Mitigation Strategy for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator by Torque Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming; Hu, Yanting

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the rotational sampling of turbulence, wind shear and tower shadow effects grid connected variable speed wind turbines could lead to the power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. A model of an megawatt (MW)-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed...... induction generator is presented to investigate the flicker mitigation. Taking advantage of the large inertia of the wind turbine rotor, a generator torque control (GTC) strategy is proposed, so that the power oscillation is stored as the kinetic energy of the wind turbine rotor, thus the flicker emission...... effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines during continuous operation....

  1. Factors Affecting Climate Change Risk Perception and Policy Support for Mitigation Measures: A Case of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatta, Shiv Raj

    2012-01-01

    Environmental psychology can made significant contribution in understanding climate-risk mitigation behaviors for reducing its adverse impacts, especially in a country highly vulnerable to climate change like Nepal. Individual level analysis to explore what motivate people to support mitigation policies is important for policy consideration. In this study, public perceptions of risk of climate change is assessed and its impacts on public support for risk-mitigation policies in Nepal is examin...

  2. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Keith; David Lindenmayer; Andrew Macintosh; Brendan Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Con...

  3. Investigating the formal countermeasures and informal strategies used to mitigate SPAD risk in train driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naweed, Anjum; Rainbird, Sophia; Chapman, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Various countermeasures are used to mitigate signal passed at danger (SPAD) events on railways, yet they continue. While risk factors that destabilise cognitive processes have been identified, less has been published on the relationship between these factors and the informal strategies that drivers themselves adopt to reduce individual SPAD risk. This study aimed to address this gap and used a participative approach to collect and thematically analyse data from 28 drivers across eight rail organisations in Australia and New Zealand. The results showed not all formal countermeasures were considered effective, and identified several informal strategies. These aimed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain connectedness to signals. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk. This paper explores the relationship between the established risks and identified strategies towards evaluating the utility of formal and informal mitigations. The research has application to the investigation of collision risk in all transport domains. Practitioner Summary: A participative approach was used to investigate SPAD mitigation techniques in train driving, and to explore risk-strategy relationship dynamics. Several informal strategies designed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain signal connectedness were identified. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk. PMID:25597849

  4. Environmental and socio-economic impacts of global climate change: An overview on mitigation approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to bring about major change in freshwater availability, the productive capacity of soils, and in patterns of human settlement. Likewise, climate change is intimately linked to human health either directly or indirectly. However, considerable uncertainties exist with regard to the extent and geographical distribution of these changes. Predicting scenarios for how climate-related environmental change may influence human societies and political systems necessarily involves an even higher degree of uncertainty. Societies have a long record of adapting to climate risks and, climate changes. Household asset portfolios and livelihood choices are shaped by the need to manage climatic risks, especially in rural areas and for lowincome households. Likewise, disaggregated analysis revealed that demographic and environmental variables have a very profound effect on the risk of civil conflict and hence peace. In nutshell, we can say that there may be multifaceted impact of climate change in its totality. Further, different views, issues and mitigation measures are discussed particularly in Indian scenario. In this direction, The "National Action Plan on Climate Change" was set by Indian Prime Minister which encompasses a broad and extensive range of measures, and focuses on eight missions, which will be pursued as key components of the strategy for sustainable development. These include missions on solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency, sustainable habitat, conserving water, sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem, creating a "Green India," sustainable agriculture and, finally, establishing a strategic knowledge platform for climate change. Finally, different steps/approaches pertaining to green, eco-friendly and sustainable technology has been discussed in order to mitigate the impact of global environmental damage originating from increased industrialization and hence appropriately address this global disaster which is being the

  5. Using empirical models of species colonization under multiple threatening processes to identify complementary threat-mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mortelliti, Alessio; Kay, Geoffrey M; Florance, Daniel; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-08-01

    Approaches to prioritize conservation actions are gaining popularity. However, limited empirical evidence exists on which species might benefit most from threat mitigation and on what combination of threats, if mitigated simultaneously, would result in the best outcomes for biodiversity. We devised a way to prioritize threat mitigation at a regional scale with empirical evidence based on predicted changes to population dynamics-information that is lacking in most threat-management prioritization frameworks that rely on expert elicitation. We used dynamic occupancy models to investigate the effects of multiple threats (tree cover, grazing, and presence of an hyperaggressive competitor, the Noisy Miner (Manorina melanocephala) on bird-population dynamics in an endangered woodland community in southeastern Australia. The 3 threatening processes had different effects on different species. We used predicted patch-colonization probabilities to estimate the benefit to each species of removing one or more threats. We then determined the complementary set of threat-mitigation strategies that maximized colonization of all species while ensuring that redundant actions with little benefit were avoided. The single action that resulted in the highest colonization was increasing tree cover, which increased patch colonization by 5% and 11% on average across all species and for declining species, respectively. Combining Noisy Miner control with increasing tree cover increased species colonization by 10% and 19% on average for all species and for declining species respectively, and was a higher priority than changing grazing regimes. Guidance for prioritizing threat mitigation is critical in the face of cumulative threatening processes. By incorporating population dynamics in prioritization of threat management, our approach helps ensure funding is not wasted on ineffective management programs that target the wrong threats or species. PMID:26711716

  6. Climate change, insurance and the building sector: technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to understand better this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognised are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to expanding these efforts significantly. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups. (author)

  7. Climate change, insurance, and the buildings sector: Technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2002-11-01

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to better understand this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognized are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to significantly expanding these efforts. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups.

  8. Economical analysis of an alternative strategy for CO2 mitigation based on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are pursuing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies resulting in the increase of use of renewable sources in the electricity sector to mitigate CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy is a non-emitting CO2 source that could be used as part of that policy. However, its main drawback is the high investment required for its deployment. On the other hand, wind power is the clean source preferred option to mitigate CO2 emissions. However, due to its intermittence backup power is needed, in most of the cases it must be provided with combined cycle thermal plants using natural gas. This study performs an economical comparison of a hypothetical implementation of a nuclear strategy to meet the same CO2 emissions reduction goal that has been obtained by the actual Spaniard strategy (2005–2010) based on wind power. The investment required in both strategies is assessed under different investment scenarios and electricity production conditions for nuclear power. Also, the cost of electricity generation is compared for both strategies. - Highlights: ► Wind power electricity cost including its backup in Spain is assessed. ► Nuclear power is proposed as an alternative to produce the same CO2 reduction. ► Nuclear power requires less installed capacity deployment. ► Investment to produce the same CO2 reduction is smaller using nuclear power. ► Electricity generating cost is less expensive using the nuclear option

  9. Mitigation strategies to reduce pesticide inputs into ground- and surface water and their effectiveness; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Stefan; Bach, Martin; Skitschak, Adrian; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the current knowledge on mitigation strategies to reduce pesticide inputs into surface water and groundwater, and their effectiveness when applied in practice is reviewed. Apart from their effectiveness in reducing pesticide inputs into ground- and surface water, the mitigation measures identified in the literature are evaluated with respect to their practicability. Those measures considered both effective and feasible are recommended for implementing at the farm and catchment scale. Finally, recommendations for modelling are provided using the identified reduction efficiencies. Roughly 180 publications directly dealing with or being somehow related to mitigation of pesticide inputs into water bodies were examined. The effectiveness of grassed buffer strips located at the lower edges of fields has been demonstrated. However, this effectiveness is very variable, and the variability cannot be explained by strip width alone. Riparian buffer strips are most probably much less effective than edge-of-field buffer strips in reducing pesticide runoff and erosion inputs into surface waters. Constructed wetlands are promising tools for mitigating pesticide inputs via runoff/erosion and drift into surface waters, but their effectiveness still has to be demonstrated for weakly and moderately sorbing compounds. Subsurface drains are an effective mitigation measure for pesticide runoff losses from slowly permeable soils with frequent waterlogging. For the pathways drainage and leaching, the only feasible mitigation measures are application rate reduction, product substitution and shift of the application date. There are many possible effective measures of spray drift reduction. While sufficient knowledge exists for suggesting default values for the efficiency of single drift mitigation measures, little information exists on the effect of the drift reduction efficiency of combinations of measures. More research on possible interactions between different drift

  10. Assessment of Air Pollution and GHG Mitigation Strategies in Malaysia using the GAINS Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning for future energy development, taking into account the national obligations to mitigate climate change and air quality pressures is a major challenge faced by Malaysia. This research facilitates the impact assessment of simultaneous control of air pollution and GHG abatement through a set of emission scenarios while considering current and future Malaysian policies. The IIASAs GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model is used for the estimation of emissions and costs, and the outputs of the MESSAGE and MAED energy models provide the underlying energy projections by 2050. Results show that current air-quality policies are efficient in keeping emissions growth at moderate rate, however, significant reduction potential exists if best available control technologies are introduced. Malaysian climate policies - modeled here for power sector - aiming at the -40 % decrease in carbon-intensity, result in important reductions of air pollutants, while the overall co-benefits can be substantial if other sectors are tackled by climate strategies. Initial results indicate the reduction of air pollutant control cost due to climate measures is comparable to the invoked cost-increase in power sector by 2030. Thereby, these co-benefits help to moderate total expenditures for meeting national climate policy targets. (author)

  11. Land Use and Management Change in the U.S. with Adaptation and Mitigation under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, J. E.; McCarl, B.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and management change interact with climate change. Land uses such as forestry, cropping and grazing depend on specific ecosystems that will be affected by climate change. Furthermore, this change will not be uniform across land uses or regions. Consequently, land use productivity will change as will the mix of land uses (Mendelsohn and Dinar 2009). On the other hand, land use has been a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC 2007). Therefore, research focusing on land use change, climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation should consider the interaction between these effects. The research to be reported in this presentation investigates how agricultural and forestry land use and management decisions change across the coterminous U.S. under climate change with and without adaptation plus how a carbon price policy influences decisions, mitigates GHG emissions and alters carbon sequestration. Our approach is to simulate behavior under climate scenarios by 2030 using data from alternative two climate and two vegetation models while allowing for adaptive responses and imposing carbon prices. To do this, we use the Forest and Agricultural Optimization model with Greenhouse Gases (FASOMGHG) (Adams et al. 2005). In total, 16 scenarios are considered involving climate change and GHG prices relative to a base case with no climate change and no adaptation or mitigation. After analyzing results across regions and sectors, our findings include: 1.More land is converted to forestry use and less land is used for agricultural purposes under both the adaptation and mitigation strategies. 2. Harvest rotation of hardwood is lengthened and harvest of softwood and hardwood are reduced when a carbon price is included. However, such management changes were insignificant when only the adaptation strategy is used. 3. The total GHG emissions from agricultural and forestry sector are increased by 2-3 millions tones CO2 equivalent under climate change and adaptation

  12. River basin management planning in the context of climate change adaptation and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, B. S.; Kjær, T.

    2012-12-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) raises a number of challenges for river basin management planning in the EU Member States, one of which concerns the incorporation of climate change considerations in the development of action programmes. This includes adaptation to climate-related risks as well as mitigation of climate change through possible adverse effects of WFD implementation measures on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Complying with proposed WFD water quality standards for 'good ecological status' in Denmark requires programmes of measures (PoMs) to reduce nutrient losses to surface waters from point and diffuse sources. The combined future impacts of climate change are projected to lead to a shifting baseline, resulting in a situation where loads of nutrients have to be reduced more than estimated under present climate conditions. In this study, a GIS-based decision support system is used to support the integration of climate change challenges into the development of PoMs in the Isefjord-Roskilde Fjord River Basin in Denmark. Alternative PoMs are evaluated in terms of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness under varying nutrient reduction targets related to climate change impacts and the potential for synergies between reduction of diffuse nutrient losses and mitigation of GHG emissions is assessed at catchment scale. There appears to be a substantial potential for reductions of GHG emissions through the implementation of WFD PoMs; including measures related to land use change, energy crops and manure based biogas systems. A targeted and differentiated approach to the development of PoMs is believed to be necessary in order to exploit this kind of win-win solutions in river basin management planning and to ensure appropriate and cost-effective climate change adaptation strategies.

  13. Climate Change Disaster Management: Mitigation and Adaptation in a Public Goods Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Reviva Hasson; Åsa Löfgren; Martine Visser

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the collective action problem as it relates to climate change and develops two models that capture the mitigation/adaptation trade-off. The first model presents climate change as a certain disaster, while the second models climate change as a stochastic event. A one-shot public goods experiment with students reveals a relatively low rate of mitigation for both models. The effect of vulnerability towards climate change is also examined by varying the magnitude of the disast...

  14. On the Value of Mitigation and Contingency Strategies for Managing Supply Chain Disruption Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Tomlin

    2006-01-01

    We study a single-product setting in which a firm can source from two suppliers, one that is unreliable and another that is reliable but more expensive. Suppliers are capacity constrained, but the reliable supplier may possess volume flexibility. We prove that in the special case in which the reliable supplier has no flexibility and the unreliable supplier has infinite capacity, a risk-neutral firm will pursue a single disruption-management strategy: mitigation by carrying inventory, mitigati...

  15. A Regional Multi-Risk Assessment Approach to Support the Definition Public Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    C. Di Mauro; Bouchon, S; Frattini, P; S. Lari; Buldrini, M; Oliveri, S.; Seminati, P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to define mitigation strategies, the regional public administrations in charge of prevention policies have to manage large territories characterized by multiple types of risks, i.e. natural and technological risks. They need to identify scientifically sound solutions, based on a compromise between the conflicting objectives of the relevant stakeholders. Natural and technological risks are characterized by different phenomenology, frequency of occurrence, magnitude of impact. Th...

  16. Blast simulator wall tests : experimental methods and mitigation strategies for reinforced concrete and concrete Masonry

    OpenAIRE

    Oesterle, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Loads generated in explosions that result from terrorist attacks and industrial accidents create devastating hazards for buildings and their occupants. The objective of this dissertation is to develop design guidelines and methodologies for protective/hardening strategies used to mitigate blast hazards in reinforced concrete and concrete masonry walls. Commonly, guidelines and methodologies are developed from experimental data. Field testing with live explosive is a reliable experimental meth...

  17. Numerical model to evaluate the mitigation strategies to combat desertification and drought in the arid land of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Carla; Mendieta, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Desertification is considered a global environmental problem with political and socioeconomic implications. Desertification, exacerbated by climate change, is the largest environmental problem in Chile affecting almost two third of the national territory. This study takes place in a latitudinal gradient of the north-central Chilean drylands, where desertification is a threat to agriculture, livestock and forestry (ALF). The critical areas or priority areas for combating desertification are the northernmost areas of the region under study. In the context of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the implementation of the Chilean National Action Programme (NAP), the country is conducting policies and investing in mitigation strategies to combat land degradation and desertification. The main objective of this study is the development of an integrative methodological approach using real data of the territorial and socioeconomic indicators. With the proposed methodology we assess the impact of the mitigation and land degradation strategies supported by the ALF promotion agencies in the fight against desertification, projecting different scenarios of change. The data were collected in 2008 in Santiago, Chile. The results of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggest that technical irrigation and the improvement of grasslands and pastures play an important role in the fight against desertification. The results of the model projections are consistent, suggesting that the efforts of the ALF promotion agencies have a positive impact in fighting desertification. Inaction of ALF mitigation strategies would increase desertification. This methodological approach, performed with real data, can also determine the main causes of desertification in such a complex area as the studied one, where we can find the desert itself, and its desertification endangered valleys, the Andean plateau, the transitional area and the southern regions. Ii is also a

  18. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D. [Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)

    2005-11-18

    This paper is the last in an AIXG (Annex 1 Expert Group of the UNFCC) series that looks at international collaboration, particularly for energy technologies, in the context of climate change mitigation. The papers and case studies point out that there is little information to indicate that technology collaboration alone leads to emission reductions on the scale needed to limit growth in greenhouse gas emissions. For many energy production and consumption activities, technology change is a slow process. So to improve the environmental performance of energy technologies and accelerate their uptake, governments need a portfolio approach that includes technology and complementary economic and social policies that provide an adequate framework for essential private sector investment. As the papers and case studies show, international collaboration can help in the quest by speeding momentum, sharing risks, exchanging knowledge and resources, sharing learning investments and harmonising standards. The incentives for collaboration include the need to 'learn' from technical and operational solutions and failed approaches of others, to improve the reliability of tools and techniques, to develop standards across market areas and to foster technical expertise for regulatory and standard setting processes. Technology collaboration can also provide a framework for long-term co-operation on climate change and energy challenges in which Annex I and Non-Annex I Parties can participate. The rationale for governments to engage in international collaboration is considered in the second part of this paper including the benefits and possible drawbacks of co-operative endeavours. Long-term and large-scale transformative energy technologies and systems that entail significant costs and risks are well suited for broad collaboration, as illustrated in the examples of hydrogen-fuel cells and fusion power (see annex) and carbon capture and storage. As new technologies progress

  19. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either or from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system. (author)

  20. Tanzanian rangelands in a changing climate: Impacts, adaptations and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeda A. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock are central to the livelihoods of Tanzanians who rely on them for income via sales of milk, meat, skins and draught power. Owning livestock is amongst the ways in which many Tanzanians could diversify their risks, increase assets and improve their resilience to changes in climate. Though local coping strategies can deal with shocks in the short-term, they are hardly able to cope with more frequent and severe climate events. Observably, temperature, rainfall and atmospheric CO2 concentration interact with grazing and land cover change to influence rangeland quality and composition. Increased temperature increases drought stress and tissue lignifications in plants and, consequently, affects their digestibility and decomposition rate. Increased temperature and lower rainfall also increases vegetation flammability resulting in a shift in species composition due to increased fire frequency. Literature indicates that, Tanzania rangelands receiving between 400 and 1000 mm of rain per year (e.g. Kongwa, Monduli, Kiteto, Simanjiro, Ngorongoro, Babati, Hanang, Mbulu and Karatu have greatest impact on climate change on surface drainage. A 10% drop in rainfall of 1000 mm per year in a rangeland results in a decline in surface drainage of only 17%, while in areas of 500 mm per year will result in a 50% decline. Interventions such as controlled animal stocking rates, sustainable yield and use of good pasture will lessen the negative impacts of climate change on rangelands. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions on rangelands include maintaining or increasing carbon sequestration through better soil management and reducing methane production by altering animal management practices on rangelands. There is a need to focus on enabling herd mobility through securing better access to water resources, land use planning, and improve early warning systems and supporting a diversification of livelihoods.

  1. Ecotourism and Climates changes: the ecolodge contribution in global warming mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman Hakim; Nobukazu Nakagoshi

    2014-01-01

    Global attention to the global warming reduction has invite numerous strategy implemented with the objectives is mitigating greenhouse gasses emission which threats to the future of living in biosphere. Essentially, absorbing CO2 from atmosphere and sequestering in terrestrial ecosystem is one of the significant strategy. While in developing countries it is become essential, support for forest conservation, afforestation and effort to increase te...

  2. Resilience? Insights into the role of Critical Infrastructures Disaster Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bouchon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures (CI systems provide essential services “for the maintenance of critical societal functions, including the supply chain, health, safety, security and economic or social well-being of the people” (European Commission, 2008. These systems are exposed to a great number of hazards and threats, which may result in severe consequences for the population, the socio-economic system, and the environment. The issue is particularly relevant at urban level, where the disruption of one CI system can propagate to the other systems and paralyze the entire area. It is therefore necessary, not only to protect CIs through Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP strategies, but also to enhance the resilience of these areas. This article aims thus at providing some insights related to the evolution of the critical infrastructures disaster mitigation strategies from the sole protection towards resilience: what kind of strategies based on resilience can be developed to address CIs disruption at local or regional level? To what extent do these strategies contribute to increase the resilience level of the entire urban or metropolitan area? The first section focuses on the urban critical infrastructures systems as well as on the way their disruption can impact urban areas. The second section provides with some examples of key measures to operationalize resilience in the field of critical infrastructure disaster mitigation strategies. The last section highlights how the key measures developed to enhance the resilience against CI disruptions can benefit also to broader urban resilience. 

  3. A trinity of sense: Using biomass in the transport sector for climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis analyses two strategies for decreasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: to capture and store CO2, and to increase the use of biomass. First, two concepts for CO2 capture with low capture penalties are evaluated. The concepts are an integrated gasification combined cycle where the oxygen is supplied by a membrane reactor, and a hybrid cycle where the CO2 is captured at elevated pressure. Although the cycles have comparatively high efficiencies and low penalties, they illustrate the inevitable fact that capturing CO2 will always induce significant efficiency penalties. Other strategies are also needed if CO2 emissions are to be forcefully decreased. An alternative is increased use of biomass, which partially could be used for production of motor fuels (biofuels). This work examines arguments for directing biomass to the transport sector, analyses how biofuels (and also some other means) may be used to reduce CO2 emissions and increase security of motor fuel supply. The thesis also explores the possibility of reducing CO2 emissions by comparatively easy and cost-efficient CO2 capture from concentrated CO2 streams available in some types of biofuel plants. Many conclusions of the thesis could be associated with either of three meanings of the word sense: First, there is reason in biofuel production - since it e.g. reduces oil dependence. From a climate change mitigation perspective, however, motor fuel production is often a CO2-inefficient use of biomass, but the thesis explores how biofuels' climate change mitigation effects may be increased by introducing low-cost CO2 capture. Second, the Swedish promotion of biofuels appears to have been governed more by a feeling for attaining other goals than striving for curbing climate change. Third, it seems to have been the prevalent opinion among politicians that the advantages of biofuels - among them their climate change mitigation benefits - are far greater than the disadvantages and that they should be

  4. Accounting for Impacts of Natural Disturbances on Climate Change Mitigation Projects in Tropical Forests (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Dai, Z.; Hernandez, J.; Johnson, K. D.; Vargas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Most forests in the world are recovering from natural or human-induced disturbances -- the fraction of the world's forests disturbed each year by fire and insects alone is conservatively estimated by FAO to be 2.6%. Natural disturbances are common in many tropical forest areas and have significant impacts on carbon stocks. For example, emissions from wildfires in tropical forests are estimated to exceed 700 TgC yr-1 annually, with significant interannual variability related to global weather cycles. Several lines of evidence point toward long-term climate-induced increases in natural disturbances, with the potential for changing the world's terrestrial ecosystems from a sink to a source of CO2. This raises the important question of whether forests can be an effective part of a climate change mitigation strategy and concurrently, how to account for the effects of disturbances separately from the effects of changes in land use or forest management. Although global and regional studies have made some good progress to quantify the impacts of natural disturbances, it remains a technical challenge to separate or 'factor out' the impacts of natural disturbances from other causes of changes in carbon stocks, such as vegetation regrowth and CO2 fertilization, when developing the accounting and monitoring systems required to support climate change mitigation projects. We tested one approach in the semi-deciduous dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico using the ecosystem process model DNDC. Spatial variability in simulated C stocks reflects variations in stand age, vegetation type, soil characteristics and disturbance. Disturbances that occurred between 1985 and 2010 led to a mean decrease in C stocks of 3.2 Mg C ha-1 in 2012 not including forestland lost to crops and urban land uses. Other approaches may be possible for factoring out specific causes of changes in carbon stocks, but the IPCC has twice determined that none of the currently available alternatives is

  5. Forest conversion can help to mitigate impacts of climate change on common forest birds

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Thomas K.; Reiners, Tobias E.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Key messageWe forecasted the effects of climate change and forest conversion options on common forest bird species by employing nation-wide high-resolution models. The results give details on how, where, and for which species forest conversion can mitigate climate change effects.Context To mitigate effects of climate change on forests, alterations are required to convert forests into less vulnerable forest types. Coniferous forest that has been cultivated extensively...

