WorldWideScience

Sample records for change medical education

  1. Changing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J; Gale, R

    1989-05-01

    This paper is based on one which was prepared to support the World Conference of the World Federation for Medical Education in August 1988. It is designed to provide a broad perspective on the essential elements of an educational change process. The paper covers the stages in designing a change strategy and highlights the difficulties that any change agent is likely to encounter. A review of the history of change in education and organizations is followed by discussion of the need for change and the ability to change. Reasons for resistance to change are presented and discussed. Implementation and reinforcement of change are considered before a final section on evaluation. PMID:2725362

  2. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.P.; Westerman, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Lee, N.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dorr, P.J.; Scheele, F.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead

  3. [Changing aspects in continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okisaka, Shigekuni

    2007-02-01

    Self-directed learning based on adult education theory and self-assessment are necessary for continuing medical education. Self-directed learning is the process whereby the individual takes the initiative in diagnosing his learning needs and setting his own individual learning goals, showing clearly the human and physical resources, putting an appropriate plan into practice, and evaluating the learning outcome. Because self-assessment is the evaluation of the process where the individual confirms his actual learning, portfolio assessment is utilized for this purpose. In the continuing medical education program of the Japanese Ophthalmological Society, it is vital that the appropriate credit and recognition program keep up with the changes in adult education theory. Therefore, portfolio assessment is introduced for self-assessment. The Ophthalmic Pathology Slide Seminar is a model of medical education based on self-directed learning.

  4. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R L

    1999-08-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed. PMID:10496094

  5. [The educational change in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Manuel; Hawes, Gustavo; Castillo, Silvana; Romero, Luis; Rojas, Ana María; Espinoza, Mónica; Oyarzo, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the reflections of a group of members of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, about the changes in teaching methods that medical schools should incorporate. In a complex scenario, not only new and better knowledge should be transmitted to students but also values, principles, critical reasoning and leadership, among others. In the first part, a proposal to understand this educational development in the context of complex universities, incorporating pedagogical skills and reviewing institutional leadership, is carried out. In the second part, the training of teaching physicians, as part of the changes, is extensively discussed. Physicians hired as academics in the University should have the opportunity to work mainly as teachers and be relieved of research obligations. For them, teaching should become a legitimate area of academic development. PMID:25424678

  6. Technology: changing the focus of medical education?

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekanantham S; Ravindran RP

    2014-01-01

    Sayinthen Vivekanantham, Rahul Prashanth Ravindran Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWith technology advancing at such a fast rate, our ability to look up and use information quickly and efficiently has improved significantly. With electronic devices capable of accessing information becoming more prevalent within the hospital setting, how this could influence medical education should be brought into question.As we are now able to look up information quickly within the cl...

  7. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  8. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  9. Teaching About Climate Change in Medical Education: An Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Janie; Blashki, Grant

    2016-04-26

    Climate change threatens many of the gains in development and health over the last century. However, it could also be a catalyst for a necessary societal transformation to a sustainable and healthy future. Doctors have a crucial role in climate change mitigation and health system adaptation to prepare for emergent health threats and a carbon-constrained future. This paper argues that climate change should be integrated into medical education for three reasons: first, to prepare students for clinical practice in a climate-changing world; secondly, to promote public health and eco-health literacy; and finally, to deepen existing learning and strengthen graduate attributes. This paper builds on existing literature and the authors' experience to outline potential learning objectives, teaching methods and assessment tasks. In the wake of recent progress at the United Nations climate change conference, COP-21, it is hoped that this paper will assist universities to integrate teaching about climate change into medical education. Significance for public healthThere is a strong case for teaching about climate change in medical education. Anthropogenic climate change is accepted by scientists, governments and health authorities internationally. Given the dire implications for human health, climate change is of fundamental relevance to future doctors. Integrating climate change into medical education offers an opportunity for future doctors to develop skills and insights essential for clinical practice and a public health role in a climate-changing world. This echoes a broader call for improved public health literacy among medical graduates. This paper provides medical schools with a rationale and an outline for teaching on climate change.

  10. Teaching About Climate Change in Medical Education: An Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Janie; Blashki, Grant

    2016-04-26

    Climate change threatens many of the gains in development and health over the last century. However, it could also be a catalyst for a necessary societal transformation to a sustainable and healthy future. Doctors have a crucial role in climate change mitigation and health system adaptation to prepare for emergent health threats and a carbon-constrained future. This paper argues that climate change should be integrated into medical education for three reasons: first, to prepare students for clinical practice in a climate-changing world; secondly, to promote public health and eco-health literacy; and finally, to deepen existing learning and strengthen graduate attributes. This paper builds on existing literature and the authors' experience to outline potential learning objectives, teaching methods and assessment tasks. In the wake of recent progress at the United Nations climate change conference, COP-21, it is hoped that this paper will assist universities to integrate teaching about climate change into medical education. Significance for public healthThere is a strong case for teaching about climate change in medical education. Anthropogenic climate change is accepted by scientists, governments and health authorities internationally. Given the dire implications for human health, climate change is of fundamental relevance to future doctors. Integrating climate change into medical education offers an opportunity for future doctors to develop skills and insights essential for clinical practice and a public health role in a climate-changing world. This echoes a broader call for improved public health literacy among medical graduates. This paper provides medical schools with a rationale and an outline for teaching on climate change. PMID:27190980

  11. Teaching about climate change in medical education: an opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Maxwell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change threatens many of the gains in development and health over the last century. However, it could also be a catalyst for a necessary societal transformation to a sustainable and healthy future. Doctors have a crucial role in climate change mitigation and health system adaptation to prepare for emergent health threats and a carbon-constrained future. This paper argues that climate change should be integrated into medical education for three reasons: first, to prepare students for clinical practice in a climate-changing world; secondly, to promote public health and eco-health literacy; and finally, to deepen existing learning and strengthen graduate attributes. This paper builds on existing literature and the authors’ experience to outline potential learning objectives, teaching methods and assessment tasks. In the wake of recent progress at the United Nations climate change conference, COP-21, it is hoped that this paper will assist universities to integrate teaching about climate change into medical education.

  12. Resistance to medical educational change: management and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2007-01-01

    Medical education in Taiwan is currently undergoing active renovation. Reform and changes always bring resistance from the levels of individuals, institution and even the society. As an educational leader, to be able to manage resistance is a key to successful reform. This review article provides management strategies and communication skills to solve the resistance problem. The best solution to the problem is "to prevent" resistance from happening through identifying those who may be reluctant to change, and the reasons behind the potential resistance. Some of the reasons for resistance are threatening of self-interest and a loss of face, excess uncertainty, conservatism, fear of personal-worth declination in the organization, and different assessment or perception. The management and communication strategies are suggested to adjust to fit reform process, i.e., recognizing the needs for change, planning process, implementation, and institutionalization innovation. Finally, it is only with respect, empathy, sincerity and support that the resistance to changes can be resolved and difficulties can be overcome. PMID:19653408

  13. Climate change: what competencies and which medical education and training approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Erica J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much research has been devoted to identifying healthcare needs in a climate-changing world. However, while there are now global and national policy statements about the importance of health workforce development for climate change, little has been published about what competencies might be demanded of practitioners in a climate-changing world. In such a context, this debate and discussion paper aims to explore the nature of key competencies and related opportunities for teaching climate change in medical education and training. Particular emphasis is made on preparation for practice in rural and remote regions likely to be greatly affected by climate change. Discussion The paper describes what kinds of competencies for climate change might be included in medical education and training. It explores which curricula, teaching, learning and assessment approaches might be involved. Rather than arguing for major changes to medical education and training, this paper explores well established precedents to offer practical suggestions for where a particular kind of literacy--eco-medical literacy--and related competencies could be naturally integrated into existing elements of medical education and training. Summary The health effects of climate change have, generally, not yet been integrated into medical education and training systems. However, the necessary competencies could be taught by building on existing models, best practice and innovative traditions in medicine. Even in crowded curricula, climate change offers an opportunity to reinforce and extend understandings of how interactions between people and place affect health.

  14. Medical education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter; Jünger, Jana; Schrauth, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Following the changes made to the medical licensing regulations of 2002, medical education in Germany has been subject to radical modification, especially at undergraduate level. The implementation of the Bologna Process is still a matter of intense political debate, whilst positive movement has occurred in developing the professionalisation of teaching staff through a Masters Degree in Medical Education. In the area of postgraduate medical education, major restructuring of programmes is occurring, whilst the debate in continuing medical education is related to the amount of practical clinical education that is required.

  15. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  16. Medical education and society.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As health care changes under the pressures of restraint and constraint our vision of the future of medical education should be based on the medical school's responsibility to the community. The medical school is "an academy in the community": as an academy, it fosters the highest standards in education and research; as an institution in the community, it seeks to improve public health and alleviate suffering. The author argues that to better achieve these goals medical schools need to become ...

  17. Evaluation of Dynamic Changes in Rating of Russian Information Sources of Medical Education Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Irina V; Arseniev, Sergey B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze dynamic changes in the rating of information sources of medical literature in the sites of the following electronic libraries (, , ) and the rating of information sources for electronic medical books (, ). While using the on-line programs Alexa and Cy-pr, we have analyzed their website's rating and identified basic data and time-varying site data obtained for fourteen months. Alexa Rank rating was calculated for each sitemonthly. Our study has shown that the most popular information sources of medical education among the six studied sites for Russian users is ; the site is at the second place. PMID:27350475

  18. Socrates was not a pimp: changing the paradigm of questioning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Amanda; Chen, Frederick M

    2015-01-01

    The slang term "pimping" is widely recognized by learners and educators in the clinical learning environment as the act of more senior members of the medical team publicly asking questions of more junior members. Although questioning as a pedagogical practice has many benefits, pimping, as described in the literature, evokes negative emotions in learners and leads to an environment that is not conducive to adult learning. Medical educators may employ pimping as a pedagogic technique because of beliefs that it is a Socratic teaching method. Although problems with pimping have previously been identified, no alternative techniques for questioning in the clinical environment were suggested. The authors posit that using the term "pimping" to describe questioning in medical education is harmful and unprofessional, and they propose clearly defining pimping as "questioning with the intent to shame or humiliate the learner to maintain the power hierarchy in medical education." Explicitly separating pimping from the larger practice of questioning allows the authors to make three recommendations for improving questioning practices. First, educators should examine the purpose of each question they pose to learners. Second, they should apply historic and modern interpretations of Socratic teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills. Finally, they should consider adult learning theories to make concrete changes to their questioning practices. These changes can result in questioning that is more learner centered, aids in the acquisition of knowledge and skills, performs helpful formative and summative assessments of the learner, and improves community in the clinical learning environment.

  19. As technology and generations in medical education change, what remains is the intersection between educator, learners, assessment and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Amin

    2013-06-01

    The information era has begun to create major shifts in educational systems, including those in undergraduate medical and graduate psychiatric training programmes. Despite these changes, teaching and learning in formal educational settings remains predominately the product of the intersection between educator, learners, assessment and context. This article reviews intrinsic and external forces influencing each of these elements, such as intergenerational differences in teaching and learning styles, education technologies as they relate to delivery and maintenance of curricula, competency frameworks of assessment, and individual learning and teaching development plans. Maintaining a focus on the relationship between these factors and re-conceptualizing psychiatric education and formal medical education systems in general as a mutual two-way learning exchange between participants will promote careers of lifelong learning. PMID:23859098

  20. Innovative Approaches To Educating Medical Students for Practice in a Changing Health Care Environment: The National UME-21 Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Howard K.; Babbott, David; Bastacky, Stanford; Pascoe, John M.; Patel, Kavita K.; Pye, Karen L.; Rodak, John, Jr.; Veit, Kenneth J.; Wood, Douglas L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the major curriculum changes that have been implemented through Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21), a 3-year national demonstration project to encourage innovation in medical education. Discusses challenges that occurred in carrying out those changes, and outlines the strategies for evaluating the project. (EV)

  1. Continuing medical education, quality improvement, and organizational change: implications of recent theories for twenty-first-century CME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David

    2005-05-01

    Healthcare providers and systems are being asked to measure and improve the quality of care delivered to their patients. Additionally, the American Board of Medical Specialties now requires physicians to participate in systems-based practice and practice-based learning and improvement activities as part of maintenance of specialty board certification. These changing paradigms provide opportunities for continuing medical education to become more aligned with health system goals and help prepare clinicians to practice in this new environment. Organizational change and quality improvement principles have much in common with continuing medical education planning processes. Medical education can play a role in helping organizations improve. Continuing medical education must move beyond delivering content to individual clinicians towards becoming a facilitator of organizational improvement. Research is needed to determine the effect of integrating continuing medical education with organizational change approaches on professional competence, organizational processes and patient outcomes.

  2. Changing the Graduate Medical Education Funding Path to Reduce the Price of Health Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph A

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the current Graduate Medical Education (GME) funding stream reveals undesired aspects that limit the number of graduates and may tend to raise the price of health care services. The author shows that a different model of GME funding changes the economic dynamics and takes advantage of economic forces to increase the supply of graduates, while potentially reducing the price of health care services. PMID:26731880

  3. Medical physics education from the view of the possible structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencova, E; Kukurova, E

    2001-01-01

    Teaching subject physics at the university level represents a specific didactic transformation of the scientific field--physics. The determination of the content, extent, used methods, mutual relation to other subjects of curriculum as well as to the entrance knowledge of students are the most important parts of pedagogical activities in the educational process. Based on own experiences, successes and mistakes in teaching so-called medical physics the authors discuss didactic procedures which should support the interest and creativity of students. Some changes in the structure of physics education are recommended. The usefulness of the international collaboration in the framework of projects such as TEMPUS, ERASMUS is also remembered.

  4. Medical education for a changing world: moving beyond cultural competence into transnational competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H; Swick, Herbert M

    2006-06-01

    Given rapidly changing global demographic dynamics and the unimpressive evidence regarding health outcomes attributable to cultural competence (CC) education, it is time to consider a fresh and unencumbered approach to preparing physicians to reduce health disparities and care for ethnoculturally and socially diverse patients, including migrants. Transnational competence (TC) education offers a comprehensive set of core skills derived from international relations, cross-cultural psychology, and intercultural communication that are also applicable for medical education. The authors discuss five limitations (conceptual, vision, action, alliance, and pedagogical) of current CC approaches and explain how an educational model based on TC would address each problem area.The authors then identify and discuss the skill domains, core principles, and reinforcing pedagogy of TC education. The five skill domains of TC are analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional; core principles include a comprehensive and consistent framework, patient-centered learning, and competency assessment. A central component of TC pedagogy is having students prepare a "miniethnography" for each patient that addresses not only issues related to physical and mental health, but also experiences related to dislocation and adaptation to unfamiliar settings. The TC approach promotes advances in preparing medical students to reduce health disparities among patients with multiple and diverse backgrounds, health conditions, and health care beliefs and practices. Perhaps most important, TC consistently directs attention to the policy and social factors, as well as the individual considerations, that can alleviate suffering and enhance health and well-being in a globalizing world. PMID:16728804

  5. Medical education for a changing world: moving beyond cultural competence into transnational competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H; Swick, Herbert M

    2006-06-01

    Given rapidly changing global demographic dynamics and the unimpressive evidence regarding health outcomes attributable to cultural competence (CC) education, it is time to consider a fresh and unencumbered approach to preparing physicians to reduce health disparities and care for ethnoculturally and socially diverse patients, including migrants. Transnational competence (TC) education offers a comprehensive set of core skills derived from international relations, cross-cultural psychology, and intercultural communication that are also applicable for medical education. The authors discuss five limitations (conceptual, vision, action, alliance, and pedagogical) of current CC approaches and explain how an educational model based on TC would address each problem area.The authors then identify and discuss the skill domains, core principles, and reinforcing pedagogy of TC education. The five skill domains of TC are analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional; core principles include a comprehensive and consistent framework, patient-centered learning, and competency assessment. A central component of TC pedagogy is having students prepare a "miniethnography" for each patient that addresses not only issues related to physical and mental health, but also experiences related to dislocation and adaptation to unfamiliar settings. The TC approach promotes advances in preparing medical students to reduce health disparities among patients with multiple and diverse backgrounds, health conditions, and health care beliefs and practices. Perhaps most important, TC consistently directs attention to the policy and social factors, as well as the individual considerations, that can alleviate suffering and enhance health and well-being in a globalizing world.

  6. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy. PMID:12597516

  7. Academic medicine change management: the power of the liaison committee on medical education accreditation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Latha; Fleit, Howard B; Shroyer, A Laurie

    2013-09-01

    Stony Brook University School of Medicine (SBU SOM) used a Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) site visit to design a change management approach that engaged students, revitalized faculty, and enabled significant, positive institutional transformation while flexibly responding to concurrent leadership transitions. This "from-the-trenches" description of novel LCME site-visit-related processes may provide an educational program quality improvement template for other U.S. medical schools. The SBU SOM site visit processes were proactively organized within five phases: (1) planning (4 months), (2) data gathering (12 months), (3) documentation (6 months), (4) visit readiness (2 months), and (5) visit follow-up (16 months). The authors explain the key activities associated with each phase.The SBU SOM internal leadership team designed new LCME-driven educational performance reports to identify challenging aspects of the educational program (e.g., timeliness of grades submitted, midcourse feedback completeness, clerkship grading variability across affiliate sites, learning environment or student mistreatment incidents). This LCME process increased institutional awareness, identified the school's LCME vulnerabilities, organized corrective actions, engaged key stakeholders in communication, ensured leadership buy-in, and monitored successes. The authors' strategies for success included establishing a strong internal LCME leadership team, proactively setting deadlines for all phases of the LCME process, assessing and communicating vulnerabilities and action plans, building multidisciplinary working groups, leveraging information technology, educating key stakeholders through meetings, retreats, and consultants, and conducting a mock site visit. The urgency associated with an impending high-stakes LCME site visit can facilitate positive, local, educational program quality improvement. PMID:23887000

  8. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  9. [Information technology in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramić, A

    1999-01-01

    The role of information technology in educational models of under-graduate and post-graduate medical education is growing in 1980's influenced by PC's break-in in medical practice and creating relevant data basis, and, particularly, in 1990's by integration of information technology on international level, development of international network, Internet, Telemedicin, etc. The development of new educational information technology is evident, proving that information in transfer of medical knowledge, medical informatics and communication systems represent the base of medical practice, medical education and research in medical sciences. In relation to the traditional approaches in concept, contents and techniques of medical education, new models of education in training of health professionals, using new information technology, offer a number of benefits, such as: decentralization and access to relevant data sources, collecting and updating of data, multidisciplinary approach in solving problems and effective decision-making, and affirmation of team work within medical and non-medical disciplines. Without regard to the dynamics of change and progressive reform orientation within health sector, the development of modern medical education is inevitable for all systems a in which information technology and available data basis, as a base of effective and scientifically based medical education of health care providers, give guarantees for efficient health care and improvement of health of population. PMID:10870617

  10. Medical education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S M; Seifman, E

    1976-01-01

    This article concerns the changes in Chinese medical education which have taken place since the Cultural Revolution, specifically the relationship between political ideology and actual practice. It synthesizes the documentation which appeared in a series of articles devoted to a public discussion on the direction and emphasis in medical and health work published in Renmin Ribao (People's Daily), Peking, from December 8, 1968 to November 4, 1975. The major themes of the public discussion are: (a) medical and health work serving the masses; (b) insistence on the "correct" revolutionary line; (c) combining theory with practice; (d) unity of traditional Chinese and Western medicine; (e) putting prevention first; and (f) emphasis on medical personnel retaining the characteristics of the working people. This is followed by a transcript prepared by the authors from a tape recording made during a visit to Zhongshan Medical College of Guangzhou (Canton) on November 5, 1974 describing the relationship between political ideology and actual practice in the field of contemporary Chinese medical education. PMID:970363

  11. Medical education, cost and policy: what are the drivers for change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Walsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical education is expensive. Its expense has led many stakeholders to speculate on how costs could be reduced. In an ideal world such decisions would be made on sound evidence; however this is impossible in the absence of evidence. Sometimes practice will be informed by policy, but policy will not always be evidence based. So how is policy in the field of cost and value in medical education actually developed? The foremost influence on policy in cost and value should be evidence-based knowledge. Unfortunately policy is sometimes influenced by what might at best be termed tradition and at worst inertia. Another influence on policy will be people - but some individuals may have more influence than others. A further influence on policy in this field is events, and mainly events that have gone wrong. One final influence on emerging policy in medical education cost analysis is that of the media.

  12. Sonography and hypotension: a change to critical problem solving in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Richard Amini, Lori A Stolz, Nicholas C Hernandez, Kevin Gaskin, Nicola Baker, Arthur Barry Sanders, Srikar AdhikariDepartment of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAStudy objectives: Multiple curricula have been designed to teach medical students the basics of ultrasound; however, few focus on critical problem-solving. The objective of this study is to determine whether a theme-based ultrasound teaching session, dedicated to the use of ultrasound in the management of the hypotensive patient, can impact medical students’ ultrasound education and provide critical problem-solving exercises.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using an innovative approach to train 3rd year medical students during a 1-day ultrasound training session. The students received a 1-hour didactic session on basic ultrasound physics and knobology and were also provided with YouTube hyperlinks, and links to smart phone educational applications, which demonstrated a variety of bedside ultrasound techniques. In small group sessions, students learned how to evaluate patients for pathology associated with hypotension. A knowledge assessment questionnaire was administered at the end of the session and again 3 months later. Student knowledge was also assessed using different clinical scenarios with multiple-choice questions.Results: One hundred and three 3rd year medical students participated in this study. Appropriate type of ultrasound was selected and accurate diagnosis was made in different hypotension clinical scenarios: pulmonary embolism, 81% (95% CI, 73%–89%; abdominal aortic aneurysm, 100%; and pneumothorax, 89% (95% CI, 82%–95%. The average confidence level in performing ultrasound-guided central line placement was 7/10, focused assessment with sonography for trauma was 8/10, inferior vena cava assessment was 8/10, evaluation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was 8/10, assessment for

  13. Motivation of university and non-university stakeholders to change medical education in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruitenberg EJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both university and non-university stakeholders should be involved in the process of curriculum development in medical schools, because all are concerned with the competencies of the graduates. That may be difficult unless appropriate strategies are used to motivate each stakeholder. From 1999 to 2006, eight medical schools in Vietnam worked together to change the curriculum and teaching for general medical students to make it more community oriented. This paper describes the factors that motivated the different stakeholders to participate in curriculum change and teaching in Vietnamese medical schools and the activities to address those factors and have sustainable contributions from all relevant stakeholders. Methods Case study analysis of contributions to the change process, using reports, interviews, focus group discussions and surveys and based on Herzberg's Motivation Theory to analyze involvement of different stakeholders. Results Different stakeholders were motivated by selected activities, such as providing opportunities for non-university stakeholders to share their opinions, organizing interactions among university stakeholders, stimulating both bottom-up and top-down inputs, focusing on learning from each other, and emphasizing self-motivation factors. Conclusion The Herzberg Motivation theory helped to identify suitable approaches to ensure that teaching topics, materials and assessment methods more closely reflected the health care needs of the community. Other medical schools undertaking a reform process may learn from this experience.

  14. Medical Providers as Global Warming and Climate Change Health Educators: A Health Literacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran, Melinda; Weathers, Melinda; Keefe, Brian; Sparks, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to wildlife and the environment, but it also one of the most pervasive threats to human health. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among dimensions of health literacy, patient education about global warming and climate change (GWCC), and health behaviors. Results reveal that patients who have higher…

  15. Medical Education in the Anatomical Sciences: The Winds of Change Continue to Blow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course…

  16. Graduate Medical Education as a Lever for Collaborative Change: One Institution's Experience with a Campuswide Patient Safety Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vath, Richard J.; Musso, Mandi W.; Rabalais, Lauren S.; Dunbar, Alston; Hosea, Stephen; Johnson, Angela C.; Bolton, Michael; Rhynes, Vernon K.; Caffery, Terrell S.; Tynes, L. Lee; Mantzor, Savarra; Miller, Bahnsen; Calongne, Laurinda L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 2013 closure of a public hospital in Baton Rouge, LA transformed graduate medical education (GME) at Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center (OLOL). Administrators were tasked with incorporating residents into patient safety and quality improvement initiatives to fulfill regulatory obligations. This report outlines our experiences as we built these patient safety and quality improvement initiatives in a rapidly expanding independent academic medical center. Methods: We joined the Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers (AIAMC) to meet and learn from national peers. To fulfill the scholarly activity requirement of the AIAMC's National Initiative IV, we formed a multidisciplinary team to develop a patient safety education project. Prioritized monthly team meetings allowed for project successes to be celebrated and circulated within the organization. Results: The public-private partnership that more than quadrupled the historic size of GME at OLOL has, in the past 2 years, led to the development of an interdisciplinary team. This team has expanded to accommodate residency program leadership from across the campus. Our National Initiative IV project won a national award and inspired several follow-up initiatives. In addition, this work led to the formation of a Patient Safety and Clinical Quality Improvement fellowship that matched its first fellow in 2015. Conclusion: Through the commitment and support of hospital and medical education leaders, as well as a focus on promoting cultural change through scholarly activity, we were able to greatly expand patient safety and quality improvement efforts in our institution. PMID:27046411

  17. Rationing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may be implicit or explicit or may be based on macro-allocation or micro-allocation decisions. Funding can be distributed equally among learners, or according to the needs of individual learners, or to ensure that overall usefulness is maximised. One final option is to allow the market to operate freely and to decide in that way. These principles of rationing can apply to individual learners or to institutions or departments or learning modes. Rationing is occurring in medical education, even though it might be implicit. It is worth giving consideration to methods of rationing and to make thinking about rationing more explicit. PMID:27358649

  18. Educational technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.

  19. [Change in the job description of physicians. Consequences for medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M; Pelz, J

    2009-08-01

    After receiving the final degree at the age of about 25 years, physicians are going to practice a minimum of 40 years. Therefore, one can assume that after graduation physicians are confronted with many occupational challenges which were not and could not be covered during their studies. This implies that medical education does not only have to provide intensive knowledge about established methods but above all about potential future techniques. Throughout the educational period and continuing during professional life, physicians have first to learn and then to be able to seek information and to conduct a critical appraisal - systematically examining research evidence, assessing its validity and the relevance of the results. The increasing velocity of innovation in the realm of medicine requires students to be prepared for life-long learning and continuous, autonomous professional development.

  20. APA Summit on Medical Student Education Task Force on Informatics and Technology: Steps to Enhance the Use of Technology in Education through Faculty Development, Funding and Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Donald M.; Benjamin, Sheldon; Briscoe, Gregory; Hales, Deborah J.; Boland, Robert J.; Luo, John S.; Chan, Carlyle H.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Karlinsky, Harry; Gordon, Daniel B.; Yellowlees, Peter M.; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article provides an overview of how trainees, faculty, and institutions use technology for acquiring knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing modern medicine. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical education, technology, and change, and identify the key themes and make recommendations for implementing…

  1. Medical education in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  2. Anatomy Education in a Changing Medical Curriculum in India: Medical Student Feedback on Duration and Emphasis of Gross Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Sunil Jonathan; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Isaac, Bina; Koshy, Shajan

    2009-01-01

    Authors report here a survey of medical student feedback on the effectiveness of two different anatomy curricula at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Undergraduate medical students seeking the Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degrees were divided into two groups by the duration of their respective anatomy…

  3. Medical education in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty.

  4. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  5. Financing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersdorf, R G

    1991-02-01

    The cost of a medical education may dissuade qualified young people from entering the medical profession or may so load them with debt that they cannot pursue relatively low-paid careers in primary care or clinical investigation. Three aspects of this problem are examined: (1) the cost of medical school, (2) the magnitude of student indebtedness, and (3) the effects of this indebtedness on career choices. High tuition and fees require many students to assume sizable educational debts, some of which are so large that the trainees will be unable to repay them unless they enter highly remunerative specialties. Also, high levels of indebtedness may increase default levels once graduates feel the full impact of scheduled repayments. Several steps would help to alleviate this problem, but are unlikely to solve it. First, medical schools should lower tuition or at least declare a moratorium on increases. Second, limits should be imposed on the amount of total education debt a student is allowed to assume. Third, hospitals with extensive residency programs should assume some responsibility for helping trainees manage their finances. Fourth, the government should institute a loan forgiveness program that addresses the need for physician-investigators, primary care physicians, those willing to practice in underserved areas, and those from underrepresented minorities. And fifth, all institutions involved in medical training and its finance should work together to advise students on managing their debts. PMID:1993102

  6. Slow medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians. PMID:25426738

  7. DOES DIFFERENT STAGES OF MEDICAL EDUCATION WILL BRING CHANGES IN ATTITUDE TOWARDS RURAL HEALTH SERVICES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To know attitude for rural health service in students of different stages of medical education like undergraduate (third year MBBS students , internship doing student and post graduates students. MATERIALS & METHOD : The present cross sectional study was conducted at Governement Medical C ollege , Nagpur in month of august to November 2014 in predesigned and pretested proform. The proforma includes information about parents regarding socioeconomic status their occupation literacy status a nd also information regarding willingness to work in rural health services and different reasons for not giving health services to rural areas like political unstable area , no entertainments , no future , not having better leaving conditions , no proper educa tion for their kids etc . Informed consent was taken prior to inclusion into the study . Three different medical educating students i.e 69 % (99 third MBBS students , 54% (Interns 87 students and 47% (61 postgraduates students. RESULTS: Undergraduate stude nt and in interns female students are more than male students and they are71 (72 % and 50(57% respectively. Most of the study participants are residing in urban areas i.e. 63 (63.6% undergraduates , 58(66.7% interns and 49(80.3% students in postgraduat es are having urban is the place of residence. 54(76% female students from undergraduates and 32 (64% female students from interns and 15(68.1% female students from postgraduates are willing to serve for rural health. female undergraduates students (88. 7%accepted rural area is unstable to work when compared with male undergraduates (42.9% and this difference found to be statistically significant (p=0.001.Majority of female undergraduates(69% accepted that there is no personal safety in rural areas as compared with male undergraduates(17.9%.This difference also found to be significant (p=0.001.Isolation and remoteness of the location of health facility was accepted by most of the female

  8. Human values in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J R

    1976-11-01

    Attitudes and values in medicine vary with the nature of the individual, his education and training, and the circumstances of his professional life. Comparisons are drawn between medical education in Britain 40 years ago and today. Though education has changed, British students are still mainly motivated by a desire to care for sick people. The impact of personal medicine on a country that has long accepted the need for some kind of national health service is described. It is postulated that as government and public become increasingly involved in health care, it is of paramount importance that medical education should provide a clear understanding of what a profession is and inculcate a determination to maintain true professional status. New responsibilities of the profession, to the public at large and to society, are suggested. The ability of medical education to exert a good influence on concern for human values in medicine depends in the final analysis on the ability to show excellence to medical students.