  6. Social strategy games in communicating trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation in cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhola, Sirkku; Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; Suarez, Pablo;

    2013-01-01

    Cities are becoming the locus of climate change policy and planning, both for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. These actions involve a number of trade-offs, including densification of the urban structure, concerns over social equity and the proper...... a research method. Data was collected from Denmark, Finland and the US through organized gaming sessions. The conclusion of the study is that social games are a promising method to understand complex planning problems....

  7. Why Technical Fixes Won’t Mitigate Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2015-01-01

    We may have already surpassed prudent limits for atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, and have exceeded (or are near) safe limits for a number of other Earth system processes. If fossil fuels maintain their present share, bringing the expected year 2050 world population up to US primary energy levels would involve a 6-fold rise in energy consumption, with a similar rise in CO2 emissions. We argue that even a combination of the various conventional approaches for climate mitigation will ...

  8. Co-benefits of Near-Term Climate Change Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Klimont

    2012-01-01

    While mitigation of carbon dioxide remains the principal climate target, addressing the so-called short-lived climate forcers including black carbon, tropospheric ozone, and methane offers significant co-benefits for near-term climate, human health, food security, and the cryosphere. Using IIASA’s GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model we identified 14 specific emission control measures targeting black carbon and methane, an ozone precursor, that were select...

  9. Net climate change mitigation of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has allowed industrialized countries to buy credits from developing countries for the purpose of meeting targets under the Kyoto Protocol. In principle, the CDM simply shifts the location of emission reductions, with no net mitigation impact. Departing from this zero-sum calculus, the Cancun Agreements reached at the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010 called for “one or more market-based mechanisms” capable of “ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions”, an intention reiterated at COP 17 and COP 18. This article explores the extent to which the CDM may or may not already lead to such a “net decrease.” It finds that the CDM's net mitigation impact likely hinges on the additionality of large-scale power projects, which are expected to generate the majority of CDM credits going forward. If these projects are truly additional and continue to operate well beyond the credit issuance period, they will decrease global greenhouse gas emissions. However, if they are mostly non-additional, as research suggests, they could increase global greenhouse gas emissions. The article closes with a discussion of possible means to increase mitigation benefit. - Highlights: • The CDM's method for assessing additionality remains controversial and contested. • We develop two scenarios of the net emissions impact of the CDM. • The integrity of the CDM hinges on the emissions impact of power supply projects. • Additionality is hard to demonstrate with confidence for most power-supply projects. • A number of options are available to increase the mitigation benefit of the CDM

  10. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P.R.; Deo, P. [eds.

    1998-12-01

    The three primary objectives of the conference, which was organized by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Environment Department of the World Bank, at Goa in India from May 4 to 6, 1998, were: 1) to share the GHG mitigation experiences from Asian developing countries; 2) to disseminate the standard methodological approach for mitigation analysis developed by UNEP and its applications in different countries; and 3) assess the role and efficacy of financial mechanisms and to, specifically, seek feedback on the Prototype Carbon Fund proposed by the World Bank. Follwing these objectives, the workshop presentations and discussions were structured in three parts. In the first part, participants from eleven Asian developing countries made presentations that were followed by discussions. The second part included the presentations by the experts from UCCEE, UNFCCC and other invited experts who presented the mitigation methodology and the issues and experiences relating to various co-operative implementation mechanisms. The third part included the presentations by the World Bank representatives on the Prototype Carbon Fund and the discussions on financial mechanisms. (EG)

  11. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  12. Climate change and climate variability: personal motivation for adaptation and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploubidis George B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global climate change impacts on human and natural systems are predicted to be severe, far reaching, and to affect the most physically and economically vulnerable disproportionately. Society can respond to these threats through two strategies: mitigation and adaptation. Industry, commerce, and government play indispensable roles in these actions but so do individuals, if they are receptive to behavior change. We explored whether the health frame can be used as a context to motivate behavioral reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation measures. Methods In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in the United States using random digit dialing. Personal relevance of climate change from health threats was explored with the Health Belief Model (HBM as a conceptual frame and analyzed through logistic regressions and path analysis. Results Of 771 individuals surveyed, 81% (n = 622 acknowledged that climate change was occurring, and were aware of the associated ecologic and human health risks. Respondents reported reduced energy consumption if they believed climate change could affect their way of life (perceived susceptibility, Odds Ratio (OR = 2.4 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.4 - 4.0, endanger their life (perceived severity, OR = 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1 - 3.1, or saw serious barriers to protecting themselves from climate change, OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2 - 3.5. Perceived susceptibility had the strongest effect on reduced energy consumption, either directly or indirectly via perceived severity. Those that reported having the necessary information to prepare for climate change impacts were more likely to have an emergency kit OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4 - 3.1 or plan, OR = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5 -3.2 for their household, but also saw serious barriers to protecting themselves from climate change or climate variability, either by having an emergency kit OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4 or an emergency plan OR = 1.5 (95%CI: 1.0 - 2

  13. Methane mitigation in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Wiggins, E. B.; Miu, J. C. L.; Carranza, V.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cities generate a large fraction of anthropogenic methane emissions that are increasing with urbanization and greater reliance on natural gas as fuel. New measurements of methane in cities suggest an as-yet unrealized potential for city-scale methane mitigation. We present high-resolution methane observations from four cities in North America to demonstrate the utility of methane surveys for identifying urban methane sources. We used portable, continuous on-road measurements to determine the spatial distribution of methane in Fairbanks, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Across cities, methane tended to be highly concentrated in space, suggesting discrete, point emission sources. Elevated methane levels were found near known emission sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment facilities, and natural gas-fueled power plants, and revealed the location of fugitive leaks in natural gas infrastructure. The mix of sources and sizes of methane leaks varied among cities, highlighting a need for locally adaptive emissions regulation. Urban methane observations can inform anthropogenic processes in development of methane mitigation strategies. We discuss specific examples of how continuous atmospheric measurements can enhance the design of mitigation strategies in these cities, and potential contributions of these approaches to cross-sectoral efforts to reduce methane emissions at the city level.

  14. E&F White conference on Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, J F; Bunton, J D

    2000-01-01

    The conference brought together expertise on a range of interference mitigation techniques from CSIRO, Australian and international industry and universities. Key goals were to: enhance the understanding of techniques and their inter-relationship, increase awareness of advanced technologies such as software radios and photonics, and foster a cooperative approach to the development of interference mitigation techniques. The foremost application in mind was the square kilometre array (SKA) and the need to find ways to develop an hierarchical scheme for removing unwanted signals from astronomical data. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at the conference and summarises some of the key ideas and results that were presented. Many of the interference challenges we face can be overcome with technical solutions. There will always be a place for regulatory and legal approaches to spectrum management, but too much reliance has been placed on these in the past. The strategy of avoidance has worked well...

  15. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    decisions, the operation of the upstream reservoir (Como Lake) is optimised with respect to the real irrigation demand of the crops. Then, the farmers can re-adapt their decisions according with the new optimal operating strategy, thus activating a loop between the two systems that exchange expected supply and irrigation demand. Results show that the proposed interaction between farmers and water managers is able to enhance the efficiency of water management practices, foster crop production and mitigate climate change impacts.

  16. Development of Mitigation Strategy for Beyond Design Basis External Events for NRC Design Certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed

  17. Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene L. Chia; Kalame Fobissie; Markku Kanninen

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A) in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It ex...

  18. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Ademola A. Adenle; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publicatio...

  19. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupnick Alan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. Methods We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1 changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2 avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3 economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. Results We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis. While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Conclusion Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits.

  20. Potential Upstream Strategies for the Mitigation of Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment: a Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Benjamin D

    2016-06-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a class of pollutants of emerging concern, and there is growing evidence that these pollutants can cause damage to the aquatic environment. As regulations to address these concerns are expected in developed nations, decision-makers are looking to the scientific community for potential solutions. To inform these regulatory efforts, further information on the potential strategies to reduce the levels of pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment is needed. End-of-pipe (i.e., wastewater treatment) technologies that can remove pharmaceuticals exist; however, they are costly to install and operate. Thus, the goal of this brief review is to look beyond end-of-pipe solutions and present various upstream mitigation strategies discussed within the scientific literature. Programs such as pharmaceutical take-back programs currently exist to attempt to reduce pharmaceutical concentrations in the environment, although access and coverage are often limited for many programs. Other potential strategies include redesigning pharmaceuticals to minimize aquatic toxicity, increasing the percent of the pharmaceuticals metabolized in the body, selecting less harmful pharmaceuticals for use, starting new prescriptions at lower dosages, selecting pharmaceuticals with lower excretion rates, and implementing source treatment such as urine separating toilets. Overall, this brief review presents a summary of the upstream preventative recommendations to mitigate pharmaceuticals from entering the aquatic environment with an emphasis on regulatory efforts in the USA and concludes with priorities for further research. PMID:27068434

  1. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Bridget; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate the use of electric vehicles at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), charging stations should be made available to LaRC employees. The implementation of charging stations would decrease the need for gasoline thus decreasing CO2 emissions improving local air quality and providing a cost savings for LaRC employees. A charging station pilot program is described that would install stations as the need increased and also presents a business model that pays for the electricity used and installation at no cost to the government.

  2. Methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable critical infrastructure equipment and mitigation strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Lon Andrew; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NSCD), Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), contracted Sandia National Laboratories to develop a generic methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable, critical infrastructure assets and the development of mitigation strategies for their loss or compromise. The initial project has been divided into three discrete deliverables: (1) A generic methodology report suitable to all Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) Sectors (this report); (2) a sector-specific report for Electrical Power Distribution; and (3) a sector-specific report for the water sector, including generation, water treatment, and wastewater systems. Specific reports for the water and electric sectors are available from Sandia National Laboratories.

  3. Quantifying the Benefit of Early Climate Change Mitigation in Avoiding Biodiversity Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R.; Vanderwal, J.; Price, J.; Welbergen, J.; Atkinson, I. M.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Osborn, T.; Shoo, L.; Jarvis, A.; Williams, S.; Lowe, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative simulations of the global-scale benefits of climate change mitigation in avoiding biodiversity loss are presented. Previous studies have projected widespread global and regional impacts of climate change on biodiversity. However, these have focused on analysis of business-as-usual scenarios, with no explicit mitigation policy included. This study finds that early, stringent mitigation would avoid a large proportion of the impacts of climate change induced biodiversity loss projected for the 2080s. Furthermore, despite the large number of studies addressing extinction risks in particular species groups, few studies have explored the issue of potential range loss in common and widespread species. Our study is a comprehensive global scale analysis of 48,786 common and widespread species. We show that without climate change mitigation, 57+/-6% of the plants and 34+/-7% of the animals studied are likely to lose over 50% of their present climatic range by the 2080s. This estimate incorporates realistic, taxon-specific dispersal rates. With stringent mitigation, in which emissions peak in 2016 and are reduced by 5% annually thereafter, these losses are reduced by 60%. Furthermore, with stringent mitigation, global temperature rises more slowly, allowing an additional three decades for biodiversity to adapt to a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels. The work also shows that even with mitigation not all the impacts can now be avoided, and ecosystems and biodiversity generally has a very limited capacity to adapt. Delay in mitigation substantially reduces the percentage of impacts that can be avoided, for example if emissions do not peak until 2030, the percentage of losses that can be avoided declines to 40%. Since even small declines in common and widespread species can disrupt ecosystem function and services, these results indicate that without mitigation, globally widespread losses in ecosystem service provision are to be expected.

  4. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van, J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depends on local conditions. Therefore, hotspot regions are defined, where specific issues related to agriculture will be assessed. Mitigation strategies in East Africa in general and Ethiopia in partic...

  5. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  6. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians. (letter)

  7. Biomechanical strategies for mitigating collision damage in insect wings: structural design versus embedded elastic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2014-04-01

    The wings of many insects accumulate considerable wear and tear during their lifespan, and this irreversible structural damage can impose significant costs on insect flight performance and survivability. Wing wear in foraging bumblebees (and likely many other species) is caused by inadvertent, repeated collisions with vegetation during flight, suggesting the possibility that insect wings may display biomechanical adaptations to mitigate the damage associated with collisions. We used a novel experimental technique to artificially induce wing wear in bumblebees and yellowjacket wasps, closely related species with similar life histories but distinct wing morphologies. Wasps have a flexible resilin joint (the costal break) positioned distally along the leading edge of the wing, which allows the wing tip to crumple reversibly when it hits an obstacle, whereas bumblebees lack an analogous joint. Through experimental manipulation of its stiffness, we found that the costal break plays a critical role in mitigating collision damage in yellowjacket wings. However, bumblebee wings do not experience as much damage as would be expected based on their lack of a costal break, possibly due to differences in the spatial arrangement of supporting wing veins. Our results indicate that these two species utilize different wing design strategies for mitigating damage resulting from collisions. A simple inertial model of a flapping wing reveals the biomechanical constraints acting on the costal break, which may help explain its absence in bumblebee wings. PMID:24311806

  8. Strategies, Protections and Mitigations for Electric Grid Affets from Electro-Magnetic Pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Rita Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frickey, Steven Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The mission of DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance the security and reliability of America’s energy infrastructure and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. One of the threats OE is concerned about is a high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) from a nuclear explosion and eletro-magnetic pulse (EMP) or E1 pulse can be generated by EMP weapons. DOE-OE provides federal leadership and technical guidance in addressing electric grid issues. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was chosen to conduct the EMP study for DOE-OE due to its capabilities and experience in setting up EMP experiments on the electric grid and conducting vulnerability assessments and developing innovative technology to increase infrastructure resiliency. This report identifies known impacts to EMP threats, known mitigations and effectiveness of mitigations, potential cost of mitigation, areas for government and private partnerships in protecting the electric grid to EMP, and identifying gaps in our knowledge and protection strategies.

  9. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  10. STRATEGY OF KM-ORIENTED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Pryimak

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the problems of formation and realization of KM-oriented strategy organizational changes in modern business. It gives the practical recommendations concerning engineering technique of communication and technological space of knowledge management and adaptation of company's strategy to KM-oriented organizational changes.

  11. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that...... enable adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach...... is based on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant...

  12. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that...... enable adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach...... is based on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant...

  13. Incorporating changes in albedo in estimating the climate mitigation benefits of land use change projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Bird

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some climate scientists are questioning whether the practice of converting of non-forest lands to forest land (afforestation or reforestation is an effective climate change mitigation option. The discussion focuses particularly on areas where the new forest is primarily coniferous and there is significant amount of snow since the increased climate forcing due to the change in albedo may counteract the decreased climate forcing due to carbon dioxide removal.

    In this paper, we develop a stand-based model that combines changes in surface albedo, solar radiation, latitude, cloud cover and carbon sequestration. As well, we develop a procedure to convert carbon stock changes to equivalent climatic forcing or climatic forcing to equivalent carbon stock changes. Using the model, we investigate the sensitivity of combined affects of changes in surface albedo and carbon stock changes to model parameters. The model is sensitive to amount of cloud, atmospheric absorption, timing of canopy closure, carbon sequestration rate among other factors. The sensitivity of the model is investigated at one Canadian site, and then the model is tested at numerous sites across Canada.

    In general, we find that the change in albedo reduces the carbon sequestration benefits by approximately 30% over 100 years, but this is not drastic enough to suggest that one should not use afforestation or reforestation as a climate change mitigation option. This occurs because the forests grow in places where there is significant amount of cloud in winter. As well, variations in sequestration rate seem to be counterbalanced by the amount and timing of canopy closure.

    We close by speculating that the effects of albedo may also be significant in locations at lower latitudes, where there are less clouds, and where there are extended dry seasons. These conditions make grasses light coloured and when irrigated crops, dark forests or other vegetation such as

  14. 'High-health, high-performance' horses: risk mitigation strategies for OIE-listed diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; Murray, G; Timoney, P

    2015-12-01

    The 'high-health, high-performance' (HHP) horse concept has been developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) together with the F6ddration Equestre Internationale and the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. This concept is outlined in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Chapter 4.16). It aims to address impediments to the international movement of competition horses through a harmonised, practically feasible, globally applicable framework based on simplified certification requirements for the temporary importation of HHP horses and for their return to their country of usual residence. Based on the principle of compartmentalisation, the high health status of these horses would be established by the application, at all times, of stringent health management practices and biosecurity measures to create and maintain a functional separation between horses within the defined compartment and all other equids. These provisions are intended to mitigate the risk of disease spread for most OIE-listed diseases. For six OIE-listed diseases (African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine piroplasmosis, glanders and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis), the OIE recommends disease-specific mitigation measures, which have been included in a model HHP Veterinary Certificate, to provide additional guarantees to mitigate the risk of disease spread. This article presents the HH P disease risk mitigation strategy. It demonstrates how continuous observance of the HHP biosecurity measures and health management practices provides a scientific rationale for limiting the list of diseases for which HHP horses should be screened with respect to their temporary importation for competition purposes. PMID:27044155

  15. Distributional impacts of climate change mitigation in Indian electricity: The influence of governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies that examine the distributional impacts of climate change mitigation policies often neglect the influence of institutions that implement these policies. This study examines the short-term consumption-side distributional impacts of expanding low-carbon electric supply in the state of Maharashtra, India with a focus on the influence of regulatory discretion in pricing. Households' welfare impacts from economy-wide electricity price shocks are simulated against a baseline that is calibrated to actual household economic and electricity service conditions, including actual electricity budgets, block tier prices and supply rationing. Industrial price impacts are propagated to households using a Leontief input–output analysis. Regulatory pricing decisions are evaluated based on social welfare metrics for economic efficiency and income inequality. The analysis reveals new linkages between climate change mitigation, electricity policy and income distribution. Low-income households can be shielded from mitigation impacts without losses in aggregate welfare to the extent that regulators can recover mitigation costs through industrial price increases. Regulators' flexibility to distribute costs across households is constrained by industrial customers' migration off the grid. Reduced supply interruptions to the rural poor from the resulting demand contraction are a potential co-benefit of mitigation. Distributional impacts, therefore, depend on other electricity policies that are driven by the political economy of the sector. - Highlights: • Indirect price increases harm most households less than residential price increases. • Regulators have flexibility to distribute mitigation costs across income groups. • Reduced supply interruptions are a potential co-benefit of mitigation

  16. Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Tushaar, E-mail: t.shah@cgiar.or [International Water Management Institute, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2009-07-15

    For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

  17. Adaptive vaccination strategies to mitigate pandemic influenza: Mexico as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Chowell

    Full Text Available We explore vaccination strategies against pandemic influenza in Mexico using an age-structured transmission model calibrated against local epidemiological data from the Spring 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic.In the context of limited vaccine supplies, we evaluate age-targeted allocation strategies that either prioritize youngest children and persons over 65 years of age, as for seasonal influenza, or adaptively prioritize age groups based on the age patterns of hospitalization and death monitored in real-time during the early stages of the pandemic. Overall the adaptive vaccination strategy outperformed the seasonal influenza vaccination allocation strategy for a wide range of disease and vaccine coverage parameters.This modeling approach could inform policies for Mexico and other countries with similar demographic features and vaccine resources issues, with regard to the mitigation of the S-OIV pandemic. We also discuss logistical issues associated with the implementation of adaptive vaccination strategies in the context of past and future influenza pandemics.

  18. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  19. Quantifying the biophysical climate change mitigation potential of Canada's forest sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Smyth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of forests and the forest sector to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is widely recognized, but challenging to quantify at a national scale. Forests and their carbon (C sequestration potential are affected by management practices, where wood harvesting transfers C out of the forest into products, and subsequent regrowth allows further C sequestration. Here we determine the mitigation potential of the 2.3 × 106 km2 of Canada's managed forests from 2015 to 2050 using the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3, a harvested wood products model that estimates emissions based on product half-life decay times, and an account of emission substitution benefits from the use of wood products and bioenergy. We examine several mitigation scenarios with different assumptions about forest management activity levels relative to a base-case scenario, including improved growth from silvicultural activities, increased harvest and residue management for bioenergy, and reduced harvest for conservation. We combine forest management options with two mitigation scenarios for harvested wood product use involving an increase in either long-lived products or bioenergy uses. Results demonstrate large differences among alternative scenarios, and we identify potential mitigation scenarios with increasing benefits to the atmosphere for many decades into the future, as well as scenarios with no net benefit over many decades. The greatest mitigation impact was achieved through a mix of strategies that varied across the country and had cumulative mitigation of 254 Tg CO2e in 2030, and 1180 Tg CO2e in 2050. We conclude that (i national-scale forest sector mitigation options need to be assessed rigorously from a systems perspective to avoid the development of policies that deliver no net benefits to the atmosphere, (ii a mix of strategies implemented across the country achieves the greatest mitigation impact, and (iii because of the time

  20. Governing Carbon Mitigation and Climate Change within Local Councils: A Case Study of Adelaide, South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Zeppel

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern about climate change impacts on local government areas. In Australia, the federal carbon tax (from 1 July 2012) will also increase costs for local councils. This paper evaluates what carbon mitigation (i.e. energy, water, and waste management) actions have been implemented by metropolitan Adelaide councils (n=14) and why (or why not). A survey of environmental officers profiled carbon mitigation actions, emissions auditing, and motives for emissions reduction by Adela...

  1. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  2. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioural change to understand the processes through which climate change films might encourage mitigation action

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent films such as An Inconvenient Truth and The Age of Stupid aim not merely to inform their audience about climate change, but to engage them in taking mitigation action. This paper outlines the transtheoretical model of behavioural change, which incorporates six stages of change that individuals progress through as they change their behaviour, and ten associated processes of change. Using four climate change films as illustrations, I show how the model can be applied to ident...

  3. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future

  4. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  5. Asia least-cost greenhouse gas abatement strategy identification and assessment of mitigation options for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the presentation was on greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy sector for India. Results from the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (ALGAS) project were presented. The presentation comprised of a review of the sources of greenhouse gases, the optimisation model, ie the Markal model, used for determining the least-cost options, discussion of the results from the baseline and the abatement scenarios. The second half of the presentation focussed on a multi-criteria assessment of the abatement options using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model. The emissions of all greenhouse gases, for India, are estimated to be 986.3 Tg of carbon dioxide equivalent for 1990. The energy sector accounted for 58 percent of the total emissions and over 90 percent of the CO2 emissions. Net emissions form land use change and forestry were zero. (au)

  6. South Africa's national REDD+ initiative: assessing the potential of the forestry sector on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is regarded by its proponents as one of the more efficient and cost effective ways to mitigate climate change. There was further progress toward the implementation of this mechanism at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP) in Cancun in December 2010. Many countries in southern African, including South Africa, have not been integrated (do not participate) into the UN-REDD+ programme, probably due to their low forest cover and national rates of deforestation. This paper discusses the potential contribution of REDD+ activities to the South African Government's pledge of reducing national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 34% below business as usual by 2020. A number of issues such as complex land tenure system, limited forest cover and other conflicting environmental issues present challenges for REDD+ in South Africa. Despite these genuine concerns, REDD+ remains a practical strategy to contribute to climate change mitigation for South Africa. The paper raises the need for development of a variety of emission reduction programmes – not only in the energy sector. The paper also assesses several national options and opportunities towards a working REDD+ mechanism. It concludes by identifying key mechanisms for moving forward to prepare for REDD+ actions in South Africa and raises the urgent need for national dialogue between stakeholders and institutions to evaluate the feasibility of making use of the mechanism in South Africa and the Southern African Development Cooperation (SADC) region. The paper further addresses possible synergies and conflicts between the national climate change and forestry policies towards REDD+ development. It suggests that REDD+ should be part of the national dialogue on policy to respond to climate change and should be integrated into the national flagship programmes that the national climate change white paper seeks to implement. A multiple

  7. Approaches to classifying and restoring degraded tropical forests for the anticipated REDD+ climate change mitigation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of improved forest management as a way to enhance carbon sinks in the Copenhagen Accord of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (December 2009 suggests that forest restoration will play a role in global climate change mitigation under the post-Kyoto agreement. Although discussions about restoration strategies often pertain solely to severely degraded tropical forests and invoke only the enrichment planting option, different approaches to restoration are needed to counter the full range of degrees of degradation. We propose approaches for restoration of forests that range from being slightly to severely degraded. Our methods start with ceasing the causes of degradation and letting forests regenerate on their own, progress through active management of natural regeneration in degraded areas to accelerate tree regeneration and growth, and finally include the stage of degradation at which re-planting is necessary. We argue that when the appropriate techniques are employed, forest restoration is cost-effective relative to conventional planting, provides abundant social and ecological co-benefits, and results in the sequestration of substantial amounts of carbon. For forest restoration efforts to succeed, a supportive post-Kyoto agreement is needed as well as appropriate national policies, institutional arrangements, and local participation.

  8. Effects of hyperthermia as a mitigation strategy in DNA damage-based cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantso, Theodora; Goussetis, George; Franco, Rodrigo; Botaitis, Sotiris; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis

    2016-06-01

    Utilization of thermal therapy (hyperthermia) is defined as the application of exogenous heat induction and represents a concept that is far from new as it goes back to ancient times when heat was used for treating various diseases, including malignancies. Such therapeutic strategy has gained even more popularity (over the last few decades) since various studies have shed light into understanding hyperthermia's underlying molecular mechanism(s) of action. In general, hyperthermia is applied as complementary (adjuvant) means in therapeutic protocols combining chemotherapy and/or irradiation both of which can induce irreversible cellular DNA damage. Furthermore, according to a number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, hyperthermia has been shown to enhance the beneficial effects of DNA targeting therapeutic strategies by interfering with DNA repair response cascades. Therefore, the continuously growing evidence supporting hyperthermia's beneficial role in cancer treatment can also encourage its application as a DNA repair mitigation strategy. In this review article, we aim to provide detailed information on how hyperthermia acts on DNA damage and repair pathways and thus potentially contributing to various adjuvant therapeutic protocols relevant to more efficient cancer treatment strategies. PMID:27025900

  9. Potential for carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change by irrigation of grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A generic method for climate change mitigation feasibility of PVWPS is developed. • Restoration of degraded lands in China has large climate change mitigation potential. • PV produces excess electricity included in the mitigation potential of the system. • The benefit is higher than if the PV were to produce electricity for the grid only. - Abstract: The climate change mitigation potential of irrigation powered by a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) to restore degraded grasslands has been investigated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. The purpose of this study is to develop a generic and simple method to estimate the climate change mitigation benefit of a PVWPS. The possibility to develop carbon credits for the carbon offset markets has also been studied comparing carbon sequestration in grasslands to other carbon sequestration projects. The soil carbon sequestration following irrigation of the grassland is calculated as an annual increase in the soil organic carbon pool. The PVWPS can also generate an excess of electricity when irrigation is not needed and the emissions reductions due to substitution of grid electricity give additional climate change mitigation potential. The results from this study show that the carbon sequestration and emissions reductions benefits per land area using a PVWPS for irrigating grasslands are comparable to other carbon sequestration options such as switching to no-till practice. Soil carbon in irrigated grasslands is increased with over 60% relative to severely degraded grasslands and if nitrogen fixing species are introduced the increase in soil organic carbon can be almost 80%. Renewable electricity generation by the PVWPS will further increase the mitigation benefit of the system with 70–90%. When applying the methodology developed in this paper to a case in Qinghai, China

  10. Mitigation of climate change: which technologies for Vietnam?

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the countries suffering from the most serious adverse effects due to climate change and sea level rise. The main cause of climate change is the increased activities generating greenhouse gases. Organic waste is the main source of carbon dioxide emission, which has the largest concentration among different kinds of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. The conversion of organic waste and biomass into energy contributes not only to supply cleaner energy but also to reduc...

  11. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de, J.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages to people, the environment and the economy. Not surprisingly, governments currently enact powerful incentives for the development and exploitation of bio ethanol. However, every inch we come closer...

  12. Manipulating biotic carbon sources and sinks for climate change mitigation: can science keep up with practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for natural C sinks to be manipulated by human means to mitigate climate change has been discussed in the environmental literature for more than a decade. There now appears to be little doubt that changes in global land-use and land management practices could significantly slow the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. As a result, some forward-thinking companies and governmental bodies are acting now upon the biotic mitigation literature by developing actual mitigation projects. It is now national policy in the United States to encourage such activities. The future of C offsets, however, is unclear, due in large measure to lagging scientific knowledge. Large-scale private action likely will await regulatory signals that action will be accepted as a legitimate mitigation measure, perhaps providing retroactive regulatory credit, a source of tradeable emission entitlements, or credit against yet-to-be-established C taxes. The practical potential of most biotic mitigation approaches is unknown, and the entire concept remains subject to political challenge domestically and abroad. The ability to predict C benefits of individual mitigation projects is often tenuous and subject to debate. To allow expansion of C offset practices as quickly as possible, and hopefully to fund projects with many ancillary environmental and economic benefits, policy makers and project developers desperately need physical and social science data to be provided in a useable form. 25 refs., 1 tab

  13. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Washington, Warren M.; Teng, Haiyan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Ault, Toby; Strand, Warren G.; White, James B.

    2012-08-01

    There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with aggressive mitigation in two of the scenarios, globally averaged temperature increase indeed could be stabilized either below 2 °C or near 3 °C above pre-industrial values. However, even as temperatures stabilize, sea level would continue to rise. With little mitigation, future sea-level rise would be large and continue unabated for centuries. Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for at least the next several hundred years, with aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, and this would buy time for adaptation measures to be adopted.

  14. A review of the cost-effectiveness and suitability of mitigation strategies to prevent phosphorus loss from dairy farms in New Zealand and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Richard W; Nash, David

    2012-01-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) from land to water is detrimental to surface water quality in many parts of New Zealand and Australia. Farming, especially pasture-based dairying, can be a source of P loss, but preventing it requires a range of fully costed strategies because little or no subsidies are available and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies varies with different farm management systems, topography, stream density, and climate. This paper reviews the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies for New Zealand and Australian dairy farms, grouping strategies into (i) management (e.g., decreasing soil test P, fencing streams off from stock, or applying low-water-soluble P fertilizers), (ii) amendments (e.g., alum or red mud [Bauxite residue]), and (iii) edge-of-field mitigations (e.g., natural or constructed wetlands). In general, on-farm management strategies were the most cost-effective way of mitigating P exports (cost range, $0 to $200 per kg P conserved). Amendments, added to tile drains or directly to surface soil, were often constrained by supply or were labor intensive. Of the amendments examined, red mud was cost effective where cost was offset by improved soil physical properties. Edge-of-field strategies, which remove P from runoff (i.e., wetlands) or prevent runoff (i.e., irrigation runoff recycling systems), were generally the least cost effective, but their benefits in terms of improved overall resource efficiency, especially in times of drought, or their effect on other contaminants like N need to be considered. By presenting a wide range of fully costed strategies, and understanding their mechanisms, a farmer or farm advisor is able to choose those that suit their farm and maintain profitability. Further work should examine the potential for targeting strategies to areas that lose the most P in time and space to maximize the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies, quantify the benefits of multiple strategies, and identify changes to

  15. Soil management system for water conservation and mitigation of global change effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, A.; Florentino, A.; Lorenzo, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main constraints in rained agriculture is the water availability for plant growth which depends largely on the ability of the soil to allow water flow, infiltration and its storage. In Venezuela, the interaction between aggressive climatic conditions, highly susceptible soils and inadequate management systems have caused soil degradation which together with global change threatened the food production sustainability. To address this problem, we need to implement conservationist management strategies that improve infiltration rate, permeability and water holding capacity in soil and reduce water loss by protecting the soil surface. In order to study the impact of different management systems on soil water balance in a Fluventic Haplustept, the effects of 11 years of tillage and crops rotation management were evaluated in a long term field experiment located in Turén (Portuguesa state). The evaluated tillage systems were no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotation treatments were maize (Zea mays)-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and maize-bean (Vigna unguiculata). Treatments were established in plots arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The gravimetric moisture content was determined in the upper 20 cm of soil, at eight different sampling dates. Results showed increased in time of the water availability with the use of tillage and corn-cotton rotation and, better protection of the soil against raindrop impact with crop residues. Water retention capacity also increased and improved structural condition on soil surface such as infiltration, storage and water flow distribution in the rooting zone. We conclude that these strategies of land use and management would contribute to mitigate the climate change effects on food production in this region of Venezuela. Key words: Soil quality; rained agriculture; plant water availability

  16. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries are implementing CO2 emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 °C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO2 reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: ► Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. ► SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. ► SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. ► Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  17. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO2-equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO2-equivalent emissions, particularly for CH4. While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH4 and N2O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric. (letter)

  18. Governing Carbon Mitigation and Climate Change within Local Councils: A Case Study of Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Zeppel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about climate change impacts on local government areas. In Australia, the federal carbon tax (from 1 July 2012 will also increase costs for local councils. This paper evaluates what carbon mitigation (i.e. energy, water, and waste management actions have been implemented by metropolitan Adelaide councils (n=14 and why (or why not. A survey of environmental officers profiled carbon mitigation actions, emissions auditing, and motives for emissions reduction by Adelaide councils. The main reasons for adopting carbon actions were a climate change plan, climate leadership, and cost savings. Internal council governance of climate change actions was also evaluated. A climate governance framework based on adaptive management, communication, and reflective practice (Nursey-Bray 2010 was applied to assess climate mitigation by Adelaide councils.

  19. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  20. Incorporating climate change mitigation programmes in local administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2015-01-01

    programme’s implementation in Australia and New Zealand a substantial translation took place, especially in the larger local councils and where energy managers or climate change officers were appointed. This translation was supported by organisational norms related to project ownership and network creation...

  1. COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE STRATEGIES: COMMUNITY DISASTER KNOWLEDGE, SOCIAL CAPITAL, PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ENHANCE COASTAL COMMUNITY RESILIENCE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. James

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the strategies for enhancing resilience of a coastal community to natural disasters by effective disaster preparedness and mitigation measures. It elaborates the importance of capacity building and improved infrastructure performance. Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA is emphasised to understand the diverse vulnerabilities and resilience of the coastal communities. This paper presents a unique approach to integrate the existing capacities, capacities required and important social and economic activities with the key strategies of community disaster resilience. The study focuses on enhancement of community knowledge in disaster management, community social capital, integrated disaster management plan, preparedness and recovery and disaster mitigation measures implemented in the coastal villages for effectively managing the disaster situations. There is a greater emphasis on the need for involving multisectoral and multidisciplinary sections of the community in in disaster preparedness and capacities required for minimizing social and economic impact which will further help in developing mitigation strategies.

  2. The role of nuclear for cost-effective CO2-mitigation strategies in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current projections of world energy demand suggest that it will continue to grow at high rates with an ongoing domination of fossil fuels. A non-fossil supply alternative becomes increasingly important to avoid non-tolerable climate change, a cornerstone of sustainable development. Efficiency improvements and additional efforts to develop and use renewable sources of energy are not sufficient on their own to assure sustainable economic development and to limit global climate change. Nuclear power could play an important role for mitigating climate change. Compared to other non-fossil power sources like wind or photovoltaics, nuclear power offers economic advantages for the short-term and medium-term perspective. This view is supported by detailed cost-effectiveness analysis and the consideration of full cost of power generation including external cost. Continuous development of nuclear is warranted to remove the major concerns making nuclear an attractive alternative for the future in a liberalised economic environment contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  3. Risk Mitigation Strategies for Adverse Reactions Associated with the Disease-Modifying Drugs in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subei, Adnan M; Ontaneda, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, the number of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has doubled in number. The 13 approved agents have shown a wide range of efficacy and safety in their clinical trials and post-marketing experience. While the availability of the newer agents allows for a wider selection of therapy for clinicians and patients, there is a need for careful understanding of the benefits and risks of each agent. Several factors such as the medication efficacy, side-effect profile, patient's preference, and co-morbidities need to be considered. An individualized treatment approach is thus imperative. In this review, risk stratification and mitigation strategies of the various disease-modifying agents are discussed. PMID:26407624

  4. Mitigating Climate Change on Malaria by Biotechnological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tarana Nigam

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is progressing globally and is likely to affect the human health in various ways. Transmission of vector borne diseases like malaria, which is endemic in most parts of India, is likely to be affected by climate variability. Temperature affects the developmental period related to different stages of mosquitoes' life cycle like blood feeding rates, gonotrophic cycle and longevity. Increase in temperature increases the probability of transmission by reducing the time of gonotrophi...

  5. Review: Sugarcane production: Impact of climate change and its mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK K. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a climatic sensitive crop: therefore, its spatial distribution on the globe is restricted as per the suitability of various climatic parameters. The climate change, though, a very slow phenomenon is now accelerated due to natural, as well as enormous human activities disturbing the composition of atmosphere. The predications of various climatic models for probable rise in temperature, rainfall, sea level show an alarming condition in forthcoming decades. As the sugarcane is very sensitive to temperature, rainfall, solar radiations etc. therefore, a significant effect on its production and sugar yield is expected in future. It is also well known that sugarcane is one of the precious crops of the world and its end products i.e. sugar and ethanol have a continuous growing demand on global level. Hence, the studies related to good production of sugarcane in changing conditions of climate has become one among the front line area of research and is a major concern of scientist’s world over. Advance agronomic measures including development of suitable cane varieties susceptible to changed climatic conditions, land preparation, time and pattern of plantation, weed, disease and pest managements, nutrients managements, proper timing and adequate water management seems to be the affective measures for obtaining high production of crop with good quality juice in future.

  6. Terraforming the Planets and Climate Change Mitigation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-12-01

    Hopefully, purposeful geo-engineering of the Earth will remain a theoretical concept. Of course, we have already inadvertently changed the Earth, and over geologic history life has left an indelible imprint on our planet. We can learn about geo-engineering schemes by reference to Earth history, for example climate changes after volcanic eruptions provide important clues to using sulfates to modify the climate. The terrestrial planets and Titan offer additional insights. For instance, Mars and Venus both have carbon dioxide dominated greenhouses. Both have more than 10 times as much carbon dioxide in their atmospheres as Earth, and both absorb less sunlight than Earth, yet one is much colder than Earth and one is much hotter. These facts provide important insights into carbon dioxide greenhouses that I will review. Mars cools dramatically following planet wide dust storms, and Titan has what is referred to as an anti- greenhouse climate driven by aerosols. These data can be used to reassure us that we can model aerosol caused changes to the climate of a planet, and also provide examples of aerosols offsetting a gas-driven greenhouse effect. People have long considered whether we might make the other planets habitable. While most of the schemes considered belong in the realm of science fiction, it is possible that some schemes might be practical. Terraforming brings to mind a number of issues that are thought provoking, but not so politically charged as geo-engineering. For example: What criteria define habitability, is it enough for people to live in isolated glass enclosures, or do we need to walk freely on the planet? Different creatures have different needs. Is a planet habitable if plants can thrive in the open, or do animals also need to be free? Are the raw materials present on any planet to make it habitable? If not, can we make the materials, or do we have to import them? Is it ethical to change a planetary climate? What if there are already primitive

  7. Estimation of cost per severe accident for improvement of accident protection and consequence mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the complex situations regarding the severe accidents such as what observed in Fukushima Accident, not only radiation protection aspects but also relevant aspects: health, environmental, economic and societal aspects; must be all included into the consequence assessment. In this study, the authors introduce the “cost per severe accident” as an index to analyze the consequences of severe accidents comprehensively. The cost per severe accident consists of various costs and consequences converted into monetary values. For the purpose of improvement of the accident protection and consequence mitigation strategies, the costs needed to introduce the protective actions, and health and psychological consequences are included in the present study. The evaluations of these costs and consequences were made based on the systematic consequence analysis using level 2 and 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) codes. The accident sequences used in this analysis were taken from the results of level 2 seismic PSA of a virtual 1,100 MWe BWR-5. The doses to the public and the number of people affected were calculated using the level 3 PSA code OSCAAR of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The calculations have been made for 248 meteorological sequences, and the outputs are given as expectation values for various meteorological conditions. Using these outputs, the cost per severe accident is calculated based on the open documents on the Fukushima Accident regarding the cost of protective actions and compensations for psychological harms. Finally, optimized accident protection and consequence mitigation strategies are recommended taking into account the various aspects comprehensively using the cost per severe accident. The authors must emphasize that the aim is not to estimate the accident cost itself but to extend the scope of “risk-informed decision making” for continuous safety improvements of nuclear energy. (author)

  8. Evaluating the potential effectiveness of compensatory mitigation strategies for marine bycatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Finkelstein

    Full Text Available Conservationists are continually seeking new strategies to reverse population declines and safeguard against species extinctions. Here we evaluate the potential efficacy of a recently proposed approach to offset a major anthropogenic threat to many marine vertebrates: incidental bycatch in commercial fisheries operations. This new approach, compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch (CMMB, is conceived as a way to replace or reduce mandated restrictions on fishing activities with compensatory activities (e.g., removal of introduced predators from islands funded by levies placed on fishers. While efforts are underway to bring CMMB into policy discussions, to date there has not been a detailed evaluation of CMMB's potential as a conservation tool, and in particular, a list of necessary and sufficient criteria that CMMB must meet to be an effective conservation strategy. Here we present a list of criteria to assess CMMB that are tied to critical ecological aspects of the species targeted for conservation, the range of possible mitigation activities, and the multi-species impact of fisheries bycatch. We conclude that, overall, CMMB has little potential for benefit and a substantial potential for harm if implemented to solve most fisheries bycatch problems. In particular, CMMB is likely to be effective only when applied to short-lived and highly-fecund species (not the characteristics of most bycatch-impacted species and to fisheries that take few non-target species, and especially few non-seabird species (not the characteristics of most fisheries. Thus, CMMB appears to have limited application and should only be implemented after rigorous appraisal on a case-specific basis; otherwise it has the potential to accelerate declines of marine species currently threatened by fisheries bycatch.

  9. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  10. Integration of Adaptation and Mitigation in Climate Change and Forest Policies in Indonesia and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thu Thuy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests play a major role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation, but few policies, if any, integrate these two aspects. Using Indonesia and Vietnam as case studies, we identify challenges at the national level but opportunities at the local level. Although both countries demonstrate political commitment to integrating adaptation and mitigation in their development plans, guidelines for policy and planning treat the two approaches separately. The main challenges identified are lack of knowledge, lack of political will, lack of financial incentives, and fragmentation of mandates and tasks of different government agencies. In contrast, at the local level, integration of mitigation and adaptation is facilitated by subnational autonomy, where mitigation projects might have adaptation co-benefits, and vice versa. Our results also show that many actors have a dual mandate that could bridge adaptation and mitigation if appropriate political and financial incentives are put in place. Successful integration of mitigation and adaptation policies would not only remove contradictions between policies, but also encourage governments that are designing domestic policies to exploit the potential for positive spillovers and realize the benefits of both approaches.

  11. Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2016-05-01

    responsible elements were determined by the calculation through the equivalent circuits. A combination of mitigation strategies including adding common-mode (CM ferrite chokes through the Y-caps and the AC bus bar was designed to mitigate the resonances at 6 MHz, 11 MHz, and 26 MHz related to the CM conducted emission by IGBT switching and the radiated emission of the AC cable. The values of Z11 decreased respectively by 15 dB at 6 MHz, 0.4 dB at 11 MHz, and 11.5 dB at 26 MHz and the values of S21 decreased respectively by 8.6 dB at 6 MHz, 7 dB at 11 MHz, and 6.3 dB at 26 MHz. An equivalent model of the power inverter system for real-time simulation in time domain was built to validate the mitigation strategy in simulation software PSPICE.