  9. Impact of medical informatics on medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S M

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, medical informatics has become a well-recognized branch of medicine. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines information technology and various specialties of medicine. The impact of medical informatics on medical education is advancing along with the rapid developments in computer science. Departments of medical informatics or similar divisions have appeared in schools of medicine in Taiwan in the past 5 years. At National Taiwan University College of Medicine, we offer curricula in basic computer concepts, network concepts, operating systems, word processing, database and data processing, computer media resources, multimedia computer statistics, intelligent health information systems, medical diagnostic support systems, and electronic medical record systems. Distance learning has also been favorably accepted on this campus. Recently, we proposed the concept of a virtual medical campus, which will break the physical barriers of time and space. We expect this revolution to influence every aspect of medicine, especially medical education. PMID:10705693

  10. Learning objects in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Mintzer, Michael J; Issenberg, S Barry

    2006-11-01

    A learning object (LO) is a grouping of instructional materials structured to meet a specified educational objective. Digital LOs, which can be stored electronically, allow a new approach to instructional activity, making medical education more efficient, and potentially more cost-effective. They are reusable and can incorporate text, graphics, animations, audio, and video to support and enhance learning. A learning object can stand alone or be aggregated with additional objects to create larger forms of educational content meeting multiple educational objectives. Digital learning objects located in online repositories can be accessed by many computers and are easily handled by an array of learning management systems for delivery to learners at any time. Integrating digital learning objects with traditional educational methods in a blended learning approach assists medical educators in meeting the challenges of competing priorities. Multimedia LOs enable learners to tailor their experience to their preferred learning style. Through the use of learning objects, learners' reactions, their acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes, and their behavioral changes become readily measurable. Learning objects provide multiple research opportunities, such as their use in adaptive learning, their added value in preclinical versus clinical education, and their impact as part of a blended learning strategy. PMID:17594550

  11. Computer Systems in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Orthner, Helmuth F

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers in medical education spans wide and diverse areas. Many areas may be considered traditional applications of data processing techniques to manage administrative and fiscal data. Such areas are typical for student admissions, course registration, continuing medical education program management, etc. Other applications deal more directly with medical education, such as educational testing (examination processing, competency testing, skills evaluation, etc.), course e...

  12. Reform of medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2010-01-01

    There are 41 medical schools in South Korea with over 3500 students graduating from the medical schools annually with the appropriate qualifications to practice medicine. Korean medical educators have made significant efforts to enhance the effectiveness of medical education by preparing students for the rapidly changing global environment of medicine and healthcare. This article outlines the reform efforts made by Korean medical schools to meet such demands, which includes the adoption of student-centered and competency-based education, e-learning, and authentic assessment of clinical performance. It also discusses the recent reform of the medical education system, driven by the Government's policy to prepare Korean higher education for an increasingly knowledge-based society. PMID:20163225

  13. Blended Learning in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing pedagogical advancements in medical education across the globe have gained the attention of academicians for the preparation of well-educated and competent physicians to address the healthcare issues facing today. The integration of technology into medical pedagogy has proved effective in many ways. This has made the medical education…

  14. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  15. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end. PMID:26675191

  16. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end.

  17. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators.

  18. The Role of Reflection in Professional Medical Education: A Conceptual Change Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Mariana G.; And Others

    Ideas concerning reflection in general, the role of reflection in cognitive apprenticeship, and reflection in action are discussed. The notion of reflection in a particular setting is presented for two cases: the professional education and training of physicians, and a teaching improvement program in which a teacher-teacher coach facilitates the…

  19. Competency-based medical education in postgraduate medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iobst, William F.; Sherbino, Jonathan; Ten Cate, Olle; Richardson, Denyse L.; Dath, Deepak; Swing, Susan R.; Harris, Peter; Mungroo, Rani; Holmboe, Eric S.; Frank, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of Tomorrow's Doctors in 1993, medical education began the transition from a time-and process-based system to a competency-based training framework. Implementing competency-based training in postgraduate medical education poses many challenges but ultimately requires a demonstr

  20. The Revolution in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Christina M; Cox, Susan M; Dalrymple, John L

    2016-02-01

    Medical education has been gradually evolving for hundreds of years, but educators are now seeking to identify ways to prepare students for the future of health care delivery. Medical education reform today focuses on creating entirely new models and is moving away from the traditional, post-Flexnerian organization of the medical school curriculum. Content is now being integrated thematically and presented along interdisciplinary lines with an interdigitation of basic and clinical sciences across all four years. Current trends indicate education should contain elements that produce a physician who is able to improve the quality of health care by taking a humanistic approach to medicine, thinks critically, and participates effectively in multidisciplinary and team approaches to patient care. Ultimately, medical education innovation should recognize the development of a physician is a lifetime process and will approach the formation of physicians from a new paradigm to better serve the educator and prepare the learner for the medical practice of tomorrow. PMID:26859376

  1. Perspective: the negativity bias, medical education, and the culture of academic medicine: why culture change is hard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizlip, Julie; May, Natalie; Schorling, John; Williams, Anne; Plews-Ogan, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Despite ongoing efforts to improve working conditions, address well-being of faculty and students, and promote professionalism, many still feel the culture of academic medicine is problematic. Depression and burnout persist among physicians and trainees. The authors propose that culture change is so challenging in part because of an evolutionary construct known as the negativity bias that is reinforced serially in medical education. The negativity bias drives people to attend to and be more greatly affected by the negative aspects of experience. Some common teaching methods such as simulations, pimping, and instruction in clinical reasoning inadvertently reinforce the negativity bias and thereby enhance physicians' focus on the negative. Here, the authors examine the concept of negativity bias in the context of academic medicine, arguing that culture is affected by serially emphasizing the inherent bias to recognize and remember the negative. They explore the potential role of practices rooted in positive psychology as powerful tools to counteract the negativity bias and aid in achieving desired culture change.

  2. Students' opinions on the prevailing and innovative methods in medical education technology and changes recommended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misal Devika D.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The survey reveals that the students are satisfied with the current system on the whole. However they require changes in some areas like lectures and seminars. They appear willing and enthusiastic to accept new concepts in teaching. Hence, newer teaching-learning methodologies should be tried and adopted for better classroom results. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 121-125

  3. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  4. Course Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Jennifer R.; Shea, Judy A.

    2007-01-01

    Course evaluation is integral to medical education. We discuss (1) distinctive features of medical education that impact on course evaluation, (2) a framework for course evaluations, (3) details that shape the evaluation process, (4) key measurement issues important to data gathering and interpretation, and (5) opportunities for expanding the…

  5. What is the Best Evidence Medical Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Masoomi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME is defined as: “The implementation by teachers and educational bodies in their practice, of methods and approaches to education based on the best evidence available.” Five steps have been recognized in the practice of BEME. These are: framing the question, developing a search strategy, evaluating the evidence, implementing change and evaluating that change. In this paper, I described the concept of BEME, its steps, and challenges.

  6. From traditional to patient-centered learning: curriculum change as an intervention for changing institutional culture and promoting professionalism in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Charles E; McBride, Rosanne B; Vari, Richard C; Olson, Linda; Wilson, H David

    2007-11-01

    The authors reframe a curriculum change from a traditional lecture-based to an integrated patient-centered approach as an intervention for changing the culture and hidden curriculum of an institution in ways that promote professionalism. Within this context, the authors articulate some of the inherent process and relational factors brought about by these curricular changes that are essential elements of this intervention process. In 1998 the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UNDSMHS) introduced a new preclinical patient-centered learning (PCL) curriculum for first- and second-year medical students. Case-based, small-group learning forms the critical foundation of the PCL process, and an integrated basic and clinical science didactic component supports this process. At the student level, the case-based PCL process generates innovative opportunities for professionalism education from the explicitly articulated formal content that arises naturally from the cases, but more importantly from the implicit values inherent to the PCL small-group process itself--humanism, accountability, pursuit of excellence, and altruism. Further, the organizational changes necessary for the transformation to the PCL curriculum required process changes at student, faculty, and administrative levels that have resulted in a cultural shift toward relationship centeredness within the institution. The authors describe the evolution and structure of the PCL curriculum at UNDSMHS and how this curricular transformation has served as an intervention that promotes professionalism and institutional culture change through (1) processes at the student level that present new opportunities for professionalism education, and (2) processes at student, faculty, administrative, and institutional levels that have created an institutional culture that supports, models, and promotes relationship-centered professional values.

  7. A pilot survey of junior doctors’ attitudes and awareness around medication review: time to change our educational approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Jubraj, Barry; Marvin, Vanessa; Poots, Alan J; Patel, Shreena; Bovill, Iñaki; Barnett, Nina; Issen, Laurel; Bell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore junior doctors' attitudes and awareness around concepts related to medication review, in order to find ways to change the culture for reviewing, altering and stopping inappropriate or unnecessary medicines. Having already demonstrated the value of team working with senior doctors and pharmacists and the use of a medication review tool, we are now looking to engage first year clinicians and undergraduates in the process. Method An online survey about medicatio...

  8. [The globalization of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives. PMID:23343741

  9. [The globalization of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  10. Are medical educators following General Medical Council guidelines on obesity education: if not why not?

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm A, Mann K, Peters S, Hart J

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) General Medical Council (GMC) recommends that graduating medical students are competent to discuss obesity and behaviour change with patients, it is difficult to integrate this education into existing curricula, and clinicians report being unprepared to support patients needing obesity management in practice. We therefore aimed to identify factors influencing the integration of obesity management education within medical schools. Methods Twenty-...

  11. Social accountability of medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems...... both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its...

  12. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate...

  13. Can the Tools of Activity Theory Help Us in Advancing Understanding and Organisational Change in Undergraduate Medical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Anne-Marie; Ledger, Alison; Kilminster, Sue; Fuller, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Continued changes to healthcare delivery in the UK, and an increasing focus on patient safety and quality improvement, require a radical rethink on how we enable graduates to begin work in challenging, complex environments. Professional regulatory bodies now require undergraduate medical schools to implement an "assistantship" period in…

  14. Just imagine: new paradigms for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil B; Hull, Alan L; Young, James B; Stoller, James K

    2013-10-01

    For all its traditional successes, the current model of medical education in the United States and Canada is being challenged on issues of quality, throughput, and cost, a process that has exposed numerous shortcomings in its efforts to meet the needs of the nations' health care systems. A radical change in direction is required because the current path will not lead to a solution.The 2010 publication Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency identifies several goals for improving the medical education system, and proposals have been made to reform medical education to meet these goals. Enacting these recommendations practically and efficiently, while training more health care providers at a lower cost, is challenging.To advance solutions, the authors review innovations that are disrupting higher education and describe a vision for using these to create a new model for competency-based, learner-centered medical education that can better meet the needs of the health care system while adhering to the spirit of the above proposals. These innovations include collaboration amongst medical schools to develop massive open online courses for didactic content; faculty working in small groups to leverage this online content in a "flipped-classroom" model; and digital badges for credentialing entrustable professional activities over the continuum of learning. PMID:23969368

  15. Needs and necessities of medical ethics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, new medical technologies and their probable misuses have emerged public concerns about medical ethics. Medical ethics is a practical discipline that provides a structured approach for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues in clinical medicine. "nIn this study we reviewed some new methods of teaching medical ethics in other countries by searching in internet and literature. "nTwo key features related to the teaching of medical ethics are active involvement of students in the learning process instead of merely lecturing about the ethical principles and assessing how students apply their knowledge of ethical principles in simulated and actual situations. In many countries such as Iran, medical schools attempted to address medical ethics issues in formal ethics classes. "nIt is clear that the traditional method is no longer sufficient to meet the needs of practitioners and societies and new methods particularly those emphasize on active learning, individual participation, group interactions, and a process - based approach, should be developed and implemented. In addition, a concerted effort to improve education in medical ethics will benefit the medical profession and services to patients. Therefore, we recommend policy makers of medical ethics education to change the traditional methods to the modern methods; which are used now in the world.

  16. QUALITY ENHANCEMENT IN MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Nejati Ajibisheh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient time, education has been evaluated in terms of its practical value among the Chinese; however, despite its long history, performance evaluation is the most complex and controversial of human resource management techniques (Roberts, 2003, and a little understood function of organizational life.Performance appraisal in both the private and the public sectors have become an integral part of work life. Of course, there is a growing interest to use performance management techniques in educational institutes in order to increase the competitiveness and quality of university education in a globalized environment .Accordingly, medical education requires special performance management and excellence models to improve the quality of course materials and provided services.The aim of this article is to develop a model of academic excellence based on a combination of SERVQUAL technique, Balanced Scorecard model, and EFQM Excellence Model. The SERVQUAL technique can be used to identify the gap between medical students\\' expectations and perceived experience as indicators of service quality, to measure quality of services offered by medical universities.In this article, with the use of Balanced Scorecard and EFQM, a comprehensive model will be introduced to enhance the quality of medical education. The model will recommend a process within different academic quality dimensions. In addition, the paper will introduce approaches to use available resources effectively to improve educational development.

  17. Interactive Video in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; Price, Ronald N.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of attributes have to be taught to a medical student. Various formats of these skills are currently in vogue, namely lectures, small group sessions, preceptorships, etc. The objective of this project is to evaluate the utility of interactive video in medical education. Lessons using interactive video were developed to teach history taking skills, procedural skills, problem solving skills and to acquire knowledge base. Evaluation strategies are being developed to assess which format,...

  18. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  19. [Medical education: between science and Bildungsroman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it. PMID:27039441

  20. [Medical education: between science and Bildungsroman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it.

  1. [Piercing: health education or medicalization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2000-06-10

    In Europe, the piercing mode has naturally been associated with specific complications raising an important public health problem. The debate on the role physicians should play requires a careful analysis of the ethical issues involved. Specifically, should the piercing be done in a medical setting? This question is raised because, when performed under ideal conditions, the act of piercing requires a certain degree of medical competency: history taking, asepsia, technical procedure (hemostasis), anesthesia.... However, mandatory medicalization would not, in our opinion, appear to be desirable since we are dealing with a social rite which lies outside the domain of specific medical care. Nevertheless, although we do not advocate systematic medicalization, we do believe that medicine should play a role, in terms of public health, in this emerging practice. We discuss the modalities of a health education dialogue which could be established with professional practicing piercing.

  2. Managed care and medical education: hard cases and hard choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E

    1997-05-01

    As managed care becomes more and more dominant in U.S. health care, it is coming into conflict with medical education. There are historical reasons for this: medical education traditionally excluded physicians who chose to work in health plans, and for profit managed care has tended to avoid subsidizing medical education. In order to improve the climate, three changes are necessary: medical education must understand the tense history of discord between the two; distinctions must be made between responsible and irresponsible managed care plans; and medical educators should not assume they own the moral high ground. Arrogance, a gross oversupply of physicians and especially specialists, scandals and fraud, an often callous attitude toward the poor, and other sins can be laid at medical education's door. The worse threat for both sides is that the public and payers could simply abandon both, leading to underfunding for health professions education, a society that does not trust its health care system, and the loss of superb teaching organizations. To prevent this, managed care and medical education should work together to solve several difficult problems: how to shrink the medical education infrastructure; how to report honestly the uses to which medical education funds are put; and how to identify and end irresponsible behavior on the part of health plans and medical education entities alike. If the two sides can exercise leadership in these areas, they will be able to protect and enhance the singular place of honor that medical education holds in this society. PMID:9159575

  3. [Flipped classroom in basic medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenmies, Jussi; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is facing changes in order to improve young doctors' competency to respond better to current needs of the patients and the society. Both curriculum content and teaching methods are revised. In addition to vibrant research in academic medical education, teachers are supported by the improved web-based learning environments and novel technical tools. Flipped classroom, a new paradigm that benefits from technical development, provides many opportunities for medical education. This teaching method always consists of two mutually complementary parts. The first part of the learning action takes place independently off classroom with video lectures or other stimuli for learning. The second part takes place in conjunction with the teacher and other students, and requires student group interactions.

  4. The current medical education system in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Toshiya; Tohda, Shuji

    2011-07-04

    To contribute to the innovation of the medical education system in Japan, we visited 35 medical schools and 5 institutes in 12 countries of North America, Europe, Australia and Asia in 2008-2010 and observed the education system. We met the deans, medical education committee and administration affairs and discussed about the desirable education system. We also observed the facilities of medical schools.Medical education system shows marked diversity in the world. There are three types of education course; non-graduate-entry program(non-GEP), graduate-entry program(GEP) and mixed program of non-GEP and GEP. Even in the same country, several types of medical schools coexist. Although the education methods are also various among medical schools, most of the medical schools have introduced tutorial system based on PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning to create excellent medical physicians. The medical education system is variable among countries depending on the social environment. Although the change in education program may not be necessary in Japan, we have to innovate education methods; clinical training by clinical clerkship must be made more developed to foster the training of the excellent clinical physicians, and tutorial education by PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning should be introduced more actively.

  5. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, M I

    1980-01-01

    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization. PMID:7405276

  6. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  7. A new direction for medical education in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Paul; Kellett, John

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, new concepts of educational theory and practice have stimulated new approaches to medical education in many countries. For various reasons, medical education in Ireland has been slow to change such that there are now increasing concerns about educational standards. In addition, Ireland currently produces too few doctors and is therefore highly dependent on overseas doctors to maintain its health service. The responsible agencies are finally about to address these problems through a major expansion of medical education coupled with a strong agenda for educational reform. While the reform process will clearly be influenced by the experience of other counties, Ireland now has a great opportunity to take innovation in medical education a step further. For example, there is now an opportunity to develop new strategies to ensure the social accountability of medical education, to increase its community orientation and to foster interprofessional teaching and learning. PMID:17338960

  8. Innovations in higher medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the innovations in the higher medical education. Particular attention in this sphere is paid to the detailed analysis of the subject as a mechanism of cognition and psycho-emotional aspect. It should be noticed that the development of the university education demands the integration of functional systems to study the general medicine and the art of healing. In conclusion it has been found out that the new methodological approach is necessary to bring the teacher closer to the subject particularly to integrate the relation of the opposites.

  9. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Hakan

    2002-01-01

    Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings), and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made. PMID:12074763

  10. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaman Hakan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings, and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made.

  11. Medical Education and Global Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Peter; Morse, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to expand medical training in resource-constrained settings are laudable, but change that transforms health systems will require new educational approaches. Today's physician-leaders need to leverage clinical and global health knowledge with a nuanced understanding of the social forces that impact health, the ability to marshal political will, and the capacity to manage dynamic programs and institutions. In establishing the University of Global Health Equity, we have identified three reform principles. First, equipping medical schools with the tools and technology to deliver is imperative. Second, the mismatch between the skills taught in most medical schools and those needed to improve fragile health systems must be addressed. Finally, medical schools that strive to eliminate health inequities should "walk the walk," adopting progressive practices to institutionalize equity. PMID:27437820

  12. Promissory Concept of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Voronenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing medical education (CME is a dynamic system, where distance learning is an important component. In this article, we posit the Promissory Concept of distance learning. The central principle upon which this methodology is based is that the doctor can be located in any place where the information needed for his or her practice is easily available to the patient and where the doctor is able to monitor the development of his or her knowledge and practical skills, and is able to build his or her educational record of accomplishment. The Promissory Concept combines the availability of existing online opportunities with professional self-development which can be put to the test by an external supervisor (a professor or curator, who in turn will be able to identify existing advantages in knowledge, as well as those requiring further improvement, thus helping the learner's professional development. This approach was introduced to general practitioners and nephrologists practising in Ukraine in 2013. From 2014, the Promissory Concept has been associated with the Renal Eastern Europe Nephrology Academy's (REENA annual CME course, which has been accredited by ERA-EDTA (European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association for the past 8 years. REENA is controlled by the state organisation of postgraduate education – Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. The Promissory Concept is supported by printed educational material in the scientific medical Ukrainian journal Kidneys, which is registered in scientific databases (as a Google scholar, etc.. An important characteristic of the Promissory Concept is the active involvement of doctors, who give constructive feedback on the programme. This feedback contributes to the content of the CME learning activity, as well as enhancing compliance in participation. As a result, it helps create motivated adherence and improved professional development.

  13. Widening Participation in Medical Education: Challenging Elitism and Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Kathy; Roberts, Trudie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine issues relating to the enduring nature of elitism and exclusion in medical education by exploring the changes in social and policy influences on the admission and inclusion of women and disabled people to undergraduate medical courses and the medical profession. The widening participation imperative in the United Kingdom…

  14. Mobile technologies in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken; Ellaway, Rachel H; Topps, David; Archibald, Douglas; Hogue, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies (including handheld and wearable devices) have the potential to enhance learning activities from basic medical undergraduate education through residency and beyond. In order to use these technologies successfully, medical educators need to be aware of the underpinning socio-theoretical concepts that influence their usage, the pre-clinical and clinical educational environment in which the educational activities occur, and the practical possibilities and limitations of their usage. This Guide builds upon the previous AMEE Guide to e-Learning in medical education by providing medical teachers with conceptual frameworks and practical examples of using mobile technologies in medical education. The goal is to help medical teachers to use these concepts and technologies at all levels of medical education to improve the education of medical and healthcare personnel, and ultimately contribute to improved patient healthcare. This Guide begins by reviewing some of the technological changes that have occurred in recent years, and then examines the theoretical basis (both social and educational) for understanding mobile technology usage. From there, the Guide progresses through a hierarchy of institutional, teacher and learner needs, identifying issues, problems and solutions for the effective use of mobile technology in medical education. This Guide ends with a brief look to the future. PMID:27010681

  15. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  16. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  17. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  18. Initiatives for Medical Education Research at the International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Jutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical Education research is a relativelynew field but one that is progressing rapidly worldwide.This article is an attempt to take stock of the currentstatus of Medical Education research in InternationalMedical University and to explore the various factorsthat have influenced its direction. It also shares some ofthe initiatives that have been instituted or intended tobe instituted at our university.

  19. Leading Educational Change Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  20. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  1. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  2. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  3. The Government-Medical Education Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Issues addressed in this speech to the Association of American Medical Colleges include: oversupply of doctors, geographic maldistribution, demographic changes needed by medical schools, federal strategies, medical ethics, preventive medicine, and the economics of health care.

  4. Leveraging e-learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain

  5. Medical education research in GCC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996–2013. Methods In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996–2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an aff...

  6. Medical education in India: current challenges and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Anjali; Kashyap, Surender

    2014-12-01

    Medical education in India is suffering from various shortcomings at conceptual as well as implementation level. With the expansion in medical education, the doctor to patient ratio has increased but these numbers do not align well with the overall quality of medical care in the country. To address this issue, a comprehensive analysis of various associated factors is essential. Indian medical education is suffering from a maldistribution of resources, unregulated growth in the private sector, lack of uniform admission procedures and traditional curricula lacking innovative approaches. To achieve higher standards of medical education, our goal should be to re-evaluate each and every aspect; create an efficient accreditation system; promote an equal distribution of resources, redesign curricula with stricter implementation and improved assessment methodologies; all of which will generate efficient medical graduates and consequently better health care delivery, and resulting in desired change within the system.

  7. Trends in research about postgraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo-Cárdenas, Leonor Angélica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was framed in the research: Characterization of professional competency-based model in medical education developed in twelve clinical and nine surgical specializations at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia. Its aim was to inquire about the state of the art in medical postgraduate education. The guiding question was: Where is present-day research headed in medical postgraduate education. For this descriptive, nonexperimental work, 12 bibliographic databases were reviewed and 28 research articles related to graduate medical formation were selected. The findings were compared, analyzed and interpreted. The tendency in research on graduate medical education points to the need of having multi-inter-trans-disciplinary and humanistic proposals based on constructivism; to consider evaluation as a process emphasizing on learning and the participation of students, and to build systems of pedagogical formation of tutors and interactive and flexible curricula. The lack of studies that promote competencies-based training in postgraduate medical education is notorious.

  8. Changing educational needs of psychologists: do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belar, Cynthia D

    2008-03-01

    Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs. The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the author by the conference organizers of the 3rd National Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Conference and is based on the perspective of the author.

  9. [Medical education challenged by the learning society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Hernández, Luis Felipe; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia B

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the limitations of dominant paradigms in education and identifies the necessity of research-situated learning in real environments and how medical education must be involved with knowledge management in real, complex, adaptive systems, and concludes with the need for constructing novel educative paradigms with regard to new educational paradigms.

  10. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  11. The Role of Medical Museums in Contemporary Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great…

  12. The Impact of the Clinical Medical Librarian on Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Jeanne; Hamburger, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    A University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine team approach is described that combines the knowledge and skills of the physician, nurse, clinical pharmacist, clinical medical librarian, etc., into a cooperative unit to provide health education and health care delivery. The impact of the clinical medical librarian is discussed. (MLW)

  13. Effectiveness of continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulos, Spyridon S; Dorman, Todd; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Wilson, Lisa M; Ashar, Bimal H; Magaziner, Jeffrey L; Miller, Redonda G; Thomas, Patricia A; Prokopowicz, Gregory P; Qayyum, Rehan; Bass, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite the broad range of continuing medical education (CME) offerings aimed at educating practicing physicians through the provision of up-to-date clinical information, physicians commonly overuse, under-use, and misuse therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. It has been suggested that the ineffective nature of CME either accounts for the discrepancy between evidence and practice or at a minimum contributes to this gap. Understanding what CME tools and techniques are most effective in disseminating and retaining medical knowledge is critical to improving CME and thus diminishing the gap between evidence and practice. The purpose of this review was to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of CME and differing instructional designs in terms of knowledge, attitudes, skills, practice behavior, and clinical practice outcomes. REVIEW METHODS We formulated specific questions with input from external experts and representatives of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) which nominated this topic. We systematically searched the literature using specific eligibility criteria, hand searching of selected journals, and electronic databases including: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), PsycINFO, and the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Two independent reviewers conducted title scans, abstract reviews, and then full article reviews to identify eligible articles. Each eligible article underwent double review for data abstraction and assessment of study quality. RESULTS Of the 68,000 citations identified by literature searching, 136 articles and 9 systematic reviews ultimately met our eligibility criteria. The overall quality of the literature was low and consequently firm conclusions were

  14. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years, relate

  15. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  16. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  17. Medical education reimagined: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, Charles G; Khan, Salman

    2013-10-01

    The authors propose a new model for medical education based on the "flipped classroom" design. In this model, students would access brief (~10 minute) online videos to learn new concepts on their own time. The content could be viewed by the students as many times as necessary to master the knowledge in preparation for classroom time facilitated by expert faculty leading dynamic, interactive sessions where students can apply their newly mastered knowledge.The authors argue that the modern digitally empowered learner, the unremitting expansion of biomedical knowledge, and the increasing specialization within the practice of medicine drive the need to reimagine medical education. The changes that they propose emphasize the need to define a core curriculum that can meet learners where they are in a digitally oriented world, enhance the relevance and retention of knowledge through rich interactive exercises, and facilitate in-depth learning fueled by individual students' aptitude and passion. The creation and adoption of this model would be meaningfully enhanced by cooperative efforts across medical schools. PMID:23969367

  18. Medical education reimagined: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, Charles G; Khan, Salman

    2013-10-01

    The authors propose a new model for medical education based on the "flipped classroom" design. In this model, students would access brief (~10 minute) online videos to learn new concepts on their own time. The content could be viewed by the students as many times as necessary to master the knowledge in preparation for classroom time facilitated by expert faculty leading dynamic, interactive sessions where students can apply their newly mastered knowledge.The authors argue that the modern digitally empowered learner, the unremitting expansion of biomedical knowledge, and the increasing specialization within the practice of medicine drive the need to reimagine medical education. The changes that they propose emphasize the need to define a core curriculum that can meet learners where they are in a digitally oriented world, enhance the relevance and retention of knowledge through rich interactive exercises, and facilitate in-depth learning fueled by individual students' aptitude and passion. The creation and adoption of this model would be meaningfully enhanced by cooperative efforts across medical schools.

  19. Medical education and health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, J M

    1980-10-01

    Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.

  20. Osteopathic Medical Education and Social Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Madson, Robyn; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2016-04-01

    The public's trust in physicians continues to decline. As a way to begin regaining this trust, stakeholders, including physicians, medical educators, patient advocacy groups, and community-based organizations, have called for medical education to meet societal health needs, particularly the needs of those members who are most vulnerable, by incorporating social accountability into the medical school curriculum. The unique attributes of the osteopath-ic medical profession provide an enabling and conducive environment for broader social accountability in the health care system. Osteopathic medical schools must actively safeguard the profession's unequivocal commitment to producing healers that are fiduciaries for their patients, communities, and populations at large. PMID:27018954

  1. Cultivating Medical Education Research Mentorship as a Pathway Towards High Quality Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.

  2. The role of medical museums in contemporary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreez, Yehia M A-H; Willems, Luuk N A; Wells, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great advances in information technology and web-based learning that are currently at play in every level of medical training. Some medical schools have abandoned their museums while others have gradually given away their museums' contents to devote former museum space to new classrooms, lecture halls, and laboratories. These trends have accelerated as medical school enrollment has increased and as increasing interest in biological and biomedical research activities have caused medical schools to convert museum space into research facilities. A few medical schools, however, have considered the contents of their museums as irreplaceable resources for modern medicine and medical education and the space these occupy as great environments for independent and self-directed learning. Consequently, some medical schools have updated their medical museums and equipped them with new technologies. The Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands and the Medical Museum of Kawasaki Medical School in Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan, are two examples of such upgraded museums. Student surveys at Leiden University have indicated that all students (100%) found audio-guided museum tours to be useful for learning and majorities of them found guided tours to be clinically relevant (87%). However, 69% of students felt that museum visits should be optional rather than compulsory within the medical training curriculum.

  3. Medical leadership in changing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh

    2011-09-01

    Medical leadership is becoming an increasingly popular buzz word. However, its importance, skills inherent in it and training for such a role are often not clear. In this paper, some of these factors are described. Medical leadership, like other leadership roles, must have passion, courage, vision and an ability to scan the horizon for health care policies, which may affect health services directly or indirectly. Medical leaders often have the skills to look at the problems in a longitudinal manner and have a broader perspective in understanding dynamics of policy. One of the key tasks for any leader is development of strategy and communicating such strategy to others, especially stakeholders. Medical leadership must also work with some stakeholders in a much more proactive way rather than a reactive one. In this paper, some theories of leadership are highlighted and medical leadership is placed in that context. PMID:23051111

  4. [Medical care, medical education, and the job market for physicians: internship in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, J

    1984-01-01

    This article endeavors to establish a connection between the emergence and development of internship in Mexico and a series of macrosocial changes, including the extension of Government intervention in medical care, the labor market processes that have led to unemployment among physicians, and the responses of the medical education system. The author considers that this comprehensive analysis will be of use in understanding at least in part the complex dynamics of the influence exerted on each other by medical care and medical education, and particularly how changes in conditions on the labor market for physicians have led to the formulation of ideological paradigms of medical practice and to their institutionalization in the programs of study of the medical schools. The study is also important for developed and developing countries with increasing numbers of physicians and which therefore need to understand the possible causes and effects of this trend. PMID:6394274

  5. Medical School Hotline: The Evolution of the Japanese Medical Education System: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the “Galapagos Islands” for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tok...

  6. How to improve medical education website design

    OpenAIRE

    Levine David; Hill-Briggs Felicia; Sisson Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Internet provides a means of disseminating medical education curricula, allowing institutions to share educational resources. Much of what is published online is poorly planned, does not meet learners' needs, or is out of date. Discussion Applying principles of curriculum development, adult learning theory and educational website design may result in improved online educational resources. Key steps in developing and implementing an education website include: 1) Follow ...

  7. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  8. [Promotion of the systematization of consistent education for medical technologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kiyoko; Sato, Kenji

    2006-03-01

    Although only about 35 years have passed since the birth of medical technology, marked advances have been made in the clinical laboratory science field. However, the educational system for technologists attached importance only to the learning of techniques for a long period because special training schools primarily provided medical technologist education. With the passing of time, the need for advanced knowledge has increased, and a plan to change the education system for medical technologists to 4-year colleges was evaluated. In 1989, the Course of Laboratory Sciences as a 4-year system for medical technologist education was established in the Department of Medicine, Tokyo Medical & Dental University. The Doctoral Course of Graduate School (first term) was established in 1993 and the Doctoral Course of Graduate School(second term) in 1995. In 2001, these courses formed a graduate university as the Division of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, the Graduate School of Allied Health Sciences. Thus, a consistent educational system for medical technologists was established. By March 2005, about 500 students had graduated from this division. Based on this experience, we produced a 4-stage developmental program and provide an advanced educational system for the promotion of the systematization of consistent medical technologist education.