  12. Regional differences in the factors that influence China’s energy-related carbon emissions, and potential mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-related carbon emissions in China have increased significantly. To mitigate these emissions, it is necessary to estimate the trends (increase or decrease) and the magnitudes of the influences (tons of carbon emitted) as a result of four causal factors that affect emissions: GDP, economic structure, energy intensity, and fuel mix. To do so, we have divided the study period into three intervals (from 1995 to 2009) based on China’s three most-recent 5-year plans. We then divided China’s 30 provinces into four categories based on the individual and net effects of these factors on carbon emissions. On this basis, we discuss potential strategies for reducing China’s carbon emissions. Increasing GDP caused the largest increase in carbon emissions, whereas decreasing energy intensity significantly decreased emissions. Changes in the economic structure increased emissions, with the economic structure becoming more carbon-intensive; efforts to optimize the fuel mix slightly decreased emissions during the first and third periods, but increased emissions during the second period. Our analysis also revealed differences between provinces and regions, allowing local managers to focus on the most important problems for their area. To reduce future energy-related carbon emissions, China’s economic structure, energy intensity, and fuel mix must all be improved. - Highlights: ► We developed a model to decompose carbon emissions into four causal factors. ► We estimated the directions and magnitudes of the influences of four factors. ► China’s 30 provinces were classified based on the effects of these factors. ► We discussed potential strategies for mitigating China’s carbon emissions.

  13. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  14. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-06-15

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 +/- 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 +/- 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  15. The economics of climate change mitigation in developing countries - methodological and empirical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis presents a methodological and empirical discussion of the costs associated with implementing greenhouse gas reduction strategies in developing countries. It presents a methodological framework for national costing studies and evaluates a number of associated valuation methods. The methodological framework has been applied in several developing countries as part of a UNEP project in which the author has participated, and reference is made to the results of these country studies. Some of the theoretical issues associated with the determination of the costs of emission reductions are discussed with reference to a number of World Bank and UN guidelines for project analysis in developing countries. The use of several accounting prices is recommended for mitigation projects, with a distinction being made between internationally and domestically traded goods. The consequences of using different accounting prices are discussed with respect to the methodology applied in the UNEP country studies. In conclusion the thesis reviews the results of some of the most important international studies of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. The review, which encompasses a total of 27 country studies, was undertaken by the author for the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the IPCC. Its conclusion is that the UNEP methodological framework and associated country study results are consistent with the recommendations and conclusions of the IPCC. (EG) 23 refs.

  16. The economics of climate change mitigation in developing countries -methodological and empirical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a methodological and empirical discussion of the costs associated with implementing greenhouse gas reduction strategies in developing countries. It presents a methodological framework for national costing studies and evaluates a number of associated valuation methods. The methodological framework has been applied in several developing countries as part of a UNEP project in which the author has participated, and reference is made to the results of these country studies. Some of the theoretical issues associated with the determination of the costs of emission reductions are discussed with reference to a number of World Bank and UN guidelines for project analysis in developing countries. The use of several accounting prices is recommended for mitigation projects, with a distinction being made between internationally and domestically traded goods. The consequences of using different accounting prices are discussed with respect to the methodology applied in the UNEP country studies. In conclusion the thesis reviews the results of some of the most important international studies of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. The review, which encompasses a total of 27 country studies, was undertaken by the author for the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the IPCC. Its conclusion is that the UNEP methodological framework and associated country study results are consistent with the recommendations and conclusions of the IPCC. (EG) 23 refs

  17. Nuclear Energy's Role in Mitigating Climate Change and Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy experts expect energy demand to rise dramatically in the 21st century, especially in developing countries, where today, over one billion people have no access to modern energy services. Meeting global energy demand will require a 75% expansion in primary energy supply by 2050. If no steps are taken to reduce emissions, the energy-related CO2 emissions would nearly double in the same period. The increased levels of this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere could raise average global temperatures 3oC or more above pre-industrial levels, which may trigger the dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, which the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change seeks to prevent.

  18. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.

  19. Climate change, mitigation and adaptation: the case of the Murray–Darling Basin in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin; David Adamson; Sarah Chambers; Peggy Schrobback

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have substantial effects on irrigated agriculture. It is anticipated that many areas that are already dry will become drier, while areas that already receive high rainfall may experience further increases. Extreme climate events such as droughts are likely to become more common. These patterns are evident in projections of climate change for the Murray–Darling Basin in Australia. To understand the effects of climate change, as modified by mitigation and adaptation,...

  20. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David; Macintosh, Andrew; Mackey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize fully the mitigation

  1. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Keith

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize

  2. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David; Macintosh, Andrew; Mackey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize fully the mitigation

  3. USDA Southwest Regional Hub for Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Havstad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up of six states: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii (plus the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). The SW Climate Hub has a subsidiary hub located in Davis, California. The Southwest region has high climatic diversity, with the lowest and highest average annual rainfall in the U.S.(6.0 cm in Death Valley, CA and 1168 cm at Mt. Waialeale, HI). There are major deserts in five of the six states, yet most of the states, with exception of Hawaii, depend upon the melting of mountain snowpacks for their surface water supply. Additionally, many of the agricultural areas of the SW Regional Hub depend upon irrigation water to maintain productivity. Scientific climate information developed by the Hub will be used for climate-smart decision making. To do this, the SW Regional Hub will rely upon existing infrastructure of the Cooperative Extension Service at Land-Grant State Universities. Extension service and USDA-NRCS personnel have existing networks to communicate with stakeholders (farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners) through meetings and workshops which have already started in the six states. Outreach through the development of a weather and climate impact modules designed for seventh grade students and their teachers will foster education of future generations of rural land managers. We will be synthesizing and evaluating existing reports, literature and information on regional climate projections, water resources, and agricultural adaptation strategies related to climate in the Southwest. The results will be organized in a spatial format and provided through the SW Hub website (http://swclimatehub.info) and peer-reviewed articles.

  4. Update of indicators for climate change mitigation in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Greece, (i.e. the drivers of pressures on climate change), using environmental indicators related to energy, demographics and economic growth. The analysis is based on the data of 2008 and considers types of fuel and sectors. The Kaya identity is used to identify the relationship between drivers and pressures, using annual time series data of National GHG emissions, population, energy consumption and gross domestic product. The analysis shows that over the period 2000-2008, GHG emissions show a slight variation, but they are almost stabilised, with a total increase of 1.6%. Despite the economic growth over that period, this stabilisation may be considered as a combination of reductions in the energy intensity of GDP and the carbon intensity of energy, which are affected by improvements in energy efficiency and introduction of 'cleaner' fuels, such as natural gas and renewables in the energy mixture of the country. - Highlights: → We analyse drivers affecting GHG emissions (pressures on climate) in Greece, using indicators. → Indicators relate to energy, demographics and economic growth. → Kaya identity identifies the relationship between drivers and pressures. → GHG emissions are almost stable due to reductions in energy intensity and carbon intensity of energy. → Improvements in energy efficiency and introduction of clean fuels in energy mix reduce emissions.

  5. Reservoir management and environmental protection: The mitigation of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that human activities which produce greenhouse gases have had a discernible effect upon global mean temperatures over the last 50 years. A number of gases entering the atmosphere as a result of human activities can act as greenhouse gases. The most important is carbon dioxide the atmospheric concentration of which has risen by about 30% compared to pre-industrial concentrations. Energy related emissions arising from the use of fossil fuels account for more than 80% of the CO2 released to the atmosphere each year with these fuels accounting for around 90% of the world's commercial energy production. The provisions of the 1997 Kyoto protocol go some way to promote reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases and are an important first step. However, according to this presentation, current energy production and consumption patterns violate principles of sustainability. As a result the world is committed to warming as a result of emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of these fuels. Pragmatically, one should limit the use of fossil fuels and eventually replace them by renewable energy sources.and efforts to increase the overall energy efficiency. Given this, proposals to sequester and dump/store carbon dioxide are an unsustainable solution in their own right, but also perpetuate unsustainable energy use based on fossil fuels. Probably attempts to limit the impacts of climate change by the capture and disposal of CO2 will result in undesirable and unanticipated impacts. The presentation recommends that resources currently deployed in investigating disposal schemes for CO2 should rather go to the development of renewable energy generation and energy efficiency

  6. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  7. Risk Assessment and Optimisation of Blast Mitigation Strategies for Design and Strengthening of Built Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEWART Mark G

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment procedure is developed which can predict risks of explosive blast damage to built infrastructure,and when combined with life-cycle cost analysis,the procedure can be used to optimise blastmitigation strategies.The paper focuses on window glazing since this is a load-capacity system which,when subjected to blast loading,has caused significant damage and injury to building occupants.Structural reliability techniques are used to derive blast reliability curves for annealed and toughened glazing subjected to explosive blast for a variety of threat scenarios.The probabilistic analyses include the uncertainties associated with blast modelling,glazing response and glazing failure criteria.Damage risks are calculated for an individual window and for windows in the facade of a multi-storey commercial building.The paper shows an illustrative exampie of how this information,when combined with risk-based decision-making criteria,can be used to optimise blast mitigation strategies.

  8. Butterfly effect: understanding and mitigating the local consequences of climate change impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Butterfly Effect is the notion that tiny differences in initial conditions are amplified in the evolution of a dynamic system and directly affect the eventual outcome. In 1963 mathematician and meteorologist Edward Lorenz proposed that the flapping of a butterfly's wing would cause a disturbance that becomes exponentially amplified so as to eventually affect large-scale atmospheric motion. This was to illustrate the 'sensitive dependence on initial conditions'; sensitivity also true in affecting the extent of damages experienced as a result of climate change. In a climate change context, The Butterfly Effect suggests the local consequences of climate change impacts will depend on their interaction with the economic, environmental, institutional, technological and demographic attributes unique to a city or region. It is this mix of factors that will determine the extent, both positively and negatively, to which climate change will be experienced locally. For a truly effective climate change response, it is imperative that regional risk assessments and adaptation strategies take into account not only the projected impacts but the full range of flow-on implications of those impacts and their sensitivity factors. Understanding of the sensitivity factors that will amplify or mitigate climate change impacts and implications enables government and business leaders to calculate the likely extent of localised damages if no adaptation is undertaken. This allows industries and communities to evaluate the likely significance of a particular impact and to consider how to adjust or counter the sensitivity factor to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Thus, it also assists in the local prioritisation of issues and responses. Such a strategic response can also mean the required adaptation measures may be less extensive and thereby require less cost and time to implement. This paper discusses the flow-on implications of Australia's projected climate change

  9. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid material o

  10. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R. M. J.; Moll, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to Chi

  11. The Dragons of Inaction: Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Most people think climate change and sustainability are important problems, but too few global citizens engaged in high-greenhouse-gas-emitting behavior are engaged in enough mitigating behavior to stem the increasing flow of greenhouse gases and other environmental problems. Why is that? Structural barriers such as a climate-averse infrastructure…

  12. The optimal paths of climate change mitigation and adaptation under certainty and uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felgenhauer, T.; Bruin, de K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Tradeoffs between climate change mitigation and adaptation policies are explored under both certainty and uncertainty with learning using a numerical two-period decision model. We first replicate a version of the Adaptation in DICE climate model (AD-DICE) (de Bruin et al., 2009), which modifies the

  13. Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho

    2008-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i

  14. Mitigating climate change: Decomposing the relative roles of energy conservation, technological change, and structural shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals over 2005–2100 for various climate policy scenarios. This study contributes to the decomposition literature in three ways. First, it disaggregates drivers of energy demand into technological progress and demand for energy services, represented in terms of useful energy, allowing us to estimate their contributions independently — an improvement over other economy-wide decomposition studies. Secondly, this approach reduces the ambiguity present in many previous measures of structural change. We delineate structural shifts into two separate measures: changes in fuel mix within a given resource or service pathway; and changes in mix among distinct energy resources or end-use services. Finally, this study applies decomposition methods to energy and emission trajectories from two mutually informing perspectives: (i) primary energy resources — crude oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and renewables; and (ii) end-uses of energy services — residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation. Our results show that technological improvements and energy conservation are important in meeting climate goals in the first half of the coming century; and that nuclear and renewable energy and CCS technology are crucial in meeting more stringent goals in the second half of the century. We examine the relative roles of the drivers in reducing CO2 emissions separately for developed and developing regions. Although the majority of energy and emission growth – and by extension the greatest opportunities for mitigation – will occur in developing countries, the decomposition shows that the relative roles of the five drivers are broadly consistent between these two regions. - Highlights: • We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals • We analyze differences across

  15. Economic analysis of climate change adaptation strategies in selected coastal areas in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, M.L.; Sajise, A.J.U.; Ramirez, P.J.B.; Arias, J.K.B.; A. H. Purnomo; Dipasupil, S.R.; Regoniel, P.A.; Nguyen, K.A.T.; Zamora, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards. Their situation is further compli...

  16. COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE STRATEGIES: COMMUNITY DISASTER KNOWLEDGE, SOCIAL CAPITAL, PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ENHANCE COASTAL COMMUNITY RESILIENCE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    OpenAIRE

    James, S.; M. Joseph Irudayaraj

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the strategies for enhancing resilience of a coastal community to natural disasters by effective disaster preparedness and mitigation measures. It elaborates the importance of capacity building and improved infrastructure performance. Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) is emphasised to understand the diverse vulnerabilities and resilience of the coastal communities. This paper presents a unique approach to integrate the existing capacities, ...

  17. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatate, D.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    This document proposes a strategy to address issues related to leakage from single-shell tanks (SSTs) during sluicing. A set of criteria are proposed to capture the relevant issues pertaining to leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM), and allow DOE-RL, the Contractor, Ecology, and Hanford Stakeholders to reach consensus on allowable leakage volumes (ALVs). Technical studies and findings that support the proposed strategy, and ALV criteria, are summarized and referenced. This document specifically addresses LDMM for SSTs at Hanford, Washington.

  18. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Musa Hasen

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effec...

  19. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  20. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  1. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  2. Accessing international financing for climate change mitigation - A guidebook for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limaye, D.R.; Zhu, X.

    2012-08-15

    This guidebook has been prepared by the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) as part of its Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project. The TNA project assists developing countries to identify national mitigation and adaptation technology priorities and to develop Technology Action Plans (TAPs) for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change adaptation. This guidebook provides information to help TNA countries better identify and access financial resources for the mitigation activities included in their national TAPs. This guidebook covers both mitigation 'projects' (such as a wind farm or a solar PV generation facility) and 'programmes' (such as a credit line for financing energy efficiency projects in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), or bulk procurement and distribution of compact fluorescent lamps to households). The primary emphasis is on multilateral and bilateral sources of financing but the guidebook also includes an overview of private funding sources and public-private partnerships (PPPs). This guidebook only covers international financing for mitigation actions in developing countries. For example, EU funding for EU member countries and Chinese funding for mitigation in China are not covered in this guidebook. However, the EU funding for mitigation in developing countries and Chinese funding supporting mitigation in other developing countries are included. Special funds established in some developing countries by pooling financing support from developed countries are also covered in this guidebook. Information on the financing sources was compiled in a standard format and reviewed and analysed to categorise the financing sources. For the multilateral and bilateral financing sources, the available information was used to define their major characteristics (such as geographic coverage, technology/sector focus, funding sources, financing objectives, financing mechanisms, and management and governance). In addition, the

  3. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    contact with the countries of origin, combining individualisation with interconnectedness. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2......Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s...

  4. Climate change, loss of (bio)diversity, natural ressource depletion, social marginalization etc: Our adaptation and mitigation contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gattinger, A.; Horneburg, B.; Sundberg, C; Medina, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental and social challenges of the planet are a sad reality. Organic Agriculture advocates often espouse its contributions to mitigating the negative effects of farming. But mitigation alone is not enough. Farmers also need to adapt to a changed climate, reduced biodiversity and depleted resources as well as to an ever-changing socio-cultural environment.

  5. US major crops’ uncertain climate change risks and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Ian Sue; Monier, Erwan; Stern, Ari; Mundra, Anupriya

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the costs of climate change to US agriculture, and associated potential benefits of abating greenhouse gas emissions. Five major crops’ yield responses to climatic variation are modeled empirically, and the results combined with climate projections for a no-policy, high-warming future, as well as moderate and stringent mitigation scenarios. Unabated warming reduces yields of wheat and soybeans by 2050, and cotton by 2100, but moderate warming increases yields of all crops except wheat. Yield changes are monetized using the results of economic simulations within an integrated climate-economy modeling framework. Uncontrolled warming’s economic effects on major crops are slightly positive—annual benefits reaching 17 B under moderate mitigation, but only 7 B with stringent mitigation. Costs and benefits are sensitive to irreducible uncertainty about the fertilization effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, without which unabated warming incurs net costs of up to 18 B, generating benefits to moderate (stringent) mitigation as large as 26 B (20 B).

  6. US major crops’ uncertain climate change risks and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the costs of climate change to US agriculture, and associated potential benefits of abating greenhouse gas emissions. Five major crops’ yield responses to climatic variation are modeled empirically, and the results combined with climate projections for a no-policy, high-warming future, as well as moderate and stringent mitigation scenarios. Unabated warming reduces yields of wheat and soybeans by 2050, and cotton by 2100, but moderate warming increases yields of all crops except wheat. Yield changes are monetized using the results of economic simulations within an integrated climate-economy modeling framework. Uncontrolled warming’s economic effects on major crops are slightly positive—annual benefits <$4 B. These are amplified by emission reductions, but subject to diminishing returns—by 2100 reaching $17 B under moderate mitigation, but only $7 B with stringent mitigation. Costs and benefits are sensitive to irreducible uncertainty about the fertilization effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, without which unabated warming incurs net costs of up to $18 B, generating benefits to moderate (stringent) mitigation as large as $26 B ($20 B). (letter)

  7. International technology transfer for climate change mitigation and the cases of Russia and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental agenda for mitigating climate change through international transfers of technology is linked with a diverse literature, reviewed here within a framework that combines technological, agent/agenda, and market/transaction perspectives. Literature that bears on international technology transfer for climate change mitigation is similar in many ways for Russia and China: opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy, economic reform and restructuring, the difficulties enterprises face in responding to market conditions, international assistance policies, international joint ventures, market intermediation, and capacity building for market development. In both countries, capacity building means enhancing market-oriented capabilities in addition to technological capabilities. For Russia, institutional development is critical, such as new commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes beyond privatization. For China, technology policies and modernization programs significantly influence technology transfers. 234 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Discounting versus risk aversion: Their effects on individual demands for climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, T.A. [Univ. of Oregon (United States). Dept. of Economics; Gerdes, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Policies to reduce carbon emissions in an effort to prevent climate change involve large near-term costs and uncertain long-term benefits (i.e. the avoided future adverse consequences of climate change). This uncertainty, along with the very different time profiles of costs and benefits, means that risk aversion and time preferences will be key features of any model that seeks to explain heterogeneity in consumer demand for climate change mitigation programs. Unfortunately, while most reduced-form empirical demand models for climate change mitigation can easily control for individual characteristics such as age, gender, and income, these two key structural determinants -- risk preferences and time preferences -- are typically unobservable. Risk aversion and time preferences are important sources of heterogeneity in preferences for public policies with near-term costs and uncertain future benefits. Using stated preference data, the authors first jointly estimate individual-specific risk aversion and discount rate parameters then use these as individual 'characteristics' in a separate model to explain preferences for climate change mitigation policies. The more risk-averse the individual, and/or the lower their discount rate, the higher is their willingness to pay. The authors also simulate expected demand under counterfactual conditions -- such as risk neutrality, or the lower social discount rates that would be used by a benevolent central planner.

  9. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances C. Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and black carbon (soot also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Black carbon is thought to be the second or third most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming, while troposheric ozone is the fourth most important. Both are also major components of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This paper reviews the existing literature of the health, economic, and climatic impacts of tropospheric ozone and black carbon emissions, together with mitigation options. The local nature of many of the impacts, combined with their short atmospheric lifetime and the existence of cost-effective abatement technologies that are already widely deployed in developed countries means reducing these emissions provides a highly climatically-effective mitigation option that is also appropriate to the development strategy of industrializing countries.

  10. Interference mitigation for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure networks: Transmission strategy and area spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure (HCS) is considered, where an access point (AP) broadcasts to local nodes (LNs) over orthogonal frequency subbands within a local cell located in a macrocell. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered with by the macrocell user (MU)\\'s transmissions over the same subband. To improve the performance of the AP\\'s broadcast service, a novel transmission strategy is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the purpose of performance evaluation, the ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified, and the corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional transmission scheme, which suffers from MU\\'s interference, illustrative numerical results substantiate that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than the traditional scheme as the MU-LN mean channel power gain is larger than half of the AP-LN mean channel power gain. Subsequently, we develop an optimized network design by maximizing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the AP\\'s broadcast in the local cell.

  11. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  12. A new strategy to mitigate the initial capacity loss of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Lin, Chikai; Wang, Xiaoping; Maroni, Victor A.; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher S.; Lu, Wenquan

    2016-08-01

    Hard carbon (non-graphitizable) and related materials, like tin, tin oxide, silicon, and silicon oxide, have a high theoretical lithium delivery capacity (>550 mAh/g depending on their structural and chemical properties) but unfortunately they also exhibit a large initial capacity loss (ICL) that overrides the true reversible capacity in a full cell. Overcoming the large ICL of hard carbon in a full-cell lithium-ion battery (LIB) necessitates a new strategy wherein a sacrificial lithium source additive, such as, Li5FeO4 (LFO), is inserted on the cathode side. Full batteries using hard carbon coupled with LFO-LiCoO2 (LCO) are currently under development at our laboratory. We find that the reversible capacity of a cathode containing LFO can be increased by 14%. Furthermore, the cycle performance of full cells with LFO additive is improved from 95%. We show that the LFO additive not only can address the irreversible capacity loss of the anode, but can also provide the additional lithium ion source required to mitigate the lithium loss caused by side reactions. In addition, we have explored the possibility to achieve higher capacity with hard carbon, whereby the energy density of full cells can be increased from ca. 300 Wh/kg to >400 Wh/kg.