  9. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  10. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  11. [The importance of Internet in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandza, H; Masić, I; Knezević, Z

    1999-01-01

    Internet is more and more involved in medical education in many countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not only medical student but also physicians are using Internet to find out the latest information in specific field of medicine. Some sites are specially designed to be used for medical education. Information about some programs or courses of medical education can be found here. Improvements of network resources and multimedia technologies have made it possible to satisfy needs for medical Education. Multimedia approach offer possibility to show text, picture, sound or movie considering specific need. All of that is available on Internet. Many search engine are available in the world and student can use all of them when they have access to Internet. The more precise search can be done on specific sites that include information about medical conditions and medical education. The most important is MEDLINE. MEDLINE is bibliographic database of National Library Of Medicine in USA. This database can be explored from several sites. All relevant information about article can be find here including abstract and service to obtain full text of specific article. Database can be searched using specific keywords that can be find in text or in MESH thesaurus. Data about authors, their addresses and title of article can be found, too. The possibility of using Internet in medical education are considered in this article. Some of Internet sites are described, too.

  12. In defence of utility: the medical humanities and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blease, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    The idea that a study of the humanities helps to humanise doctors has become a leitmotif within the field. It is argued that the humanities (especially, literature) help to foster insights beyond those provided by biomedical training. Healthy young medics, it is claimed, can thereby gain significant insights into patienthood, and obtain important skills that may be valuable for their professional life. But the instrumentality of the humanities is not the only justification proffered for its inclusion in medical curricula. In this paper I critically examine the two overarching justifications recurrently cited in the mainstream literature-namely, (1) the instrumental worth and (2) the intrinsic value of the medical humanities in educating doctors. Examining these theses (and focusing on the views of a leading medical humanities scholar) I show that the bifurcation into instrumental versus non-instrumental justifications is not supported by the argumentation. Instead, I find that the particulars of the supposedly intrinsic justifications amount to an unambiguously instrumental defence of the humanities. Contextualizing the present investigation to probe further, I describe a long history of debate about the role of the humanities in British education and find that it rests on unsupported dichotomies (utility vs non-utility, theoretical vs applied, educated vs trained). I conclude that the medical humanities' manifesto would be more intellectually honest and coherent, and provide a more robust defence of its value in medical education, if it chose to embrace a wholly instrumental rationale for its role. PMID:26842744

  13. Sophistry, the Sophists and modern medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsuibhne, S P

    2010-01-01

    The term 'sophist' has become a term of intellectual abuse in both general discourse and that of educational theory. However the actual thought of the fifth century BC Athenian-based philosophers who were the original Sophists was very different from the caricature. In this essay, I draw parallels between trends in modern medical educational practice and the thought of the Sophists. Specific areas discussed are the professionalisation of medical education, the teaching of higher-order characterological attributes such as personal development skills, and evidence-based medical education. Using the specific example of the Sophist Protagoras, it is argued that the Sophists were precursors of philosophical approaches and practices of enquiry underlying modern medical education.

  14. The UCSF Academy of Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Molly; Irby, David M; Debas, Haile T

    2003-07-01

    The Academy of Medical Educators at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), was established in 2000 to (1) foster excellence in teaching, (2) support teachers of medicine, and (3) promote curricular innovation. A membership organization, it recognizes five categories of educational activity: direct teaching, curriculum development and assessment of learner performance, advising and mentoring, educational administration and leadership, and educational research. Excellent medical student teaching and outstanding accomplishment in one or more areas of educational activity qualify a teacher for membership. Candidates prepare a portfolio that is reviewed internally and by national experts in medical education. Currently 37 faculty members, 3% of the entire school of medicine faculty, belong to the academy. The academy's innovations funding program disburses one-year grants to support curricular development and comparisons of pedagogical approaches; through this mechanism, the academy has funded 20 projects at a total cost of $442,300. Three fourths of expended funds support faculty release time. Faculty development efforts include promotion of the use of an educator's portfolio and the establishment of a mentoring program for junior faculty members built around observation of teaching. The Academy of Medical Educators vigorously supports expanded scholarship in education; the academy-sponsored Education Day is an opportunity for educators to present their work locally. Recipients of innovations-funding program grants are expected to present their work in an appropriate national forum and are assisted in doing this through quarterly scholarship clinics. The Academy of Medical Educators has been well received at UCSF and is enhancing the status of medical education and teachers. PMID:12857682

  15. Modelling empathy in medical and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Corbett, Andrea

    2012-03-30

    Medical and nursing student numbers are expected to increase significantly in NZ over the next few years. The ethical, and professional and clinical skills' training of trainee health practitioners is a central and crucial component in medical and nursing education and is underpinned by a strong commitment to improve patient health and well being. In this discussion we reflect on the virtue of empathy and the importance of role modelling in the education of nurses and doctors. We endorse the claim that as medical educators, how and what we teach matters.

  16. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  17. Commissioning medical education: principles for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-04-01

    We need to ensure that we get value for money for our investments in medical education. Commissioning is one method of ensuring that we get value. However, like any other tool, it needs to be used properly. PMID:27071431

  18. Acute IPPS - Direct Graduate Medical Education (DGME)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 1886(h) of the Act, establish a methodology for determining payments to hospitals for the costs of approved graduate medical education (GME) programs.

  19. [Professional medical education in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, I Iu; Romantsov, M G; Shul'diakov, A A

    2013-09-01

    There is a tendency to increase the role of education process in the life of the individual, caused by necessity of new knowledge, experience and skills, which is the effective measure to adapt human being to the current social and economic conditions. The idea of education as a relatively short period of life is gone. It becomes obvious, that use of forms and types of adult education becomes limited and inefficient. The development of the modern education system involves training with a high level of independence and leadership of the individual student; provision by vocational education institutions a wide range of educational services; adequate to the needs of the labor market; variability of methods and forms of education; active use of the modern educational technology as one of the most convenient ways of training.

  20. Using Technology to Meet the Challenges of Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guze, Phyllis A

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly changing, influenced by many factors including the changing health care environment, the changing role of the physician, altered societal expectations, rapidly changing medical science, and the diversity of pedagogical techniques. Changes in societal expectations put patient safety in the forefront, and raises the ethical issues of learning interactions and procedures on live patients, with the long-standing teaching method of "see one, do one, teach one" no longer acceptable. The educational goals of using technology in medical education include facilitating basic knowledge acquisition, improving decision making, enhancement of perceptual variation, improving skill coordination, practicing for rare or critical events, learning team training, and improving psychomotor skills. Different technologies can address these goals. Technologies such as podcasts and videos with flipped classrooms, mobile devices with apps, video games, simulations (part-time trainers, integrated simulators, virtual reality), and wearable devices (google glass) are some of the techniques available to address the changing educational environment. This article presents how the use of technologies can provide the infrastructure and basis for addressing many of the challenges in providing medical education for the future.

  1. Using Technology to Meet the Challenges of Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guze, Phyllis A

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly changing, influenced by many factors including the changing health care environment, the changing role of the physician, altered societal expectations, rapidly changing medical science, and the diversity of pedagogical techniques. Changes in societal expectations put patient safety in the forefront, and raises the ethical issues of learning interactions and procedures on live patients, with the long-standing teaching method of "see one, do one, teach one" no longer acceptable. The educational goals of using technology in medical education include facilitating basic knowledge acquisition, improving decision making, enhancement of perceptual variation, improving skill coordination, practicing for rare or critical events, learning team training, and improving psychomotor skills. Different technologies can address these goals. Technologies such as podcasts and videos with flipped classrooms, mobile devices with apps, video games, simulations (part-time trainers, integrated simulators, virtual reality), and wearable devices (google glass) are some of the techniques available to address the changing educational environment. This article presents how the use of technologies can provide the infrastructure and basis for addressing many of the challenges in providing medical education for the future. PMID:26330687

  2. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website (www.unsa-medinfo.org). Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  3. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website (www.unsa-medinfo.org). Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  4. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  5. Ethics of cost analyses in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    Cost analyses in medical education are rarely straightforward, and rarely lead to clear-cut conclusions. Occasionally they do lead to clear conclusions but even when that happens, some stakeholders will ask difficult but valid questions about what to do following cost analyses–specifically about distributive justice in the allocation of resources. At present there are few or no debates about these issues and rationing decisions that are taken in medical education are largely made subconscious...

  6. Medical Treatment and Educational Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nettie R.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The miracles of modern medical technology are sometimes accompanied by unanticipated costs affecting survivors' quality of life. This article considers the educational implications for three groups of children who could not survive without medical intervention: children treated for cancer, low birth-weight and premature infants, and the medically…

  7. Software engineering education in medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, F J

    1989-11-01

    Requirements and approaches of Software Engineering education in the field of Medical Informatics are described with respect to the impact of (1) experiences characterizing the "software misery", (2) status and tendencies in software methodology, and (3) educational status and needs in computer science education influenced by the controversy "theoretical versus practical education". Special attention is directed toward the growing importance of analysis, design methods, and techniques in the professional spectrum of Medical Informatics, the relevance of general principles of systems engineering in health care, the potential of non-procedural programming paradigms, and the intersection of Artificial Intelligence and education. Realizations of and experiences with programs in the field of Software Engineering are reported with respect to special requirements in Medical Informatics.

  8. Ideological and political education for clinical graduates on the basis of medical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-chuan JING

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the reform of medical system, medical education in China is also undergoing great changes. Due to the special characteristics of medical education, it differs from other educational characteristics. It carries with the characteristics of clinical practice on the basis distributed learning, physical and mental development along with ages, enrollment expansion and medical requirement, and standardization training for resident doctors. So, ideological and political education of clinical graduates showed many new characteristics. First, medical ethics education is the basic step, combined with the related disciplines of medical humanity connotation. Second, flexible and diversified form of ideological and political education on the basis of medical work is necessary. Third, establish a system of ideological and political education for clinical graduates, to build up new education concept, and to develop ideological and political education activities for clinical graduates in depth.

  9. A Viewpoint on Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique characteristics of medical universities compared to other higher education centers in Iran is existence of medical education development centers. These centers have made an attempt to enhance the quality of medical education by regular and constant activity in various domains of educational planning and policymaking, and empowerment of the faculty members, students and personnel. Numerous studies published in Persian and English journals are one of the achievements of these centers. Also, several Persian and English scientific journals are being published by these centers among which the role of the few English languages journals of these centers is remarkably significant. Since these journals attract more audience, especially from abroad, it is necessary to pay special heed to the quality of their published articles. Avoiding the publication of such articles as “analysis of awareness and attitude” and turning to innovative intervention studies in medical education (1 have been highlighted by the authorities of medical education. During the past 30 years, the planners and medical sciences teachers have made to keep up with global developments in medicine. However, medical education in Iran has encountered numerous challenges, some of which have been referred to in the literature such as incompatibility of education with the real needs of the society, necessity of revising the syllabi and scientific resources, and weakness of clinical education (2, 3. One of the challenges highlighted in the recent years is the decreasing trend in medical students’ motivation and their academic failure. Various studies have investigated the factors affecting the students’ academic failure (4, 5, but few studies have analyzed the practical and scientific solutions to decrease and prevent it. Accepting undergraduate students in Iranian universities is state-based and the fact that universities have no role in the selection and acceptance

  10. Information Technologies (ITs) in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Toromanovic, Selim; Masic, Fedja; Sivic, Suad; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Zlatan

    2011-09-01

    Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, "learning at bedside," aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education - their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education.

  11. A Linked Dataset of Medical Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Stefan; Taibi, Davide; Yu, Hong Qing; Dovrolis, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    Reusable educational resources became increasingly important for enhancing learning and teaching experiences, particularly in the medical domain where resources are particularly expensive to produce. While interoperability across educational resources metadata repositories is yet limited to the heterogeneity of metadata standards and interface…

  12. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested.

  13. Definition of "Rural" Determines the Placement Outcomes of a Rural Medical Education Program: Analysis of Jichi Medical University Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To show the impact of changing the definition of what is "rural" on the outcomes of a rural medical education program. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 643 graduates under obligatory rural service and 1,699 graduates after serving their obligation, all from Jichi Medical University (JMU), a binding rural education program in Japan,…

  14. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  15. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Shari A.; Engle, Deborah L.; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M.; Narayan, Aditee P.; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape. PMID:27476538

  16. The educational attributes and responsibilities of effective medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Charles J; Searle, Nancy S; Gunderman, Richard; Krane, N Kevin; Perkowski, Linda; Schutze, Gordon E; Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    Of the many roles that the academic-educator may fulfill, that of teacher is particularly challenging. Building on prior recommendations from the literature, this article identifies the skill set of teachers across the medical education continuum-characteristics of attitude and attributes, knowledge, and pedagogic skills that permit effective teaching to be linked with effective learning and understanding. This examination which characterizes teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and skills serves to reemphasize the centrality of teaching within medical education, provides direction for faculty and institutions alike in the discharge of academic responsibilities, and makes educational accountability clear. This listing of teacher attitudes and responsibilities was vetted in 2009 by medical education leaders from across North America during a national conference on faculty development.A set of recommendations concerning faculty development issues for medical teachers is offered. The recommendations are intended to establish an academic culture in medical education that values and rewards-academically and fiscally-those centrally committed to the role of teacher. The challenges of defining skills, developing and funding programs, and ongoing evaluation must be faced to achieve success in teaching throughout medical education, now and in the future. Faculty members, fellow learners, and patients deserve no less. PMID:21346510

  17. Hungarian medical physics MSc education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical physics specialisation aims at providing high level interdisciplinary theoretical and practical knowledge and readily applicable skills, which can put into action in both the clinical and the R and D field. The first competence based gradual medical physics course in the B.Sc./M.Sc. system in Hungary was launched two years ago at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Budapest University of Technology and Economics managed by the Institute of Nuclear Techniques. The MSc programme was compiled on the base of EFOMP, IPEM, AAPM and IAEA recommendations. The course curriculum comprises fundamental physical subjects (atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics and particle physics) as well as fundamental medical knowledge (anatomy, physiology and radiobiology) required for subjects of diagnostic and therapy. Students of this MSc branch may chose further subjects from a 'compulsory optional' set of subjects, which contains medical imaging, X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation protection, Monte Carlo calculation and its clinical applications, ultrasound diagnostics and nuclear medicine. (authors)

  18. Time to return medical schools to their primary purpose: education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, S

    1996-04-01

    The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians. PMID:8645396

  19. Medical education in Maharashtra: The student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is hardly any structured study reporting the perspective of medical students, with regard to the medical education system in Maharashtra, which is facing challenges. Aim: A perception study of students was conducted to explore the situation, challenges, and consequent solutions of medical education in Maharashtra. Settings and Design: A descriptive perception study. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was e-mailed to 92 students, and interviews with seven key-informants comprising of faculty, administrators, and policy makers were conducted, to gather qualitative insights. Results: Thirty-seven student replies were received and analyzed. The satisfaction level of student respondents for various factors was as follows: infrastructure 18/37 (48.6%, quality of teaching 14/37 (37.8%, patient population 22/37 (59.5%, and administration 8/37 (21.6%. Ninety-two percent (34/37 of the students stated that the fundamental problem was the inability of the system to attract good, quality teachers. The reasons stated were low salaries, low level of job satisfaction, high level of bureaucracy, and high work load. Conclusions: The medical education system in Maharashtra is viewed as being stagnant. The respondents emphasized an urgent need for educational reforms, which should include better compensation for teachers, sharing of facilities between government and private medical colleges, and improved efficiency of the Medical Council of India. In the long run a public-private mix with sharing of resources may be a plausible solution.

  20. Education and training in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical physicist education and training reflects its role in medicine. A solid foundation in medical physics is fundamental for the practice of a physicist in any multidisciplinary activity in medicine, in particular when ionising radiation are used either in diagnosis or in therapy as a proper high-level knowledge of practicing is the tool to maintain proper radiation control and desirable outcome of results. In many countries specific organizations and legislative national bodies have constructed curricula for the medical physicist. For example, the EC Directive concerning basic safety standards and medical exposures have given statutory requirements for physicists to be involved in the medical use of ionising radiation. An outline of the medical physicist's duties, curricula and training is presented in a paper as a discussing basis for the introduction of the curricula in a specific national scheme in agreement with the existing legislation constraints. (author)

  1. Teleconferencing in Medical Education: A Useful Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba Pankaj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Education and healthcare are basic needs for humandevelopment. Technological innovation has broadened theaccess to higher quality healthcare and education withoutregard to time, distance or geopolitical boundaries. Distancelearning has gained popularity as a means of learning inrecent years due to widely distributed learners, busyschedules and rising travel costs. Teleconferencing is also avery useful tool as a distance learning method.Teleconferencing is a real-time and live interactiveprogramme in which one set of participants are at one ormore locations and the other set of participants are atanother. The teleconference allows for interaction,including audio and/or video, and possibly other modalities,between at least two sites. Various methods are availablefor setting up a teleconferencing unit. A detailed review ofthe trend in the use of teleconferencing in medicaleducation was conducted using Medline and a literaturesearch.Teleconferencing was found to be a very useful tool incontinuing medical education (CME, postgraduate medicaleducation, undergraduate medical education,telementoring and many other situations. The use ofteleconferencing in medical education has many advantagesincluding savings in terms of travel costs and time. It givesaccess to the best educational resources and experiencewithout any limitations of boundaries of distance and time.It encourages two-way interactions and facilitates learningin adults. Despite having some pitfalls in its implementationit is now being seen as an important tool in facilitatinglearning in medicine and many medical schools andinstitutions are adapting this novel tool.

  2. Radiation education required for medical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the present state and problems of radiation education in the training course for health professionals. Firstly, the following are introduced: Revised version of 'Medical education model and core curriculum ? Guidelines for educational contents (FY2010),' and the contents of pre-graduation education of education curriculum at the Department of Radiation Biology and Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health (UOEH). Next, the author describes his educational experience at the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Nursing) of UOEH, and stresses the need for radiation education in order to eliminate the anxiety of nurses against radiation. In addition, he also describes the present state and problems with respect to exposure and radiation risk due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. (A.O.)

  3. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma. PMID:26133893

  4. China's Medical Education and Interventional Neuroradiology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue

    2015-11-01

    China's medical education system is complex and consists of degree programs lasting from 3 to 8 years, the inconsistency across previous educational backgrounds is a challenge when implementing residency training objectives and contents. Only in several advanced medical universities, education for interventional neuroradiology (INR) is a part of a rotation in the 2-year training for neurosurgery. Advanced INR techniques are confined to big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, where most of the Chinese INRs have their 6 to 12 months fellowship to major medical centers. With a tremendous economic growth in the region, we expect that INR practice will evolve at an equally rapid pace, and information presented in this chapter may soon become obsolete.

  5. China's Medical Education and Interventional Neuroradiology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue

    2015-11-01

    China's medical education system is complex and consists of degree programs lasting from 3 to 8 years, the inconsistency across previous educational backgrounds is a challenge when implementing residency training objectives and contents. Only in several advanced medical universities, education for interventional neuroradiology (INR) is a part of a rotation in the 2-year training for neurosurgery. Advanced INR techniques are confined to big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, where most of the Chinese INRs have their 6 to 12 months fellowship to major medical centers. With a tremendous economic growth in the region, we expect that INR practice will evolve at an equally rapid pace, and information presented in this chapter may soon become obsolete. PMID:26079783

  6. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.Keywords: educational quality, medical education, quality control, quality assessment, quality management models

  7. Of warps and woofs: the tapestry of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C P

    1993-06-01

    The author likens some major aspects of academic medical centers to tightly and carefully woven tapestries. The metaphor is intended to highlight the complexity of medical centers and to help those who are working to promote meaningful and sustainable innovations in medical education. Underlying the presentation is the premise that there already exist several "good ideas" to improve medical education, and that deeper understanding of the barriers to change can promote adoption of these ideas and others. Three tapestries are presented. Each has a vertical "warp" representing one dimension of an academic medical center, and each has a horizontal "woof" representing an interrelated dimension. (In one tapestry, for example, departmental resources constitute the warp and the faculty functions of teaching, research, and service constitute the woof.) In each tapestry, the warp is presently the dominant feature. In each, strengthening or empowering the woof is seen as a step that would facilitate change. Because educational change is a difficult and inevitably slow process, those who work for change are counseled to be patient and have realistic expectations. PMID:8507322

  8. Benefits of simulation training in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Abas T; Juma FZ

    2016-01-01

    Tamkin Abas, Fatema Zehra JumaManchester Medical School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKWe read about the satisfaction of simulation experiences of paramedic students1 with great interest. As medical students, with early clinical experience comparative to paramedic training in the UK, we agree that simulation-based learning is well received in health care education. As part of the curriculum at the University of Manchester, we are exposed to a variety of simulation-based environments...

  9. Distributed medical informatics education using internet2.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Joseph; Tidmarsh, Patricia; Hersh, William; Friedman, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The curricula of most medical informatics training programs are incomplete. We used Internet2-based videoconferencing to expand the educational opportunities of medical informatics students at Oregon Health & Science University and the University of Pittsburgh. Students and faculty in both programs shared extra-curricular research conferences and journal club meetings. A course in Information Retrieval was made available to students in both programs. The conferences, meetings and class were w...

  10. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  11. Podcasting in Medical Education: Can We Turn This Toy into an Effective Learning Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanussi, Lauren; Paget, Mike; Tworek, Janet; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Advances in information technology have changed how we deliver medical education, sometimes for the better, sometimes not. Technologies that were designed for purposes other than education, such as podcasting, are now frequently used in medical education. In this article, the authors discuss the pros and cons of adapting existing technologies for…

  12. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  13. Transforming medical professionalism to fit changing health needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starfield Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes. However, it may also be necessary to initiate basic changes to way in which the medical professionals work in order to adapt to the changing health needs. Discussion Medical leaders, supported by health policy makers, can consciously activate the self-regulatory capacity of medical professionalism in order to transform the medical profession and the related professional processes of care so that it can adapt to the changing health needs. In doing so, they would open up additional routes to the improvement of the health services system and to health improvement. This involves three consecutive steps: (1 defining and categorizing the health needs of the population; (2 reorganizing the specialty domains around the needs of population groups; (3 reorganizing the specialty domains by eliminating work that could be done by less educated personnel or by the patients themselves. We suggest seven strategies that are required in order to achieve this transformation. Summary Changing medical professionalism to fit the changing health needs will not be easy. It will need strong leadership. But, if the medical world does not embark on this endeavour, good doctoring will become merely a bureaucratic and/or marketing exercise that obscures the ultimate goal of medicine which is to optimize the health of both individuals and the entire population.

  14. Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

  15. [A pragmatic vision of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumplido-Hernández, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Some aspects of the educative system at the Mexican Institute of Social Security are described. It is based on the perception of a problematic situation that constitutes a challenge. An educational process to enhance the quality of medical education is proposed, with the adoption of a participative model of self-constructive learning. This proposal is based on theoretical references in a both philosophical and sociological knowledge perspective of an individual related to institutional behavior, to end with a psychological view from which some learning theories are explored. An educational model is built with the inclusion of institutional elements, like the new evaluation system for residents; centers for educational investigation and a teacher training process. Three axes of the educational process are proposed: tutorial teaching, development of complex abilities of thought and critical reading. The evaluation system includes guides for measuring the operational process established and the professional responsibilities of the different participants.

  16. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  17. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined. PMID:25637457

  18. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined.

  19. Does interprofessional education jeopardize medical skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Faresjö, Tomas; Wilhelmsson, Margaretha; Pelling, Staffan; Dahlgren, Lars-Ove; Hammar, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Original publication: Tomas Faresjö, Margaretha Wilhelmsson, Staffan Pelling, Lars-Ove Dahlgren and Mats Hammar, Does interprofessional education jeopardize medical skills?, 2008, Journal of Interprofessional Care, (21), 5, 573-576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820701412335. Copyright © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

  20. Regulation of the Postgraduate Medical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berende, E.; Dehn, M.; Katona, K.; Mosca, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse three aspects of the postgraduate medical education programmes – financing, quality assurance, and workforce planning – and investigate whether these activities should be regulated by the government or left to market forces. To answer this question we rely on the framework o

  1. Emotional Intelligence Medical Education: Measuring the Unmeasurable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Natalie J.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Hudson, J. Nicky; Bleakley, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) has gained increasing popularity over the last 10 years and now has a relatively large academic and popular associated literature. EI is beginning to be discussed within the medical education literature, where, however, it is treated uncritically. This reflections paper aims to stimulate thought about…

  2. The Study of Literature in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathryn Montgomery; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that study of literature in the medical curriculum develops physician skills in observation and interpretation, clinical imagination, and self-expression and self-knowledge; enriches moral education; fosters tolerance for uncertainty; and promotes empathy for patients. Appropriate courses for inclusion of and classroom…

  3. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  4. Realizing the promise of competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S

    2015-04-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) places a premium on both educational and clinical outcomes. The Milestones component of the Next Accreditation System represents a fundamental change in medical education in the United States and is part of the drive to realize the full promise of CBME. The Milestones framework provides a descriptive blueprint in each specialty to guide curriculum development and assessment practices. From the beginning of the Outcomes project in 1999, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the larger medical education community recognized the importance of improving their approach to assessment. Work-based assessments, which rely heavily on the observations and judgments of clinical faculty, are central to a competency-based approach. The direct observation of learners and the provision of robust feedback have always been recognized as critical components of medical education, but CBME systems further elevate their importance. Without effective and frequent direct observation, coaching, and feedback, the full potential of CBME and the Milestones cannot be achieved. Furthermore, simply using the Milestones as end-of-rotation evaluations to "check the box" to meet requirements undermines the intent of an outcomes-based accreditation system. In this Commentary, the author explores these challenges, addressing the concerns raised by Williams and colleagues in their Commentary. Meeting the assessment challenges of the Milestones will require a renewed commitment from institutions to meet the profession's "special obligations" to patients and learners. All stakeholders in graduate medical education must commit to a professional system of self-regulation to prepare highly competent physicians to fulfill this social contract.

  5. Medical specialty boards can help measure graduate medical education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Carek, Peter; Holmboe, Eric S; Puffer, James C; Warm, Eric J; Phillips, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    U.S. graduate medical education (GME) training institutions are under increasing scrutiny to measure program outcomes as a demonstration of accountability for the sizeable funding they receive from the federal government. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is a potential agent of measuring GME accountability but has no interaction with physicians after residency training is completed. American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) member boards interact with physicians throughout their careers through maintenance of certification (MOC) and are a potential source of valuable data on physician competency and quality of care, both of which could be used to measure GME accountability.The authors propose that ABMS boards and the ACGME deepen their existing relationship to better assess residency training outcomes. ABMS boards have a wealth of data on physicians collected as a by-product of MOC and business operations. Further, many ABMS boards collect practice demographics and scope-of-practice information through MOC enrollment surveys or recertification examination questionnaires. These data are potentially valuable in helping residencies know what their graduates are doing in practice. Part 4 of MOC generally involves assessment of the quality of care delivered in practice, and ABMS boards could share these deidentified data with the ACGME and residency programs to provide direct feedback on the practice outcomes of graduates.ABMS member boards and the ACGME should broaden their long-standing relationship to further develop shared roles and data-sharing mechanisms to better inform residencies and the public about GME training outcomes. PMID:24871232

  6. Nutrition Education in Medical Schools: Trends and Implications for Health Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Schulman, Jessica A.

    1999-01-01

    With 20% of deaths in the U.S. attributed to improper diet and lack of exercise, renewed interest has emerged in nutrition education for medical professionals. Sociopolitical factors are exerting a profound influence on changes in medical curricula, moving medicine away from traditional biomedical curricula and toward more comprehensive programs of study. This paper explores how public demand for nutrition information, inadequate nutrition training among physicians, changes in health care, an...

  7. Podcasting in medical education: can we turn this toy into an effective learning tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanussi, Lauren; Paget, Mike; Tworek, Janet; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    Advances in information technology have changed how we deliver medical education, sometimes for the better, sometimes not. Technologies that were designed for purposes other than education, such as podcasting, are now frequently used in medical education. In this article, the authors discuss the pros and cons of adapting existing technologies for medical education, caution against limiting evaluation of technologies to the level of rater satisfaction, and suggest a research agenda for formally evaluating the role of existing and future technologies in medical education. PMID:21544550

  8. Gender and sex: issues in medical education [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] There is ample scientific evidence to support the importance of gender issues in health and illness. If we fail to take such sex and gender differences sufficiently into account, this will affect the quality of health care provided to men and women, and this is precisely what good medical education means to prevent. In this paper examples are given that show how knowledge, attitudes and skills relating to sex and gender can be implemented in both optional and compulsory courses. Next, factors that can facilitate or impede the implementation of gender specific medical education are described. Finally, the author discusses what needs to be done to educate future physicians that are equipped with appropriate expertise to deal with aspects of gender in medicine.

  9. Problems and Challenges in Medical Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As India marches towards an exciting new future of growth and progress, medical education will play pivotal role in crafting a sustained development agenda. The idea of creating a healthy society is no longer a debatable luxury; its significance has been grasped by policy shapers worldwide. In a developing nation like India, medical services play a very important role in the well-being of their citizens and indirectly play a very important part in the economic and overall development of the nation. The medical education system is suffering from misdistribution, traditional curriculum, poor assessment, neglected research and lack of faculty development programmes. ‘Vision 2015’ has potential for creating substantial change in Indian medical education. A stronger strategic approach will ensure a solid foundation for the improvement in the health status of India. Conventional-theoretical and experimental teaching blended with a system of teaching which is innovative, aiming to develop under-graduates and post-graduates as community-teachers, true-academician/researcher should be emphasized. This paper focuses on the various challenges of medical education in India.

  10. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  11. Lack of research aptitude in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Students are attracted towards the medical profession to become a doctor and not to be a researcher. According to a recent study there are about 1,00,000 undergraduate medical students in India at a given point of time, out of them only 0.9% of the students have shown research aptitude. During their training period of graduation in medical sciences, they are so much burdened with the work load of exams, practicals, ward duties and tutorials. In such an over burdened situation very few of them can think about research. A study had shown that training in research methodology received early in medical school helps students to develop a positive attitude towards research. So changes in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum are required to promote research among medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 247-248

  12. The use of Facebook in medical education – A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    [english] Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature...

  13. Department of medical education; A personal history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHMAN JOORABCHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief overview of the history of formal introduction of the art and science of education into the sphere of medical education in Shiraz. Before this introduction medical education was, and in the majority of other institutions world-wide still is, a simple transfer of knowledge from teacher to student. The students accepted their passive role because this was how they had been taught all their life. The teachers perpetuated this process because this was how they were taught themselves. After all, what was good enough for them was good enough for the students. All one needed to be a good teacher was to be an expert in ones field. What the Department of Medical Education attempted to do locally and the Regional Teacher Training Center internationally, was to promulgate problem-based, learner directed teaching using the principles of adult learning and using evaluation methods that were valid and reliable. This article describes the process used for this transformation and some of the results obtained.

  14. Ethics of cost analyses in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2013-11-01

    Cost analyses in medical education are rarely straightforward, and rarely lead to clear-cut conclusions. Occasionally they do lead to clear conclusions but even when that happens, some stakeholders will ask difficult but valid questions about what to do following cost analyses-specifically about distributive justice in the allocation of resources. At present there are few or no debates about these issues and rationing decisions that are taken in medical education are largely made subconsciously. Distributive justice 'concerns the nature of a socially just allocation of goods in a society'. Inevitably there is a large degree of subjectivity in the judgment as to whether an allocation is seen as socially just or ethical. There are different principles by which we can view distributive justice and which therefore affect the prism of subjectivity through which we see certain problems. For example, we might say that distributive justice at a certain institution or in a certain medical education system operates according to the principle that resources must be divided equally amongst learners. Another system may say that resources should be distributed according to the needs of learners or even of patients. No ethical system or model is inherently right or wrong, they depend on the context in which the educator is working. PMID:24203859

  15. [Competency-based assessment in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champin, Denisse

    2014-01-01

    At present, competency-based curriculum is considered to be the most appropriate model in medical education. Much has been written about this model; however, a crucial aspect of the model is the assessment of competency development which is a different point compared to the traditional model of cognitive assessment. Assessment in the context of the competencybased curriculum model must be aligned with the profile of the competencies that the institution offers. This publication reports the evaluation experience in a Medical School of Peru that applies a competency-based curriculum.

  16. Interprofessional education in the integrated medical education and health care system: A content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHABAZ MAFINEJAD, MAHBOOBEH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; SOLTANI ARABSHAHI, SEYYED KAMRAN; BIGDELI, SHOALEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. Methods This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Results Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were “educational structure”, “mediating factors”, “conceptual understanding”, and “professional identity”. These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Conclusion Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of inter-professional training programs in Iran.  In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system. PMID:27382577

  17. Interprofessional education in the integrated medical education and health care system: A content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHBOOBEH KHABAZ MAFINEJAD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Results: Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were “educational structure”, “mediating factors”, “conceptual understanding”, and “professional identity”. These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Conclusion: Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of interprofessional training programs in Iran. In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system.

  18. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  19. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, Thomas N.B., E-mail: T.Pascual@iaea.org [Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Chhem, Rethy, E-mail: R.Chhem@iaea.org [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Wang, Shih-Chang, E-mail: shih-chang.wang@sydney.edu.au [University of Sydney Discipline of Imaging, University of Sydney, Department of Radiology, Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Vujnovic, Sasa, E-mail: svujnovic@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Clinical Center Banja Luka, Zdrave Korda 1, 51000 Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2011-06-15

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  20. Resources for Medical Education: Finding the Right Prescription

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, Holly J

    2010-01-01

    What are the resources necessary to provide the highest quality education for medical students? This is the essential question which must be answered before a medical school can make a rational decision about the number of students to have in each class. In deciphering an objective way to determine the class size of a medical school, this paper explores the principles of medical education, accrediting organizations institutional expectations in providing a medical education program, and the a...

  1. [International accreditation of medical school towards quality assurance of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    An internationalization of practical medicine evoked international migrations of medical professionals. Since basic medical education is different among countries, the internationalization required international quality assurance of medical education. Global trend moves toward establishment of international accreditation system based on international standards. The World Federation for Medical Education proposed Global Standards for Quality Improvement as the international standards. Medical schools in Japan have started to establish program evaluation system. The standards which incorporated international standards have been published. The system for accreditation is being considered. An accreditation body, Japan Accreditation Council for Medical Education, is under construction. The accreditation is expected to enhance quality of education in Japan. PMID:24291905

  2. Medical student opinions on character development in medical education: a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, George B; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently United States (US) medical schools have implemented curricular reforms to address issues of character in medical education. Very few studies have examined students’ opinions about the importance of character development in medical school. This cross-sectional study assessed US medical students’ opinions regarding character-focused education and their experiences receiving character feedback from educators. We mailed a questionnaire to 960 third year medical students from 2...

  3. Values education: a new direction for medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Grundstein-Amado, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper suggests that medical education should redirect resources to values education, specifically developing new strategies to improve the process of clarification of values. The author suggests using the values journal method which is based on a systematic record of students' personal value systems reflected in their stories and life experience; and on their responses to case presentation. Generating a personal values journal helps students define who they are, what their social and pro...

  4. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among medical students in selected Saudi Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Almohaya, Abdulellah; Qrmli, Abdulaziz; Almagal, Naeif; Alamri, Khaled; Bahammam, Salman; Al-Enizi, Mashhour; Alanazi, Atif; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M.; Ahmed S BaHammam

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. Methods We surveyed medical schools that ...

  5. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  6. The current format and ongoing advances of medical education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishen, Kriya; Ovadia, Steven; Arzillo, Samantha; Avashia, Yash; Thaller, Seth R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the current system of medical education along with the advances that are being made to support the demands of a changing health care system. American medical education must reform to anticipate the future needs of a changing health care system. Since the dramatic transformations to medical education that followed the publication of the Flexner report in 1910, medical education in the United States has largely remained unaltered. Today, the education of future physicians is undergoing modifications at all levels: premedical education, medical school, and residency training. Advances are being made with respect to curriculum design and content, standardized testing, and accreditation milestones. Fields such as plastic surgery are taking strides toward improving resident training as the next accreditation system is established. To promote more efficacious medical education, the American Medical Association has provided grants for innovations in education. Likewise, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlined 6 core competencies to standardize the educational goals of residency training. Such efforts are likely to improve the education of future physicians so that they are able to meet the future needs of American health care.

  7. Judicious Use of Simulation Technology in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael T.; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to…

  8. University medical education in Kenya: The challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David M; Mathai, Muthoni; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Mutiso, Victoria; Mbwayo, Anne W

    2010-01-01

    There are two medical schools training doctors in Kenya: the Moi University established in 1984 and the University of Nairobi established in 1967. The University of Nairobi has so far produced the majority of Kenyan doctors. Both are public universities with the Government being the main financier. The increased demand for university education and the inability to meet these demands has led to the introduction of a system of training self-sponsored medical students alongside Government-subsidised students. One other public university has started a medical school. The pressure to increase the number of schools and students in the absence of increased resources poses a particular challenge to the country. PMID:20854156

  9. Protecting health from climate change: Preparedness of medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majra Jai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health and to meet the challenge, health systems require qualified staff. Aims : To study the preparedness of medical interns to meet the challenge of protecting health from climate change. Settings and Design: Medical colleges in a coastal town. Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A proportionate number of medical interns from five medical colleges were included in the study. Level of awareness was used as a criterion to judge the preparedness. A self-administered, pretested, open-ended questionnaire was used. Responses were evaluated and graded. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, percentage, Chi-test. Results : About 90% of the medical interns were aware of the climate change and human activities that were playing a major role. Ninety-four percent were aware of the direct health impacts due to higher temperature and depletion in ozone concentration, and about 78% of the respondents were aware about the change in frequency / distribution of vector-borne diseases, water borne / related diseases, malnutrition, and health impact of population displacement. Knowledge regarding health protection was limited to mitigation of climate change and training / education. Options like adaptation, establishing / strengthening climate and disease surveillance systems, and health action in emergency were known to only nine (7%, eight (6%, and 17 (13%, respectively. Collegewise difference was statistically insignificant. Extra / co-curricular activities were the major source of knowledge. Conclusions : Majority of medical interns were aware of the causes and health impacts of climate change, but their knowledge regarding health protection measures was limited.

  10. Gender and sex: issues in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2010-01-01

    [english] There is ample scientific evidence to support the importance of gender issues in health and illness. If we fail to take such sex and gender differences sufficiently into account, this will affect the quality of health care provided to men and women, and this is precisely what good medical education means to prevent. In this paper examples are given that show how knowledge, attitudes and skills relating to sex and gender can be implemented in both optional and compulsory courses. Nex...

  11. The Education Review Board: A Mechanism for Managing Potential Conflicts of Interest in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borus, Jonathan F; Alexander, Erik K; Bierer, Barbara E; Bringhurst, F Richard; Clark, Christopher; Klanica, Kaley E; Stewart, Erin C; Friedman, Lawrence S

    2015-12-01

    Concerns about the influence of industry support on medical education, research, and patient care have increased in both medical and political circles. Some academic medical centers, questioning whether industry support of medical education could be appropriate and not a conflict of interest, banned such support. In 2009, a Partners HealthCare System commission concluded that interactions with industry remained important to Partners' charitable academic mission and made recommendations to transparently manage such relationships. An Education Review Board (ERB) was created to oversee and manage all industry support of Partners educational activities.Using a case review method, the ERB developed guidelines to implement the commission's recommendations. A multi-funder rule was established that prohibits industry support from only one company for any Partners educational activity. Within that framework, the ERB established guidelines on industry support of educational conferences, clinical fellowships, and trainees' expenses for attending external educational programs; gifts of textbooks and other educational materials; promotional opportunities associated with Partners educational activities; Partners educational activities under contract with an industry entity; and industry-run programs using Partners resources.Although many changes have resulted from the implementation of the ERB guidelines, the number of industry grants for Partners educational activities has remained relatively stable, and funding for these activities declined only moderately during the first three full calendar years (2011-2013) of ERB oversight. The ERB continually educates both the Partners community and industry about the rationale for its guidelines and its openness to their refinement in response to changes in the external environment. PMID:26083402

  12. Computer science education for medical informaticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Judith R; Price, Susan L

    2004-03-18

    The core curriculum in the education of medical informaticians remains a topic of concern and discussion. This paper reports on a survey of medical informaticians with Master's level credentials that asked about computer science (CS) topics or skills that they need in their employment. All subjects were graduates or "near-graduates" of a single medical informatics Master's program that they entered with widely varying educational backgrounds. The survey instrument was validated for face and content validity prior to use. All survey items were rated as having some degree of importance in the work of these professionals, with retrieval and analysis of data from databases, database design and web technologies deemed most important. Least important were networking skills and object-oriented design and concepts. These results are consistent with other work done in the field and suggest that strong emphasis on technical skills, particularly databases, data analysis, web technologies, computer programming and general computer science are part of the core curriculum for medical informatics.

  13. Music Education Philosophy: Changing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marie; Goble, J. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the changes in music philosophy over the past half-century. Discusses two main philosophical foundations within music education and reasons for the changes: (1) aesthetic education in the 1950s; and (2) praxial philosophy in the 1990s. Includes resources on music philosophy. (CMK)

  14. School Music Education and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Thinking hopefully about the problems and possibilities of school music education, particularly in the United States, the author suggests a number of ways in which music educators might think and act more broadly, inclusively, humanely, and musically toward transforming their thought and practice. Rather than espousing change for change's sake, or…

  15. An international virtual medical school (IVIMEDS): the future for medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R M; Hart, I R

    2002-05-01

    The introduction of new learning technologies, the exponential growth of Internet usage and the advent of the World Wide Web have the potential of changing the face of higher education. There are also demands in medical education for greater globalization, for the development of a common core curriculum, for improving access to training, for more flexible and student-centred training programmes including programmes with multi-professional elements and for maintaining quality while increasing student numbers and working within financial constraints. An international virtual medical school (IVIMEDS) with a high-quality education programme embodying a hybrid model of a blended curriculum of innovative e-learning approaches and the best of traditional face-to-face teaching is one response to these challenges. Fifty leading international medical schools and institutions are participating in a feasibility study. This is exploring: innovative thinking and approaches to the new learning technologies including e-learning and virtual reality; new approaches to curriculum planning and mapping and advanced instructional design based on the use of 'reusable learning objects'; an international perspective on medical education which takes into account the trend to globalization; a flexible curriculum which meets the needs of different students and has the potential of increasing access to medicine. PMID:12098412

  16. Continuing medical education, needs assessment, and program development: theoretical constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, M; Lamble, W; Davis, P

    2001-01-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) program development and needs assessment have historically been practiced within the tradition of Ralph Tyler's education model. In light of transformational social, political, economic, and technical forces that demand greater account-ability and responsiveness from physicians, CME units are challenged to transform their cultures and structures from models that deliver education to models that support the facilitation of learning for enhanced competence and performance. This article describes key change forces for physicians and brings program development and needs assessment into focus for the discussion. The impact of change forces on program development and needs assessment are examined, and some techniques to move beyond the traditional approach of felt needs are presented as a way of enabling strategic administrative planning and change management. PMID:11291588

  17. [A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.

  18. Systems That Teach: Medical Education and the Future Healthcare Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.; Higgens, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Physician education has followed relatively rigid guidelines since the Flexner report of 1910. Medical education has been largely didactic with time-based progression and certifying exams, and with variable degrees of autonomy and supervision in graduate (post MD/DO degree) medical education programs. Innovative educational approaches now…

  19. Promoting safe use of medications: Providing medication education to seniors receiving Meals on Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kristina E.; Cohen, Lisa B.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives To assess whether pharmacist-provided medication education and counseling to Meals on Wheels (MOW) participants decreases medication-related preventable harm and improves adherence. Design Prospective, quasi-experiment. Setting Ambulatory congregrate dining centers. PATIENTS: Persons 60 years of age and older participating in MOW receiving prescription, nonprescription, or complementary products were eligible. In total, 42 patients consented. Five patients did not complete the first visit, and 13 patients did not complete the six-month follow-up visit. INTERVENTIONS: Pharmacists provided comprehensive medication education about prescription, nonprescription, and complementary products at baseline. Additional resources to enhance adherence and avoid medication-related preventable harm were provided and discussed. Main Outcome Measures Medication-related preventable harm and medication adherence were assessed before pharmacist intervention and six months after intervention. Adherence was assessed and compared with baseline using the Morisky scale and pill counts. Results Women constituted the majority of participants (94.4%) with an average age of 74.5 ± 8.2 years. Mean difference in Morisky score from baseline to six months was 0.28 (-0.11 to 0.56). After adjustment for age and living situation, the change in Morisky score was associated with a 14% improvement in adherence. Mean differences in drug-drug and drug-supplement interactions, and medication-related harm were not significantly reduced from baseline to study end. Conclusion Pharmacist intervention with MOW participants appeared to improve medication adherence rates but had limited effect on medication-related preventable harm. No findings reached statistical significance as the sample size was inadequate. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26450144

  20. Medical universities in Austria: impact of curriculum modernization on medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Lischka, M.

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade medical education in Austria has seen more changes than in the whole of the previous century, with a complete overhaul of the structure of undergraduate curricula. Curricula now are organized in thematic, integrated modules, students have early patient encounters, the number of examinations has been drastically reduced, objective examinations have been introduced throughout the entire course as has skills training, and quality management is assured. As a consequence of ...

  1. Medical universities in Austria: impact of curriculum modernization on medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Lischka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    [english] During the last decade medical education in Austria has seen more changes than in the whole of the previous century, with a complete overhaul of the structure of undergraduate curricula. Curricula now are organized in thematic, integrated modules, students have early patient encounters, the number of examinations has been drastically reduced, objective examinations have been introduced throughout the entire course as has skills training, and quality management is assured. As a conse...

  2. The Impact of Education Reform: An Asian Medical School's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gerald Ch; Lee, Jeremy Ne; Agrawal, Neelima; Tam, John Kc; Samarasekera, Dujeepa; Koh, Dow Rhoon; Wong, John El; Tan, Chay Hoon

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of education reforms on student-reported learning outcomes at the end of the 5-year medical school (M5) and 1-year internship (HO) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. A self-administered anonymous survey with 17 learning outcomes assessed, derived from Harden's Three-Circle Outcomes Model for outcomes-based education, was administered to 683 students at the end of medical school (M5) and internship (HO) from 2006, 2007 and 2008. We identified learning outcomes which changed significantly for internship (Cohorts A, B and C) and medical school (Cohorts B, C and D) between cohorts from 2006 to 2008, and compared learning outcomes between medical school and internship within cohorts (i.e. Cohort B which was M5 in 2006 and HO in 2007; Cohort C which was M5 in 2007 and HO in 2008). The proportion of students who agreed that medical school helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 15 out of 17 learning outcomes assessed. The proportion of students who agreed that internship helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 6 learning outcomes assessed. For Cohorts B and C, internship was more effective than medical school in achieving 8 learning outcomes. Cohort C reported that internship was more effective than medical school in 3 additional learning outcomes than Cohort B: patient management, humility and dedication. We conclude that a successful journey of education reform is an ongoing process that needs to comprehensively address multifaceted components such as faculty, administration and curriculum. PMID:27383719

  3. The moral education of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, R

    1998-01-01

    The author begins his essay by discussing George Eliot's novel Middlemarch, in which a doctor, early in his career, wanders from his idealistic commitment to serving the poor. Although he establishes a prominent practice, he considers himself a failure because "he had not done what he once meant to do." The essay explores how many of us (physicians included) forsake certain ideals or principles--not in one grand gesture, but in moment-to-moment decisions, in day-to-day rationalizations and self-deceptions, until we find ourselves caught in lives whose implications we have long ago stopped examining, never mind judging. Medical education barrages students with information, fosters sometimes ruthless competition, and perpetuates rote memorization and an obsession with test scores--all of which stifle moral reflection. Apart from radically rethinking medical education (doing away with the MCAT, for example, as Lewis Thomas proposed), how can we teach students to consider what it means to be a good doctor? Calling upon the work of Eliot, Walker Percy, and others, the author discusses how the study of literature can broaden and deepen the inner lives of medical students and encourage moral reflectiveness.

  4. Accreditation of undergraduate and graduate medical education: how do the standards contribute to quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation organizations such as the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are charged with the difficult task of evaluating the educational quality...... of medical education programs in North America. Traditionally accreditation includes a more quantitative rather than qualitative judgment of the educational facilities, resources and teaching provided by the programs. The focus is on the educational process but the contributions of these to the outcomes...... are not at all clear. As medical education moves toward outcome-based education related to a broad and context-based concept of competence, the accreditation paradigm should change accordingly. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Aug...

  5. [Innovative concepts for patient education in medical rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, H; Reusch, A; Meng, K

    2011-04-01

    Patient education aims to empower rehabilitants. While patient education has, in the past, been conceived of as providing solely information, modern self-management concepts now focus on both behavioral competencies and motivational factors. Participants receive all the skills and tools necessary to make informed decisions regarding both their health and lifestyles and to actively participate in the rehabilitation process. Accordingly, didactic methods have changed from predominantly vertical lectures to more patient-oriented and interactive approaches. Meta-analyses have proven that patient education is effective in improving the chronic conditions of patients. However, the implementation of modern concepts into routine care is still suboptimal. The Center of Patient Education, funded by the German Statutory Pension Insurance, has performed a survey of the present state of patient education within medical rehabilitation programs in Germany. Furthermore, quality criteria for patient education have been developed, an internet database presenting self-management programs in a systematic manner has been created, and various services designed to improve educational practice are being offered by the Center of Patient Education. Lastly, a state-of-the-art, self-management education program is described.

  6. The h-index in medical education: an analysis of medical education journal editorial boards

    OpenAIRE

    Doja, Asif; Eady, Kaylee; Horsley, Tanya; Bould, M. Dylan; Victor, J. Charles; Sampson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Disciplines differ in their authorship and citation practices, thus discipline-specific h-index norms are desirable. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the h-index and academic rank in the field of medical education, and the differences in the h-index between MD’s and PhD’s in this field. Methods: Due to the absence of a formalized registry of medical educators, we sampled available editorial board membership (considered a proxy for identi...

  7. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio

    2002-03-01

    The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.

  8. IOM releases report on graduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. On July 29 the Institute of Medicine (IOM released a report on graduate medical education (GME (1. This is the residency training that doctors complete after finishing medical school. This training is funded by about $15 billion annually from the Federal government with most of the monies coming from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. The report calls for an end to providing the money directly to the teaching hospitals and to dramatically alter the way the funds are paid. Instead payments would be made to community clinics phased in over about 10 years. To administer the program, the report recommends the formation of two committees: 1. A GME Policy Council in the Office of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health; and 2. A GME Center within the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to manage the operational aspects of GME CMS funding. The later committee ...

  9. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

  10. Deep Change in Congregational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Amy L.; Samuel, Nicole; Koren, Annette; Shain, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The Re-Imagine Project (of the Experiment in Congregational Education) is an attempt to engender innovation in congregational schools. A long-term study of 24 participating congregations in Greater New York examined the extent to which the effort yielded new models of education (radical change). The study included surveys of task force members and…

  11. 'Soft and fluffy': medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise.

  12. Gendered specialities during medical education: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, M.; Leerdam, L. van; Dielissen, P.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The careers of male and female physicians indicate gender differences, whereas in medical education a feminization is occurring. Our review aims to specify gender-related speciality preferences during medical education. A literature search on gender differences in medical students' speciality prefer

  13. Stretching the boundaries of medical education A case of medical college embracing humanities and social sciences in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Khan, Kausar S; Ali, Rukhsana; Azfar, Shireen; Ahmed, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aga Khan University, a private medical college, had a vision of producing physicians who are not only scientifically competent, but also socially sensitive, the latter by exposure of medical students to a broad-based curriculum. The objective of this study was to identify the genesis of broad-based education and its integration into the undergraduate medical education program as the Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS) course. Methods: A qualitative methodology was used for this study. Sources of data included document review and in-depth key informant interviews. Nvivo software was utilized to extract themes. Results: The study revealed the process of operationalization of the institutional vision to produce competent and culturally sensitive physicians. The delay in the establishment of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which was expected to take a lead role in the delivery of a broad-based education, led to the development of an innovative HASS course in the medical curriculum. The study also identified availability of faculty and resistance from students as challenges faced in the implementation and evolution of HASS. Conclusions: The description of the journey and viability of integration of HASS into the medical curriculum offers a model to medical colleges seeking ways to produce socially sensitive physicians. PMID:27648038

  14. The FAIMER Institute: creating international networks of medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, John; Burdick, William; Morahan, Page

    2005-05-01

    One of the many products of Miriam's career was an international network of medical educators. She knew we would learn from each other and gain access to the perspectives, resources, and experiences that such a community brings. More importantly, Miriam understood the need for shared values, support, encouragement, and a sense of global citizenship that can come only from an international network of colleagues and friends. The FAIMER Institute, described in this paper, is a formalization and extension of Miriam's work and we hope it will be as successful as she was. The FAIMER Institute is a two-year fellowship program designed for medical school faculty from developing countries who have the potential to improve medical education. The first year consists of two residential sessions in the US before and after an intersession of distance learning and implementation of an educational project at the participant's home institution. The second year, completed from the Fellow's home country, involves co-mentoring a new Fellow and active engagement in the Institute's Internet discussion group. The program is designed to teach educational methods and leadership skills, as well as to develop strong professional bonds with other medical educators around the world. Preliminary data concerning the efficacy of the program have been encouraging. Fellows' perceptions of their knowledge, skills and attitudes show significant improvement. These self-assessments are supported by the outcomes, which indicate considerable scholarship as well as academic and administrative advancement. There have also been changes in the nature of the professional networks of these medical educators, which enhance their ability to undertake more complex projects in an innovative fashion. Finally, plans for the future focus on conducting regional Institutes in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America with the goal of fostering the creation of networks of medical educators. The current model will

  15. Whither (Whether) Medical Humanities? The Future of Humanities and Arts in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal for Learning through the Arts" focuses on the uses of literature and arts in medical education. The introductory article addresses current debate in the field of medical humanities (MH), namely the existential question of what is the purpose of integrating humanities/arts in medical education; and then examines how…

  16. Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

  17. Funding medical education: should we follow a different model to general higher education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ISSUE. There has been much recent discussion on the funding of medical education. There has also been much discussion about the funding of higher education more generally. EVIDENCE. The topics of discussion have included the rising costs of education; who should pay; the various potential models of funding; and how best to ensure maximum returns from investment. IMPLICATIONS. Medical education has largely followed the emerging models of funding for higher education. However there are important reasons why the funding models for higher education may not suit medical education. These reasons include the fact that medical education is as important to the public as it is to the learner; the range of funding sources available to medical schools; the strict regulation of medical education; and the fact that the privatisation and commercialisation of higher education may not been in keeping with the social goals of medical schools and the agenda of diversification within the medical student population.

  18. Introducing Handheld Computing for Interactive Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this project were: (1 development of an interactive multimedia medical education tool (CO-ED utilizing modern features of handheld computing (PDA and major constructs of adult learning theories, and (2 pilot testing of the computer-assisted education in residents and clinicians. Comparison of the knowledge scores using paired t-test demonstrated statistically significant increase in subject knowledge (p<0.01 after using CO-ED. Attitudinal surveys were analyzed by total score (TS calculation represented as a percentage of a maximal possible score. The mean TS was 74.5±7.1%. None of the subjects (N=10 had TS less than 65% and in half of the subjects (N=5 TS was higher than 75%. Analysis of the semi-structured in-depth interviews showed strong support of the study subjects in using PDA as an educational tool, and high acceptance of CO-ED user interface. We concluded that PDA have a significant potential as a tool for clinician education.

  19. Perception of medical students for utility of mobile technology use in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama Subhash Thakre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile technology is changing the way we live, and it is beginning to change the way we learn. Current literature reviews have shown that research on mobile technology in medical education primarily focused on efficacy, of mobile devices as an educational tool and resource, infrastructure to support m-learning, benefits, challenges, and appropriate use. Objectives: To assess the perception of medical student for the utility of mobile technology in their learning experience and to find out different barriers in the application of mobile phone in medical education. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a descriptive study to assess emerging patterns of mobile technology use by medical students across the academic year 2013-2014. Interview and focus group discussion was a method of data collection. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation of the current mobile was 3.45 ± 1.45 years. Mobile users were 302 (96.79% and Smartphone users were 261 (83.61%. In the present study, 176 (56.41% used for the academic purpose and 65 (20.83% of the students preferred the same for an entertainment purpose. Gender-wise significant difference was observed in regards to Smartphone availability and daily Internet use for education purpose by female was more than male. Conclusion: The lessons learned from this study are-majority of the students use Smartphone mainly for communication, learning, and entertainment purpose. With increasing use of portable devices by students, it is logical to expect the next step to incorporate these devices in the learning environment and should, therefore, be appropriately considered for curriculum.

  20. Toward Social Accountability of Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Entezari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nFour values of social accountability are, relevance, quality, cost effectiveness and equity, as they pertain to the activities of medi­cal schools, namely education, research and service. Integration of medical education into health service provision is the best strategy for health system responsiveness and social accountability of medical education.

  1. Toward Social Accountability of Medical Education in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A Entezari; N Momtazmanesh; A. Khojasteh; Einollahi, B.

    2009-01-01

    "nFour values of social accountability are, relevance, quality, cost effectiveness and equity, as they pertain to the activities of medi­cal schools, namely education, research and service. Integration of medical education into health service provision is the best strategy for health system responsiveness and social accountability of medical education.

  2. Education and Moral Respect for the Medical Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I argue that medical education must remain attuned to the interests that physicians have in their own self-development despite ongoing calls for ethics education aimed at ensuring physicians maintain focus on the interests of the patient and society. In particular, I argue that medical education should advance (and abide by) criteria…

  3. Accreditation of Medical Education in China: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    As an external review mechanism, accreditation has played a positive global role in quality assurance and promotion of educational reform. Accreditation systems for medical education have been developed in more than 100 countries including China. In the past decade, Chinese standards for basic medical education have been issued together with…

  4. Cost in Medical Education: One Hundred and Twenty Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the "BMJ" in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons…

  5. Mobile Learning in Medical Education: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    In the past several years, mobile learning made rapid inroads into the provision of medical education. There are significant advantages associated with mobile learning. These include high access, low cost, more situated and contextual learning, convenience for the learner, continuous communication and interaction between learner and tutor and between learner and other learners, and the ability to self-assess themselves while learning. Like any other form of medical pedagogy, mobile learning has its downsides. Disadvantages of mobile learning include: inadequate technology, a risk of distraction from learning by using a device that can be used for multiple purposes, and the potential for breakdown in barriers between personal usage of the mobile device and professional or educational use. Despite these caveats, there is no question but that mobile learning offers much potential. In the future, it is likely that the strategy of mobile first, whereby providers of e-learning think of the user experience on a mobile first, will result in learners who increasingly expect that all e-learning provision will work seamlessly on a mobile device.

  6. The ELEPHANT criteria in medical education: can medical education be fun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Hugh; Varatharaj, Aravinthan

    2010-01-01

    'Hilarity and a good nature [and] a breezy cheerfulness help enormously in the study and in the practice of medicine,' said Sir William Osler, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, pioneering medical educationalist, and arguably one of the greatest physicians of all time (Osler W. 1905 ). We present evidence that (1) Encouraging Learning, (2) Entertaining People, and (3) Having a Nice Time are dangerously powerful adjuncts to medical education. These are, by acronym, the ELEPHANT criteria. Encouraging is the motivating heart of the matter. Entertainment engages the mind and has been shown to enhance working memory and recall. Enjoyment is associated with deep learning, which comes with a whole host of benefits. However, learning in fear and misery can be an effective tool--but for other reasons--and the pessimistic personality type may respond badly to 'fun learning.' Even so, medical education that fulfills the ELEPHANT criteria can be an effective tool in training young doctors. PMID:20218834

  7. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  8. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S.; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical ...

  9. Directory of Credit-Granting Policies in Medical Laboratory Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee for Careers in Medical Technology, Bethesda, MD.

    Ways now exist for medical laboratory workers to advance up the educational career ladder, gaining credit for prior training and/or experience. A total of 369 Certified Medical Laboratory Assistant Schools, colleges with Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technicians programs, schools of Medical Technology, and colleges with baccalaureate Medical…

  10. Medical Students' Impressions and Satisfactions from Medical Professional Skill Education Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongel, Kurtulus; Mergen, Haluk; Kayacan, Hacer; Yildizhan, Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    (Background) To help us understand the medical students' reflections about professional skill educations we conducted a study on medical students' conceptions of selected medical phenomena, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR. (Methods) The study was conducted in January 2008, using a sample consisting of medical students from one of the…

  11. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  12. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  13. Envisioning a Future Governance and Funding System for Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey P; Stimpson, Jim P; Caverzagie, Kelly J

    2015-09-01

    Funding for graduate medical education (GME) and undergraduate medical education (UME) in the United States is being debated and challenged at the national and state levels as policy makers and educators question whether the multibillion dollar investment in medical education is succeeding in meeting the nation's health care needs. To address these concerns, the authors propose a novel all-payer system for GME and UME funding that equitably distributes medical education costs among all stakeholders, including those who benefit most from medical education. Through a "Medical Education Workforce (MEW) trust fund," indirect and direct GME dollars would be replaced with a funds-flow mechanism using fees paid for services by all payers (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers, others) while providing direct compensation to physicians and institutions that actively engage medical learners in providing clinical care. The accountability of those receiving MEW funds would be improved by linking their funding levels to their ability to meet predetermined institutional, program, faculty, and learner benchmarks. Additionally, the MEW fund would cover learners' UME tuition, potentially eliminating their UME debt, in return for their provision of health care services (after completing GME training) in an underserved area or specialty. This proposed model attempts to increase transparency and enhance accountability in medical education by linking funding to the development of a physician workforce that is able to excel in the evolving health delivery system. Achieving this vision requires physician educators, leaders of academic health centers, policy makers, insurers, and patients to muster the courage to embrace transformational change. PMID:26164639

  14. Perspective: To what end communication? Developing a conceptual framework for communication in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    A growing discourse about broadening the educational experience of physicians in medical education focuses on professional formation and the wider social context within which health care is delivered. This shift suggests a complex reconfiguration of medical education. Where does one begin this task? First, medical education reform must be grounded in a clarification of the conceptual terrain where proposed changes in pedagogy and practice are occurring. More specifically, some clarity is needed regarding the basic or key competencies that students are expected to acquire through educational processes. Accordingly, the author argues that having a clear and comprehensive conceptual understanding of the educational aims defining this reform is a necessary starting point. Although descriptions of competencies (such as those required by CanMeds and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education) focus on lists of skills, greater detail is needed regarding our understanding of the values and rationale underlying such skills if they are to be applied in educationally effective ways. The author shows the extent to which and ways in which our understanding of these basic concepts will influence the direction of reforms. He examines various conceptions of the role of communication in medicine and indicates various educational benefits and shortcomings in these approaches. He concludes by identifying one concept of communication, termed "communication as a medical-epistemic competency, " that can include and incorporate many facets of communication in the medical context while also responding to broader societal changes being addressed through post-Flexner developments in educational reform. PMID:22030754

  15. Social Change Education: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Social change educators challenge social, economic, and political injustices that exist locally and globally. Their students may be people marginalized by these injustices or conversely, people who benefit from unjust systems. Much of the current social change pedagogy derives from the foundational work of Paulo Freire, developed in Brazil in…

  16. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD HADI IMANIEH; SEYED MOHSEN DEHGHANI; AHMAD REZA SOBHANI; MAHMOOD HAGHIGHAT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In traditional medical education systems much interest is placed on the cramming of basic and clinical facts without considering their applicability in the future professional career. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novice medical training method (problem-based learning) as compared to the contemporary teacher-based medical education or traditional methods. Methods: Selection of the study subjects was done through simple sampling and according to the division of medical s...