  13. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  14. Mitigation strategies for Campylobacter spp. in broiler at pre-harvest and harvest level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter; Jansen, Wiebke; Kittler, Sophie; Reich, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other foodborne zoonotic agents an elimination of Campylobacter spp. from animal production, especially poultry production, seems not to be feasible. Therefore mitigation strategies focus on reduction of the Campylobacter spp. concentration in primary production and further minimalisation during processing. In primary production biosecurity measures (incl. hygiene barriers and restricted access) are the methods applied most commonly and most effectively so far. Experimental approaches and few field trials also showed that bacteriophages, electrolyzed oxidizing water, organic acids or medium chain fatty acids (applied via drinking water) are also effective in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration However this reduction cannot be transferred in all cases to the situation in the slaughterhouse. Therefore additional measures have to be taken in account in the slaughterhouse to prevent cross-contamination. Logistic or scheduled slaughter can prevent cross-contamination but cannot further reduce Campylobacter concentration. Process parameters like elevated scalding temperature can contribute to such a reduction, but may also alter the product quality. Therefore no single pre- or harvest measure is sufficient for the reduction of Campylobacter concentration, but a combination of measures in both production levels is needed. PMID:25876273

  15. Risk-mitigation strategies for large earth flows in Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    This presentation proposes an overview on ancient earth flows of the Northern Apennines and their reactivation mechanisms, with a view to gleaning information that can subsequently be utilized to implement risk-reduction strategies for land-use planning and mitigation measures. These large landslide bodies are the result of multi-phase events occurred during the last 13.000 years, but, in spite of the ancient origin, they are still dangerous, due to the repetitiveness of the reactivation events. Damages deriving from the recurrent reactivation of these ancient landslides exceeds the 90% of the total. The hazard assessment of these landslides, which are of slope scale, constitutes a thorny problem, especially in view of the inapplicability of traditional deterministic models such as limit equilibrium stability analysis. The usual set of factors that form the basis of deterministic methods is insufficient to make reliable predictions about the future behaviour of these landslides and their related hazard. Nevertheless, a site-specific assessment of probability of reactivation is fundamental to effective land-use planning. The observation of real, recent events (e.g. Boschi di Valoria, Corniglio and Cà Lita) has proved to be an useful mean for understanding which are the conditions and behaviours that usually lead to the reactivation of an ancient earth flow. More in general, the analysis of the evolution of earth flows during actual reactivation acknowledges a typical, recurring succession of events that precede the failure of the slope. In order to perform an effective risk-reduction strategy, a site-specific, interdisciplinary and partially heuristic approach should be implemented, pooling together many elements of evaluation. Most importantly, using detailed field observation and all other available means, the hazard estimate must consider possible indicators of present and recent movement, or situations that could lead to future reactivation, with special

  16. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F.; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depen

  17. Strategies for Implementing Change: An Experiential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    An attitude survey and a role-playing case were used to identify the typical approaches people use to implement important changes in organizations. This typical strategy, suggested or used by over 90% of the subjects, was not successful in producing change in any of the fourteen role-playing trials. However, with ten minutes of instruction in the ”Delta Technique,” 86% of the subjects were successful in introducing change in another fourteen role-playing trials. The ”Delta Technique” consists...

  18. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-11-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  19. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Sik, E-mail: sshwang@kaeri.re.kr

    2013-11-15

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  20. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described

  1. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    While lasting mitigation solutions are needed to avoid climate change in the long term, temporary solutions may play a positive role in terms of avoiding certain climatic target levels, for preventing the crossing of critical and perhaps irreversible climatic tipping points. While the potential v...... the long-term climate change impacts given by the global warming potential which does not account for temporary aspects like benefits from non-permanent storage in terms of avoiding a critical climatic target level.......While lasting mitigation solutions are needed to avoid climate change in the long term, temporary solutions may play a positive role in terms of avoiding certain climatic target levels, for preventing the crossing of critical and perhaps irreversible climatic tipping points. While the potential...... value of temporary carbon storage in terms of climate change mitigation has been widely discussed, this has not yet been directly coupled to avoiding climatic target levels representing predicted climatic tipping points. This paper provides recommendations on how to model temporary carbon storage in...

  2. Etude Climat no. 40 'The contribution of European forest to climate change mitigation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: In a framework where no common forestry policy exists at the EU level (such as the Common Agriculture Policy for agriculture), this report lists EU policies that have an impact on climate change mitigation that can be achieved by the forestry sector. With the objective of analyzing the coherence of these policies, we have established a typology and a hierarchy firstly by laying out the legal status and the financial and institutional resources associated with each policy, and secondly by reviewing the objectives of each policy in regards to climate change mitigation in the forestry sector. We finally analyze potentials synergies and conflicts between them

  3. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs, in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4, black carbon aerosols (BC, tropospheric ozone (O3 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  4. The mitigation of the climate change: discourse and actions in APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guadalupe Figueroa González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a shared problem that requires concerted action to meet the challenge on the best terms. The social, economic and political issue, pressed implications for designing mechanisms for cooperation on mitigation and adaptation. In Asia Pacific the largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs that contribute to climate change are located; therefore becomes important convergence of national policies leading to a regional protocol on sustainable development. The Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC has added to its agenda commitment to sustainable development and addressing climate change from different approaches: energy, agriculture, transport, and from different areas: the city and the region.

  5. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid material obtained from the carbonization of biomass. The deliberate production and application to soil distinguishes biochar from other carbonized products, e.g. charcoal. Inspired by the aged charcoal found...

  6. Renewable and low-carbon energies as mitigation options of climate change for China

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how renewable and low-carbon energies can serve as mitigation options of climate change in China's power sector. Our study is based on scenarios developed in PowerPlan, a bottom-up model simulating a countries' power sector and its emissions. We first adjusted the model to China's present-day economy and power sector. We then developed different scenarios based on story lines for possible future developments in China. We simulated China's carbon-based electricity produc...

  7. Reforestation and climate change mitigation: A background study for Joint Implementation in China and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lin; Næss, Lars Otto; Kasa, Sjur; O'Brien, Karen

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of institutional barriers in promoting reforestation as a means of mitigating global climate change. It is argued that cost-effective implementation of reforestation depends on proper institutional settings in host countries. The study is motivated by the growing interest for reforestation projects in developing countries through the Joint Implementation (JI) mechanism. Particular emphasis is given to the role of property rights. The relationship between va...

  8. Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the national implementation strategy which is a part of the coordinated national response to climate change. The approach was developed from the National Climate Change process, established by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for energy and the environment, based on an examination of the impacts, costs and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. The Strategy involves (1) taking action to reduce risks and to improve our understanding of risks associated with climate change, (2) institution of a national framework that includes individual and joint action, while recognizing jurisdictional flexibility in responding to unique circumstances, (3) adopting a phased approach, (4) progressive action in response to changing domestic and international circumstances, (5) clear understanding of the necessary relationship between international and national strategies, (6) developing an understanding of the implications of emission reduction targets and major options, including cross-cutting policy approaches such as emissions trading and allocation of responsibility for reducing emissions. The Strategy uses a risk-management approach that attempts to limit the risks of climate change while maximizing opportunities for Canada to contribute to global and national solutions. This approach incorporates improving scientific and analytical understanding and co-ordinating national and international action and a phased approach to implementation. This policy document focuses on Phase One actions which consist of five connected themes, i. e. enhancing awareness and understanding, promoting technology development and innovation, governments leading by example, investing in knowledge and building the foundation, and encouraging action. Future phases will be linked to greater international certainty based on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of our trading partners

  9. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology: Evidence from a new Danish bioenergy concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-01-15

    The interest in sustainable bioenergy solutions has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce GHG emissions and to meet environmental policy targets, not least for the protection of groundwater and surface water quality. In the Municipality of Solrød in Denmark, a novel bioenergy concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under construction, was designed to handle an annual input of up to 200,000 t of biomass based on four main fractions: pectin wastes, carrageenan wastes, manure and beach-cast seaweed. This paper describes how this bioenergy concept can contribute to strengthening the linkages between climate change mitigation strategies and Water Framework Directive (WFD) action planning. Our assessments of the projected biogas plant indicate an annual reduction of GHG emissions of approx. 40,000 t CO2 equivalents, corresponding to approx. 1/3 of current total GHG emissions in the Municipality of Solrød. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63 t yr.(-1) and 9 tyr.(-1), respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions. PMID:26476058

  10. Towards a Proactive Risk Mitigation Strategy at La Fossa Volcano, Vulcano Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biass, S.; Gregg, C. E.; Frischknecht, C.; Falcone, J. L.; Lestuzzi, P.; di Traglia, F.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive risk assessment framework was built to develop proactive risk reduction measures for Vulcano Island, Italy. This framework includes identification of eruption scenarios; probabilistic hazard assessment, quantification of hazard impacts on the built environment, accessibility assessment on the island and risk perception study. Vulcano, a 21 km2 island with two primary communities host to 900 permanent residents and up to 10,000 visitors during summer, shows a strong dependency on the mainland for basic needs (water, energy) and relies on a ~2 month tourism season for its economy. The recent stratigraphy reveals a dominance of vulcanian and subplinian eruptions, producing a range of hazards acting at different time scales. We developed new methods to probabilistically quantify the hazard related to ballistics, lahars and tephra for all eruption styles. We also elaborated field- and GIS- based methods to assess the physical vulnerability of the built environment and created dynamic models of accessibility. Results outline the difference of hazard between short and long-lasting eruptions. A subplinian eruption has a 50% probability of impacting ~30% of the buildings within days after the eruption, but the year-long damage resulting from a long-lasting vulcanian eruption is similar if tephra is not removed from rooftops. Similarly, a subplinian eruption results in a volume of 7x105 m3 of material potentially remobilized into lahars soon after the eruption. Similar volumes are expected for a vulcanian activity over years, increasing the hazard of small lahars. Preferential lahar paths affect critical infrastructures lacking redundancy, such as the road network, communications systems, the island's only gas station, and access to the island's two evacuation ports. Such results from hazard, physical and systemic vulnerability help establish proactive volcanic risk mitigation strategies and may be applicable in other island settings.

  11. Why do some people do "more" to mitigate climate change than others? Exploring heterogeneity in psycho-social associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized--and differentiated from common mitigation behavior--as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change--but not in motivational or socio-demographic links--with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

  12. Shading and watering as a tool to mitigate the impacts of climate change in sea turtle nests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob E Hill

    Full Text Available Increasing sand temperatures resulting from climate change may negatively impact sea turtle nests by altering sex ratios and decreasing reproductive output. We analyzed the effect of nest shading and watering on sand temperatures as climate mitigation strategies in a beach hatchery at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. We set up plots and placed thermocouples at depths of 45 cm and 75 cm. Half of the plots were shaded and half were exposed to the sun. Within these exposure treatments, we applied three watering treatments over one month, replicating local climatic conditions experienced in this area. We also examined gravimetric water content of sand by collecting sand samples the day before watering began, the day after watering was complete, and one month after completion. Shading had the largest impact on sand temperature, followed by watering and depth. All watering treatments lowered sand temperature, but the effect varied with depth. Temperatures in plots that received water returned to control levels within 10 days after watering stopped. Water content increased at both depths in the two highest water treatments, and 30 days after the end of water application remained higher than plots with low water. While the impacts of watering on sand temperature dissipate rapidly after the end of application, the impacts on water content are much more lasting. Although less effective at lowering sand temperatures than shading, watering may benefit sea turtle clutches by offsetting negative impacts of low levels of rain in particularly dry areas. Prior to implementing such strategies, the natural conditions at the location of interest (e.g. clutch depth, environmental conditions, and beach characteristics and natural hatchling sex ratios should be taken into consideration. These results provide insight into the effectiveness of nest shading and watering as climate mitigation techniques and illustrate important points of consideration in the crafting of such

  13. Guidelines for WB3 Part III: Stakeholder workshop 2: Selection and decision on prevention and mitigation strategies to be implemented

    OpenAIRE

    Schwilch, Gudrun; Bachmann, Felicitas; Liniger, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    These guidelines were developed in the context of working block 3 of the DESIRE project. They address the facilitators in the 18 DESIRE study sites and support them in conducting stakeholder workshops aiming at the selection and decision on mitigation strategies to be implemented in the study site context. The decision-making process is supported by a multi-objective decision support system (MODSS) Software called 'Facilitator'.

  14. Guidelines for WB3 Part I: Desertification and land degradation: Identification of existing and potential prevention and mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Felicitas; Schwilch, Gudrun; Gabathuler, Ernst; Liniger, Hanspeter

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are a working instrument for conducting and moderating stakeholder workshops with a participatory approach to initiate a mutual learning process among local and external stakeholders. The overall aim of the workshop is to identify promising (existing and potential) strategies for land and water conservation for the selected study site. DESIRE (Desertification Mitigation and Remediation of Land) is a European Integrated Project. The DESIRE WB 3 methodology was developed by ...

  15. Intensity ramp-up: 2011 experience - Limitations, mitigation, risks, strategy, pushing it in 2012, 1380 in 3 weeks?

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, M; Wenninger, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper will discuss the experience with ramping up the beam intensities in the early days of the 2011 run and after the subsequent technical stops. Weak points and limitations are being identified and their possible mitigations evaluated. In view of the risks and drawbacks of a too aggressive approach, possible improvements of the applied strategy whilst maintaining the required validation points for the various equipment and machine protection systems (MPS) are being discussed.

  16. Willingness-to-Pay for Red Tide Prevention, Mitigation, and Control Strategies: A Case Study of Florida Coastal Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Kristen M.; Larkin, Sherry L.; Adams, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABS) are natural events with ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Different nations and regions have adapted to HABS in a variety of ways including distinct strategies designed to prevent, control and or mitigate the negative effects of HAB events. In Florida, Karenia brevis is the algae species that has accounted for nearly all of blooms. This algae species is unique in that the toxins produced during the bloom are a neurotoxin that can kill fish and marine ...

  17. NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE THE EFFECTS OF NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE ON REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF EARLY POSTPARTUM DOES

    OpenAIRE

    Ondieki Gekara; Renita Marshall

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to research nutritional strategies to mitigate the effects of Negative Energy Balance (NEB) on reproductive performance of early postpartum does. Twenty seven does in their second week of lactation and their kids were randomly assigned to three levels of supplement diet, replicated three times. The diets were: (1) Low Energy/Protein supplement level (LEP; Control), (2) Medium Energy/Protein supplement level (MEP), or (3) High Energy/Protein supplement level (HE...

  18. Soil biochar amendment as a climate change mitigation tool: Key parameters and mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Patrick; Godbout, Stéphane; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2016-10-01

    Biochar, a solid porous material obtained from the carbonization of biomass under low or no oxygen conditions, has been proposed as a climate change mitigation tool because it is expected to sequester carbon (C) for centuries and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. This review aimed to identify key biochar properties and production parameters that have an effect on these specific applications of the biochar. Moreover, mechanisms involved in interactions between biochar and soils were highlighted. Following a compilation and comparison of the characteristics of 76 biochars from 40 research studies, biochars with a lower N content, and consequently a higher C/N ratio (>30), were found to be more suitable for mitigation of N2O emissions from soils. Moreover, biochars produced at a higher pyrolysis temperature, and with O/C ratio <0.2, H/Corg ratio <0.4 and volatile matter below 80% may have high C sequestration potential. Based on these observations, biochar production and application to the field can be used as a tool to mitigate climate change. However, it is important to determine the pyrolysis conditions and feedstock needed to produce a biochar with the desired properties for a specific application. More research studies are needed to identify the exact mechanisms involved following biochar amendment to soil. PMID:27420171

  19. Co-creation of climate change mitigation policies: the superiority of a community-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    research project and spread over the continuum from local government initiated to citizen initiated, and from projects aimed at changing individual behaviour to projects involving bigger communities (housing association, villages, etc.), it will be argued that both from a governance perspective (CO2......The focus of this paper is on the places where citizens and public authorities meet – possible involving other stakeholders as well – to discuss, formulate and implement climate change mitigation policies at the local level. Through looking at a number of concrete cases stemming from the CIDEA...

  20. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Inoue, K; Fujiwara, T; Yamane, S; Yasutake, D; Maeda, M; Nagare, H; Akao, S; Ohtoshi, K

    2013-01-01

    An in situ technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution using catch crops was developed for simultaneously preventing nitrate groundwater pollution, reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) gas emissions, and removing salts from the topsoil. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop were investigated using lysimeters in a full-scale greenhouse experiment with 50 d cultivation of dent corn. Catch crop cultivation significantly reduced the leached mineral nitrogen by 89-91% in summer, 87-89% in spring, and 61-82% in winter, and it also significantly reduced the N2O emission by 68-84% in summer. The amounts of nitrogen uptake by the catch crop were remarkably higher than those of leached nitrogen and N2O emission in each season. Catch crop cultivation is a promising technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:23985506

  1. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael;

    2016-01-01

    food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total...... concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under...... environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions....

  2. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  3. Understanding Perceptions of Climate Change, Priorities, and Decision-Making among Municipalities in Lima, Peru to Better Inform Adaptation and Mitigation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siña, Mariella; Wood, Rachel C; Saldarriaga, Enrique; Lawler, Joshua; Zunt, Joseph; Garcia, Patricia; Cárcamo, César

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status. PMID:26808087

  4. Understanding Perceptions of Climate Change, Priorities, and Decision-Making among Municipalities in Lima, Peru to Better Inform Adaptation and Mitigation Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Siña

    Full Text Available Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status.

  5. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food: Workshop Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Paul; Brorby, Gregory P; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-05-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds. PMID:27102178

  6. EU energy and climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will summarise the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. In current international negotiations Europe has proposed a 20% reduction in GHG (greenhouse gases) in the developed countries by 2020 or 30% should there be an international agreement in the domain. However it is important to define measures to achieve the targets. One of the principal tools is to improve energy efficiency under the energy efficiency action plan, which will help to achieve a 20% energy saving by 2020. On the other hand, the amount of energy from renewable sources consumed in Europe will have to rise from its current level of 8.5%–20% by 2020. These are ambitious but achievable targets. Nonetheless, these can only be achieved through strong investment in areas of the knowledge triangle which strengthens research and innovation in the energy sector in Europe. The paper covers European Energy and Climate Change Policy, the European Strategic Energy Technology plan, the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, European and national Road maps to a low carbon economy, the Energy Efficiency Plan for 2011 and finishes with a brief consideration of the EU’s energy infrastructure priorities. -- Highlights: ► This paper summarises the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. ► Reduction of GHG emissions by 30%-international agreement or −20% without agreement. ► Use of 20% of renewable energies by 2020. ► Increase of energy efficiency of 20% by 2020. ► Consolidating of the internal energy market.

  7. The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the availability of low-carbon technologies on the regional distribution of mitigation costs are analyzed in a global multi-regional integrated assessment model. Three effects on regional consumption losses are distinguished: domestic measures, trade of fossil energy carriers and trade of emission permits. Key results are: (i) GDP losses and a redirection of investments in the energy system towards capital-intensive technologies are major contributions to regional consumption losses. (ii) A devaluation of tradable fossil energy endowments contributes largely to the mitigation costs of fossil fuel exporters. (iii) In case of reduced availability of low-carbon technologies, the permit market volume and associated monetary redistributions increase. The results suggest that the availability of a broad portfolio of low-carbon technologies could facilitate negotiations on the permit allocation scheme in a global cap-and-trade system. - Highlights: → We analyze the distribution of climate change mitigation costs among world regions. → We quantify contributions from various effects on regional costs. → The interference of world trade and low-carbon technologies is essential. → A broad portfolio of technologies helps international negotiations.

  8. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  9. Containment response to a severe accident (TMLB sequence) with and without mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loss of SG feed-water (TMLB sequence) for a prototypic PWR 900 MWe with a multi-compartment configuration (with 11 and 16 cells nodalization) has been calculated by the author using the ASTEC code in the frame of the EVITA project (5th Framework Programme, FWP). A variety of hypothesis (e.g. activation of sprays and hydrogen recombiners) and possible consequences of these assumptions (cavity flooding, hydrogen combustion, etc.) have been made in order to evaluate the global reactor containment building response (pressure, aerosol/FP concentration, etc.). The need to dispose of severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs) is increasing. These guidelines are meant for nuclear plants' operators in order to allow them to apply mitigation strategies all along a severe accident, which, only in its initial phase, may last several days. The purpose of this paper is to outline the influence on the containment load of most common accident occurrences and operators actions, which is essential in establishing SAMGs. ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code) is a computer code for the evaluation of the consequences of a postulated nuclear plant severe accident sequence. ASTEC is a computer tool currently under joint development by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), France, and Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Germany. The aim of the development is to create a fast running integral code package, reliable in all simulations of a severe accident, to be used for level-2 PSA analysis. It must be said that several recent developments have significantly improved the best-estimate models of ASTEC and a new version (ASTEC V1.0) has been released mid-2002. Nevertheless, the somehow obsolete ASTECv0.3 version here used, has given results very useful for the estimation of the global risk of a nuclear plant. Moreover, under the current 6th FWP (Sustainable Integration of EU Research on Severe Accident Phenomenology and Management), the

  10. Perspectives on global climate change: A review of the adaptation and mitigation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was prepared for the conference on Global Climate Change and International Security sponsored by the Midwest Consortium for International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and held in Chicago, Illinois on February 11-13, 1992. The purpose of the paper is to provide some background on the different perceptions and perspectives that are presently shaping the policy debate on how to respond to the problem of global warming. For better or worse, this debate has focused primarily on whether to adapt to climate change in the future or to mitigate climate change in the present, and as the issue has become increasingly political this debate has become polarized. The two approaches, as this paper notes, are not mutually exclusive; in fact, they share much in common. Differences, however, can be found in how proponents of each view the risks of global climate change. This paper provides a brief outline of the progression of global warming from an obscure scientific concern into a leading international political issue, reviews previous efforts by social scientists to assess attitudes and positions on global warming, and examines in detail the adaptation and mitigation perspectives and assesses how they differ on the basis of different conceptions of uncertainty and risk, equity, and technology

  11. Assessment of Emerging Regional Air Quality (AQ) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Impacts and Potential Mitigation Strategies in U.S. Energy Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnon, Michael Mac

    The current domestic reliance on high-emitting fossil fuels for energy needs is the key driver of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions driving both climate change and regional air quality (AQ) concerns. Moving forward, emission sources in U.S. energy sectors will be subjected to changes driven by numerous phenomena, including technology evolution, environmental impacts, sustainability goals, and socioeconomic factors. This evolution will directly affect emissions source-related impacts on regional AQ that effective emissions control strategies must account for, including relative source contributions. Though previous studies have evaluated the emissions and AQ impacts of different sectors, technologies and fuels, most previous studies have assessed emissions impacts only without using advanced atmospheric models to accurately account for both spatial and temporal emissions perturbations and atmospheric chemistry and transport. In addition, few previous studies have considered the integration of multiple technologies and fuels in different U.S. regions.. Finally, most studies do not project emissions several decades into the future to assess what sources should be targeted with priority over time. These aspects are critical for understanding how both emissions sources and potential mitigation strategies impact the formation and fate of primary and secondary pollutants, including ground-level ozone and particulate matter concentrations. Therefore, this work utilizes a set of modeling tools to project and then to spatially and temporally resolve emissions as input into a 3-D Eulerian AQ model to assess how sources of emissions contribute to future atmospheric pollutant burdens. Further, analyses of the potential impacts of alternative energy strategies contained in potential mitigation strategies are conducted for priority targets to develop an understanding of how to maximize AQ benefits and avoid unforeseen deleterious tradeoffs between GHG reduction

  12. HIV/AIDS mitigation strategies and the State in sub-Saharan Africa – the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa is widely recognised as a development disaster threatening poverty reduction, economic growth and not merely a health issue. Its mitigation includes the societal-wide adoption and implementation of specific health technologies, many of which depend on functional institutions and State. Discussion Donor and International Institutions' strategies to mitigate HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are premised on a single optimal model of the State, one which focuses on the decentralised delivery of public goods alone (such as healthcare – the service delivery state. The empirical evidence, though sparse, of "successful" and "unsuccessful" sub-Saharan Africa states' performance in mitigating HIV/AIDS does not support this model. Rather, the evidence suggests an alternative model that takes a country context specific approach – encompassing political power, institutional structures and the level of health technology needed. This model draws on the historical experience of East Asian countries' rapid development. Summary For international public health policies to be effective, they must consider a country tailored approach, one that advocates a coordinated strategy designed and led by the State with involvement of wider society specific to each country's particular history, culture, and level of development.