  17. The State of Nutrition Education at US Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly M.; W. Scott Butsch; Martin Kohlmeier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate). Most US medical schools (86/121, 71%) fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36%) provide less t...

  18. Status of nutrition education in Canadian dental and medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, M. L.; Hargreaves, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the present status of nutrition education for dentists and physicians in Canada, we conducted a survey of the nutrition education programs in 10 Canadian dental and 16 medical schools in the academic year 1982-83. Seven of the dental schools and seven of the medical schools had a separate course in nutrition. The average duration of these courses was 22 hours for the dental schools and 26 hours for the medical schools. Nutrition education was integrated with another discipline ...

  19. The changing role of economic evaluation in valuing medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Jason S; Foerster, Douglas; Bridges, John Fp

    2012-12-01

    Economic evaluation is established within health-technology assessment but is challenged by those wanting to use economic evaluation to inform pricing and/or incorporate nontraditional sources of value and the views of diverse stakeholders. The changing role of economic evaluation in (formally or informally) assessing prices/values in four jurisdictions (UK, Australia, Germany and USA) is detailed and the authors propose a taxonomy of factors impacting the value of medical technology spanning clinical utility (effectiveness, safety/tolerability and quality of evidence), consumer demand (consumer preferences, process utility and unmet need), economic incentives (innovation, option value and market competition) and the societal perspective (social justice, social values and national interest). The authors suggest that multicriteria decision analysis methods grounded in hedonic-pricing theory can facilitate the valuing/pricing of medical technologies. The use of such an approach is hindered by a paucity of relevant educational opportunities, vested interests and aversion to placing prices/values on health.

  20. Need of a journal club in every medical education setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of scientific inscription has changed a lot with every day a new journal takes birth and so more and more manuscripts are written or manufactured in eagerness of academic endorsement/promotion, but very few academicians are appraising journals. This is a reality that the medical fraternity has exceptionally little curiosity in journal indulgent may be due to lack of proper training in this regards and the journal club (JC is a reply to this need. Medical education workforce must develop the necessary skills to keep up with the vast amount of information available. The JC is an influential educational instrument and has played an active role in medical education for over a century. Even though, this tool has been included in the postgraduate program, there still remains a need of understanding the concept and importance of journals. This paper provides an inclusive appraisal about what a JC and how to acquire/establish it our departments. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 574-577

  1. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century. PMID:11338745

  2. Perspective: Competency-based medical education: a defense against the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Mark; Mejicano, George; Gruppen, Larry

    2008-12-01

    Medical education is facing a convergence of challenges that the authors characterize as the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse: teaching patient shortages, teacher shortages, conflicting systems, and financial problems. Rapidly expanding class sizes and new medical schools are coming online as medical student access to teaching patients is becoming increasingly difficult because of the decreasing length and increasing intensity of hospital stays, concerns about patient safety, patients who are stressed for time, teaching physician shortages and needs for increasing productivity from those who remain, and increasing emphasis on translational research. Further, medical education is facing reductions in funding from all sources, just as it is mounting its first major expansion in 40 years. The authors contend that medical education is on the verge of crisis and that little outside assistance is forthcoming. If medical education is to avoid a catastrophic decline, it will need to take steps to reinvent itself and make optimum use of all available resources. Curriculum materials developed nationally, increased reliance on simulation and standardized patient experiences, and adoption of quality-control methods such as competency-based education are suggested as ways to keep medical education vital in an environment that is increasingly preoccupied with fending off the four horsemen. The authors conclude with a call for a national dialogue about how the medical education community can address the problems represented by the four horsemen, and they offer some potential ways to maintain the vitality of medical education in the face of such overwhelming problems. PMID:19202480

  3. Detached concern?: Emotional socialization in twenty-first century medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Early works in medical sociology have been pivotal in the development of scholarly knowledge about emotions, emotional socialization, and empathy within medical training, medical education, and medical contexts. Yet despite major shifts in both medical education and in medicine writ-large, medical sociologists' focus on emotions has largely disappeared. In this paper, we argue that due to recent radical transformations in the medical arena, emotional socialization within medical education should be of renewed interest for sociologists. Developments in medical education such as increased diversity among enrollees, the rise of patient health movements, and curricular transformation have made this context a particularly interesting case for sociologists working on a variety of questions related to structural, organizational, and cultural change. We offer three areas of debate within studies in medical education that sociologists may be interested in studying: 1) gendered and racialized differences in the performance of clinical skills related to emotion, 2) differences in self-reported empathy among subspecialties, and 3) loss of empathy during the third year or clinical year of medical school. PMID:27227696

  4. Detached concern?: Emotional socialization in twenty-first century medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Early works in medical sociology have been pivotal in the development of scholarly knowledge about emotions, emotional socialization, and empathy within medical training, medical education, and medical contexts. Yet despite major shifts in both medical education and in medicine writ-large, medical sociologists' focus on emotions has largely disappeared. In this paper, we argue that due to recent radical transformations in the medical arena, emotional socialization within medical education should be of renewed interest for sociologists. Developments in medical education such as increased diversity among enrollees, the rise of patient health movements, and curricular transformation have made this context a particularly interesting case for sociologists working on a variety of questions related to structural, organizational, and cultural change. We offer three areas of debate within studies in medical education that sociologists may be interested in studying: 1) gendered and racialized differences in the performance of clinical skills related to emotion, 2) differences in self-reported empathy among subspecialties, and 3) loss of empathy during the third year or clinical year of medical school.

  5. [A course for continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Hernández, S

    1985-01-01

    To promote continuing medical education, the Central Military Hospital of Mexico offers a course in which the student may develop his skills for finding and using sources of information, applying the scientific method to biomedical research, and communicating the results thereof in writing. The methodology is more self-instructional than expository. The course program is divided into three modules geared to the general objectives, and the duration varies between 10 and 14 weeks. The course is attended in the final stage of the professional training, when the student has just completed his specialization, or when he is beginning it, on the premise that this is the best time to make clear to the physician the need to continue studying and learning throughout life. The author of this article explains why the course is important, states its specific objectives and, in an annex, presents the content of the program. PMID:4029062

  6. How educational innovations and attention to competencies in postgraduate medical education relate to preparedness for practice : The key role of the learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ids S.; Pols, Jan; Remmelts, Pine; Rietzschel, Eric; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Brand, Paul L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many training programmes in postgraduate medical education (PGME) have introduced competency frameworks, but the effects of this change on preparedness for practice are unknown. Therefore, we explored how elements of competency-based programmes in PGME (educational innovations, attentio

  7. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD HADI IMANIEH

    2014-01-01

    concluded that problem-based learning method leads to a significant increase in learning and recalling output compared to the traditional method. Given the evolving medical education in the country’s medical schools toward problem-based learning, it is suggested that the grounds be laid so that this change will take place based on thought, principles and problem solving.

  8. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMANIEH, MOHAMMAD HADI; DEHGHANI, SEYED MOHSEN; SOBHANI, AHMAD REZA; HAGHIGHAT, MAHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    problem-based learning method leads to a significant increase in learning and recalling output compared to the traditional method. Given the evolving medical education in the country's medical schools toward problem-based learning, it is suggested that the grounds be laid so that this change will take place based on thought, principles and problem solving. PMID:25512911

  9. Multigenerational Challenges and the Future of Graduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Philip G.; Daste, Laurie; Northern, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Demographics are changing on a global scale. In the United States, an aging population continues to work, either by preference or because of insufficient resources to retire. Of even greater importance, a younger generation, referred to as the Millennial Generation, will soon predominate in the workforce and even now accounts for nearly 100% of resident physicians. By the year 2020, there will be 5 generations in the workplace. Methods: This paper defines and details the characteristics of the 5 generations and examines how the vision, attitudes, values, and expectations of the most recent generations will reshape the workforce and graduate medical education. Results: The need for change is imminent to educate the next generation of physicians. Among the changes necessary to adapt to the multigenerational challenges ahead are adopting mobile devices as preferred communication tools; using social networking sites to recruit residents; adding games, simulations, and interactive videos to the curriculum to engage students; breaking down departmental silos and forming learning teams that come from different specialties; developing benchmarks and milestones to measure progress; extending the social learning ecosystem beyond the resident years; embracing diversity as the norm for both practice and learning; and providing both coaching and mentoring. Conclusion: For decades, resident physicians have shown commitment, tenacity, and selflessness while shouldering the dual responsibility of patient care and the pursuit of their own education and skills development. Resident engagement has been shown to drive change in undergraduate medical education and in the learning and performance of their teachers. The latter is evidence of reverse mentoring that will be a major factor for improvement in this digital age. We have only to embrace this opportunity to the benefit of our patients, our learners, and ourselves. PMID:27046415

  10. 76 FR 63612 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting AGENCY: National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of... of the National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). For each...

  11. Organizing graduate medical education programs into communities of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bing-You

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new organizational model of educational administrative support was instituted in the Department of Medical Education (DME to better meet increasing national accreditation demands. Residency and fellowship programs were organized into four ‘Communities of Practice’ (CoOPs based on discipline similarity, number of learners, and geographic location. Program coordinator reporting lines were shifted from individual departments to a centralized reporting structure within the DME. The goal of this project was to assess the impact on those most affected by the change. Methods: This was a mixed methods study that utilized structured interviews and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. Eleven members of the newly formed CoOPs participated in the study. Results: Three major themes emerged after review and coding of the interview transcripts: improved group identity, improved availability of resources, and increased opportunity for professional growth. OCAI results indicated that respondents are committed to the DME and perceived the culture to be empowering. The ‘preferred culture’ was very similar to the culture at the time of the study, with some indication that DME employees are ready for more creativity and innovation in the future. Conclusion: Reorganization within the DME of residency programs into CoOPs was overwhelmingly perceived as a positive change. Improved resources and accountability may position our DME to better handle the increasing complexity of graduate medical education.

  12. Assessing readiness for medical education: evolution of the medical college admission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C

    2002-09-01

    The attrition rate of 5% to 50% from US medical schools in the 1920s propelled the development of a test that would measure aptitude for medical studies. Since its development in 1928, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) has undergone 5 revisions. The first version was divided into 6 to 8 subtests that focused on memory, knowledge of scientific terminology, reading and comprehension, and logic. The second, which appeared in 1946, was reduced to 4 categories: verbal and quantitative skills, science knowledge, and added a category called understanding modern society. The major difference in the third version, launched in 1962, expanded the test's understanding modern society section to a broader test of general information. In 1977, the MCAT underwent its fourth change: its science section, reading and quantitative skill assessment sections were expanded; its general liberal arts knowledge section was eliminated; its scoring report structure and scoring range were altered; and its cultural and social bias was minimized. The current version, beginning in 1991, has undergone another significant change. Although it does not contain independent measures of either liberal arts or numeracy as separate categories, quantitative skills are needed to solve some of the problems in biological and physical sciences. However, its principal innovation is the writing sample section. Through its 74-year history, the various renditions of the MCAT demonstrate that the definition of aptitude for medical education reflects the professional and social mores and values of the time.

  13. NASA Nice Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, K.; Crocker, S.; Jones, W., III; Marshall, S. S.; Anuradha, D.; Stewart-Gurley, K.; Howard, E. M.; Hill, E.; Merriweather, E.

    2013-12-01

    Authors: 1 Kaiem Frink, 4 Sherry Crocker, 5 Willie Jones, III, 7 Sophia S.L. Marshall, 6 Anuadha Dujari 3 Ervin Howard 1 Kalota Stewart-Gurley 8 Edwinta Merriweathe Affiliation: 1. Mathematics & Computer Science, Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA, United States. 2. Mathematics & Computer Science, Elizabeth City State Univ, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 3. Education, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 4. College of Education, Fort Valley State University , Fort Valley, GA, United States. 5. Education, Tougaloo College, Jackson, MS, United States. 6. Mathematics, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States. 7. Education, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States. 8. Education, Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Huntsville, AL, United States. ABSTRACT: In this research initiative, the 2013-2014 NASA NICE workshop participants will present best educational practices for incorporating climate change pedagogy. The presentation will identify strategies to enhance instruction of pre-service teachers to aligned with K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) standards. The presentation of best practices should serve as a direct indicator to address pedagogical needs to include climate education within a K-12 curriculum Some of the strategies will include inquiry, direct instructions, and cooperative learning . At this particular workshop, we have learned about global climate change in regards to how this is going to impact our life. Participants have been charged to increase the scientific understanding of pre-service teachers education programs nationally to incorporate climate education lessons. These recommended practices will provide feasible instructional strategies that can be easily implemented and used to clarify possible misconceptions and ambiguities in scientific knowledge. Additionally, the presentation will promote an awareness to the many facets in which climate

  14. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  15. Changes in medical students’ motivation and self-regulated learning: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Hye W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether medical students’ motivation and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) change over time to enhance our understanding of these constructs as dependent variables in medical education. Methods A cohort of first-year students (n=43) at a medical school in South Korea completed a self-report questionnaire on motivation and SRL - the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The same questionnaire was administered to the same cohort in the beginning of Year 2...

  16. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  17. Education and research in medical optronics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fleute, M.; Herve, T.; Lavallee, Stephane

    2000-06-01

    First we present here the main post-graduate courses proposed in France both for physicians and engineers in medical optronics. After we explain which medical domains are concerned by this teaching, essentially computer assisted surgery, telemedicine and functional exploration. Then we show the main research axes in these fields, in which new jobs have to be invented and new educational approaches have to be prepared in order to satisfy the demand coming both from hospitals (mainly referent hospitals) and from industry (essentially medical imaging and instrumentation companies). Finally we will conclude that medical optronics is an important step in an entire chain of acquisition and processing of medical data, capable to create the medical knowledge a surgeon or a physician needs for diagnosis or therapy purposes. Optimizing the teaching of medical optronics needs a complete integration from acquiring to modeling the medical reality. This tendency to give a holistic education in medical imaging and instrumentation is called `Model driven Acquisition' learning.

  18. The becoming: students' reflections on the process of professional identity formation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Joanna; Baldwin, Nell; Cook, Robert; Kofman, Aaron; Morley-Fletcher, Alessio; Slotkin, Rebecca; Wald, Hedy S

    2015-06-01

    Professional identity formation (PIF) within medical education is the multifaceted, individualized process through which students develop new ways of being in becoming physicians. Personal backgrounds, values, expectations, interests, goals, relationships, and role models can all influence PIF and may account for diversity of both experience and the active constructive process of professional formation. Guided reflection, including reflective writing, has been used to enhance awareness and meaning making within the PIF process for both students and medical educators and to shed light on what aspects of medical education are most constructive for healthy PIF. Student voices about the PIF process now emerging in the literature are often considered and interpreted by medical educators within qualitative studies or in broad theoretical overviews of PIF.In this Commentary, the authors present a chorus of individual student voices from along the medical education trajectory. Medical students (years 1-4) and a first-year resident in pediatrics respond to a variety of questions based on prevalent PIF themes extracted from the literature to reflect on their personal experiences of PIF. Topics queried included pretending in medical education, role of relationships, impact of formal and informal curricula on PIF (valuable aspects as well as suggestions for change), and navigating and developing interprofessional relationships and identities. This work aims to vividly illustrate the diverse and personal forces at play in individual students' PIF processes and to encourage future pedagogic efforts supporting healthy, integrated PIF in medical education. PMID:25881650

  19. Role of Medical Education in Preventing and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Talwar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available India has approximately 335 medical colleges, which produce around 40,000 medical graduates annually. Even though medical professional have a critical role in prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs including injuries, it has been observed that the present medical and nursing curriculum in India does not adequately cover prevention and control of NCDs. The topics for specific approach to prevent NCDs and various strategies can be incorporated into public health and clinical courses in undergraduate medical education, with brief optional courses in residency and continuing medical education for established practitioners. High-level expert group instituted by Planning Commission of India on Universal Health Coverage recommended that medical education requires greater orientation of providers to the social determinants of health as well as to gender and equity issues. Curricula in medical schools should keep pace with the changing dynamics of public health, health policy, and health demographics. Medical education and training should be reoriented by introducing competency-based, health system connected curricula, and continuous education. There is a need to review of medical curriculum, introducing innovative integrated teaching methods, and capacity building of teachers for meeting the challenge of rising burden of NCDs in India.

  20. The role of the postgraduate medical education and training board

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB) is a new organisation set up to develop, establish, and maintain standards and requirements for postgraduate medical education (PGME) and training. First trailed in the NHS Plan,1 its remit covers the UK. As such it aims to be a single, unifying framework for doctors in training.

  1. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  2. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412.322 Section 412.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  3. Storytelling: Discourse Analysis for Understanding Collective Perceptions of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovides, Yianna; Inman, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, the goal of this exploratory project was to determine what practitioners of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa considered key achievements, within the scope of their Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) activities, after their initial two-year implementation efforts. To do so, a series of 58 video stories…

  4. Medical Education and the Physician Workforce of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mosawi, Aamir Jalal

    2008-01-01

    The lack of resources in a country experiencing decades of successive wars, blockade, administrative corruption, and poor governance led to deteriorated standards throughout medical education. Although professional certification programs exist, continuing medical education accreditation and credit systems are required to monitor and certify the…

  5. Undergraduate Medical Education and the Elective System: Experience with the Duke Curriculum, 1966-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, James F., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    In view of increased public demand since 1965 for medical curriculum re-evaluation, the Duke University School of Medicine offered the first new model of medical education responsive to social pressures for change. The new Duke curriculum included presentation by each basic science department of the core of principles and information considered…

  6. Expected Benefits of Streamlining Undergraduate Medical Education by Early Commitment to Specific Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education is too long; it does not meet the needs for physicians' workforce; and its content is inconsistent with the job characteristics of some of its graduates. In this paper we attempt to respond to these problems by streamlining medical education along the following three reforms. First, high school graduates would be…

  7. Music education - changes and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and technological revolution directly or indirectly affects at improvements to education. The purpose of this article is to highlight the need of changes and opportunities to improve the work of the class teachers. Key Words: modern teacher, teaching plan and program, textbooks, students

  8. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  9. Social accountability of medical education: Aspects on global accreditation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation ...

  10. Medical simulation-based education improves medicos' clinical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skill is an essential part of clinical medicine and plays quite an important role in bridging medicos and physicians. Due to the realities in China, traditional medical education is facing many challenges. There are few opportunities for students to practice their clinical skills and their dexterities are generally at a low level. Medical simulation-based education is a new teaching modality and helps to improve medicos' clinical skills to a large degree. Medical simulation-based edu...

  11. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-env...

  12. EFSUMB statement on medical student education in ultrasound [short version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, V; Dietrich, C F; Badea, R; Dudea, S; Prosch, H; Cerezo, E; Nuernberg, D; Serra, A L; Sidhu, P S; Radzina, M; Piscaglia, F; Bachmann Nielsen, M; Calliada, F; Gilja, O H

    2016-02-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge of the modality and hands-on training should be implemented and adhere to evidence-based principles. In this paper we summarise EFSUMB policy statements on medical student education in ultrasound. PMID:26871409

  13. What Can We Learn From Narratives in Medical Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Johna, Samir; Woodward, Brandon; Patel, Sunal

    2014-01-01

    Medical literature has demonstrated the effectiveness of narrative writing in enhancing self-reflection and empathy, which opens the door for deeper understanding of patients’ experiences of illness. Similarly, it promotes practitioner well-being. Therefore, it is no surprise that narrative writing finds a new home in medical education. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), through its Outcome Project, established six core competencies that every residency program m...

  14. The study of literature in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K M; Charon, R; Coulehan, J L

    1995-09-01

    The study of literature encourages the development of otherwise hard-to-teach clinical competencies. It provides access to the values and experiences of physicians, patients, and families; it calls for the exercise of skill in observation and interpretation, develops clinical imagination, and, especially through writing, preserves fluency in ordinary language and promotes clarity of observation, expression, and self-knowledge. Faculty in one-third of U.S. medical schools teach literature in courses that, although concentrated in the preclinical years, range from the first day of school, through residency programs. Once focused on the work of physician-authors and realist fiction about illness that encouraged moral reflection about the practice of medicine, literary study in medicine now encompasses a wide range of literature and narrative types, including the patient history and the clinical case. Literary study is intended not only to enrich students' moral education but also to increase their narrative competence, to foster a tolerance for the uncertainties of clinical practice, and to provide a grounding for empathic attention to patients. Literature may be included in medical humanities courses, and it may provide rich cases for ethics courses or introductions to the patient-physician relationship; it also may be the focus of small, elective, or selective courses, frequently on particular social issues or on the experience of illness. Reading, discussion, writing, and role-play rather than lectures are the methods employed; faculty include those with PhDs in literature and MDs who have strong interests in the contributions of literature to practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7669155

  15. Medical Students Educate Teens About Skin Cancer: What Have We Learned?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamell, Jeanette M.; Rietkerk, William; Lam, Ken; Phillips, Jason M.; Wu, Jashin J.; Jerry L McCullough; Linden, Kenneth G.; Osann, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Skin cancer is a serious societal problem, and public awareness outreach, including to youth, is crucial. Medical students have joined forces to educate adolescents about skin cancer with significant impacts; even one 50-min interactive outreach session led to sustained changes in knowledge and behavior in a cohort of 1,200 adolescents surveyed. Medical students can act as a tremendous asset to health awareness public outreach efforts: enthusiastic volunteerism keeps education cost-effective,...

  16. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality manageme...

  17. Self-Determination in Medical Education: Encouraging Medical Educators to Be More like Blues Artists and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, medical education has focused largely on medical students' intellectual development, mostly ignoring the broader psychological milieu of medical practice. This chasm can result in practitioners who are less likely to process their emotions and/or support their patient's needs, and more likely to experience burnout. Self-determination…

  18. Provider Education about Glaucoma and Glaucoma Medications during Videotaped Medical Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Sleath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients’ visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AMONG MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramamurthy; Lilian D; Ranganath; Arun Mohan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The improved health of all people is the ultimate goal of medical education. Every student works hard to get into the best educational institution in order to pursue a competent career. Every institution has its core objective as imparting high standards of education and bringing out well trained students. The environment in which a student learns and grows is crucial to the overall development. AIM: To assess the perceptions of medical students of their educat...

  20. Technology-assisted education in graduate medical education: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jwayyed, Sharhabeel; Stiffler, Kirk A; Wilber, Scott T; Southern, Alison; Weigand, John; Bare, Rudd; Gerson, Lowell W.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on computer-aided instruction and web-based learning have left many questions unanswered about the most effective use of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Objective We conducted a review of the current medical literature to report the techniques, methods, frequency and effectiveness of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Methods A structured review of MEDLINE articles dealing with "Computer-Assisted Instruction," "Internet or World W...

  1. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Molenaar; A. Zanting; P. van Beukelen; W. de Grave; J.A. Baane; J.A. Bustraan; R. Engbers; T.E. Fick; J.C.G. Jacobs; J.M. Vervoorn

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education th

  2. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W. M.; Zanting, A.; Van Beukelen, P.; De Grave, W.; Baane, J. A.; Bustraan, J. A.; Engbers, R.; Fick, Th E.; Jacobs, J. C. G.; Vervoorn, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is Subject of increasing attention, its exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education t

  3. Evaluation of Continuing Medical Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Wang, Virginia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A continuing medical education program is discussed that addresses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and that links primary care physicians to a source of needed clinical knowledge at a relatively low cost. The educational methods, evaluation design, diagnosis of educational needs, selection of program content and behavioral outcomes are…

  4. Medical Physics Education at the University of Novi Sad - Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Slobodanka; Vesković, Miroslav; Klisurić, Olivera; Spasić, Vesna

    2007-04-01

    Overview of new educational program and training in Medical Physics at the University of Novi Sad is presented, where the medical physics education from undergraduate to doctoral study is established in the last decade. Necessity for basic and additional education and hospital training for medical physicists becomes the evident subject in clinical practice in which physicists and physicians are in close collaboration to ensure high quality of patient care. Learning objectives: to incorporate the latest scientific and professional findings in the field of medical physics, medical diagnostics, therapy and instruments; to accomodate students' pursuits of individual fields by offering elective courses from different areas of current medical practice; to reflect the multidisciplinary spirit of the studies, since teaching is performed by experts from diverse fields.

  5. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community.

  6. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community. PMID:27271571

  7. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. PMID:26115999

  8. Perceptions of students in different phases of medical education of the educational environment: Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman NIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nor Iza A Rahman, Aniza Abd Aziz, Zainal Zulkifli, Muhammad Arshad Haj, Farah Hanani Binti Mohd Nasir, Sharvina Pergalathan, Muhammad Ismail Hamidi, Salwani Ismail, Nordin Bin Simbak, Mainul Haque Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM was planned and designed to quantify the educational environment precisely for medical schools and health-related professional schools. DREEM is now considered a valid and reliable tool, which is globally accepted for measuring the medical educational environment. The educational environment encountered by students has an impact on satisfaction with the course of study, perceived sense of well-being, aspirations, and academic achievement. In addition to being measurable, the educational environment can also be changed, thus enhancing the quality of medical education and the environment, and the medical education process. The objective of this study was to assess the educational environment of the Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA undergraduate medical program from the students’ perspective. The study expected to explore UniSZA medical students’ overall perceptions, perceptions of learning, teachers, atmosphere, academic self-perception, and social self-perception using the DREEM questionnaire. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the perceptions of the students toward the educational environment of UniSZA as a new medical school, using the DREEM questionnaire. All medical students of UniSZA from Years I–V enrolled in the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery programs were the target population (n=270. Therefore, the universal sampling technique was used. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 20 software. This study obtained ethical clearance from the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UniSZA. Results: A total of 195 out of 270 students responded

  9. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  10. 75 FR 79006 - Council on Graduate Medical Education; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Council on Graduate Medical Education...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Council on Graduate Medical Education... of presentations covering various aspects of graduate medical education, Bureau of Health...

  11. Time course of change in prescription behaviour after targeted continuing medical education in a closed loop system of repeated standardised documentation and feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hagen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates whether introducing targeted CME into a regular feedback system being part of a disease management programme (DMP will improve prescription behaviour, and if yes, how long it will take to demonstrate this effect and what could be the magnitude of such an effect. Methods. From the database of the DMP coronary artery disease (CAD in the two German regions of North Rhine (NR and Westphalia Lippe (WL, respectively, all patients with heart failure in New York Heart Association (NYHA class II and III were extracted. Prescription of combination therapy (ACE inhibitor, ACE-I, and beta blocker, BB, as recommended by the guidelines, was prospectively monitored for 6 years after this topic was addressed in a series of accredited CME modules. These modules were part of extended feedback reports for NR physicians, while physicians in WL received basic feedback reports only. Data were analysed according to participants vs. non-participants in CME vs. control group (WL. Results. The largest increase was observed with regard to the additional prescription of an ACE-I in patients who only received a BB at baseline. BB prescription rates increased to a lesser extent. But for both drugs, prescription rates did not reach their maximum even at the end of the 6 years’ observation period. Significant differences in prescription rates in favour of patients of CME participants could only be demonstrated after 3 years from the first CME article. Conclusions. The DMP CAD has to be considered as a multifaceted intervention which significantly changes prescription behaviour. Combination of the DMP with a further multifaceted intervention (print CME added only little to this effect. The time course of change makes it difficult exclusively to relate the observed changes in prescription rates to the CME intervention.

  12. Role of accrediting bodies in providing education leadership in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Leinster

    2014-01-01

    Role of accreditation authorities: If accreditation authorities are to provide leadership in medical education they must undertake regular review of their standards. This should be informed by all stakeholders and include experts in medical education. The format of the standards must provide clear direction to medical schools. Accreditation should take place regularly and should result in the production of a publicly accessible report.

  13. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K

    2016-03-01

    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself. PMID:26630601

  14. Mentoring for first year medical students: humanising medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Arati; Singh, Navjeevan; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2013-01-01

    New entrants are vulnerable to the challenges of the medical course; mentoring programmes are known to offer support. This paper evaluated the experiences of students and faculty enrolled in a new mentoring programme. After needs analysis of students and faculty, a small-group mentoring programme for new medical students was initiated. Fifty-five volunteer faculty mentors were allocated two-three students each. At year-end, feedback using an open-ended questionnaire, revealed that there was no contact in one-third of the cases; the commonest reasons cited were lack of mentee initiative, time and commitment. Supportive mentors were appreciated. Over 95% of respondents believed that mentoring was a good idea; many believed the mentee benefitted; mentors also reported improved communication and affective skills; 60 (77.0%) mentees wanted to mentor new students the following year. Thus, mentoring of first-year students by faculty was effective, when contact occurred, in making the mentee feel supported. Mentoring may be a means of honing the affective domain and humanitarian instincts of medical faculty and students.

  15. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Dacey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide

  16. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  17. Care concept in medical and nursing students’ descriptions – Philosophical approach and implications for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Dobrowolska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction.[/b] Care is seen as something that is peculiar to the medical sciences but its meaning and status for physicians and nurses differs. objectives. The aim of this research was to learn how nursing and medical students understand and define care, and how their definition and views on their practice of caring change as they advance through their studies. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted among two groups of students: before and after their first practicum (n=102. Analysis of the students’ answers was carried out using Colaizzi’s phenomenological descriptive methodology, which means that a qualitative approach was used. [b]results[/b]. The qualitative analysis shows that the medical and nursing students define care in the same way, using 9 main categories: compassion, commitment, competence, confidence, conscience, communication, patience, courage and support. The nursing students viewed their caring to be within both practical and emotional dimensions and this was a core feature of their identity as nurses. Medical students, on the other hand, viewed the practical dimension of care as an additional activity. All the students in the study underlined the importance of having time to care and showed that, for them, ‘time’ in this context has a moral meaning. What was interesting to the research team centered on the initial attitudes to ‘caring’ from both medical and nursing students. [b]conclusions[/b]. We found that students of both nursing and medicine do not begin their studies with different attitudes and concepts of care. However, after their initial exposure to practical placements a process begins which forges different identities around the concept of care. This implies trends in the division of professional roles during their initial education.

  18. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  19. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  20. A history of medical student debt: observations and implications for the future of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greysen, S Ryan; Chen, Candice; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, medical student debt has become a problem of national importance, and obtaining medical education in the United States has become a loan-dependent, individual investment. Although this phenomenon must be understood in the general context of U.S. higher education as well as economic and social trends in late-20th-century America, the historical problem of medical student debt requires specific attention for several reasons. First, current mechanisms for students' educational financing may not withstand debt levels above a certain ceiling which is rapidly approaching. Second, there are no standards for costs of medical school attendance, and these can vary dramatically between different schools even within a single city. Third, there is no consensus on the true cost of educating a medical student, which limits accountability to students and society for these costs. Fourth, policy efforts to improve physician workforce diversity and mitigate shortages in the primary care workforce are inhibited by rising levels of medical student indebtedness. Fortunately, the current effort to expand the U.S. physician workforce presents a unique opportunity to confront the unsustainable growth of medical student debt and explore new approaches to the financing of medical students' education.

  1. Educating medical students in the era of ubiquitous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Charles P; Donaldson, Katherine M; Vantsevich, Anna V

    2016-05-01

    Health care around the world is going digital. This inexorable trend will result in: (1) routine documentation of care in digital form and emerging national infrastructures for sharing data that allow progress toward a learning health system; and (2) a biomedical "knowledge cloud" that is fully integrated into practice environments and accessible to both providers and consumers of healthcare. Concurrently, medical students will be complete digital natives who have literally grown up with the Internet and will enter practice early in the next decade when the projected changes in practice approach maturity. This essay describes three competencies linked to this evolving information environment-(1) knowing what you do and don't know, (2) ability to ask a good question, and (3) skills in evaluating and weighing evidence-and suggests educational approaches to promote student mastery of each competency. Shifting medical education to address these competencies will call into question many current methods but may be essential to fully prepare trainees for optimal practice in the future.

  2. Social accountability of medical education: aspects on global accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its programme with respect to meeting approved criteria. It is a means for quality assurance, but also a strong power to reinforce the need for improvement and reforms. It must be performed through internationally recognised and transparent standards and should foremost promote quality development. The social accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used worldwide and have been adopted to local needs in most parts of the world. They are framed to specify attainment at two levels: basic standards or minimum requirements and standards for quality development. The concept of social accountability is embedded in all parts of the WFME standards documents. In 2011, a revision of the standards for undergraduate education has been instituted. Strengthening of aspects on social accountability of medical education will be a particular concern. PMID:21774655

  3. Effects of medical education on attitudes towards mental illness among medical students: a five-year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mino Y

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the effects of medical education on attitudes towards mental illness among medical students, a follow-up study was conducted. All 100 students entering Kochi Medical School in 1988 were subjects. The initial questionnaire survey was conducted in 1988, and followed up in 1993. Response rate was 69% in the initial survey, and 83% in the follow-up study. By the time of the follow-up, all of the students had completed their medical education, including courses in psychiatry and mental health. Results were as follows: At the follow-up study, 1 a significantly higher percentage of students replied that they accepted the mentally ill as co-workers; 2 significantly favorable changes were observed in attitudes towards psychiatric services; 3 optimism about the effectiveness of treatment for mental illness at an early stage and prevention of mental illness had decreased; and 4 no change was observed in attitudes toward human rights of the mentally ill, except in the case of one item stating that the mentally ill should not have children in order to avoid hereditary handicaps, with which a lower percentage agreed. Conclusively, medical education can play an important role in attitudes towards mental illness.

  4. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.

  5. Technology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Alison; Webb, Katie

    2015-11-01

    The influence of technology in medical workplace learning is explored by focusing on three uses: m-learning (notably apps), simulation and social media. Smartphones with point-of-care tools (such as textbooks, drug guides and medical calculators) can support workplace learning and doctors' decision-making. Simulations can help develop technical skills and team interactions, and 'in situ' simulations improve the match between the virtual and the real. Social media (wikis, blogs, networking, YouTube) heralds a more participatory and collaborative approach to knowledge development. These uses of technology are related to Kolb's learning cycle and Eraut's intentions of informal learning. Contentions and controversies with these technologies exist. There is a problem with the terminology commonly adopted to describe the use of technology to enhance learning. Using learning technology in the workplace changes the interaction with others and raises issues of professionalism and etiquette. Lack of regulation makes assessment of app quality a challenge. Distraction and dependency are charges levelled at smartphone use in the workplace and these need further research. Unless addressed, these and other challenges will impede the benefits that technology may bring to postgraduate medical education.

  6. Technology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Alison; Webb, Katie

    2015-11-01

    The influence of technology in medical workplace learning is explored by focusing on three uses: m-learning (notably apps), simulation and social media. Smartphones with point-of-care tools (such as textbooks, drug guides and medical calculators) can support workplace learning and doctors' decision-making. Simulations can help develop technical skills and team interactions, and 'in situ' simulations improve the match between the virtual and the real. Social media (wikis, blogs, networking, YouTube) heralds a more participatory and collaborative approach to knowledge development. These uses of technology are related to Kolb's learning cycle and Eraut's intentions of informal learning. Contentions and controversies with these technologies exist. There is a problem with the terminology commonly adopted to describe the use of technology to enhance learning. Using learning technology in the workplace changes the interaction with others and raises issues of professionalism and etiquette. Lack of regulation makes assessment of app quality a challenge. Distraction and dependency are charges levelled at smartphone use in the workplace and these need further research. Unless addressed, these and other challenges will impede the benefits that technology may bring to postgraduate medical education. PMID:26341127

  7. Medical education and practic in People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O; Axelrod, L; Leaf, A

    1975-11-01

    A dramatic adaptation of medical education to meet indigenous needs and circumstances has occurred in the People's Republic of China in the context of a highly structured health care delivery and medical referral system, entailing a reduction in curriculum length from 6 to 3 years. Although general directions and guidelines are set centrally by Peking, considerable autonomy and flexibility exist in individual schools. The innovative approaches used include training medical students in countryside and factories as well as medical schools, combining traditional Chinese and modern Western medicine, opening hospital-run medical schools, and using unconventional methods of producing medical doctors. On graduation the students generally return to the communities from which they came. Although the total number of medical graduates still falls short of national requirements, the problem of maldistribution of physicians has been alleviated in China. Medical care is now readily available in rural areas, where 80% of the population resides. PMID:1242876

  8. [Medical Humanities--the Historical Significance and Mission in Medical Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider the significance and mission of medical humanities in medical education from the following six viewpoints: (1) misunderstanding of the medical humanities; (2) its historical development; (3) the criteria for the ideal physician; (4) the contents of current Medical Humanities education; (5) the basic philosophy; and (6) its relation to medical professionalism. Medical humanities consists of the three academic components of bioethics, clinical ethics and medical anthropology, and it is a philosophy and an art which penetrate to the fundamental essence of medicine. The purpose of medical humanities is to develop one's own humanity and spirituality through medical practice and contemplation by empathizing with patients' illness narratives through spiritual self-awakening and by understanding the mutual healing powers of human relations by way of the realization of primordial life. The basic philosophy is "the coincidence of contraries". The ultimate mission of medical humanities is to cultivate physicians to educate themselves and have a life-long philosophy of devotion to understanding, through experience, the coincidence of contraries. PMID:26667195

  9. Why medical education is being (inexorably) re-imagined and re-designed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John D; Clinchot, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The last widespread reimagining and substantive reform in medical student education followed the Flexner Report (published 1910). Given the dramatic changes in educational methods, pedagogy, and technology, and the dramatic changes in society, medical education has inexorably evolved in intentional and unintentional ways. The transition from the post-Flexnerian model (university-based education with the first 2 years organized around classroom didactics, laboratory/anatomy learning followed by 2 years of inpatient and outpatient clinical experiences organized around a distribution of block and elective rotations) to the models of today (highlighting early clinical exposure, integration of foundational and clinical sciences, longitudinal learning experiences, promotion of self-directed learning skills, and competency-based education) is underway. The focus now is to prepare graduates for the continued explosion of medical knowledge, technological development and expanded patient and societal expectations that increasingly characterize this century. The following five important developments in medical education drive these re-imaging and re-design efforts: (1) patient, societal and governmental pressure to deliver on the Triple Aim; (2) conceptualization of medical education as a translational science; (3) medical knowledge and technology will continue to expand and accelerate the pace of new development; (4) new expectations of present and future generations of learners; and (5) better understanding of the neurobiology of learning. The impact of these developments, and our responses as those dedicated to educating the present and future physicians, will determine much of the outcomes in this journey to evidence-based medical education. With all of the information and techniques available to the inquisitive and diligent teacher, there will be ample rewards for teaching well done. PMID:24981662

  10. Why medical education is being (inexorably) re-imagined and re-designed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John D; Clinchot, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The last widespread reimagining and substantive reform in medical student education followed the Flexner Report (published 1910). Given the dramatic changes in educational methods, pedagogy, and technology, and the dramatic changes in society, medical education has inexorably evolved in intentional and unintentional ways. The transition from the post-Flexnerian model (university-based education with the first 2 years organized around classroom didactics, laboratory/anatomy learning followed by 2 years of inpatient and outpatient clinical experiences organized around a distribution of block and elective rotations) to the models of today (highlighting early clinical exposure, integration of foundational and clinical sciences, longitudinal learning experiences, promotion of self-directed learning skills, and competency-based education) is underway. The focus now is to prepare graduates for the continued explosion of medical knowledge, technological development and expanded patient and societal expectations that increasingly characterize this century. The following five important developments in medical education drive these re-imaging and re-design efforts: (1) patient, societal and governmental pressure to deliver on the Triple Aim; (2) conceptualization of medical education as a translational science; (3) medical knowledge and technology will continue to expand and accelerate the pace of new development; (4) new expectations of present and future generations of learners; and (5) better understanding of the neurobiology of learning. The impact of these developments, and our responses as those dedicated to educating the present and future physicians, will determine much of the outcomes in this journey to evidence-based medical education. With all of the information and techniques available to the inquisitive and diligent teacher, there will be ample rewards for teaching well done.

  11. Role and Development of Perceptual Skills in Medical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, May). Role and Development of Perceptual Skills in Medical Education. The Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-Tracking (SWAET), Lund, Sweden.

  12. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  13. Tacit knowledge and visual expertise in medical diagnostic reasoning: implications for medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much education--especially at the university level--has been criticized for having primarily dealt with explicit knowledge, i.e. those aspects of mental activities, which are verbal and conscious. Furthermore, research in medical diagnostic reasoning has been criticized for having...... focused on the specialty of intern medicine, while specialties with other skills, i.e. perceptive skills within pathology and radiology, have been ignored. AIMS: To show that the concept of tacit knowledge is important in medical education-at all levels and in medical diagnostic reasoning. METHODS...... such as "non-analytical reasoning" and "dual process of reasoning." CONCLUSION: It is important that educators are trained in how explicit and implicit knowledge is attained and that tacit knowledge is included in educational programmes of all medical specialties....

  14. The Medical Record Review and Resident Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Arthur B.; Stotz, Ronald

    1977-01-01

    With data from mother-infant pairs during the puerperium as an example, three possibilities for using the medical record review are discussed: (1) as a means of specifying objectives for patient care and trainee competence; (2) for assessing trainee progress and teaching program effectiveness; and (3) for assessing the effects of medical science…

  15. Medical education in Malta : an update

    OpenAIRE

    Vassallo, Josanne

    2009-01-01

    Another academic year has come to an end, a year that has seen the finalisation of a new collective agreement for academic staff at the University of Malta, the initiation of a revamping exercise of the medical curriculum and the launching of the Foundation Program as well as Postgraduate Training Programmes in a number of medical specialities.

  16. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Iedema, Rick; Degeling, Pieter; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Kam Yin Chan, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum re-form can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the pa...

  17. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Nabilou; Aram Feizi; Hesam Seyedin

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students st...

  18. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Komenda; Martin Víta; Christos Vaitsis; Daniel Schwarz; Andrea Pokorná; Nabil Zary; Ladislav Dušek

    2015-01-01

    Background No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution’s curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. Objective We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation...

  19. An overview of infusing service-learning in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Trae; Wubbena, Zane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and review existing empirical research about service-learning and medical education and then to develop a framework for infusing service-learning in Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine curricula. Methods We selected literature on service-learning and medical education. Articles were screened with a protocol for inclusion or exclusion at two separate stages. At stage one, articles were screened according to their titles, abstracts, and keywords. The seco...

  20. More than four decades of medical informatics education for medical students in Germany. New recommendations published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A; Hilgers, R-D; Hofestädt, R; Knaup-Gregori, P; Ose, C; Trimmer, A

    2013-01-01

    The publication of German competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education gives reason to report on more publications of the German journal GMS Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology ( MIBE ) in Methods. The publications in focus deal with support of medical education by health and biomedical informatics, hospital information systems and their relation to medical devices, transinstitutional health information systems and the need of national eHealth strategies, epidemiological research on predicting high consumption of resources, and with the interaction of epidemiologists and medical statisticians in examining mortality risks in diabetes, in genome wide association studies and in dealing with limits and thresholds. This report is the beginning of an annual series intending to support better international cooperation to achieve good information as a basis for good medicine and good healthcare.

  1. Medical student radiology education: summary and recommendations from a national survey of medical school and radiology department leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Christopher M; Webb, Emily M; Kondo, Kimi L; Phillips, Andrew W; Naeger, David M; Carrico, Caroline W; Herring, William; Neutze, Janet A; Haines, G Rebecca; Dodd, Gerald D

    2014-06-01

    The ACR Task Force on Medical Student Education in Radiology, in partnership with the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology, investigated the current status of how and to what extent medical imaging was being taught in medical schools. The task force executed a 3-part survey of medical school deans, radiology department chairs, and intern physicians. The results provided an updated understanding of the status of radiology education in medical schools in the United States. This summary includes recommendations about how individual radiology departments and ACR members can assist in advancing the specialty of diagnostic radiology through medical student education. PMID:24713496

  2. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Sexual Dysfunction in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Balon, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Addressing sexual health concerns in medical practice has been an emerging concept for the past two decades. However, there have been very few educational opportunities in medical training that would prepare future physicians for such a responsibility. Since assessing and treating sexual problems requires knowledge that encompasses many…

  3. The Significance of Scientific Capital in UK Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh

    2011-01-01

    For decades, debates over medical curriculum reform have centred on the role of science in medical education, but the meaning of "science" in this domain is vague and the persistence of the debate has not been explained. Following Bourdieu, this paper examines struggles over legitimate knowledge and the forms of capital associated with science in…

  4. The Shortcomings of Medical Education Highlighted through Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pranav

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this report are to highlight the shortcomings in medical education. To use a student made short film as an example of how issues that cause medical student distress can be displayed. To show that the process of film-making is a useful tool in reflection. To display that film is an effective device in raising awareness. (Contains 3…

  5. Problems and Challenges in Medical Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sribas; Sahai, Manjari

    2015-01-01

    As India marches towards an exciting new future of growth and progress, medical education will play a pivotal role in crafting a sustained development agenda. The idea of creating a healthy society is no longer a debatable luxury; its significance has been grasped by policy shapers worldwide. In a developing nation like India, medical services…

  6. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  7. Medicine for Somewhere: The Emergence of Place in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M.; Daynard, Kim; Greenwood, David

    2014-01-01

    Until recently medical education has been largely silent on those aspects of the physician's life, both professional and unprofessional, that differ from place to place. This has contributed to health inequity through an undersupply of health care workers to many communities. A growing movement for social accountability in medical education…

  8. Rasch Analysis of Professional Behavior in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…

  9. Applying the learning theories to medical education: A commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam Nalliah; Nazimah Idris

    2014-01-01

    Medical education of today continues to evolve to meet the challenges of the stakeholders. Medical professionals today are expected to play multiple roles besides being experts. Thus, the curriculum has to be developed in a manner that facilitates learners to achieve the intended goal of becoming a medical professional with multiple competencies. The understanding of learning theories will be helpful in designing and delivering the curriculum to meet the demands of ...

  10. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine.

  11. Competency-based medical education: the wave of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Nicolette; Nakajima, Amy; Kent, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) is a new educational paradigm that will enable the medical education community to meet societal, patient, and learner needs of the 21st century. CBME offers a renewed commitment to both clinical and educational outcomes, a new focus on assessment and developmental milestones, a mechanism to promote a true continuum of medical education, and a method to promote learner-centred curricula in the context of accountability. Accountability is central to CBME, ensuring that graduating practitioners are well-rounded and competent to provide safe and effective patient care. The structure of CBME in obstetrics and gynaecology must be rooted in, and reflect, Canadian practice. Its development and implementation require an understanding of the principles that are the foundation of CBME, along with the involvement of the entire community of obstetricians and gynaecologists and other maternity care providers. We provide here an overview of the basic principles of teaching and learning and the theories underpinning CBME.

  12. Students' medical ethics rounds: a combinatorial program for medical ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigy, Maani; Pishgahi, Ghasem; Moghaddas, Fateme; Maghbouli, Nastaran; Shirbache, Kamran; Asghari, Fariba; Abolfat-H Zadeh, Navid

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a common goal for both medical educators and ethicists to develop effective methods or programs for medical ethics education. The current lecture-based courses of medical ethics programs in medical schools are demonstrated as insufficient models for training "good doctors''. In this study, we introduce an innovative program for medical ethics education in an extra-curricular student-based design named Students' Medical Ethics Rounds (SMER). In SMER, a combination of educational methods, including theater-based case presentation, large group discussion, expert opinions, role playing and role modeling were employed. The pretest-posttest experimental design was used to assess the impact of interventions on the participants' knowledge and attitude regarding selected ethical topics. A total of 335 students participated in this study and 86.57% of them filled the pretest and posttest forms. We observed significant improvements in the knowledge (P educational methods were reported as helpful. We found that SMER might be an effective method of teaching medical ethics. We highly recommend the investigation of the advantages of SMER in larger studies and interdisciplinary settings. PMID:27471586

  13. 'Soft and fluffy': Medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students...

  14. An Investigation of Participating to Continuous Medical Education Programs of Medical Staff at A State Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Şeyda Ferah Tuygar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to determine the frequency, funding and effectiveness of continuous medical education programs which the medical staff at a state hospital attended. Method: This descriptive research was performed on 87 medical staff working at a state hospital (doctor, nurse, midwife, health officer, health technician, and pharmacist) who were accepted to participate in the study. The data were collected through face to face interviews with a questionnaire. Their answers assessed ...

  15. Prescription for change: accessing medication in transitional Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Francesca; Balabanova, Dina

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND Many Russians experienced difficulty in accessing prescription medication during the widespread health service disruption and rapid socio-economic transition of the 1990s. This paper examines trends and determinants of access in Russia during this period. METHODS Data were from nine rounds (1994-2004) of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a 38-centre household panel survey. Trends were measured in failing to access prescribed medication for the following reasons: unobtainable from a pharmacy, unable to afford and 'other' reasons. Determinants of unaffordability were studied in 1994, 1998 and 2004, using cross-sectional, age-adjusted logistic regression, with further multivariate analyses of unaffordability and failure to access for 'other' reasons in 2004. RESULTS After 1994, reporting of unavailability in pharmacies fell sharply from 25% to 4%. Meanwhile, unaffordability increased to 20% in 1998 but declined to 9% by 2004. In 1994, significant determinants of unaffordability were unemployment and lacking health care insurance in men. By 2004, determinants included low income and material goods in both sexes; rented accommodation and low education in men; and chronic disease and disability-related retirement in women. Not obtaining medicines for 'other' reasons was more likely amongst frequent male drinkers, and low educated or cohabiting women. Regional and gender differences were widest in 1998, coinciding with the Russian financial crisis. CONCLUSIONS Rapid improvements in drug availability in the late 1990s in Russia are a probable consequence of a more liberalized pharmaceutical sector and an improved pharmacy network, whilst later improvements in affordability may relate to expanded health care insurance coverage and economic recovery after the 1998 crash. A significant minority still finds prescription costs problematic, notably poorer and sick individuals, with inequalities apparently widening. Non-monetary determinants of affordability

  16. Changing medical students' attitudes toward older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants met for four 2-hour sessions at local art museums to create and discuss art. Three hundred and twenty-eight individuals (112 treatment group, 96 comparison, 120 older adults) in eight cities participated in the program and evaluation. Participants completed pre-and postsurveys that captured their attitude toward older adults, perception of commonality with older adults, and career plans. Findings suggest that medical students' attitudes toward old adults were positive at pretest. However, Vital Visionary students became more positive in their attitudes toward older adults at posttest (p career plans (p = .35). Findings from this demonstration project suggest that socializing medical students with healthy older adults through art programs can foster positive attitudes and enhance their sense of commonality with older adults. PMID:20730650

  17. Creating equal opportunities: the social accountability of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Trevor; McLean, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    As new developments in medical education move inexorably forward, medical schools are being encouraged to revisit their curricula to ensure quality graduates and match their outcomes against defined standards. These standards may eventually be transferred into global accreditation standards, which allow 'safe passage' of graduates from one country to another [Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) 2010. Requiring medical school accreditation for ECFMG certification--moving accreditation forward. Available from: http://www.ecfmg.org/accreditation/rationale.pdf]. Gaining much attention is the important standard of social accountability--ensuring that graduates' competencies are shaped by the health and social needs of the local, national and even international communities in which they will serve. But, in today's 'global village', if medical schools address the needs of their immediate community, who should address the needs of the wider global community? Should medical educators and their associations be looking beyond national borders into a world of very unequal opportunities in terms of human and financial resources; a world in which distant countries and populations are very quickly affected by medical and social disasters; a world in which the global playing field of medical education is far from level? With medical schools striving to produce fit-for-purpose graduates who will hopefully address the health needs of their country, is it now time for the medical education fraternity to extend their roles of social accountability to level this unlevel playing field? We believe so: the time has come for the profession to embrace a global accountability model and those responsible for all aspects of healthcare professional development to recognise their place within the wider global community. PMID:21774647

  18. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  19. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  20. Creating equal opportunities: the social accountability of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Trevor; McLean, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    As new developments in medical education move inexorably forward, medical schools are being encouraged to revisit their curricula to ensure quality graduates and match their outcomes against defined standards. These standards may eventually be transferred into global accreditation standards, which allow 'safe passage' of graduates from one country to another [Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) 2010. Requiring medical school accreditation for ECFMG certification--moving accreditation forward. Available from: http://www.ecfmg.org/accreditation/rationale.pdf]. Gaining much attention is the important standard of social accountability--ensuring that graduates' competencies are shaped by the health and social needs of the local, national and even international communities in which they will serve. But, in today's 'global village', if medical schools address the needs of their immediate community, who should address the needs of the wider global community? Should medical educators and their associations be looking beyond national borders into a world of very unequal opportunities in terms of human and financial resources; a world in which distant countries and populations are very quickly affected by medical and social disasters; a world in which the global playing field of medical education is far from level? With medical schools striving to produce fit-for-purpose graduates who will hopefully address the health needs of their country, is it now time for the medical education fraternity to extend their roles of social accountability to level this unlevel playing field? We believe so: the time has come for the profession to embrace a global accountability model and those responsible for all aspects of healthcare professional development to recognise their place within the wider global community.

  1. The use of social media to supplement resident medical education – the SMART-ME initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagis Galiatsatos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Residents work at variable times and are often unable to attend all scheduled educational sessions. Therefore, new asynchronistic approaches to learning are essential in ensuring exposure to a comprehensive education. Social media tools may be especially useful, because they are accessed at times convenient for the learner. Objective: Assess if the use of Twitter for medical education impacts the attitude and behavior of residents toward using social media for medical education. Design: Preintervention and postintervention surveys. Internal medicine resident physicians were surveyed before the launch of a residency-specific Twitter webpage on August 1, 2013, and again 135 days later, to determine their use of the Twitter application and web page, as well as other social media for medical education. Participants: Residents at an internal medicine urban academic training program. Main Measures: All residents within our training program were administered web-based surveys. The surveys assessed resident views and their frequency of use of social media for medical education purposes, and consisted of 10 Likert scale questions. Each answer consisted of a datapoint on a 1–5 scale (1=not useful, 3=useful, 5=very useful. The final survey question was open-ended and asked for general comments. Key Results: Thirty-five of 50 residents (70% completed the presurvey and 40 (80% participated in the postsurvey. At baseline, 34 out of 35 residents used social media and nine specifically used Twitter. Twenty-seven (77% used social media for medical education; however, only three used Twitter for educational purposes. After the establishment of the Twitter page, the percentage of residents using social media for educational purposes increased (34 of 40 residents, 85%, and 22 used Twitter for this purpose (p<0.001 for the change. The percentage of residents using the application at least once a week also increased from 11.4 to 60.0% (p<0.001. Almost

  2. [Undergraduate education of medical technologists to promote scientific and technological literacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Akizawa, Hirotsugu

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important for today's medical technologists to receive proper training on the safety of medical treatment and healthcare in order to accommodate the rapid changes and advancement in medical technology. In particular, because of the increase of hospital-acquired infections, the role of medical technologists involved in infection control has become much more important. In addition, particularly in Japan, the career options available to students graduating with a degree in medical technology have become much more diverse, ranging from research laboratories to clinical services; however, undergraduate education for medical technologists is limited. It is therefore deemed necessary for undergraduate students to be provided with adequate training from their universities by offering a wider selection of classes in this subject area. In this paper, we summarize our preliminary findings on the trial lessons that are offered to medical technology students in their microbiology class. These lessons are designed to enhance students' academic potential and to engage their interest.

  3. "Teaching as a Competency": competencies for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Li, Su-Ting T; Meyers, Fredrick J; Pratt, Daniel D; Collins, John B; Braddock, Clarence; Skeff, Kelley M; West, Daniel C; Henderson, Mark; Hales, Robert E; Hilty, Donald M

    2011-10-01

    Most medical faculty receive little or no training about how to be effective teachers, even when they assume major educational leadership roles. To identify the competencies required of an effective teacher in medical education, the authors developed a comprehensive conceptual model. After conducting a literature search, the authors met at a two-day conference (2006) with 16 medical and nonmedical educators from 10 different U.S. and Canadian organizations and developed an initial draft of the "Teaching as a Competency" conceptual model. Conference participants used the physician competencies (from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) and the roles (from the Royal College's Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists [CanMEDS]) to define critical skills for medical educators. The authors then refined this initial framework through national/regional conference presentations (2007, 2008), an additional literature review, and expert input. Four core values grounded this framework: learner engagement, learner-centeredness, adaptability, and self-reflection. The authors identified six core competencies, based on the ACGME competencies framework: medical (or content) knowledge; learner- centeredness; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism and role modeling; practice-based reflection; and systems-based practice. They also included four specialized competencies for educators with additional programmatic roles: program design/implementation, evaluation/scholarship, leadership, and mentorship. The authors then cross-referenced the competencies with educator roles, drawing from CanMEDS, to recognize role-specific skills. The authors have explored their framework's strengths, limitations, and applications, which include targeted faculty development, evaluation, and resource allocation. The Teaching as a Competency framework promotes a culture of effective teaching and learning. PMID:21869655

  4. Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-10-01

    Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about medication. We used two questionnaires to compare the results from the deaf participants with those from the HH and hearing participants. We found that before the lecture, the deaf participants' understanding of medication use was lower than that of the HH and hearing participants. The deaf participants' knowledge increased after the lecture, but did not improve to the level exhibited by the HH participants. However, the deaf participants felt confident using medication despite their low comprehension levels. In conclusion, adjusting the medication information provided by pharmacists according to the recipient's reading level could help improve deaf patients' knowledge; however, such measures might not increase deaf patients' comprehension levels sufficiently. PMID:27262170

  5. The use of Facebook in medical education – A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pander, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature and grade of evidence is provided, research gaps are identified, links to prior reviews are drawn and implications for the future are discussed.Method: The authors searched six databases. Inclusion criteria were defined and the authors independently reviewed the search results. The key information of the articles included was methodically abstracted and coded, synthesized and discussed in the categories study design, study participants’phase of medical education and study content.Results: 16 articles met all inclusion criteria. 45-96% of health care professionals in all phases of their medical education have a Facebook profile. Most studies focused on Facebook and digital professionalism. Unprofessional behavior and privacy violations occurred in 0.02% to 16%. In terms of learning and teaching environment, Facebook is well accepted by medical students. It is used to prepare for exams, share online material, discuss clinical cases, organize face-to-face sessions and exchange information on clerkships. A few educational materials to teach Facebook professionalism were positively evaluated. There seems to be no conclusive evidence as to whether medical students benefit from Facebook as a learning environment on higher competence levels.Discussion: Facebook influences a myriad of aspects of health care professionals, particularly at undergraduate and graduate level in medical education. Despite an increasing number of interventions, there is a lack of

  6. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Roemer, M I

    1980-01-01

    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improv...

  7. Remember Your MEDS: Medication Education Delivers Success

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey M. Rife, PharmD Candidate; Sarah E. Ginty, PharmD Candidate; Elizabeth M. Hohner, PharmD Candidate; Heather R. Stamper, PharmD Candidate; Kristen F. Sobota, PharmD,BCPS; David R. Bright, PharmD, BCACP

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medication adherence is one of the largest barriers to better patient outcomes today. As pharmacists and student pharmacists expand their roles with community outreach projects, they have the potential to make a huge impact on improving adherence. Objective: To improve medication adherence through patient counseling and constructive resources, and to determine patient preferences of adherence tools. Methods: Student pharmacists partnered with a 340B pharmacy to promote the importa...

  8. Incorporating Environmental Health into Pediatric Medical and Nursing Education

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure–related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals’ environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and...

  9. Competency-based medical education : theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Jason R.; Snell, Linda S.; Ten Cate, Olle; Holmboe, Eric S.; Carraccio, Carol; Swing, Susan R.; Harris, Peter; Glasgow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Craig; Dath, Deepak; Harden, Ronald M.; Iobst, William; Long, Donlin M.; Mungroo, Rani; Richardson, Denyse L.; Sherbino, Jonathan; Silver, Ivan; Taber, Sarah; Talbot, Martin; Harris, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Although competency-based medical education (CBME) has attracted renewed interest in recent years among educators and policy-makers in the health care professions, there is little agreement on many aspects of this paradigm. We convened a unique partnership - the International CBME Collaborators - to

  10. From Cases to Projects in Problem-Based Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentoft, Diana; Duroux, Meg; Fink, Trine; Emmersen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) based on patient cases has become a well-established worldwide educational approach in medical education. Recent studies indicate that case-based PBL when used throughout an entire curriculum may develop into a counter-productive routine for students as well as teachers. Consequently, there is a need to develop PBL…

  11. The Role of Self-Concept in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Li, Bingyi; Wilson, Ian; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has acknowledged the importance of self-concept for adolescents' academic behaviour, motivation and aspiration, but little is known about the role of self-concept underpinning the motivation and aspiration of higher education students in a specialised field such as medical education. This article draws upon a programme of…

  12. Assessment in Medical Education; What Are We Trying to Achieve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena; O'Flynn, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Within the arena of medical education, it is generally acknowledged that assessment drives learning. Assessment is one of the most significant influences on a student's experience of higher education and improving assessment has a huge impact on the quality of learning (Liu, N. and Carless, D, 2006). Ideally we want to enhance student's capacity…

  13. Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimitat, Craig

    2001-03-01

    The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour. PMID:11371287

  14. Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimitat, Craig

    2001-03-01

    The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour.

  15. Development and implementation of a comprehensive strategic plan for medical education at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzstein, Richard M; Huang, Grace C; Coughlin, Christine M

    2008-06-01

    Despite their vital contributions to the training of future physicians, many academic teaching hospitals have grown operationally and financially distinct from affiliated medical schools because of divergent missions, contributing to the erosion of clinical training. Some institutions have responded by building hybrid organizations; others by creating large health care networks with variable relationships with the affiliated medical school. In this case, the authors wished to establish the future educational mission of their medical center as a core element of the institution by creating data-driven recommendations for reorganization, programs, and financing. They conducted a self-study of all constituents, the results of which confirmed the importance of education at their institution but also revealed the insufficiency of incentives for teaching. They underwent an external review by a committee of prominent educators, and they involved administrators at the hospital and the medical school. Together, these inputs composed an informed assessment of medical education at their teaching hospital, from which they developed and actualized an institution-wide strategic plan for education. Over the course of three years, they centralized the administrative structure for education, implemented programs that cross departments and reinforce the UME-GME continuum, and created transparency in the financing of medical education. The plan was purposefully aligned with the clinical and research strategic plans by supporting patient safety in programs and the professional development of faculty. The application of a rigorous strategic planning process to medical education at an academic teaching hospital can focus the mission, invigorate faculty, and lead to innovative programs.

  16. Medical education and the GCSE generation--a transferable activity-skills programme in medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N J; Dryden, C

    1991-01-01

    The first major intake of medical students who studied the new GCSE occurred in Autumn 1990. These students have experienced a range of student-centred educational approaches to learning, but medical education in the UK remains committed to teacher-centred approaches. This mismatch of expectations is discussed. An innovative course in medical sociology at the University of Sheffield is reported, which illustrates student-centred learning approaches including transferable activity-skills development and self-assessment profiling. An innovative approach to course evaluation is discussed. PMID:1749350

  17. Blunting Occam's razor: aligning medical education with studies of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan

    2010-08-01

    Clinical effectiveness and efficiency in medicine for patient benefit should be grounded in the quality of medical education. In turn, the quality of medical education should be informed by contemporary learning theory that offers high explanatory, exploratory and predictive power. Multiple team-based health care interventions and associated policy are now routinely explored and explained through complexity theory. Yet medical education--how medical students learn to become doctors and how doctors learn to become clinical specialists or primary care generalists--continues to refuse contemporary, work-based social learning theories that have deep resonance with models of complexity. This can be explained ideologically, where medicine is grounded in a tradition of heroic individualism and knowledge is treated as private capital. In contrast, social learning theories resonating with complexity theory emphasize adaptation through collaboration, where knowledge is commonly owned. The new era of clinical teamwork demands, however, that we challenge the tradition of autonomy, bringing social learning theories in from the cold, to reveal their affinities with complexity science and demonstrate their powers of illumination. Social learning theories informed by complexity science can act as a democratizing force in medical education, helping practitioners to work more effectively in non-linear, complex, dynamic systems through inter-professionalism, shared tolerance of ambiguity and distributed cognition. Taking complexity science seriously and applying its insights demands a shift in cultural mindset in medical education. Inevitably, patterns of resistance will arise to frustrate such potential innovation.