  13. Climate Change And Mitigation Measures For The Hydrometerological Disaster In Himachal Pradesh India- In Light Of Dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K. Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Continuing climate change is predicted to lead to major changes in the climate of the Himalayan region. Casualties and damage due to hazards in mountain regions will increase irrespective of global warming especially where populations are growing and infrastructure is developed at exposed locations. But climate change will definitely increase risk due to the fact that expected increases of heavy rainfall heat waves and glacier melt will amplify hazards in Himalayan region. The rapid release of melt water and rainfall may combine to trigger debris flows and flash flood in higher ranges including the formation of potentially dangerous lakes. These lakes may breach suddenly resulting in discharge of huge volume of water and debris. Himachal Pradesh had experienced a large number of incidences of Hydro-meteorological disaster HMD since its inception in 1971. Flash flood of March 1975 Dec 1988 Satluj flash flood of August 2000 July 2001 June 2005 Flash flood of July 2005 and Cloud burst in June 2013 are the major natural calamities in Himachal Pradesh. Due to continuous HMD brought heavy toll to the state as the loss was estimated in several thousand millions of rupees and also killed several hundreds of people besides large number of cattle heads. Through this paper we carried out a comprehensive study of past HMD and mitigation measures solution and concluded that these disaster are by their nature difficult to predict and control but it is possible to reduce the risk to lives and property through develop mitigation strategy and plan to construct damsbarrages with awareness and knowledge among local communities about the impacts of global warming natural disaster and the threat to the ecosystem communities and infrastructure are generally inadequate.

  14. Considering only first-order effects? : How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Arvesen, Anders; Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and ‘clean’ energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions betwee...

  15. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation:the case of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008 and 2009 with a change – not only in the wording and in the political visions – but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milest...

  16. Climate Change Mitigation in a Sustainable World - Findings of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4th Assessment Report on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) has recently been completed. The fi rst report in the IPCC 4th Assessment series by Working Group I outlined the latest knowledge on Climate Science. The second by Working Group 2 covered the possibilities for Adaptation of ecosystems, glaciers preceding, sea level rising, droughts etc in various regions. This paper is based on the findings of Working Group III as presented in the recently published report Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. The 27 paragraph Summary for Policy Makers was approved sentence by sentence over 4 days in May 2007 by 120 government delegations in Bangkok, Thailand. The three short Summaries for Policy Makers (SPM), Synthesis report, and the three full reports can be found at www.ipcc.ch. In addition the short Synthesis Report across all three working groups is soon to be released. The report on Mitigation attempted to compile the latest scientific knowledge relating to low-carbon emitting technologies; assessed their costs and potentials for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission avoidance; evaluated their long term prospects out to 2100 for stabilising atmospheric GHGs; provided a detailed list of policy options; and discussed the opportunities for sustainable development and equity linked with GHG abatement. Over the 3 year writing and review process, the author of this paper was the co-ordinating lead author of the writing team for the Working Group III chapter on Energy Supply. Of the 13 chapters, this one received the greatest attention with over 5000 review comments that were each responded to, and with the sections on nuclear and renewable energy receiving a major share of them. Since the 3rd Assessment Report (TAR) was published in 2001, the over-arching message now being delivered by Working Group III is a stronger but positive one: Action is required. The situation is urgent - but not beyond repair. Many energy

  17. Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, T.C.; Hewitt, C.D. [Met Office, Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Royer, J.F.; Salas y. Melia, D. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques-Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (CNRM-GAME Meteo-France CNRS), Toulouse (France); Hoeschel, I.; Koerper, J. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute for Meteorology, Berlin (Germany); Huebener, H. [Hessian Agency for the Environment and Geology, Wiesbaden (Germany); Roeckner, E.; Giorgetta, M.A. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Manzini, E. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); May, W.; Yang, S. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Danish Climate Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dufresne, J.L. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD/IPSL), UMR 8539 CNRS, ENS, UPMC, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Otteraa, O.H. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Uni. Bjerknes Centre, Bergen (Norway); Vuuren, D.P. van [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Denvil, S. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), FR 636 CNRS, UVSQ, UPMC, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Fogli, P.G. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Tjiputra, J.F. [University of Bergen, Department of Geophysics, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Stehfest, E. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    We present results from multiple comprehensive models used to simulate an aggressive mitigation scenario based on detailed results of an Integrated Assessment Model. The experiment employs ten global climate and Earth System models (GCMs and ESMs) and pioneers elements of the long-term experimental design for the forthcoming 5th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentrations pathways rather than carbon emissions are specified in all models, including five ESMs that contain interactive carbon cycles. Specified forcings also include minor greenhouse gas concentration pathways, ozone concentration, aerosols (via concentrations or precursor emissions) and land use change (in five models). The new aggressive mitigation scenario (E1), constructed using an integrated assessment model (IMAGE 2.4) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2 K, is studied alongside the medium-high non-mitigation scenario SRES A1B. Resulting twenty-first century global mean warming and precipitation changes for A1B are broadly consistent with previous studies. In E1 twenty-first century global warming remains below 2 K in most models, but global mean precipitation changes are higher than in A1B up to 2065 and consistently higher per degree of warming. The spread in global temperature and precipitation responses is partly attributable to inter-model variations in aerosol loading and representations of aerosol-related radiative forcing effects. Our study illustrates that the benefits of mitigation will not be realised in temperature terms until several decades after emissions reductions begin, and may vary considerably between regions. A subset of the models containing integrated carbon cycles agree that land and ocean sinks remove roughly half of present day anthropogenic carbon emissions from the atmosphere, and that anthropogenic carbon emissions must decrease by at least 50% by 2050 relative

  18. Contractual strategies for risk mitigation : developing wind power projects in emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation outlined the risks associated with wind projects in emerging markets. The risks are similar to those of any wind project and include risks associated with construction, regulations, markets, technology, operations, payment, politics, and wind resource. This presentation described the underlying conditions for each of those risks and presented a structure for wind projects that would mitigate these risks. In emerging markets, regulatory risks may be more difficult to quantify and there is likely to be an increase in payment risk, political risk and legal risk. The role of Concessions or Implementation Agreements in mitigating the risk was discussed

  19. Comparison of different UHI mitigation strategies: the street- versus roof-level implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Georgescu, M.; Norford, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    Many mitigation approaches have been proposed to ameliorate the deleterious aspects of urbalization on climate, with special focus on the notorious urban heat island (UHI) effect. Of these approaches, high reflectance roof (cool roof) and pavement (cool pavement) and green roof or greenery are most commonly used and widely studied. However, the debate regarding the better implementation of cool and green technology is still ongoing. In this study, numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to evaluate the mitigation effect of the cool and green implementations at the city scale. The effects of roof-level and street-level implementations are compared in the context of a tropical urban environment.

  20. Urban ecosystem modeling and global change: Potential for rational urban management and emissions mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanization is a strong and extensive driver that causes environmental pollution and climate change from local to global scale. Modeling cities as ecosystems has been initiated by a wide range of scientists as a key to addressing challenging problems concomitant with urbanization. In this paper, ‘urban ecosystem modeling (UEM)’ is defined in an inter-disciplinary context to acquire a broad perception of urban ecological properties and their interactions with global change. Furthermore, state-of-the-art models of urban ecosystems are reviewed, categorized as top-down models (including materials/energy-oriented models and structure-oriented models), bottom-up models (including land use-oriented models and infrastructure-oriented models), or hybrid models thereof. Based on the review of UEM studies, a future framework for explicit UEM is proposed based the integration of UEM approaches of different scales, guiding more rational urban management and efficient emissions mitigation. - Highlights: • Urban ecosystems modeling (UEM) is defined in an interdisciplinary context. • State-of-the-art models for UEM are critically reviewed and compared. • An integrated framework for explicit UEM is proposed under global change. - State-of-the-art models of urban ecosystem modeling (UEM) are reviewed for rational urban management and emissions mitigation

  1. Limited potential of no-till agriculture for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlson, David S.; Stirling, Clare M.; Jat, M. L.; Gerard, Bruno G.; Palm, Cheryl A.; Sanchez, Pedro A.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2014-08-01

    The Emissions Gap Report 2013 from the United Nations Environment Programme restates the claim that changing to no-till practices in agriculture, as an alternative to conventional tillage, causes an accumulation of organic carbon in soil, thus mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. But these claims ignore a large body of experimental evidence showing that the quantity of additional organic carbon in soil under no-till is relatively small: in large part apparent increases result from an altered depth distribution. The larger concentration near the surface in no-till is generally beneficial for soil properties that often, though not always, translate into improved crop growth. In many regions where no-till is practised it is common for soil to be cultivated conventionally every few years for a range of agronomic reasons, so any soil carbon benefit is then lost. We argue that no-till is beneficial for soil quality and adaptation of agriculture to climate change, but its role in mitigation is widely overstated.

  2. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-01

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required. PMID:17868819

  3. Climate change mitigation in the Forest Sector: what Happened in Poznan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change mitigation in the forestry sector was an important topic during the recent Climate Convention conference in Poznan (1- 12 December 2008). Forests appeared in various agenda items of the formal negotiations: - under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) concerning policy approaches and positives incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries ('REDD+'), - under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) concerning methodological aspects on the above, - under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) concerning the treatment of greenhouse gas emissions and removals related to land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in Annex I Parties in the context of post-2012 commitments. This note recalls what happened under these agenda items and also on the margins of formal negotiations in relation to climate change mitigation in the forest sector. (author)

  4. Evaluation of mitigation strategies in Facility Group 1 double-shell flammable-gas tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is stored in underground waste storage tanks at the site. The tanks fall into two main categories: single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). There are a total of 149 SSTs and 28 DSTs. The wastes stored in the tanks are chemically complex. They basically involve various sodium salts (mainly nitrite, nitrate, carbonates, aluminates, and hydroxides), organic compounds, heavy metals, and various radionuclides, including cesium, strontium, plutonium, and uranium. The waste is known to generate flammable gas (FG) [hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons] by complex chemical reactions. The process of gas generation, retention, and release is transient. Some tanks reach a quasi-steady stage where gas generation is balanced by the release rate. Other tanks show continuous cycles of retention followed by episodic release. There currently are 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL). The objective of this report is to evaluate possible mitigation strategies to eliminate the FG hazard. The evaluation is an engineering study of mitigation concepts for FG generation, retention, and release behavior in Tanks SY-101, AN-103, AN 104, An-105, and Aw-101. Where possible, limited quantification of the effects of mitigation strategies on the FG hazard also is considered. The results obtained from quantification efforts discussed in this report should be considered as best-estimate values. Results and conclusions of this work are intended to help in establishing methodologies in the contractor's controls selection analysis to develop necessary safety controls for closing the FG unreviewed safety question. The general performance requirements of any mitigation scheme are discussed first

  5. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cotton & Climate change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt. Climate change will have major impacts on cotton production and trade depending on production location. This report to be presented analyses the impacts of climate change on cotton production and trade in the main producing areas world-wide, and the options available to mitigate and to adapt to these impacts. Cotton production is both a contributor to climate change and subject to its impacts. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 40% of the world's emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Cotton has a certain resilience to high temperatures and drought due to its vertical tap root. The crop is, however, sensitive to water availability, particularly at the height of flowering and boll formation. Rising temperatures favour plant development, unless day temperatures exceed 32°C. New production areas may be established where cotton was not grown before. Increases in atmospheric CO2 will also favour plant development. In turn, increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges. Overall, the negative impacts of climate change on cotton production relate to the reduced availability of water for irrigation, in particular in Xinjiang (China), Pakistan, Australia and the western United States. Heat stress risks creating depressed yields in Pakistan in particular, while in other countries limited increases in temperatures could favour cotton plant growth and lengthen the cotton growing season. The impacts of climate change on rainfall will likely be positive in the Yellow River area (China), in India, the south-eastern United States and south-eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Impacts on rainfall in Brazil and West and Central Africa are unclear. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change in cotton production, as in agriculture

  6. Ecotourism and Climates changes: the ecolodge contribution in global warming mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global attention to the global warming reduction has invite numerous strategy implemented with the objectives is mitigating greenhouse gasses emission which threats to the future of living in biosphere. Essentially, absorbing CO2 from atmosphere and sequestering in terrestrial ecosystem is one of the significant strategy. While in developing countries it is become essential, support for forest conservation, afforestation and effort to increase terrestrial ability to capture and storage carbon is poor. Ecotourism offer potential key to solved such problems by promoting ecolodge as a sustainable tourism accomodations. This paper aims to explore the potential of ecotourism sector to alleviate global warming and establishing framework for ecolodge planning and development in tropical developing countries. This paper highlight the significant of ecolodge attraction and development management to meet proper carbon capture and sequestration mechanism. The attraction management and developing programs ultimately able to increase plants biomass while accommodation able to practicing energy efficient and optimizing reuse and recycle approach. It will become the potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and create clean development strategy.

  7. Two strategies for the development of mitochondrion-targeted small molecule radiation damage mitigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Beck, Barbara; Wang, Wei; Doemling, Alexander; Epperly, Michael W.; Shields, Donna; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Frantz, Marie-Céline; Wipf, Peter; Tyurina, Yulia; Kagan, Valerian E.; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere M

  8. Flood risk and mitigation strategies in the southeastern suburbs of Fez City (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akdim, Brahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of flooding in the south-eastern suburbs of Fez (Morocco was engendered by multiple factors (topographic, hydro-climatic, land use, social, technical. This study focuses on the Aouinate El Hajjaj district and shows that the district’s evolution, characterized by informal transactions (speculation, land squatting, construction without respect of norms and regulations was a major factor in the genesis of flood risk as the district extended into vulnerable sectors. Public efforts to resolve the district’s crisis and reinforce its environmental safety began in 1993 (2 dams and channels were constructed, street were paved and basic facilities were provided, such as drinking water, sanitation and electricity, but the risk factors persist. Technical solutions are locally recognized to be useful, but they are not sufficient. Other mitigating actions including the reduction of physical and socioeconomic vulnerability and the strengthening of the social structure of the community should be considered in a systemic point of view. They constitute elements of an alternative strategy in urban planning and development and must be framed by laws and regulations. Their use could be undertaken at individual, community and State levels depending on the specific dimension of each measure. A vision which integrates local and regional scales is essential in risk studies, in order to design a more sustainable action. The role of non-governmental organisations is important in flood mitigation and urban environmental policy. The incorporation of flood prevention as a parameter of urban planning should be considered by planners and the local population.En los suburbios del sudeste de Fez (Marruecos el riesgo de inundaciones responde a fenómenos de diversa naturaleza física y humana (topográficos, hidrológicos, climáticos, utilización del suelo, factores sociales y técnicos. En este trabajo se analiza la situación del distrito de Aouinate El Hajjaj

  9. Effective Strategies for Talking about Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about climate science presents some unique challenges. Unlike many other science topics, mitigation and adaptation to climate change will require students to take action. This article outlines five major challenges to communicating about climate change in the classroom, drawing on research in environmental psychology: scepticism,…

  10. Climate Change Mitigation Challenge for Wood Utilization-The Case of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Saikku, Laura; Valsta, Lauri; Pingoud, Kim

    2016-05-17

    The urgent need to mitigate climate change invokes both opportunities and challenges for forest biomass utilization. Fossil fuels can be substituted by using wood products in place of alternative materials and energy, but wood harvesting reduces forest carbon sink and processing of wood products requires material and energy inputs. We assessed the extended life cycle carbon emissions considering substitution impacts for various wood utilization scenarios over 100 years from 2010 onward for Finland. The scenarios were based on various but constant wood utilization structures reflecting current and anticipated mix of wood utilization activities. We applied stochastic simulation to deal with the uncertainty in a number of input variables required. According to our analysis, the wood utilization decrease net carbon emissions with a probability lower than 40% for each of the studied scenarios. Furthermore, large emission reductions were exceptionally unlikely. The uncertainty of the results were influenced clearly the most by the reduction in the forest carbon sink. There is a significant trade-off between avoiding emissions through fossil fuel substitution and reduction in forest carbon sink due to wood harvesting. This creates a major challenge for forest management practices and wood utilization activities in responding to ambitious climate change mitigation targets. PMID:27074531

  11. Tooling up urban planning for climate change mitigation in Malaysian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The city's 2-dimensional spatial structure and 3-dimensional form significantly influence its energy and GHG emission intensity. In rapidly developing urban-regions, the ability of the local planning authorities to quantify the spatial structure and form of existing urban areas, new developments and the emergent urban-region in terms of GHG emission is vital to any effective local, national and global climate change mitigation effort. While a wide array of tools has been developed for assessing built environment sustainability at various spatial scales, these are predominantly eco-efficiency rating tools that do not model the 'spatial structure-GHG' relationship and do not illustrate the GHG implications of urban structure and form, which crucially inform local planning decisions with respect to climate change mitigation. This paper takes the first steps in analysing three spatial-based planning models (Envision Tomorrow, GHGProof, URBEMIS) that estimate GHG emissions towards assessing their adaptability for application in Malaysian cities. It looks into the models' inner working, unpacking the variables and their relationships; assumptions and conversion rates used; and their data requirement and structure. The models' characteristics and features are critically compared to evaluate their capabilities, limitations and relevance to the Malaysian urban planning context, particularly in terms of data availability

  12. ¨ A Dilemma of Abundance: Governance Challenges of Reconciling Shale Gas Development and Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karena Shaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas proponents argue this unconventional fossil fuel offers a “bridge” towards a cleaner energy system by offsetting higher-carbon fuels such as coal. The technical feasibility of reconciling shale gas development with climate action remains contested. However, we here argue that governance challenges are both more pressing and more profound. Reconciling shale gas and climate action requires institutions capable of responding effectively to uncertainty; intervening to mandate emissions reductions and internalize costs to industry; and managing the energy system strategically towards a lower carbon future. Such policy measures prove challenging, particularly in jurisdictions that stand to benefit economically from unconventional fuels. We illustrate this dilemma through a case study of shale gas development in British Columbia, Canada, a global leader on climate policy that is nonetheless struggling to manage gas development for mitigation. The BC case is indicative of the constraints jurisdictions face both to reconcile gas development and climate action, and to manage the industry adequately to achieve social licence and minimize resistance. More broadly, the case attests to the magnitude of change required to transform our energy systems to mitigate climate change.

  13. The Gujarat Earthquake: Mitigations Failures and Lessons learnt for Future Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuri, A. K.; Mittal, J.; Kumar, K.

    for speedy rescue and relief operations needs to be in place with improved information system for post disaster recovery. This paper draws upon the shortfalls faced in the management of Gujarat earthquake; a lesson learnt and presents a comprehensive strategy for Systems networking including the role of space programs in disaster management. The proposed structure is a top down approach for cooperation, emerging from bottom level demand. The missing key elements in the post-disaster situation were - effective information system, high resolution remote sensing data (for effective town planning), operational GIS, with support network from some or all of the governmental agencies. An integrated global communication network for wider dissemination of forecasts, warning and monitoring on a global level and sharing of related knowledge and information can play a vital role in disaster reduction. Needless to say, the local, regional and national disaster communication networks must be fully integrated in the global grid. The proposed structure for disaster management has a National Disaster Mitigation Establishment (NDME) as the apex body under the auspices of the central government, which would be networked across nations to similar other NDMEs. Each NDME would handle the coordination and monitoring of its state units which may be called as State Disaster Management Establishments (SDME). The SDMEs with various district or sub-district level units would collate data. The Network would be supported with field staff at its offices and would liaison with respective higher level DMEs where the lowest unit may be a village / town or cluster of villages. This paper emphasizes the need for comprehensive information system with Spatial Decision Support System (DSS) at three different levels for total disaster management.

  14. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    precipitation, as well as magmatic activity and eruptions. (3) Risk of collapse begins with initial magmatic activity and increases as intrusion proceeds. An archetypal debris flow from volcanic terrain occurred in Colombia with a tectonic earthquake (M 6.4) in 1994. The Rio Piez conveyed a catastrophic wave of debris flow over 100 kilometers, coalesced from multiple slides of surflcial material weakened both by weathering and by hydrothermal alteration in a large strato- volcano. Similar seismogenic flows occurred in Mexico in 1920 (M -6.5), Chile in 1960 (M 9.2), and Ecuador in 1987 (M 6.1 and 6.9). Velocities of wave fronts in two examples were 60 to 90 km/hr (17-25 meters per second) over the initial 30 kilometers. Volcano flank and sector collapses may produce untransformed debris avalanches, as occurred initially at Mount St. Helens in 1980. However, at least as common is direct transformation of the failed mass to a debris flow. At two other volcanoes in the Cascade Range-- Mount Rainier and Mount Baker--rapid transformation and high mobility were typical of most of at least 15 Holocene flows. This danger exists downstream from many stratovolcanoes worldwide; the population at risk is near 150,000 and increasing at Mount Rainier. The first step in preventing future catastrophes is documenting past flows. Deposits of some debris flows, however, can be mistaken for those of less-mobile debris avalanches on the basis of mounds formed by buoyed megaclasts. Megaclasts may record only the proximal phase of a debris flow that began as a debris avalanche. Runout may have extended much farther, and thus furore flow mobility may be underestimated. Processes and behaviors of megaclast-bearing paleoflows are best inferred from the intermegaclast matrix. Mitigation strategy can respond to volcanic flows regardless of type and trigger by: (1) Avoidance: Limit settlement in flow pathways to numbers that can be evacuated after event warnings (flow is occurring). (2) Instrumental even

  15. Soil physical conditions as livestock treading effect in tropical Agroecosystem of dryland and strategies to mitigate desertification risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, A.; Torres, D.; Ospina, A.; Contreras, J.; Palma, Z.; Silvera, J.