  18. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ASPECTS AFFECTING MEDICAL EDUCATION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Peeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The student is the main subject in the education process. The goal of the study is to examine the relative weight of the components of learning process in the students’ evaluation assessment for quality of higher medical education. Direct individual inquiry with rank answers for 541 medical students was completed. Logistic regression analysis was done to create predictive models and derive relationships between quality of education factors and its dependents: assessment of quality and students' progress. Tolerance and respectfulness (OR = 13.1, high general culture (OR = 18.4, clearand accessiblecontemporaryteaching (OR = 9.2, engagement of the audience (OR = 3.4, are the teacher characteristics in the model. Application ofnew technologiesinlearning (OR = 4.2,discussion (OR = 5.9, patients observations and live contact (OR = 5.6 are educational methods determine the qualityof education. Accordinginterns quality of education isdetermined mainly by clinical facilities, quality lectures,solving clinical cases, and practical work. 

  19. The ethics of conducting graduate medical education research on residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jason D; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Korndorffer, James R; Weinstein, Debra F; Smink, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    The field of graduate medical education (GME) research is attracting increased attention and broader participation. The authors review the special ethical and methodological considerations pertaining to medical education research. Because residents are at once a convenient and captive study population, a risk of coercion exists, making the provision of consent important. The role of the institutional review board (IRB) is often difficult to discern because GME activities can have multiple simultaneous purposes, educational activities may go forward with or without a research component, and the subjects of educational research studies are not patients. The authors provide a road map for researchers with regard to research oversight by the IRB and also address issues related to research quality. The matters of whether educational research studies should have educational value for the study subject and whether to use individual information obtained when residents participate as research subjects are explored. PMID:23425981

  20. Students’ medical ethics rounds: a combinatorial program for medical ethics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigy, Maani; Pishgahi, Ghasem; Moghaddas, Fateme; Maghbouli, Nastaran; Shirbache, Kamran; Asghari, Fariba; Abolfat-h Zadeh, Navid

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a common goal for both medical educators and ethicists to develop effective methods or programs for medical ethics education. The current lecture-based courses of medical ethics programs in medical schools are demonstrated as insufficient models for training “good doctors’’. In this study, we introduce an innovative program for medical ethics education in an extra-curricular student-based design named Students’ Medical Ethics Rounds (SMER). In SMER, a combination of educational methods, including theater-based case presentation, large group discussion, expert opinions, role playing and role modeling were employed. The pretest-posttest experimental design was used to assess the impact of interventions on the participants’ knowledge and attitude regarding selected ethical topics. A total of 335 students participated in this study and 86.57% of them filled the pretest and posttest forms. We observed significant improvements in the knowledge (P teaching medical ethics. We highly recommend the investigation of the advantages of SMER in larger studies and interdisciplinary settings.

  1. Medical Asepsis, Research, and Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Patricia M.; Crow, Sue

    1977-01-01

    Emphasizes the need that continuing education programs for nurses in hospitals orient newly employed graduate nurses specifically to infection control measures as carried out in that institution and then to reinforce these learnings by regular planned programs. Points out ways that those responsible for inservice nursing education can facilitate…

  2. Changing need for Education of Industrial Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1997-01-01

    Many changes have taken place in societies and enterprises during the last decades, but have we changed our university structure according to this? Have changes in educational structure only been made according to technologies? The paper propose a change to work flow education....

  3. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  4. Competency-based Medical Education, Entrustment and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Jyoti Nath; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2015-05-01

    The realization that medical graduates are failing to serve the health needs of the society has compelled the medical educationists and regulatory authorities worldwide to review the medical training. A medical curriculum oriented towards developing the key competencies that enable a fresh graduate to be delivering socially responsive health care is seen as a promising step towards alleviating this problem. This calls for a departure from the traditional approach of organizing the curricular components around educational objectives, to a competency-based approach for planning the curriculum. The present article discusses the concept of competency-based medical education in Indian context, the steps in planning and implementing such a curriculum, and the key aspects of assessment for its effective implementation.

  5. Continuing Medical Education, Maintenance of Certification, and Physician Reentry

    OpenAIRE

    Luchtefeld, Martin; Kerwel, Therese G.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing medical education serves a central role in the licensure and certification for practicing physicians. This chapter explores the different modalities that constitute CME along with their effectiveness, including simulation and best education practices. The evolution to maintenance of certification and the requirements for both the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery are delineated. Further progress in the education of practicing surgeons is e...

  6. Doctors in society. Medical professionalism in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    wisdom as well as technical ability, doctors are vulnerable to the charge that their decisions are neither transparent nor accountable. In an age where deference is dead and league tables are the norm, doctors must be clearer about what they do, and how and why they do it. We define medical professionalism as a set of values, behaviours, and relationships that underpin the trust the public has in doctors. We go on to describe what those values, behaviours, and relationships are, how they are changing, and why they matter. This is the core of our work. We have also identified six themes where our definition has further implications: leadership, teams, education, appraisal, careers, and research. The Working Party's definition and description of medical professionalism, and the recommendations arising from them, can be found in Section 5 of this report. If our recommendations are acted upon, we believe that professionalism could flourish and prosper to the benefit of patients and doctors alike. However, the exercise of medical professionalism is hampered by the political and cultural environment of health, which many doctors consider disabling. The conditions of medical practice are critical determinants for the future of professionalism. We argue that doctors have a responsibility to act according to the values we set out in this report. Equally, other members of the healthcare team--notably managers--have a reciprocal duty to help create an organisational infrastructure to support doctors in the exercise of their professional responsibilities. Just as the patient-doctor partnership is a pivotal therapeutic relationship in medicine, so the interaction between doctor and manager is central to the delivery of professional care. High-quality care depends on both effective health teams and efficient health organisations. Professionalism therefore implies multiple commitments--to the patient, to fellow professionals, and to the institution or system within which healthcare is

  7. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  8. Teaching interprofessional teamwork in medical and nursing education in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree......The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status...... interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs...

  9. Why change habits? Early modern medical innovation between medicalisation and medical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetz, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Based on a discussion of the concept of medicalisation and medical culture in Anglo-American, French-, and German-speaking historiography the paper argues that medical innovation in Europe from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century should be approached in a different way. Instead of asking from the perspective of a too narrow concept of medicalisation why medical innovations were rejected by the population, (medical) historians should analyse medical culture and ask why people should have changed their health and illness behaviour. This conceptual argument is deduced from four empirical examples: the introduction of smallpox vaccination, "medical police," the problem of medical professionalization, and the questions arising around the relations between the healthy/sick and their practitioners.

  10. An identity crisis: the need for core competencies in undergraduate medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey B. Russ; McKenney, Anna Sophia; Patel, Ankit B.

    2013-01-01

    A medical student perspective on the role of core competencies in undergraduate medical education in light of medical education reform associated with recent Flexner II.Keywords: undergraduate medical education; core competency; Flexner II(Published: 29 April 2013)Citation: Med Educ Online 2013, 18: 21028 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/meo.v18i0.21028

  11. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  12. Remember Your MEDS: Medication Education Delivers Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey M. Rife, PharmD Candidate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is one of the largest barriers to better patient outcomes today. As pharmacists and student pharmacists expand their roles with community outreach projects, they have the potential to make a huge impact on improving adherence. Objective: To improve medication adherence through patient counseling and constructive resources, and to determine patient preferences of adherence tools. Methods: Student pharmacists partnered with a 340B pharmacy to promote the importance of medication adherence. Patients were counseled in an initial 10 minute session, and then given the opportunity to receive one or more of the following adherence tools: a pill box, timer, reminder refrigerator magnets, calendar stickers, refill reminder phone calls and/or text message reminders. A pre-survey was conducted to establish the patients’ baseline medication adherence using the validated ©Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (©MMAS-8. After three months, students conducted the post-survey via the ©MMAS-8 by calling the patients and asking them questions about the helpfulness of the adherence tools as well as the effectiveness of the initial counseling visit. Results: Sixty five patients with hypertension enrolled in the study, and 51 patients completed both the pre- and post-surveys. Patients improved from a 6.02 (SD +/- 1.62 average pre-score to a 6.83 (SD +/-1.25 average post score (p < 0.001. Pill boxes, text message reminders, and calendar stickers were respectively ranked as the top 3 most helpful tools studied. The refrigerator magnets were also considered helpful by most patients who used them. The timers were ranked the least helpful, mostly due to difficulty of use. Conclusion: Student pharmacists can have a positive impact on medication adherence through simple counseling and offering effective adherence tools.

  13. Medical physics: educational objectives and curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undergraduate course in medical physics covers 4 years with 11 months work a year. The course includes physics, mathematics and medical subjects and has the object of training physicists for biomedical research and business and industrial aspects of medicine as well as for hospital service. After graduating, those intending to become hospital physicists must serve three years as assistant physicist at the University Central Hospital. Concurrently they have courses in nuclear medicine and instrumentation, and in radiation dosimetry. Other post graduate studies in the theoretical and research fields lead to the Ph.D. degree. (JIW)

  14. MO-E-18C-06: Enriching Medical Physics Education By Visualizing The Invisible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprawls, P [Emory University and Sprawls Educational Foundation, Montreat, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To enhance the understanding of medical physics concepts and develop higher levels of learning relating to invisible physics phenomena such as radiation. To provide medical physics educators in all countries of the world with understanding of knowledge structures in the human brain, the different levels of learning, and the types of knowledge required for higher level functions such as problem solving, creative innovations, and applied clinical applications. To provide medical physics educators with an open access resource (tool) that they can use in their teaching activities to enrich and elevate the level of learning for their students, residents, etc. with respect to the invisible realm of medical physics. Methods: An experienced clinical medical physicist and educator has created and provided with open access three complementary web-based resources to achieve the purposes described above. One is a module focusing on the medical physics learning process with respect to mental knowledge structures, how they relate to outcomes and applications, and learning activities that are required to develop the required knowledge structures. The second is an extensive set of visuals that educators can use in their activities (classes, small group discussions, etc.) to visualize the invisible. The third is an interactive online simulation where learners can adjust factors and visually observe changes in x-radiation.These resources are available online at www.BLINDED FOR REVIEW . Results: Medical physics education, especially for non-physicists, is becoming much more interesting and useful especially with respect to invisible radiation. The global impact is that medical imaging professionals can be more effective in optimizing x-ray imaging procedures and risk management when they have knowledge levels that enhance problem solving, innovation, and creativity. Conclusion: Medical physics educators in all institutions can be much more effective and efficient in the

  15. MO-E-18C-06: Enriching Medical Physics Education By Visualizing The Invisible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enhance the understanding of medical physics concepts and develop higher levels of learning relating to invisible physics phenomena such as radiation. To provide medical physics educators in all countries of the world with understanding of knowledge structures in the human brain, the different levels of learning, and the types of knowledge required for higher level functions such as problem solving, creative innovations, and applied clinical applications. To provide medical physics educators with an open access resource (tool) that they can use in their teaching activities to enrich and elevate the level of learning for their students, residents, etc. with respect to the invisible realm of medical physics. Methods: An experienced clinical medical physicist and educator has created and provided with open access three complementary web-based resources to achieve the purposes described above. One is a module focusing on the medical physics learning process with respect to mental knowledge structures, how they relate to outcomes and applications, and learning activities that are required to develop the required knowledge structures. The second is an extensive set of visuals that educators can use in their activities (classes, small group discussions, etc.) to visualize the invisible. The third is an interactive online simulation where learners can adjust factors and visually observe changes in x-radiation.These resources are available online at www.BLINDED FOR REVIEW . Results: Medical physics education, especially for non-physicists, is becoming much more interesting and useful especially with respect to invisible radiation. The global impact is that medical imaging professionals can be more effective in optimizing x-ray imaging procedures and risk management when they have knowledge levels that enhance problem solving, innovation, and creativity. Conclusion: Medical physics educators in all institutions can be much more effective and efficient in the

  16. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  17. Lived Experiences of Educational Leaders in Iranian Medical Education System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Zohreh; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Arabshahi, Kamran Soltani; Farshad, Mohammad Mahdi; Farshad, Fatemeh; Farahani, Mansoureh Ashgale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High quality educational systems are necessary for sustainable development and responding to the needs of society. In the recent decades, concerns have increased on the quality of education and competency of graduates. Since graduates of medical education are directly involved with the health of society, the quality of this system is of high importance. Investigation in the lived experience of educational leaders in the medical education systems can help to promote its quality. The present research examines this issue in Iran. Methodology: The study was done using content-analysis qualitative approach and semi-structured interviews. The participants included 26 authorities including university chancellors and vice-chancellors, ministry heads and deputies, deans of medical and basic sciences departments, education expert, graduates, and students of medical fields. Sampling was done using purposive snowball method. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Findings: Five main categories and 14 sub-categories were extracted from data analysis including: quantity-orientation, ambiguity in the trainings, unsuitable educational environment, personalization of the educational management, and ineffective interpersonal relationship. The final theme was identified as “Education in shadow”. Conclusion: Personalization and inclusion of personal preferences in management styles, lack of suitable grounds, ambiguity in the structure and process of education has pushed medical education toward shadows and it is not the first priority; this can lead to incompetency of medical science graduates. PMID:26925915

  18. He who pays the piper: foundations, the medical profession, and medical education reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E R

    1980-01-01

    The development of modern medical education was shaped by the medical profession's own reform strategies and by material and ideological support from the corporate class. This article examines how the Rockefeller medical philanthropies, the largest single source of funds for medical education reform from 1910 through the 1930s, forced the adoption of a specific reform--full-time clinical faculty--to make medicine serve the needs of capitalist society rather than the interests of the medical profession. Memorandums and letters from archival files demonstrate that foundation leaders believed the full-time plan would separate medical schools from the grip of practitioner-dominated medical societies, bringing all medical faculty under the control of foundations and university boards of trustees. This policy was to be a first step in rationalizing medical care and distributing the technical benefits and social-control functions of medicine to all segments of the population. The author traces the development of the full-time plan, its adoption as foundation policy, and the struggle over its implementation.

  19. Continuing Medical Education Reform for Competency-Based Education and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrwold, David L.

    2005-01-01

    The development of competency-based education and evaluation for residents and practicing physicians by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), respectively, includes the competency of practice-based learning and improvement. Efforts to implement this and the other competencies…

  20. The Financing of Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Medical Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The financing and organization of the medical care field is seen as being in an evolutionary stage. It has progressed from an era when most physicians provided services as solo practitioners and patients paid expenses out-of-pocket to group practices and expenses paid by third parties. (MLW)

  1. The Use of Narrative in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A course was designed for medical students in which literature and writing exercises were used to promote reflection on cross-cultural patient encounters. Students were encouraged to consider Kleinman's principles of open-ended questioning as the basis for enhancing these patient conversations and were prompted to develop skills in close reading…

  2. Gendered specialities during medical education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, Margret; van Leerdam, Lotte; Dielissen, Patrick; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-06-01

    The careers of male and female physicians indicate gender differences, whereas in medical education a feminization is occurring. Our review aims to specify gender-related speciality preferences during medical education. A literature search on gender differences in medical students' speciality preferences was conducted in PubMed, Eric, Embase and Social Abstracts, and reference lists from January 2000 to June 2013. Study quality was assessed by critical appraisal. Our search yielded 741 hits and included 14, mostly cross-sectional, studies originating from various countries. No cohort studies were found. Throughout medical education, surgery is predominantly preferred by men and gynaecology, paediatrics and general practice by women. Internal medicine was pursued by both genders. The extent of gender-specific speciality preferences seemed related to the male-to-female ratio in the study population. When a population contained more male students gynaecology seemed even more preferred by women, while in a more feminine population, men more highly preferred surgery. Internationally, throughout medical education, gender-related speciality preferences are apparent. The extent might be influenced by the male-to-female ratio of a study population. Further research of the role of gender in career considerations of medical students on the future workforce is necessary. PMID:24980516

  3. Informatics and Medical Libraries: Changing Needs and Changing Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisse, Mark E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Although the challenges faced by librarians and medical informaticians are sometimes different, the evolution of information technology and new forms of biomedical communication suggest an increasing convergence between the two disciplines. Both groups serve as information deliverers and curators, apply information technology to knowledge…

  4. Private medical education--the doctor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, A K

    2000-08-01

    The Government's decision to drastically and speedily increase the number of doctors in the country needs to be reviewed. The standard and quality of health care does not depend on the number of doctors, but on the improvement of the health care infrastructure. Increasing the number of government medical schools and increasing the intake of students should be done on a need-to basis, with the above perspective in mind. The selection criteria of candidates must not be compromised and the teaching staff must be adequate and experienced. The number of doctors should be gradually increased over the years in tandem with the development of the health care infrastructure and the deployment of doctors must be directed at providing equitable care to the people at all economic levels and geographic locations. The strength of academic staff in existing government medical schools must be upgraded to provide high level of teaching and research, perhaps reinforced with the recruitment of suitably qualified and experienced foreign teachers. The infrastructure of existing government medical schools must be upgraded to cater for the gradual increasing demand for more doctors as the country develops. The selection of candidates for the government medical schools must be based on merit and without undue emphasis on ethnic considerations, for it is only in the arena of fair competitiveness that excellence can be born. The considerations of merit in selection must include assessment of attitude, self-development, moral ethics and reasoning. If the above perspectives are fully appreciated, then there is really no requirement for private medical colleges in Malaysia.

  5. Community-based distributive medical education: Advantaging society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J. Farnsworth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a narrative summary of an increasingly important trend in medical education by addressing the merits of community-based distributive medical education (CBDME. This is a relatively new and compelling model for teaching and training physicians in a manner that may better meet societal needs and expectations. Issues and trends regarding the growing shortage and imbalanced distribution of physicians in the USA are addressed, including the role of international medical graduates. A historical overview of costs and funding sources for medical education is presented, as well as initiatives to increase the training and placement of physicians cost-effectively through new and expanded medical schools, two- and four-year regional or branch campuses and CBDME. Our research confirms that although medical schools have responded to Association of American Medical Colleges calls for higher student enrollment and societal concerns about the distribution and placement of physicians, significant opportunities for improvement remain. Finally, the authors recommend further research be conducted to guide policy on incentives for physicians to locate in underserved communities, and determine the cost-effectiveness of the CBDME model in both the near and long terms.

  6. 78 FR 9899 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation... Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this meeting will be open to the...

  7. 78 FR 45917 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, U.S. Department of Education... Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this meeting will be open to the...

  8. 77 FR 13312 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education... Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this meeting will be open to the...

  9. 77 FR 49788 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation... Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this meeting will be open to the...

  10. A horizon of medical education research approach in 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhendu Dutta

    2014-01-01

    The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is ma...

  11. The discourse of generational segmentation and the implications for postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, Jamiu O

    2013-11-01

    The growing demands for easily accessible, cost effective and efficient health care services are hindering many medical training programs in delivering well prepared physicians, equipped with the competencies to tackle new and complex health care problems. In addition to this, many medical institutions are finding it difficult to design curricula that would prepare today's physicians adequately for the ongoing changes in health care. Targeted customer service is a growing phenomenon in health care, where healthcare institutions are operating as retail service providers, design experiences and deliver care around the convenience of consumers rather than the preferences of providers. Gradually finding its way into medical education, this concept entails investing in understanding the beliefs and values of consumers as a result of their different expectations and differences. Defined by the experiences that create common values among the members of a specific group, the discourse of generation segmentation has proven to be a helpful way of understanding consumer differences. There are four known generations currently impacting the pattern and distribution of healthcare services and in the coming decade, the future of medical education In this paper, medical education is re-examined in the light of this phenomenon of generation segmentation and whether today's physicians are being effectively prepared to practice in a fast changing world. The analysis provided in this paper presents a recommendation for the medical curriculum of a new millennium based on the changing needs and expectations of different generations of consumers. PMID:23670694

  12. Comparative analysis of quality assurance in health care delivery and higher medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busari JO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jamiu O BusariDepartment of Educational Development and Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Quality assurance (QA in higher medical education involves the development, sustenance, improvement, and evaluation of the standard of training of medical professionals. In health care delivery, QA focuses on guaranteeing and maintaining a high standard of the service provided in different health care systems. When the service delivered by the care provider is in accordance with what the recipients of health care expect, then quality in health care is considered to be present. There are several factors in higher medical education and health care that are responsible for the emergence of QA. These include externally imposed obligations requiring demonstration of public accountability and responsibility from educational institutions, as well as the need for activity-specific information by policy makers as an aid for important decision-making within educational institutions. In health care delivery on the other hand, the emergence of QA is linked to the need for containing rising health care costs in the face of limited resources and to guaranteeing high quality patient care in a changing health care environment where the power relationship between doctors and patients is shifting towards patients. Although medical education can be regarded as a distinct entity in the health care industry, it still remains an inherent part of the health care delivery system. As a result, different strategies aimed at guaranteeing and assuring high standards of health care and education in many countries tend to overlap. This paper reflects on whether quality assurance in health care delivery and medical education should be seen as separate entities.Keywords: quality assurance, health care, higher medical education

  13. 78 FR 52537 - Council on Graduate Medical Education; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Council on Graduate Medical Education...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Council on Graduate Medical Education... education training, and the development of performance measures and longitudinal evaluation of...

  14. Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

  15. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills i...

  16. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, J; Schmidt-Huber, M; Netzel, J; Krohn, AC; Angstwurm, M; Fischer,

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians' everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills...

  17. Medical school accreditation in Australia: Issues involved in assessing major changes and new programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Medical Council (AMC is an independent company for quality assurance and quality improvement in medical education in Australia and New Zealand. Accreditation procedures for the 20 medical schools in these two countries are somewhat different for three different circumstances or stages of school development: existing medical schools, established courses undergoing major changes, and new schools. This paper will outline some issues involved in major changes to existing courses, and new medical school programs. Major changes have included change from a 6 year undergraduate course to a 5 year undergraduate course or 4 year graduate-entry course, introduction of a lateral graduate-entry stream, new domestic site of course delivery, offshore course delivery, joint program between two universities, and major change to curriculum. In the case of a major change assessment, accreditation of the new or revised course may be granted for a period up to two years after the full course has been implemented. In the assessment of proposals for introduction of new medical courses, six issues needing careful consideration have arisen: forward planning, academic staffing, adequate clinical experience, acceptable research program, adequacy of resources, postgraduate training program and employment.

  18. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kron Frederick W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1 demographic characteristics; 2 differences between the two universities; 3 how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4 characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%. Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%, felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%, and believed that video games can have educational value (80%. A majority (77% would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%, and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%. However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly

  19. E-learning Portal Tools for Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszak Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessary prerequisites for efficiently pursuing distance learning include carefully planned organization of work and resource management tools, typically found in an internet application – a distance learning portal. The portal application must meet a number of capacity and functionality requirements. Learning goals are pursued through implementation of appropriate tools available in the portal. In the article that follows, the authors attempt to analyze this aspect of medical education as utilized by blended learning and e-learning classes. The article presents a proposal for a set of tools to organize classes in an e-learning portal at a medical school. In addition, the article presents the opinions of students of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences and the Medical University of Bialystok who took part in distance education classes.

  20. A Student-Led Global Health Education Initiative: Reflections on the Kenyan Village Medical Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher John; Heidi Asquith; Tom Wren; Stephanie Mercuri; Sian Brownlow

    2016-01-01

    The Kenyan Village Medical Education Program is a student-led global health initiative that seeks to improve health outcomes in rural Kenya through culturally appropriate health education. The month-long program, which is organised by the Melbourne University Health Initiative (Australia), is conducted each January in southern rural Kenya. Significance for public health The Kenyan Village Medical Education (KVME) Program is a student-led global health initiative that involves exploring well-e...

  1. Pediatric Radiology continuing medical education activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-08-15

    The article selected as the CME activity for this issue of pediatric radiology is designed to provide educational in formation primarily related to technology, techniques, and applications of pediatric and fetal imaging for radiologists and those involved in allied sciences. This material includes information on imaging appearances of normal growth and development, as well as injury and illness that effect thepediatric population.

  2. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Edward M Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools.Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for art...

  3. MGH Authoring Languages for Computer-Based Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Famiglietti, Kathleen T.; Barnett, G. Octo; Hoffer, Edward P.; Gottfried, Sharon D.; Kim, Richard J

    1987-01-01

    The Laboratory of Computer Science at Massachusetts General Hospital has been developing and distributing computer-based medical education programs since 1970. Based on this experience, we are able to identify a number of important issues in the time-consuming and complex process of writing and maintaining medical courseware. This paper describes the authoring process and several of the tools developed to facilitate this process.

  4. Students learning from patients: let's get real in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan; Bligh, John

    2008-03-01

    Medical students must be prepared for working in inter-professional and multi-disciplinary clinical teams centred on a patient's care pathway. While there has been a good deal of rhetoric surrounding patient-centred medical education, there has been little attempt to conceptualise such a practice beyond the level of describing education of communication skills and empathy within a broad 'professionalism' framework. Paradoxically, while aiming to strengthen patient-student interactions, this approach tends to refocus on the role modelling of the physician, and opportunities for potentially deep collaborative working relationships between students and patients are missed. A radical overhaul of conventional doctor-led medical education may be necessary, that also challenges the orthodoxies of individualistic student-centred approaches, leading to an authentic patient-centred model that shifts the locus of learning from the relationship between doctor as educator and student to the relationship between patient and student, with expert doctor as resource. Drawing on contemporary poststructuralist theory of text and identity construction, and on innovative models of work-based learning, the potential quality of relationship between student and patient is articulated in terms of collaborative knowledge production, involving close reading with the patient as text, through dialogue. Here, a medical 'education' displaces traditional forms of medical 'training' that typically involve individual information reproduction. Students may, paradoxically, improve clinical acumen through consideration of silences, gaps, and contradictions in patients as texts, rather than treating communication as transparent. Such paradoxical effects have been systematically occluded or denied in traditional medical education. PMID:17075690

  5. An Update on the Status of Anatomical Sciences Education in United States Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Curricular changes continue at United States medical schools and directors of gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses continue to adjust and modify their offerings. Developing and supplying data related to current trends in anatomical sciences education is important if informed decisions are going to…

  6. Towards Effective Evaluation and Reform in Medical Education: A Cognitive and Learning Sciences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Arocha, Jose F.

    2009-01-01

    Health professions education is dealing with major transformations in light of the changing nature of the health care delivery system, including the use of technology for "just in time" delivery of care, evidence-based practice, personalized medical care and learning, as health professionals strive to integrate biomedical advances and clinical…

  7. Role of Information Communication Technology in Higher Education: Learners Perspective in Rural Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Tripti K; Waghmare, Lalitbhushan S.; Jagzape, Arunita T; Rawekar, Alka T; Quazi, Nazli Z; Mishra, Ved Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Higher education has undergone profound transformation due to recent technological advancements. Resultantly health profession students have a strong base to utilize information technology for their professional development. Studies over recent past reflect a striking change in pattern of technology usage amongst medical students expanding prospects exponentially by e-books, science apps, readymade power-point presentations, evidence based medicine, Wikipedia, etc.

  8. Nurse education: in need of radical change for PHC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, M; Mazibuko, R

    1991-01-01

    Inappropriate models of nursing and nursing education based on the western medical model and medical education impede the development of adequate national health service and primary health services. Nurses are an untapped resource for primary health care (PHC) along with non-nurse PHC workers. They have the potential to change the nature, quality and quantity of PHC services to a much greater extent then investment in reform of medical education. Nursing's large numbers, position as health care providers, and their power in the community, district, and national explaining why radical nurse's education changes can have the greatest impact. The nursing education experience is the basis for the theoretical discussion of what developing countries need from the nurse. Questions of concern are what is the reality for most nurses in the 3rd World and how can nursing education be changed to prepare nurses to meet community needs. Nurses can provide clinical skills accessible to the community and respectful approaches and attitudes toward the impoverished. Nurses currently are geographically, socially, and psychologically removed from the community in need. Those working in rural PHC are ill-equipped by training and adjust poorly to conditions that don't meet ideal settings. However, in spite of the limitations of PHC training, these nurses may still be desired as the chosen provider over non-PHC trained personnel. Nursing education can be changed by changing content and process. The content must encompass an understanding of the social, economic, and political issues affecting health and health services, their clients, and themselves. Detailed situation and community needs must be incorporated into all curricula. Specialties need to be identified and a determination made about the suitability and number needed of comprehensively trained professional nurses with a hospital orientation. The author recommends limiting hospital nursing. Colonization has brought with it many

  9. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  10. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  11. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  12. From cases to projects in problem-based medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stentoft

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL based on patient cases has become a well-established worldwide educational approach in medical education. Recent studies indicate that case-based PBL when used throughout an entire curriculum may develop into a counter-productive routine for students as well as teachers. Consequently, there is a need to develop PBL approaches further allowing students to work with more ill-defined problems and alternative learning structures. In this paper, we argue that this can be realised by introducing project-PBL into the medical curriculum, as in the medical education at Aalborg University, Denmark. We outline organisations of case- and project- PBL in the medical curriculum and present an explorative study of 116 first and second year students’ experiences working in the two settings of PBL. Results reveal that students generally rate their PBL experiences positively however, project-PBL is rated more positively than case-PBL on all parameters studied. These results invite further consideration of the differences in working with cases and projects. Two central differences are discussed; the nature of the problem as the trigger of learning and students' possibilities for directing their own learning processes. The study demonstrates that introducing project-PBL may contribute significantly in problem-based medical education. However, the need for extensive research into advantages and limitations of the combined use of case- and project-PBL is also emphasised.

  13. International medical education and future directions: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    Internationalization, one of the most important forces in higher education today, presents a powerful challenge and an opportunity for medical schools. Factors encouraging internationalization include (1) globalization of health care delivery, (2) governmental pressures, (3) improved communication channels, (4) development of a common vocabulary, (5) outcome-based education and standards, (6) staff development initiatives, and (7) competitiveness and commercialization. A three-dimensional model--based on the student (local or international), the teacher (local or international), and the curriculum (local, imported, or international)-offers a range of perspectives for international medical education. In the traditional approach to teaching and learning medicine, local students and local teachers use a local curriculum. In the international medical graduate or overseas student model, students from one country pursue in another country a curriculum taught and developed by teachers in the latter. In the branch-campus model, students, usually local, have an imported curriculum taught jointly by international and local teachers. The future of medical education, facilitated by the new learning technologies and pedagogies, lies in a move from such international interconnected approaches, which emphasize the mobility of students, teachers, and curriculum across the boundaries of two countries, to a transnational approach in which internationalization is integrated and embedded within a curriculum and involves collaboration between a number of schools in different countries. In this approach, the study of medicine is exemplified in the global context rather than the context of a single country. The International Virtual Medical School serves as an example in this regard.