    2012-04-01

    higher quality level than bare soils. Some predictive regression equation had a high R2 value and was a useful tool for to evaluate the risk of extreme climatic changes and to mitigate their detrimental effects. We conclude that the global climatic change (CCG) will have a negative effect on these agroecosystems functions, mainly in soil and water conservation, carbon sequestration, and productivity. Natural recovery of soil physical properties from treading damage of pastoral soils will be possible in the future with the implementation of soil management strategies, mainly through re-vegetation and recuperation of the BSC. Key word: Soil structure; aggregate stability; soil sealing index; hydraulic conductivity of surface sealing.

  16. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Scoccimarro, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric ''target'' concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Burney, J. A; S. J. Davis; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here w...

  18. Mitigation of climate change: back to IPCC's fifth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides an overview of current knowledge on climate change mitigation, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group III fifth assessment report. The report emphasizes how little room for manoeuvre there is to meet the target of a global mean surface temperature increase below 2 deg. C, if ambitious policies to reduce greenhouse gases are not implemented by 2020. It also assesses sectoral potentials for emissions reductions and addresses emerging questions, in particular regarding the financing of decarbonization pathways. The report finally highlights the need for integrated policies to take advantage of co-benefits of climate policies (health, energy security, etc.), the evaluation of which is becoming more systematic. (authors)

  19. The third hans cloos lecture. Urban landslides: Socioeconomic impacts and overview of mitigative strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, R.L.; Highland, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of population pressures, hillsides in the world's urban areas are being developed at an accelerating rate. This development increases the risk for urban landslides triggered by rainfall or earthquake activity. To counter this risk, four approaches have been employed by landslide managers and urban planners: (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas; (2) implementing and enforcing excavation, grading, and construction codes; (3) protecting existing developments by physical mitigation measures and (4) developing and installing monitoring and warning systems. Where they have been utilized, these approaches generally have been effective in reducing the risk due to landslide hazards. In addition to these practices, landslide insurance holds promise as a mitigative measure by reducing the financial impact of landslides on individual property owners. Until recently, however, such insurance has not been widely available and, where it is available, it is so expensive that it has been little used. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  20. Constructed Wetlands as a Mitigation Strategy to Reduce Pesticide Loads in Agricultural Tailwater

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides have been found in numerous waterways throughout the United States. Monitoring studies within the San Diego Creek watershed in Orange County, California, confirmed that runoff from agricultural fields are a primary contributor to pesticide loads within these waterways. As a mitigation option for non-point pesticide pollution, constructed wetlands were investigated in this study to reduce pesticide loading in agricultural tailwaters. Multiple wetlan...

  1. Promoting sustainability as a strategy to mitigate the effects of economic downturn on the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ashour, Ahmed; Bragança, L.; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de

    2015-01-01

    During the recent years followed by the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), most of business and industries around the globe have been hardly hit to the limit that it still struggling to survive, suffering from the crisis financial consequences. For instance, in the construction industry; many construction projects have been suspended or totally cancelled. Nevertheless, among this dilemma, a call has been raised to use the sustainable practices to mitigate the effects of the GFC on construction in...

  2. Strategies and Metrics for Mitigating Impacts of Energy Development on Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Haufler, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Energy developments impact wildlife and biodiversity through their direct footprints including associated roads, powerlines, and other structures and through additional impacts to wildlife caused by behavioral avoidance of animals to structures or activities. Off-site mitigation offers a means of compensating for impacts, but will only be effective if benefits can be quantified and shown to be equivalent to the impacts. EMRI has been evaluating various programs and metrics for assessing off-s...

  3. Possible (water sensitive) mitigation strategies for the urban climate in a regional climate modelling context

    OpenAIRE

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Urban climate models provide a useful tool for assessing the impacts of urban land surface modification on urban climates. It provides a mechanism for trialling different scenarios for urban heat island mitigation. Only recently, urban land surfaces have been included in global and regional climate models. Often they represent a trade-off between the complexity of the biophysical processes of the urban canopy layer and the computational demands in order to be workable on regional climate time...

  4. Strategies for Discovery of Small Molecule Radiation Protectors and Radiation Mitigators

    OpenAIRE

    JoelSGreenberger; ValerianKagan; HulyaBayir; JohnSLazo; PeterWipf; SongLi

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial targeted radiation damage protectors (delivered prior to irradiation) and mitigators (delivered after irradiation, but before the appearance of symptoms associated with radiation syndrome) have been a recent focus in drug discovery for 1) normal tissue radiation protection during fractionated radiotherapy, and 2) radiation terrorism counter measures. Several categories of such molecules have been discovered: nitroxide-linked hybrid molecules, including GS-nitroxide, GS-nitric ...

  5. Employee Communicative Actions and Companies' Communication Strategies to Mitigate the Negative Effects of Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Can communication with employees lessen the negative effects of a crisis? In the pre-crisis stage, employee communication can strengthen internal commitment, while in the crisis stage it can reinforce the commitment by means of accommodative crisis communication strategies. Employee...... communication strategies during the 2009 global economic crisis, based on a model on possible strategies that range from most accommodative to defensive. The main empirical results show that companies have mostly used defensive internal communication strategies that may damage their intangible assets, namely...... strategies....

  6. COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

  7. Comparison of Radio-frequency Interference Mitigation Strategies for Dispersed Pulse Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Michalak, Sarah; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a "Fly's Eye" mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

  8. Towards mitigation of greenhouse gases by small changes in farming practices: understanding local barriers in Spain (Article in press)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Berta; Álvaro Fuentes, Jorge; Ann Cunningham, Ruth; Iglesias Picazo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Small changes in agricultural practices have a large potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the implementation of such practices at the local level is often limited by a range of barriers. Understanding the barriers is essential for defining effective measures, the actual mitigation potential of the measures, and the policy needs to ensure implementation. Here we evaluate behavioural, cultural, and policy barriers for implementation of mitigation practices at the local leve...

  9. MRICES:一个新的减排方案评价模型及其应用%MRICES: A new model for emission mitigation strategy assessment and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; WU Jing; ZHU Qianting; WANG Lijuan; GONG Yi; LI Huaqun

    2012-01-01

    @@%Many global emission reduction strategies have been proposed,but few have been assessed quantitatively from the view of equality,efficiency and effectiveness.Integrated assessment models (IAM) is one of the effective ways to make climate policy modeling.So in this paper we developed the MRICES (Multi-regional integrated model of climate and economy with GDP spillovers) model,which is an IAM but extends to include GDP spillover mechanism,to make assessment on several strategies for global emission reduction,including the egalitarianism strategy,the UNDP strategy and the Copenhagen Accord.Using 1990 as a baseline for historical emission levels,the egalitarian strategy argues that developed countries should implement urgent emission reductions,whereas developing countries are allowed relatively higher future emission quotas.The UNDP strategy addresses the issue of substantial changes in global temperature but acknowledges that developing countries are not able to afford more costs for mitigation measures,which is inequitable from the perspective of a country's right to develop.We also simulated the Copenhagen Accord to determine the consequences by the year 2100 if each country continues their current emission mitigation actions,and results indicated that the increase in global temperature will be 2.8℃ by 2100; consequently,much stronger emission reduction efforts must be implemented after 2020.Based on analysis on mitigation strategies,it is recognized that the common but differentiated responsibility principle must be insisted when making global mitigation strategy.To comply with this principle,the emission reduction baseline of developed and developing countries should be discriminated,so 1990 and 2005 can be taken as the base year for developed and developing countries respectively.

  10. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture is extremely important to Sinaloa contributing 32.31% of the value of all national agricultural production, while the state occupies only 2.9% of the Mexico's area. However it has caused an imbalance in nature due to the low efficiency of irrigation being 49% and using 93% of the surface waters of the region, hence the importance of promoting water awareness. The Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa (PLECASIN) 2013- 2015 is a product of the workshop held with water advisers representing 14 utilities, and sponsored by CEAPAS and CONAGUA to address water resources issues in the state, low dam levels and the high level of non-payment, through involving society in the management of water resources. The workshop established strategies to achieve the objective of the National Water Awareness Program (PCA): "Contribute to strengthening the participation of users, organized society and citizens in water management and promote the culture of its good use, through consultation and promotion of cultural and educational activities in coordination with the states, to promote the importance of water resources in social welfare, economic development and the preservation of the ecological wealth, to achieve development sustainable of the nation". PLECASIN was developed using the methodology of strategic planning, beginning with a diagnosis of PCA and the development of strategies pertinent to the current environment in Sinaloa. Activities in the workshop included: defining the vision, mission and objectives, stakeholder analysis, SWOT Matrix, and finally the development of the Logical Framework Analysis Matrix. In addition, the workshop applied the PEEAES tools, using primarily the book of the 5 Waters and application of innovative technologies. The Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa designed and implemented an Environmental Education Strategy (PEEAES) to foster an environmental awareness through non-formal educational process and includes: a mobile environmental

  11. Climate change mitigation in developing countries through interregional collaboration by local governments: Japanese citizens' preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the motivation of domestic and international interregional collaboration on climate change mitigation through carbon crediting by Japanese local governments, using a social survey. The study finds balanced collaboration with domestic partner regions and developing countries is preferred in the case of collaboration, given that the unit cost of collaboration is assumed lower than that of no collaboration. Appreciation of benefits such as technology transfer and local environmental improvement in developing countries increases the preference of collaboration with developing countries. Two factors hinder Japanese local governments' collaboration with developing countries from the perspective of citizens: a sense of environmental responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the city and a preference for domestic orientation even if the collaboration with developing countries is less costly and has benefits of technology transfer and local environmental improvement. The preference for a lower total cost of GHG emissions reductions is confirmed except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. The study also finds that provision of information on mitigation projects and co-benefits would increase the preference for interregional collaboration with developing countries depending on the types of collaborative project, except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. - Highlights: → We surveyed views of Japanese citizens on interregional/international cooperation of their cities for GHG reduction. → Sense of environmental responsibility is negatively correlated with the needs for cooperation. → Information on co-benefits of collaboration would strengthen preference for cooperation.

  12. The Kyoto Protocol and climate change mitigation : implications for Canada's forest industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a policy framework and mechanisms by which countries can mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It imposes legally binding targets and provides for the use of economic instruments to help achieve its long-term objectives which will take decades to achieve. This paper discussed the effect that the Kyoto Protocol will have on the Canadian forest sector which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The production of forest products is energy intensive and the forest sector can contribute to climate change mitigation through reductions in GHG emissions and increases in carbon sequestration. Participation by the forest sector will require long-term adjustment in how energy is used and how forest carbon is managed. This paper discussed the implications of the Canadian Domestic Emissions Trading (DET) system, a carbon trading system designed to control GHG emissions through the creation and sale of credits in an international marketplace. The impact that DET may have on the competitiveness of companies in the Canadian forest products sector was discussed. 41 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  14. Understanding and improving mitigation strategies for reducing catchment scale nutrient loads using high resolution observations and uncertainty analysis approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A.; Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Stirling, M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges in catchment water quality management is tackling the problem of reducing water pollution from agriculture whilst ensuring food security nationally. Improvements to catchment management plans are needed if we are to enhance biodiversity and maintain good ecological status in freshwater ecosystems, while producing enough food to support a growing global population. In order to plan for a more sustainable and secure future, research needs to quantify the uncertainties and understand the complexities in the source-mobilisation-delivery-impact continuum of pollution and nutrients at all scales. In the UK the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to improve water quality specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture by enhanced high resolution monitoring and targeted mitigation experiments. The DTC project aims to detect shifts in the baseline trend of the most ecologically-significant pollutants resulting from targeted on-farm measures at field to farm scales and assessing their effects on ecosystem function. The DTC programme involves three catchments across the UK that are indicative of three different typologies and land uses. This paper will focus on the Hampshire Avon DTC, where a total of 12 parameters are monitored by bank-side stations at two sampling sites, including flow, turbidity, phosphate and nitrate concentrations at 30 min resolution. This monitoring is supported by daily resolution sampling at 5 other sites and storm sampling at all locations. Part of the DTC project aims to understand how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Baseline monitoring is currently underway and early results show that high-resolution data is essential at this sub-catchment scale to understand important process dynamics. This is critical if we are to design

  15. Benefits of collaborative and comparative research on land use change and climate mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; Gong, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The world's two largest economies are also the latest greenhouse gas emitters. The United States is committed to reduce the net greenhouse gas emission by 28% below the 2005 level by 2025. Similarly China also announced significant climate mitigation steps at the Paris climate convention. These policy plans will require actions including reduction of GHG emissions as well as protection of carbon stored in biologic pools and increase of carbon sequestration by the natural ecosystems. Major drivers of ecosystem carbon sequestration and protection of existing carbon resources include land use, disturbances, and climate change. Recent studies indicate that vegetated ecosystems in the United States remain as a carbon sink but the sink is weakening due to increased disturbances (such as wildfire and harvesting) and aging of forests. Unique land use policies in China such as large-scale afforestation in the recent decades have reportedly led to significant increase in total forest area and aboveground biomass, although it is not clear to what degree the increase has translated to strengthened net uptake of atmospheric CO2 and the rate of sequestration by vegetated ecosystems. What lessons can we draw from different land management and land use practices in the U.S. and China that can benefit scientific advances and climate mitigation goals? Research conducted collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey and China Ministry of Science and Technology has led to improved techniques for tracking and modeling land use change and ecosystem disturbances and improved understanding of consequences of different land use change and management practices on ecosystem carbon sequestration capacities.

  16. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  17. Developing a Future Dam Operation Alternative to Mitigate Impact of Climate Change on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    There have been few studies on water quality projection considering climate change. South Korea is not an exception. The simple way to mitigate the future water quality change is to alter dam operations in upstream. In this study, a small watershed in South Korea with two multi-purpose dams is considered. A common chained-modeling procedure for the climate change assessment study is applied to the watershed, i.e. water quality projections are made with GCMs and the LARS-WG downscaling method, and the SWAT hydrologic model. The projections uncertainty is quantified by using multiple scenarios of GCMs. With these future water quality projections, this study first examines how vulnerable to the potential climate change the watershed is and then develop a possible dam operation alternative to improve the future water quality. Finally this study also proposes other water management alternatives that can improve the potential water quality change in addition to the dam operation alternative. Keywords: adaptation, dam operation alternative, HEC-5, LARS-WG, SWAT, water quality, uncertainty.

  18. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  19. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Raju, K.V. [Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Economics and Natural Resources; Rao, K.S. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Muencheberg (Germany). Inst. of Socioeconomics; Schaldach, Ruediger (ed.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Centre for Environmental System Research

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  20. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    ) within the program SWAT-CUP (SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Programs). Model performance is assessed against a variety of statistical measures including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) and percentage bias (PBIAS). Various mitigation scenarios are modelled within the catchment, including changes in fertiliser application rates and timing and the introduction of different tillage techniques and cover-crop regimes. The effects of the applied measures on water quality are examined and recommendations made on which measures have the greatest potential to be applied within the catchment to improve water quality. This study reports the findings of that analysis and presents techniques by which diffuse agricultural pollution can be reduced within catchments through the implementation of multiple on-farm measures. The methodology presented has the potential to be applied within other catchments, allowing tailored mitigation strategies to be developed. Ultimately, this research provides 'tested' mitigation options that can be applied within the Wensum and similar catchments to improve water quality and to ensure that certain obligatory water quality standards are achieved.

  1. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-07-18

    The objective of this document is to propose a strategy for addressing applicable LDMM-related criteria in order to determine an allowable leakage volume for SSTs targeted for waste retrieval using sluicing. A strategy is required to work through the individual ALV criterion (and related issues) in a prioritized,orderly, and efficient manner. All components of the strategy are based upon LDMM-related issues, functions and requirements,and technology alternatives.

  2. Does retrenchment strategy mitigate earnings management? Evidence from Public Listed Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ung, Lik-Jing; Brahmana, Rayenda; Puah, Chin-Hong

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, many firms in developing market have embarked retrenchment strategy in order to defend firm going concern from economy turbulence. Yet, this strategy is rarely investigated compared to another strategy like diversification. This is not to mention limited research investigating whether companies might manipulate their earnings through the retrenchment costs across ownership expropriation. As Malaysia offers unique background earnings management, corporate strate...

  3. Physical Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fluid and Classical Mechanics to Support Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flood Risk Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Volcan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of flood events that occurred in autumn 2011 in the Italian regions of Liguria and Tuscany revived the engagement of the public decision-maker to enhance the synergy of flood control and land use planning. In this context, the design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation critically relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the fixed and mobile elements exposed to flood hazard. In this paper we develop computation schemes enabling dynamic vulnerability and risk analyses for a broad typological variety of elements at risk. To show their applicability, a series of prime examples are discussed in detail, e.g. a bridge deck impacted by the flood and a car, first displaced and subsequently exposed to collision with fixed objects. We hold the view that it is essential that the derivation of the computational schemes to assess the vulnerability of endangered objects should be based on classical and fluid mechanics. In such a way, we aim to complement from a methodological perspective the existing, mainly empirical, vulnerability and risk assessment approaches and to support the design of effective flood risk mitigation strategies by defusing the main criticalities within the systems prone to flood risk.

  4. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: → We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. → Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. → Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  5. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  6. The impact of potential mitigation strategies on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease in white-tailed deer in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Linda D; Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Norby, Bo; Wagner, G Gale

    2010-05-01

    The United States has been free of FMD since the 1920s. Faced with an incursion of FMD virus that might involve wildlife species, it is crucial that appropriate mitigation strategies be applied rapidly to control the disease. Disease spread models can be used to evaluate the design of optimal strategies. Using a previously developed susceptible-infected-recovered geographic automata model (Sirca) to simulate the spread of FMD through white-tailed deer populations in south Texas, we conducted a series of experiments to determine how pre-emptive mitigation strategies applied to white-tailed deer populations might impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of outbreaks following FMD virus incursion. Based on previously derived deer distributions in the two ecoregions found within the study area, simulated outbreaks were evaluated by comparing the median number of deer predicted to be infected and the median area predicted affected for a baseline scenario and 3 mitigation strategies: targeted cull, random cull and targeted depopulation buffer. Substantial differences were observed in the predicted magnitude of outbreaks both by mitigation strategy and by ecoregion: depending on the ecoregion, the creation of a targeted depopulation buffer could reduce the number of deer predicted infected by up to 52%, and the area affected by up to 31%. Results suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion that involves wildlife species, such as white-tailed deer in south Texas, might depend on both where the incursion occurs and the type of pre-emptive mitigation strategy applied. PMID:20181400

  7. Choosing change strategy for ISO/IEC 33014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Johansen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    The ISO/IEC 33014.2013 [1] standard on process improvement includes a core activity called ‘identify the overall change strategy’, which includes selecting a change strategy among the many available. This selection can be carried out using the ImprovAbility model [2] in which there is a framework...... of how to select change strategy. The framework contains 10 different change strategies to choose from. But which ones are chosen in practice? To answer that, we have analyzed data from 134 assessments in 129 organizations that have used the framework. We give a ranking of strategies chosen, and we...... analyze how they adapt the change strategy to their specific conditions. We conclude that the most often recommended organizational change strategy is optionality followed by three other strategies: specialist-driven, production-organized, and learning-driven....

  8. Strategies for operator response in mitigating loss of containment heat removal accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In anticipation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission generic letter regarding accident management, the Boiling Water Reactor Owners' Group (BWROG) has commissioned the development of Accident Management Guidelines (AMGs). One outgrowth of the industry performance of individual plant examinations (IPES) is the development of more effective accident management guidance to prevent or mitigate the effects of severe accidents. The BWROG is determining a process for integrating these insights into a coherent format that can be implemented by BWR owners as part of accident management

  9. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  10. Asia's role in mitigating climate change: A technology and sector specific analysis with ReMIND-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the ReMIND-R model to analyze the role of Asia in the context of a global effort to mitigate climate change. We introduce a novel method of secondary energy based mitigation shares, which allows us to quantify the economic mitigation potential of technologies in different regions and final energy carriers. The 2005 share of Asia in global CO2 emissions amounts to 38%, and is projected to grow to 53% under business-as-usual until the end of the century. Asia also holds a large fraction of the global mitigation potential. A broad portfolio of technologies is deployed in the climate policy scenarios. We find that biomass in combination with CCS, other renewables, and end-use efficiency each make up a large fraction of the global mitigation potential, followed by nuclear and fossil CCS. We find considerable differences in decarbonization patterns across the final energy types electricity, heat and transport fuels. Regional differences in technology use are a function of differences in resource endowments, and structural differences in energy end use. Under climate policy, a substantial mitigation potential of non-biomass renewables emerges for China and other developing countries of Asia (OAS). Asia also accounts for the dominant share of the global mitigation potential of nuclear energy. In view of the substantial near term investments into new energy infrastructure in China and India, early adoption of climate policy prevents lock-in into carbon intensive infrastructure and thus leads to a much higher long-term mitigation potential. - Highlights: ► We develop a novel methodology for the attribution of emission reductions to technologies. ► Asia accounts for a substantial and increasing share of global CO2 emissions. ► A broad portfolio of technologies contributes to emission reductions. ► Early action increases the long term mitigation potential of China and India.

  11. China–Europe Relations in the Mitigation of Climate Change: A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Berger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large-scale investments of both China and the EU in climate-change mitigation and renewable-energy promotion, the prevailing view on China–EU relations is one of conflict rather than cooperation. In order to evaluate the prospects of cooperation between China and the EU in these policy fields, empirical research has to go beyond simplistic narratives. This paper suggests a conceptual apparatus that will help researchers better understand the complexities of the real world. The relevant actors operate at different levels and in the public and private sectors. The main message of the paper is that combining the multi-level governance and value-chain approaches helps clarify the multiple relationships between these actors.

  12. Climate Change mitigation opportunities in the Energy sector for the Caribbean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doral, Wenceslao Carrera; Chinchilla, Oscar Coto; Delgado, Ivan Relova;

    The “Climate change mitigation opportunities in the energy sector for the Caribbean region” has been prepared as part of the implementation of the Caribbean Regional Subcomponent of the MEAs Program for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP MEAs)1. The study has being executed with the...... climate finance opportunities), by looking in closer depth at two potential PoAs in the region. As well as many other SIDS 4, the Caribbean Countries are “heavily dependent on imported petroleum products, largely for transport and electricity generation. This is likely to continue in the short to medium...... term, however the efficiency of such use can be greatly increased through appropriate technology and national energy policies which promote more economic and environmentally beneficial energy use. Several constraints to the large-scale commercial use of renewable energy resources remain, including...

  13. Carbon sequestration in soils - has the potential for climate change mitigation been over-stated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlson, David

    2013-04-01

    The term "carbon sequestration" is commonly used to describe any increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) content caused by a change in land management, with the implication that increased soil carbon (C) storage mitigates climate change. But this only true if the management practice causes additional net transfer of C from atmosphere to land. Limitations of C sequestration for climate change mitigation include: (1) the quantity of C stored in soil is finite; (2) the process is reversible; (3) even if SOC is increased there may be changes in the fluxes of other greenhouse gases especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Removing land from annual cropping and converting to forest, grassland or perennial crops will remove C from atmospheric CO2 and genuinely contribute to climate change mitigation. However, indirect effects such as conversion of land elsewhere under native vegetation to agriculture could negate the benefit due to increased CO2 emission. Re-vegetating degraded land, of limited value for food production, avoids this problem. Adding organic materials such as crop residues or animal manure to soil, whilst increasing SOC, generally does not constitute an additional transfer of C from atmosphere to land - it depends on the alternative fate of the residue. Increases in SOC from reduced tillage now appear to be much smaller than previously claimed, at least in temperate regions, and in some situations increased nitrous oxide emission may outweigh any increase in stored C. The climate change benefit of increased SOC from enhanced crop growth (e.g. from the use of fertilizers) must be balanced against greenhouse gas emissions associated with manufacture and use of fertilizer. For soils under long-term grassland there is less scope for increasing soil C stock than in arable soils because these already have a higher SOC content. A key issue with grasslands is to ensure good management practices that maintain the high SOC content. Any form of soil degradation, such as

  14. Exploring Opportunities for Promoting Synergies between Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Forest Carbon Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene L. Chia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It examines eight guidelines that are widely used in designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives. Four guiding principles with a number of criteria that are relevant for planning synergy outcomes in forest carbon activities are proposed. The guidelines for developing forest carbon initiatives need to demonstrate that (1 the health of forest ecosystems is maintained or enhanced; (2 the adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities is ensured; (3 carbon and adaptation benefits are monitored and verified; and (4 adaptation outcomes are anticipated and planned in forest carbon initiatives. The forest carbon project development guidelines can encourage the integration of adaptation in forest carbon initiatives. However, their current efforts guiding projects and programs to deliver biodiversity and environmental benefits, ecosystem services, and socioeconomic benefits are not considered explicitly as efforts towards enhancing adaptation. An approach for incentivizing and motivating project developers, guideline setters, and offset buyers is imperative in order to enable existing guidelines to make clear contributions to adaptation goals. We highlight and discuss potential ways of incentivizing and motivating the explicit planning and promotion of adaptation outcomes in forest carbon initiatives.

  15. Strategies for Discovery of Small Molecule Radiation Protectors and Radiation Mitigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S Greenberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial targeted radiation damage protectors (delivered prior to irradiation and mitigators (delivered after irradiation, but before the appearance of symptoms associated with radiation syndrome have been a recent focus in drug discovery for 1 normal tissue radiation protection during fractionated radiotherapy, and 2 radiation terrorism counter measures. Several categories of such molecules have been discovered: nitroxide-linked hybrid molecules, including GS-nitroxide, GS-nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, p53/mdm2/mdm4 inhibitors, and pharmaceutical agents including inhibitors of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway and the anti-seizure medicine, carbamazepine. Evaluation of potential new irradiation dose modifying molecules to protect normal tissue includes: clonagenic radiation survival curves; assays for apoptosis and DNA repair, and irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant stores. Studies of organ specific radioprotection and in total body irradiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome in the mouse model for protection/mitigation facilitate rational means by which to move candidate small molecule drugs along the drug discovery pipeline into clinical development.

  16. Using Remotely Sensed Data for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Collaborative Effort Between the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI), NASA Johnson Space Center, and Jacobs Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagge, Amy

    2016-01-01

    With ever changing landscapes and environmental conditions due to human induced climate change, adaptability is imperative for the long-term success of facilities and Federal agency missions. To mitigate the effects of climate change, indicators such as above-ground biomass change must be identified to establish a comprehensive monitoring effort. Researching the varying effects of climate change on ecosystems can provide a scientific framework that will help produce informative, strategic and tactical policies for environmental adaptation. As a proactive approach to climate change mitigation, NASA tasked the Climate Change Adaptation Science Investigators Workgroup (CASI) to provide climate change expertise and data to Center facility managers and planners in order to ensure sustainability based on predictive models and current research. Generation of historical datasets that will be used in an agency-wide effort to establish strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation at NASA facilities is part of the CASI strategy. Using time series of historical remotely sensed data is well-established means of measuring change over time. CASI investigators have acquired multispectral and hyperspectral optical and LiDAR remotely sensed datasets from NASA Earth Observation Satellites (including the International Space Station), airborne sensors, and astronaut photography using hand held digital cameras to create a historical dataset for the Johnson Space Center, as well as the Houston and Galveston area. The raster imagery within each dataset has been georectified, and the multispectral and hyperspectral imagery has been atmospherically corrected. Using ArcGIS for Server, the CASI-Regional Remote Sensing data has been published as an image service, and can be visualized through a basic web mapping application. Future work will include a customized web mapping application created using a JavaScript Application Programming Interface (API), and inclusion of the CASI data

  17. Two Strategies for the Development of Mitochondrion-Targeted Small Molecule Radiation Damage Mitigators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere MCF201-89, and the p53/mdm2/mdm4 protein complex inhibitor BEB55 to mitigate radiation effects by clonogenic survival curves with the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 and the human bone marrow stromal (KM101) and pulmonary epithelial (IB3) cell lines. The p53-dependent mechanism of action was tested with p53+/+ and p53-/- murine bone marrow stromal cell lines. C57BL/6 NHsd female mice were injected i.p. with JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55 individually or in combination, after receiving 9.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Results: Each drug, JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55, individually or as a mixture of all three compounds increased the survival of 32D cl 3 (p = 0.0021, p = 0.0011, p = 0.0038, and p = 0.0073, respectively) and IB3 cells (p = 0.0193, p = 0.0452, p = 0.0017, and p = 0.0019, respectively) significantly relative to that of control irradiated cells. KM101 cells were protected by individual drugs (p = 0.0007, p = 0.0235, p = 0.0044, respectively). JP4-039 and MCF201-89 increased irradiation survival of both p53+/+ (p = 0.0396 and p = 0.0071, respectively) and p53-/- cells (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively), while BEB55 was ineffective with p53-/- cells. Drugs administered individually or as a mixtures of all three after TBI significantly increased mouse survival (p = 0.0234, 0.0009, 0.0052, and 0.0167, respectively). Conclusion: Mitochondrial targeting of small molecule radiation mitigators decreases irradiation-induced cell death in vitro and prolongs survival of lethally irradiated mice.

  18. Nutrients recycling strategy for microalgae-based CO2 mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Xinyi

    Coal-fired electricity production is the major emitter of CO2 and other greenhouse gases including NOx and SO x. Microalgae-based CO2 mitigation systems have been proposed to reduce the net CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. This study focused on developing an optimum culture media and exploring the possibilities for recycling nutrients, which were added as commercial mineralized chemicals at the beginning of cultivation. In order to release the nutrients embedded in the cells so that they can be used as a nutrient source for new cells, Scenedesmus biomass was digested by anaerobic bacteria. Results showed that thermal pretreatment enhanced the methane production rate for the first 7 days of digestion. Three operational factors were tested: heating temperature, heating duration and NaOH dosage. The combination of 10 min heating with 3˜6% NaOH at 50 °C gave the highest cell wall destruction for all samples except oven-dried algae. The anaerobic digestate, rich in mineralized nutrients including ammonium and phosphate, potassium and magnesium ions, was tested as a possible nutrient source for the algae cultivation. To cope with the high solid content of the digestates, the dosage of the digestates was reduced or the solid particles were removed prior to addition to the microalgae. Both approaches worked well in terms of providing nutrients with minimal effect on light penetration. Using digestates without any sterilization did not cause contamination or other deleterious effects on the Scenedesmus growth rate. Harvesting microalgae cells was critical to ensure a continuous and robust growth rate. The used media could be recycled at least four times without altering the algae growth. Nutrient replenishment was the key for a healthy culture when used media was incorporated. The combination of used media and digestates can sustain a normal algae growth. Life cycle assessment was conducted on the system including the photobioreactor, the anaerobic digester, the

  19. Modeling climate change mitigation from alternative methods of charcoal production in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, Rob [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current carbon accounting methodologies do not accommodate activities that involve emissions reductions from both land-use change and energy production. This paper analyzes the climate change mitigation potential of charcoal production in East Africa by examining the impact of changing both land management and technology. Current production in a major charcoal producing region of Kenya where charcoal is made as a by-product of land clearance for commercial grain production is modeled as the ''business-as-usual'' scenario. Alternative production systems are proposed based on coppice management of native or exotic trees. Improved kilns are also considered. Changes in aboveground, belowground, and soil carbon are modeled and two distinct baseline assessments are analyzed: one is based on a fixed area of land and one is based on the quantity of non-renewable fuel that is displaced by project activities. The magnitude of carbon emissions reductions varies depending on land management as well as the choice of carbonization technology. However, these variations are smaller than the variations arising from the choice of baseline methodology. The fixed-land baseline yields annualized carbon emission reductions equivalent to 0.5-2.8 tons per year (t y{sup -1}) with no change in production technology and 0.7-3.5 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. In contrast, the baseline defined by the quantity of displaced non-renewable fuel is 2-6 times larger, yielding carbon emissions reductions of 1.4-12.9 t y{sup -1} with no change in production technology and 3.2-20.4 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. The results demonstrate the choice of baseline, often a political rather than scientific decision, is critical in assessing carbon emissions reductions. (author)

  20. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  1. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries.; copyrighted ; Y

  2. Mitigation options in forestry, land-use change and biomass burning in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.L. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are described in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land an in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries. (au) 13 refs.

  3. Mitigation options in forestry, land-use change and biomass burning in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are described in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land an in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries. (au) 13 refs

  4. The mitigation framework in the 2015 climate change agreement: from targets to pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an effort between researchers from different countries and with different backgrounds to achieve an agreed text on an important issue in the climate negotiations through a thought experiment of 'think tank level negotiation'. It is a significant achievement for two groups of authors from China and Europe to have come this far. Countries have agreed to negotiate a new climate agreement by 2015. One of the key elements of this negotiation process will be a new mitigation framework and new emissions targets for all. How should the information that Parties put forward be structured, in order to promote participation, equity, transparency and ambition? The new agreement needs to find a way to allow the continuous strengthening of the action of sovereign states, to reflect the 2 deg. C objective. It will also need to provide a flexible and equitable framework for mitigation targets, to reflect both different levels of uncertainty and the large spectrum of countries and gaps in the development of different country groups. There is a need to shift out of the 'target mentality' and towards an understanding of climate change as the challenge of shifting long-term social, technological, investment and infra-structural pathways, as well as behaviours. Uncertainties in such structural processes may be particularly high in developing or emerging countries still undergoing industrialization, demographic shift, and urbanization. Mastering them requires long-term policy horizons, cooperation, technology innovation and policy learning, focusing on the drivers of emissions reductions. The Warsaw decision stated in 2013 that mitigation targets would be nationally-determined. In this context, the discussion around a global goal should no longer be seen as a basis for top-down allocation, but rather as a directional reference against which global progress must be assessed to identify the gap to be filled to foster enhanced action. It is essential to

  5. Mitigation of fire damage and escalation by fireproofing: A risk-based strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive fire protection by the application of fireproofing materials is a crucial safety barrier in the prevention of the escalation of fire scenarios. Fireproofing improves the capacity of process items and of support structures to maintain their structural integrity during a fire, preventing or at least delaying the collapse of structural elements. Maintenance and cost issues require, however, to apply such protection only where an actual risk of severe fire scenarios is present. Available methodologies for fireproofing application in on-shore installation do not consider the effect of jet-fires. In the present study, a risk-based methodology aimed at the protection from both pool fire and jet fire escalation was developed. The procedure addresses both the prevention of domino effect and the mitigation of asset damage due to the primary fire scenario. The method is mainly oriented to early design application, allowing the identification of fireproofing zones in the initial phases of lay-out definition.

  6. Characteristics of Large Low-frequency Debris Flow Hazards and Mitigation Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shige

    2005-01-01

    A low-frequency debris flow took place in the north coastal range of Venezuela on Dec. 16, 1999,and scientists all over the world paid attention to this catastrophe. Four characteristics of low-frequency debris hazard are discussed: long return period and extreme catastrophe, special rare triggering factors,difficulty in distinguishing and a series of small hazards subsequent to the catastrophe. Different measures, such as preventing, forecast - warning,engineering, can be used for mitigating and controlling the catastrophe. In engineering practice, it is a key that large silt-trap dams are used to control rare large debris flow. A kind of low dam with cheap cost can be used to replace high dam in developing countries. A planning for controlling debris flow hazard in Cerro Grande stream of Venezuela is presented at the end of this paper.

  7. Trends and drivers of debris accumulation on Maui shorelines: Implications for local mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, Lauren C; Currie, Jens J; Kaufman, Gregory D

    2016-04-15

    Marine debris, particularly plastic, is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific. Here we present results from the first study to quantify and compare the types and amounts of marine debris on Maui shorelines. Surveys were conducted monthly between May 2013 and December 2014, with additional daily surveys conducted on Maui's north shore during January 2015. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites, with plastics being the most prevalent type of debris at all sites. Large debris loads on windward shores were attributed to the influence of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and northerly trade winds. Daily surveys resulted in a significantly higher rate of debris deposition than monthly surveys. The efficacy of local policy in debris mitigation showed promise, but was dependent upon the level of enforcement and consumer responsibility. PMID:26926778

  8. Strategy for Mitigating Collision Between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Joshua A.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Mission Operations project, the French space agency Centre National d tudes Spatiales, the Argentinian space agency Comisi n Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, and the United States Geological Survey all operate spacecraft in sun-synchronous frozen orbits. The orbits are planned to not place any of the spacecraft at risk of colliding with another. However, evolution of these orbits over time has com-promised the safe interaction between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constella-tion. This paper analyzes the interactions between the Landsat-5 spacecraft and the Afternoon Constellation members over a period of 6 years, describing the current risk and plan to mitigate collisions in the future.

  9. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the Land Use Sector: From Complementarity to Synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Lalisa A. Duguma; Minang, Peter A.; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2014-01-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual fra...

  10. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in the land use sector: from complementarity to synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Duguma, L.A.; Minang, P.A.; Noordwijk, van, M.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual fra...

  11. NITRATE TOXICITY IN GROUNDWATER: ITS CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS, PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaz K. Maheshwari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution has become a drastic problem principally because of nature and wide spread use of modern chemicals viz. pesticides and fertilizers. Excessive application of fertilizers as well as organic wastes and sewage has been implicated in the nitrogen pollution of groundwater. Therefore, the issue of rising nitrate concentration in groundwater has become a subject of extensive research in India and Rajasthan in particular. In natural water, nitrate ((NO3- N is usually 100ppm and in organic matters (amine and /or amides resulting in the production of nitrosamines (carcinogens. Number of cases (human and livestock, suffering from gastric cancer have been observed. Reverse osmosis (RO process has great potential in the mitigation of nitrate ion containing waters. Generally, the presence of particular substances may affect the removal of specific ions. The presence of di-hydrogen phosphate ions (DHP-ions in the feed solution enhances the nitrate removal efficiency of the polyamide RO membrane. In this present research work, a Flmtec TW30, polyamide thin-film composite, RO membrane was used for nitrate removal through RO set up. The rejection of individual nitrate was found to be around 76%. After addition of KH2¬PO4 to the feed containing nitrate ions the rejection was improved up to 84. This high level of increment in rejection of nitrate ion indicates the possible usage of KH2¬PO4 in RO for nitrate removal. This fact of removal is due to the K+ ions binding to the electronic lone-pairs of polyamide membrane holding di-hydrogen phosphate ions. This establishes a negative layer on the surface of the membrane. The diffusion of nitrate through the membrane is diminished by the formed layer. Present manuscript delineates clinical manifestations of nitrate toxicity and mitigation of nitrate ion by means of state-of-the-art reverse osmosis technology.

  12. Modelling global distribution, risk and mitigation strategies of floating plastic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sebille, Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Sherman, Peter; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Lavender Law, Kara

    2016-04-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North Pacific and North Atlantic accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass. We use a rigorous statistical framework to standardise a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and couple this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons. A large fraction of the uncertainty in these estimates comes from sparse sampling in coastal and Southern Hemisphere regions. We then use this global distribution of small floating plastic debris to map out where in the ocean the risk to marine life (in particular seabirds and plankton growth) is greatest, using a quantitative risk framework. We show that the largest risk occurs not necessarily in regions of high plastic concentration, but rather in regions of extensive foraging with medium-high plastic concentrations such as coastal upwelling regions and the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the estimates of distribution to investigate where in the ocean plastic can most optimally be removed, assuming hypothetical clean-up booms following the ideas from The Ocean Cleanup project. We show that mitigation of the plastic problem can most aptly be done near coastlines, particularly in Asia, rather than in the centres of the gyres. Based on these results, we propose more focus on the coastal zones when

  13. Physic Nut: A Proactive Climate Change Risk Management Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, M. A.; Orire, I. O.

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the regional variability in the causes and effects of Climate Change, it poses a major threat to both global human and ecological survival. Therefore, adapting and mitigating its consequences require an integrated approach which is not mutually exclusive of any specialization as enshrined in the Kyoto protocol. This paper reviews the concept, cause, impacts of climate change vis-a-vis the cultivation and viability of Jatropha curcas plant as a pro-active adaptation and mitigatio...

  14. Development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for Disaster Early Warning and Mitigation in the Ecowas Subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, L. A.; Keita, M. S.; Akinyede, J. O.; Kufoniyi, O.; Erin, G.

    2015-08-01

    The West Africa Sub-region has been crisis and disaster ridden in recent times with enormous challenges for disaster mitigation. The crisis/disasters range from conflicts fuelled by political upheaval to epidemics that take their tolls on the population of some countries in the sub-region. The crisis and disaster events have overwhelming magnitudes and are highly dynamic, requiring a well-articulated plan for immediate response in order to mitigate their effects. A study carried out by the Early Warning Directorate (EWD) of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) highlighted the risks and vulnerabilities of the region despite the considerable progress made in development and peace consolidation in some parts of the region. The study identified apparent institutional and infrastructural deficiencies, such as the lack of up-to-date geospatial data and information, and inadequate platforms for data gathering and data sharing among the relevant national agencies, which have made much of the region particularly vulnerable to the emerging threats. It is against the foregoing that the development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for EWD and the ECOWAS is being proposed. In addition to the resolution of the crucial need of reliable geospatial data capacity of member states, this initiative will spearhead the realisation of a Geospatial Data Infrastructure for ECOWAS Commission, through the appropriate policy formulation and implementation. Through the proper implementation of the Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services, ECOWAS will have the capacity to provide geospatial analysis and mapping support focusing on areas related to conflict prevention and resolution, regional planning for food security, early warning of viral diseases and epidemics, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response, infrastructural development and refugee resettlement, and a host of other vital projects/programmes for promoting ECOWAS regional integration

  15. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century – Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Hejazi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM, a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m−2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively, under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT which excludes land use change emissions are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m−2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  16. Understanding the systemic nature of cities to improve health and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Capon, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues. PMID:27126780

  17. Soils as a Solution: The Potential of Rangelands to Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; DeLonge, M. S.; Owen, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of soil-related climate change research has focused on describing the problem - estimating rates of carbon (C) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural and managed ecosystems. More research is needed to explore potential solutions to climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Here we report on an integrated set of studies aimed at critically evaluating the biogeochemical potential of rangeland soils to help mitigate climate change, while improving the sustainability and productivity of food production systems. We explored direct effects through enhanced net primary production (NPP) and soil C sequestration, and indirect effects through diversion of high emitting sources to lower emitting organic matter dynamics. We used a combination of long- and short-term field experiments, modeling, laboratory assays, life cycle assessment (LCA), and meta-analyses in consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. We found that organic matter amendments held particularly strong potential. Compost amendments increased soil C storage by 0.5-1.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in surface soils over 5 y, and increased NPP and water holding capacity. We measured 1.0 Mg of new C ha-1 y-1 over 3 y. Long-term amendment of cattle manure increased surface soil C by 19.0±7.3 Mg C ha-1 relative to unmanured fields. However, field and modeling experiments suggested that manure amendments lead to large nitrous oxide emissions that eventually eliminated CO2e benefits, whereas compost amendments continued to benefit climate for decades longer. An LCA identified a broader range of climate impacts. When scaled to an area of 25% of California's rangelands, new C sequestered following compost amendments (21 million Mg CO2e) exceeded emissions from cattle (15 million Mg CO2e); diverting organics from waste streams to amendments led to additional GHG savings. In collaboration with our partners, our research contributed to the development of

  18. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  19. A review of rapid transport of pesticides from sloping farmland to surface waters: Processes and mitigation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangyu Tang; Bo Zhu; Hidetaka Katou

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides applied to sloping farmland may lead to surface water contamination through rapid transport processes as influenced by the complex topography and high spatial variability of soil properties and land use in hilly or mountainous regions.However,the fate of pesticides applied to sloping farmland has not been sufficiently elucidated.This article reviews the current understanding of pesticide transport from sloping farmland to surface water.It examines overland flow and subsurface lateral flow in areas where surface soil is underlain by impervious subsoil or rocks and tile drains.It stresses the importance of quantifying and modeling the contributions of various pathways to rapid pesticide loss at catchment and regional scales.Such models could be used in scenario studies for evaluating the effectiveness of possible mitigation strategies such as constructing vegetated strips,depressions,wetlands and drainage ditches,and implementing good agricultural practices.Field monitoring studies should also be conducted to calibrate and validate the transport models as well as biophysical-economic models,to optimize mitigation measures in areas dominated by sloping farmland.

  20. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and