  14. The integrated curriculum in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, David G; Ferguson, Kristi J

    2015-04-01

    The popularity of the term "integrated curriculum" has grown immensely in medical education over the last two decades, but what does this term mean and how do we go about its design, implementation, and evaluation? Definitions and application of the term vary greatly in the literature, spanning from the integration of content within a single lecture to the integration of a medical school's comprehensive curriculum. Taking into account the integrated curriculum's historic and evolving base of knowledge and theory, its support from many national medical education organizations, and the ever-increasing body of published examples, we deem it necessary to present a guide to review and promote further development of the integrated curriculum movement in medical education with an international perspective. We introduce the history and theory behind integration and provide theoretical models alongside published examples of common variations of an integrated curriculum. In addition, we identify three areas of particular need when developing an ideal integrated curriculum, leading us to propose the use of a new, clarified definition of "integrated curriculum", and offer a review of strategies to evaluate the impact of an integrated curriculum on the learner. This Guide is presented to assist educators in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a thoroughly integrated medical school curriculum.

  15. The programs and context of medical education in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Angel M

    2006-12-01

    There are 29 medical schools in Argentina (this number has increased rapidly in the last decade) offering a 6-year curriculum that usually consists of 3 years of basic science, 2 years of clinical sciences, and one internship year. Annually, 5,000 physicians graduate from these programs. Admission requirements vary depending on each university's policy. Some do not have entry requirements; others require a course, usually on the basics of mathematics, biology, chemistry or physics, and some introduction to social and humanistic studies. Each year, there are approximately 12,000 first-year medical students attending the 29 schools, which suffer a high dropout rate during the first years because of vocational problems or inability to adapt to university life. Some schools have massive classes (over 2,000 students), which makes it difficult for the schools to perfect their teaching. The number of full-time faculty members is low, and some of them have appointments at more than one medical school. Residency programs offer an insufficient number of places, and fewer than 50% of the graduates can obtain a residency position because of strict admission requirements. Coordination between the Ministry of Health, representing the health care system, and the Ministry of Education, representing the medical education system, needs to be improved. Despite the problems of medical education in Argentina, the movement to improve the education of health care workers is growing. The author offers two recommendations to help accomplish this goal. PMID:17122474

  16. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  17. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education. PMID:22449990

  18. Applying the learning theories to medical education: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Nalliah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical education of today continues to evolve to meet the challenges of the stakeholders. Medical professionals today are expected to play multiple roles besides being experts. Thus, the curriculum has to be developed in a manner that facilitates learners to achieve the intended goal of becoming a medical professional with multiple competencies. The understanding of learning theories will be helpful in designing and delivering the curriculum to meet the demands of producing a medical professional who would meet the CanMEDS model. This commentary explores and reflects on the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism as they have evolved over time and the application of these learning theories in medical education, particularly in the context of medical education in Malaysia. The authors are convinced that these three theories are not mutually exclusive but should be operationalized contextually and throughout the different stages of learning in the MBBS curriculum. Understanding these theories and their application will enhance the learning experience of students.

  19. Andragogy in clinical medicine: implications for medical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Geetha Mani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Medical education, the final desired outcome is to prepare the students to meet the challenges in delivering health care to individuals and the community in the most competent and professional manner. Application of Andragogy in medical education especially clinical medicine will enrich the learning experience of students with respect to diagnosing their needs, acquiring knowledge, skills and appropriate attitudes. Various strategies such as problem based learning, clinically associated teaching, critical reflection, role modeling and constructive feedback can be used to enhance the students’ competence and inculcate professionalism among the students.

  20. An overview of ethnography in healthcare and medical education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Goodson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research in healthcare settings and medical education has relied heavily on quantitative methods. However, there are research questions within these academic domains that may be more adequately addressed by qualitative inquiry. While there are many qualitative approaches, ethnography is one method that allows the researcher to take advantage of relative immersion in order to obtain thick description. The purpose of this article is to introduce ethnography, to describe how ethnographic methods may be utilized, to provide an overview of ethnography's use in healthcare and medical education, and to summarize some key limitations with the method.

  1. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education.

  2. Medical diagnosis, ionizing radiation in physics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Physics unit was developed at the Department of Science Teaching, Weizmann Institute, Israel. The unit 'Physics in Medical Diagnosis' was designed to important aspects of applied science in the high school Physics curriculum. The content of the course is how to 'look inside the human body' using radiation. The unit includes a chapter on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. There is also a personal experience tool, the game 'Beware - Radiation'. The class activity is described and analyzed in detail. (R.P.) 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. The limits of empathy: problems in medical education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajdor, Anna; Stöckl, Andrea; Salter, Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Empathy is commonly regarded as an essential attribute for doctors and there is a conviction that empathy must be taught to medical students. Yet it is not clear exactly what empathy is, from a philosophical or sociological point of view, or whether it can be taught. The meaning, role and relevance of empathy in medical education have tended to be unquestioningly assumed; there is a need to examine and contextualise these assumptions. This paper opens up that debate, arguing that 'empathy', as it is commonly understood, is neither necessary nor sufficient to guarantee good medical or ethical practice.

  4. What is the impact of a national postgraduate medical specialist education reform on the daily clinical training 3.5 years after implementation? A questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene; Malling, Bente; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke;

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have recently reformed their postgraduate medical education (PGME). New pedagogic initiatives and blueprints have been introduced to improve quality and effectiveness of the education. Yet it is unknown whether these changes improved the daily clinical training. The purpose...

  5. Twelve tips for using blogs and wikis in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John

    2006-12-01

    Blogs and wikis are an emerging area in medical education but are widely used by the general public. These easily accessed websites can be used for a variety of purposes. They can provide a learning resource that can be read by learners, they can be written by learners as a portfolio, and they can be used as a collaborative learning space. The exact use will depend on the requirements of the learner and the educator.

  6. Continuing Medical Education and the Competent Family Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Gerald; Davis, Dave

    1986-01-01

    Several principles of adult education are explored in terms of how they relate to current practices in developing continuing medical education (CME) programs. The key to effective CME is its link with clinical competence. This entails reviewing how individual learning needs are determined, and how these needs are translated into programs. Ultimately, the success of CME depends on evaluating improvements in areas of physician knowledge, skills, and attitudes which will have a positive impact o...

  7. Rural Family Practice. Part II: Preferences in Continuing Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Rourke, James

    1988-01-01

    Continuing medical education is one of the many challenges facing rural family physicians. In addition to the education needed for office practice, rural family physicians must develop and maintain a special knowledge base and technical skills applicable to their major hospital roles. This study of full-time rural family physicians' CME patterns and preferences illustrates how useful and enjoyable they find various CME options.

  8. Scientific Skills as Core Competences in Medical Education: What do medical students think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Amélia Ferreira, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement of clinical practice. Purposes: This work aimed to study the relevance given by Portuguese medical students to a core of scientific skills, and their judgment about their own ability to execute those skills. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of medical course in the same period. An assessment istrument, exploring the importance given by Portuguese medical students to scientific skills in high school, to clinical practice and to their own ability to execute them, was designed, adapted and applied specifically to this study. Results: Students' perceptions were associated with gender, academic year, previous participation in research activities, positive and negative attitudes toward science, research integration into the curriculum and motivation to undertake research. The viewpoint of medical students about the relevance of scientific skills overall, and the ability to execute them, was independently associated with motivation to be enrolled in research. Conclusions: These findings have meaningful implications in medical education regarding the inclusion of a structural research program in the medical curriculum. Students should be aware that clinical practice would greatly benefit from the enrollment in research activities. By developing a solid scientific literacy future physicians will be able to apply new knowledge in patient care.

  9. Big data in medical informatics: improving education through visual analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    A continuous effort to improve healthcare education today is currently driven from the need to create competent health professionals able to meet healthcare demands. Limited research reporting how educational data manipulation can help in healthcare education improvement. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage to combine big data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognise visual patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to explore novel ways of representing curriculum and educational data using visual analytics. Three approaches of visualization and representation of educational data were presented. Five competencies at undergraduate medical program level addressed in courses were identified to inaccurately correspond to higher education board competencies. Different visual representations seem to have a potential in impacting on the ability to perceive entities and connections in the curriculum data.

  10. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  11. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Komenda

    Full Text Available No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution's curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets.We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations.We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom's taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets.We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent global in-depth medical

  12. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-peng Tey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  13. Junior doctors and undergraduate teaching: the influence of gender on the provision of medical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, David

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: International experience has demonstrated that the medical profession is becoming less dominated by men. This "feminization of medicine" has been a topic of much debate in the medical literature. As the gender ratio in the profession changes, it is likely that a greater proportion of undergraduate education will be provided by women. Whether this shift away from the male-dominated provision of medical education will have an effect on undergraduate education is unknown. PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to clarify whether there are differences between the attitudes and practices of male and female junior doctors regarding the practice of undergraduate teaching. METHOD: A survey methodology among a cohort of nonconsultant hospital doctors in a major Irish teaching hospital was utilized. The overall response rate was 93%. The cohort held a positive attitude toward teaching undergraduates, and the majority were actively engaged in this activity. Doctors of both genders expressed a willingness to undertake teacher training. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the genders regarding the self-reported quantity of teaching provided to undergraduates. Male doctors perceived themselves as more confident educators when compared to female doctors, but this is likely to reflect cohort demographics in which a greater proportion of male doctors were more senior. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that male and female doctors have similar attitudes toward, and practices in, voluntary undergraduate teaching. As a result, any gender shift in medicine is unlikely to result in a significant change in junior doctors\\' attitudes toward undergraduate medical education.

  14. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  15. The State of Nutrition Education at US Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate. Most US medical schools (86/121, 71% fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36% provide less than half that much. Nutrition instruction is still largely confined to preclinical courses, with an average of 14.3 hours occurring in this context. Less than half of all schools report teaching any nutrition in clinical practice; practice accounts for an average of only 4.7 hours overall. Seven of the 8 schools reporting at least 40 hours of nutrition instruction provided integrated courses together with clinical practice sessions. Conclusions. Many US medical schools still fail to prepare future physicians for everyday nutrition challenges in clinical practice. It cannot be a realistic expectation for physicians to effectively address obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hospital malnutrition, and many other conditions as long as they are not taught during medical school and residency training how to recognize and treat the nutritional root causes.

  16. Margaret Mead: Anthropological Perspective on Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Suzanne S.

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead focused much of her thinking, speaking, and writing on education and the impact of rapid change on educational theory and practice. The history of Mead's writings shows sensitivity to both tradition and change. A selection of 12 of Mead's publications provides insight into Mead's innovative and thought-provoking ideas.…

  17. The Changing Nature of Educational Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The many changes in educational technologies have been well documented in both the professional and popular literature. What is less well documented is the changing nature of programs that prepare individuals for careers in the broad multi-disciplinary field of educational technology. This article is a first attempt to look at how educational…

  18. Community Organizing and Educational Change: A Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago community organizing as a form of educational change had only begun to challenge traditional models of school reform. Yet a decade later, community organizing has led to important changes in school and community relationships that have been documented by scholars in the areas of education, sociology, social work, and political…

  19. Residents' Perceptions of Classroom Situated E-Learning for Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerman, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Medical education helps ensure doctors acquire skills and knowledge needed to care for patients. However, resident duty hour restrictions have impacted time residents have for medical education, leaving resident educators searching for innovative options for effective medical education. Classroom situated e-learning, a blended learning delivery…

  20. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  1. Continuum of Medical Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Charles W.; Hunter, Charles A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Over the past eight years the obstetric and gynecology specialty has applied a system model of instructional planning to the continuum of medical education. The systems model of needs identification, preassessment, instructional objectives, instructional materials, learning experiences; and evaluation techniques directly related to objectives was…

  2. Children with Spina Bifida: Educational Implications of Their Medical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabek, Cynthia A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    Many children with spina bifida present organic characteristics such as muscle weakness below the spinal lesion. These medical aspects are discussed with respect to their influence on teaching self-care and motor skills and reducing self-injurious behavior. Recommendations for educational programming are made. (Author/JDD)

  3. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nabilou

    Full Text Available Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0, using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively. F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  4. Research in Medical Education: Balancing Service and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures"…

  5. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  6. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  7. Caring, Competence and Professional Identities in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the multiple discourses that influence medical education with a focus on the discourses of competence and caring. Discourses of competence are largely constituted through, and related to, biomedical and clinical issues whereas discourses of caring generally focus on social concerns. These discourses are not necessarily equal…

  8. Changes in Climate Driving Changes in Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maibritt Pedersen Zari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues, in particular climate change, have become significant drivers of change in architectural education. It is posited that engaging in the reduction and offsetting of greenhouse gas emissions in academic institutions, particularly those responsible for the education of new generations of built environment professionals, could become an important part of creating built environments that can more effectively contribute to mitigating the causes of climate change.

  9. Modernizing and transforming medical education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-08-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  10. [Science and medical education in Brazil (1930-1950)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcão, Lúcia Grando; El-Kareh, Almir Chaiban; Sayd, Jane Dutra

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the role of science and its impact on the curricula of medical schools between 1930 and 1950, sketching out the web of interrelations built up around these institutions, and bringing to light the connection between the contents of the curricula and the prevailing social, political and economic context. The scientific concepts at the time influenced the development of university level institutions, and had particular significance in medical education. In this period, the political and economic ties with the USA were manifested by the Rockefeller Foundation, especially in the arena of education and health. As a concept and working method as well as an ideological category, science was an important factor in standardizing the curricula of Brazil's medical schools, especially as concerned basic research.

  11. Affirmative action in medical education: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, L B; Helms, C M

    1998-03-01

    The use of affirmative action programs as part of the effort to increase the presence of minorities in medical education and the physician workforce has come under greater legal scrutiny. The authors describe the history of the legal theory behind affirmative action, giving examples from the evolving case law and from Department of Education guidelines. They identify legal pitfalls in the areas of admission and financial aid, including the categorization of students by race, racially disproportionate financial aid awards after accounting for need, racially disproportionate amounts of scholarships as opposed to loans, and, for public medical schools, differential treatment of out-of-state students based on race. Medical schools should be aware of this legal framework so that they can construct affirmative action programs that comply with the law while maintaining momentum toward diversification. PMID:9526449

  12. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  13. Scientific Skills as Core Competences in Medical Education: What Do Medical Students Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement…

  14. The role of Educational Technology in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    ZAHRA SAFFARI; FARNAZ TAKMIL; RAHMATALAH ARABZADEH

    2014-01-01

    Dear Editor Being one of the most effective tools for educational system improvement, educational Technology plays an important role in learning facilitation. In order to have a deeper, more effective and long lasting learning impact, this systematic approach designs, implements and evaluates the teaching- learning process, using specific purposes, new methods of psychology and communication sciences and also human and non-human resources (1). A fruitful and effe...

  15. Punctuated Legitimacy: A Theory of Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Barry Allen

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theory of educational change grounded in 23 years of qualitative data from one elementary school, interpreting patterns of change using the punctuated equilibrium theory of organizational change, in which short periods of revolutionary change (usually following failed innovation) are followed by long periods of equilibrium or…

  16. Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that…

  17. Sociomateriality: a theoretical framework for studying distributed medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Anna; Kits, Olga; Whelan, Emma; Fournier, Cathy; Wilson, Keith; Power, Gregory; Mann, Karen; Tummons, Jonathan; Brown, Peggy Alexiadis

    2015-11-01

    Distributed medical education (DME) is a type of distance learning in which students participate in medical education from diverse geographic locations using Web conferencing, videoconferencing, e-learning, and similar tools. DME is becoming increasingly widespread in North America and around the world.Although relatively new to medical education, distance learning has a long history in the broader field of education and a related body of literature that speaks to the importance of engaging in rigorous and theoretically informed studies of distance learning. The existing DME literature is helpful, but it has been largely descriptive and lacks a critical "lens"-that is, a theoretical perspective from which to rigorously conceptualize and interrogate DME's social (relationships, people) and material (technologies, tools) aspects.The authors describe DME and theories about distance learning and show that such theories focus on social, pedagogical, and cognitive considerations without adequately taking into account material factors. They address this gap by proposing sociomateriality as a theoretical framework allowing researchers and educators to study DME and (1) understand and consider previously obscured actors, infrastructure, and other factors that, on the surface, seem unrelated and even unimportant; (2) see clearly how the social and material components of learning are intertwined in fluid, messy, and often uncertain ways; and (3) perhaps think differently, even in ways that disrupt traditional approaches, as they explore DME. The authors conclude that DME brings with it substantial investments of social and material resources, and therefore needs careful study, using approaches that embrace its complexity. PMID:25830536

  18. Sociomateriality: a theoretical framework for studying distributed medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Anna; Kits, Olga; Whelan, Emma; Fournier, Cathy; Wilson, Keith; Power, Gregory; Mann, Karen; Tummons, Jonathan; Brown, Peggy Alexiadis

    2015-11-01

    Distributed medical education (DME) is a type of distance learning in which students participate in medical education from diverse geographic locations using Web conferencing, videoconferencing, e-learning, and similar tools. DME is becoming increasingly widespread in North America and around the world.Although relatively new to medical education, distance learning has a long history in the broader field of education and a related body of literature that speaks to the importance of engaging in rigorous and theoretically informed studies of distance learning. The existing DME literature is helpful, but it has been largely descriptive and lacks a critical "lens"-that is, a theoretical perspective from which to rigorously conceptualize and interrogate DME's social (relationships, people) and material (technologies, tools) aspects.The authors describe DME and theories about distance learning and show that such theories focus on social, pedagogical, and cognitive considerations without adequately taking into account material factors. They address this gap by proposing sociomateriality as a theoretical framework allowing researchers and educators to study DME and (1) understand and consider previously obscured actors, infrastructure, and other factors that, on the surface, seem unrelated and even unimportant; (2) see clearly how the social and material components of learning are intertwined in fluid, messy, and often uncertain ways; and (3) perhaps think differently, even in ways that disrupt traditional approaches, as they explore DME. The authors conclude that DME brings with it substantial investments of social and material resources, and therefore needs careful study, using approaches that embrace its complexity.

  19. Visual analytics in healthcare education: exploring novel ways to analyze and represent big data in undergraduate medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Christos Vaitsis; Gunnar Nilsson; Nabil Zary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The big data present in the medical curriculum that informs undergraduate medical education is beyond human abilities to perceive and analyze. The medical curriculum is the main tool used by teachers and directors to plan, design, and deliver teaching and assessment activities and student evaluations in medical education in a continuous effort to improve it. Big data remains largely unexploited for medical education improvement purposes. The emerging research field of visual ana...

  20. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskeen Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999–2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. Results: The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. Conclusion: While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student

  1. The impact of E-learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Mintzer, Michael J; Leipzig, Rosanne M

    2006-03-01

    The authors provide an introduction to e-learning and its role in medical education by outlining key terms, the components of e-learning, the evidence for its effectiveness, faculty development needs for implementation, evaluation strategies for e-learning and its technology, and how e-learning might be considered evidence of academic scholarship. E-learning is the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies offer learners control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. In diverse medical education contexts, e-learning appears to be at least as effective as traditional instructor-led methods such as lectures. Students do not see e-learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. A developing infrastructure to support e-learning within medical education includes repositories, or digital libraries, to manage access to e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and methods for peer review of these resources. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship. Innovations in e-learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-learning into medical education can catalyze the shift toward applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency. PMID:16501260

  2. The impact of E-learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Mintzer, Michael J; Leipzig, Rosanne M

    2006-03-01

    The authors provide an introduction to e-learning and its role in medical education by outlining key terms, the components of e-learning, the evidence for its effectiveness, faculty development needs for implementation, evaluation strategies for e-learning and its technology, and how e-learning might be considered evidence of academic scholarship. E-learning is the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies offer learners control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. In diverse medical education contexts, e-learning appears to be at least as effective as traditional instructor-led methods such as lectures. Students do not see e-learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. A developing infrastructure to support e-learning within medical education includes repositories, or digital libraries, to manage access to e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and methods for peer review of these resources. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship. Innovations in e-learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-learning into medical education can catalyze the shift toward applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency.

  3. [Death education for medical personnel utilizing cinema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Chae

    2012-09-25

    Death and dying is an ultimate process that every human being must experience. However, in these days we do not like to think or discuss about death and dying. Actually, hatred and denial is the usual feeling when we encounter death and dying. Dying is more than a biological occurrence. It is a human, social, and spiritual event, but the spiritual dimension of patients is too often neglected. Whether death is viewed as a "wall" or as a "door" can have significantly important consequences for how we live our lives. Near death experience is one of the excellent evidences to prove that there should be spiritual component being separated from the human physical body when we experience death. People have called it soul, spirit, or nonlocal consciousness. Caregivers need to recognize and acknowledge the spiritual component of patient care. Learning about death and dying helps us encounter death in ways that are meaningful for our own lives. Among the several learning tools, utilizing cinema with its audio and visual components can be one of the most powerful learning tools in death education.

  4. Multidisciplinary education in medical informatics--a course for medical and informatics students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breil, Bernhard; Fritz, Fleur; Thiemann, Volker; Dugas, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Design and implementation of healthcare information systems affect both computer scientists and health care professionals. In this paper we present our approach to integrate the management of information systems in the education of healthcare professionals and computer scientists alike. We designed a multidisciplinary course for medical and informatics students to provide them with practical experience concerning the design and implementation of medical information systems. This course was implemented in the curriculum of the University of Münster in 2009. The key element is a case study that is performed by small teams of medical and informatics students. A practical course on management of information systems can be useful for medical students who want to enhance their knowledge in information systems as well as for informatics students with particular interests in medicine.

  5. Accelerating medical education: a survey of deans and program directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Cangiarella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A handful of medical schools in the U.S. are awarding medical degrees after three years. While the number of three-year pathway programs is slowly increasing there is little data on the opinions of medical education leaders on the need for shortening training. Purpose: To survey deans and program directors (PDs to understand the current status of 3-year medical degree programs and to elicit perceptions of the need for shortening medical school and the benefits and liabilities of 3-year pathway programs (3YPP. Methods: Online surveys were emailed to the academic deans of all U.S. medical schools and to a convenience sample of residency and fellowship PDs. Frequency distributions are reported for key survey items and content analysis was used to describe open-ended responses. Results: Of the respondents, 7% have a 3YPP, 4% were developing one, and 35% were considering development. In 2014, 47% of educational deans and 32% of PDs agreed that there may be a need to shorten medical school. From a list of benefits, both deans and PDs agreed that the greatest benefit to a 3YPP was debt reduction (68%. PDs and deans felt reduced readiness for independence, reduced exposure to complementary curricula regarding safety and quality improvement, premature commitment to a specialty, and burnout were all potential liabilities. From a list of concerns, PDs were concerned about depth of clinical exposure, direct patient care experience, ability to assume increased responsibility, level of maturity, and certainty regarding career choice. Conclusions: Over one-third of medical schools are considering the development of a 3YPP. While there may be benefits for a select group of students, concerns regarding maturity, depth of clinical exposure, and competency must be addressed for these programs to be well received.

  6. Accelerating medical education: a survey of deans and program directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiarella, Joan; Gillespie, Colleen; Shea, Judy A.; Morrison, Gail; Abramson, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Background A handful of medical schools in the U.S. are awarding medical degrees after three years. While the number of three-year pathway programs is slowly increasing there is little data on the opinions of medical education leaders on the need for shortening training. Purpose To survey deans and program directors (PDs) to understand the current status of 3-year medical degree programs and to elicit perceptions of the need for shortening medical school and the benefits and liabilities of 3-year pathway programs (3YPP). Methods Online surveys were emailed to the academic deans of all U.S. medical schools and to a convenience sample of residency and fellowship PDs. Frequency distributions are reported for key survey items and content analysis was used to describe open-ended responses. Results Of the respondents, 7% have a 3YPP, 4% were developing one, and 35% were considering development. In 2014, 47% of educational deans and 32% of PDs agreed that there may be a need to shorten medical school. From a list of benefits, both deans and PDs agreed that the greatest benefit to a 3YPP was debt reduction (68%). PDs and deans felt reduced readiness for independence, reduced exposure to complementary curricula regarding safety and quality improvement, premature commitment to a specialty, and burnout were all potential liabilities. From a list of concerns, PDs were concerned about depth of clinical exposure, direct patient care experience, ability to assume increased responsibility, level of maturity, and certainty regarding career choice. Conclusions Over one-third of medical schools are considering the development of a 3YPP. While there may be benefits for a select group of students, concerns regarding maturity, depth of clinical exposure, and competency must be addressed for these programs to be well received. PMID:27301381

  7. Narrative reflective practice in medical education for residents: composing shifting identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Clandinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean Clandinin1, Marie Thérèse Cave2, Andrew Cave21Center for Research for Teacher Education and Development, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: As researchers note, medical educators need to create situations to work with physicians in training to help them attend to the development of their professional identities. While there is a call for such changes to be included in medical education, educational approaches that facilitate attention to the development of medical students' professional identities, that is, who they are and who they are becoming as physicians, are still under development. One pedagogical strategy involves narrative reflective practice as a way to develop physician identity. Using this approach, medical residents first write narrative accounts of their experiences with patients in what are called "parallel charts". They then engage in a collaborative narrative inquiry within a sustained inquiry group of other residents and two researcher/facilitators (one physician, one narrative researcher. Preliminary studies of this approach are underway. Drawing on the experiences of one medical resident in one such inquiry group, we show how this pedagogical strategy enables attending to physician identity making.Keywords: physician identity formation, residency

  8. Interpractice audit of diagnosis and management of hypertension in primary care: educational intervention and review of medical records.

    OpenAIRE

    Mashru, M.; Lant, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether peer review medical audit in a primary care setting changes clinical behaviour in relation to the management of hypertension. DESIGN: Review of medical records in general practices to identify hypertensive patients followed up by assessment of the pre-educational and post-educational management of interventions. SETTING: Six general practices in north west London picked at random within defined criteria of geography and size. SUBJECTS: 740 hypertensive patients...

  9. Effectiveness of interprofessional education by on-field training for medical students, with a pre-post design

    OpenAIRE

    Zanotti, Renzo; Sartor, Giada; Canova, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Interprofessional Education (IPE) implies how to achieve successful teamwork, and is based on collaborative practice which enhance occasions for relationships between two or more healthcare professions. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPE in changing attitudes after a training recently introduced to medical education for second-year students at the University of Padova, Italy. Methods All medical students following a new program for IPE were enrolled in this study. The In...

  10. Applications and Benefits of Computer Based Education for Medical and Allied Health Education

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Robert M.

    1981-01-01

    Advances in computer technology have provided unique opportunities to apply computer systems to a wide variety of medical and health care functions. One area which holds great potential for using computer systems is medical and health science education. The following paper focuses on

  11. Health economics education in undergraduate medical training: introducing the health economics education (HEe) website

    OpenAIRE

    Oppong, R; Mistry, H.; Frew, E

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and sup...

  12. Selection of information resources for education in medical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-González, Maria Dolores; Sanchez-Vanderkast, Egbert

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacology is the foundation science of medical pharmacotherapy. Education in medical pharmacology (EP) requires the use of information resources (IR) to meet the challenge of the continuous introduction of new drugs and new educational, didactic and pedagogical theories to enhance knowledge. Hence criteria for selecting bibliographic material for EP should be clearly outlined and implemented. In this work we present a method to select IR for EP based on systems theory and focusing on the factors determining: (a) the integration of a list of recommended IR for EP; (b) the design of the acquisition list for faculty and students work; (c) the overall organization of the resources available for its optimal use and benefit in the educational process; and (d) a general strategy for assessing the impact of the bibliographic infrastructure. The proposal is based on information from: (i) lists of recommended readings in the academic program of the Pharmacology course given at the School of Medicine of UNAM in the last 30 years; (ii) the extent of discipline development measured by two indexes derived from the contents of Goodman and Gilman's "Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics" (G & G); (iii) the number of texts currently found in the collection of FM-UNAM which are classified in the section of Pharmacology using the Library of Congress Classification System (LCCS); and (iv) the comparison of academic versus standardized classification of pharmacology topics, such as Medical Subject Heading (MESH) and LCCS The importance of this proposal relates to its usefulness for EP and for other medical disciplines. PMID:16416687

  13. [Medical education at Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego Vicuña, F

    1997-07-01

    Universidad de los Andes School of Medicine started in 1991 with a new medical curriculum aimed at providing a medical education for its students, that is, it attempts to give, together with technical proficiency in medical matters, formation of character and a strong ethical attitude. The curriculum lasts for seven years: five of basic, pre-clinical and clinical theoretical and practical courses, followed by two years of internships in Internal Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Pediatrics, plus a four month period of an elective internship. The courses have an integrated design, in which each matter is presented from multiple perspectives, e.g. in Internal Medicine together with the clinical aspects of disease, the pathophysiology and the pharmacology of the drugs used are presented. Also the Pathology of each disease is given in coordination in the Pathology course. General educational matters such as Anthropology, Psychology, Origin of Living Beings, Theology and Medical Ethics are interspersed in the curriculum. An important feature is the personal counselling system, in which each student may choose an academic counsellor and discuss with him (her) the subjects of his choosing. Clinical practice is given in a system that includes five hospitals and five private clinics that range from general medical practice to Psychiatry or Ophthalmology.

  14. Perspective: medical students' perceptions of the poor: what impact can medical education have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Kuczewski, Mark G

    2008-07-01

    There is currently little knowledge or understanding of medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward the poor. Teaching hospitals bring students face-to-face with poor and uninsured patients on a regular basis. However, an overview of the research available suggests that this contact does not result in students' greater understanding and empathy for the plight of the poor and may, in fact, lead to an erosion of positive attitudes toward the poor. A basic understanding of justice suggests that as the poor are disproportionately the subjects of medical training, this population should enjoy a proportionate benefit for this service. Furthermore, medicine's social contract with the public is often thought to include an ideal of service to the underserved and a duty to help educate the general public regarding the health needs of our nation. In their discussion, the authors situate medical students' attitudes toward the poor within larger cultural perspectives, including attitudes toward the poor and attributions for poverty. They provide three suggestions for improving trainees' knowledge of and attitudes toward the poor-namely, increasing the socioeconomic diversity of students, promoting empathy through curricular efforts, and focusing more directly on role modeling. The authors argue that service learning, especially efforts that include gaining detailed knowledge of a particular person or persons, coupled with critical reflection, presents a very promising direction toward achieving these goals. Finally, they posit an agenda for future educational research that might contribute to the increased efficacy of medical education in this important formative domain. PMID:18580079

  15. Medical humanities in healthcare education in Italy: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fieschi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. The introduction of medical humanities (MH in undergraduate medical education in Italy has been an issue of debate since the 90's and few years later it was extended to other healthcare degrees. The aims of this Italian literature review, after considering the international scene, are: to evaluate the extent to which the interest in this subject has gradually developed throughout the country; which professional groups have contributed to the debate; to identify which theoretical constructs led to the introduction of MH in undergraduate medical education; to identify whether a clear and shared definition of MH exists in Italian literature; to verify what kinds of MH experiences have been accomplished in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases, bibliographies, manual sorting of articles in paper format, congress proceedings. RESULTS. The analysis of the chosen articles underlines that, however limited, Italian literature does not present a very different picture from the international scene. It emerges that teaching MH is believed to be an important feature in undergraduate education of healthcare professionals who intend to propose a bio-psychological-social approach to care, in spite of the difficulty to measure its short and long term effectiveness. The lack of a multidisciplinary, multi-professional approach is also evident. CONCLUSION. Further research aiming to implement the quantity and quality of MH studies in the curricula of undergraduate healthcare education is desirable.

  16. Changing education in a changing world : the case of environmental education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praamsma, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in societal structures lead to changes in educational practices. The relationship between both changes however is not always quite clear. I want to show the close relation? ship between social change and educational reform and the necessity of the close analyses of the one to come to the pro

  17. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Bente Vigh; Mortensen, Lene S.; Scherpbier, Albert J J;

    2010-01-01

    The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate ...... clinical departments and the leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible for education.......The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate in...

  18. Teaching development in undergraduate and graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geri; Katz, Debra A; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence F; Folensbee, Rowland W

    2007-01-01

    Faculty members from three different institutions, each with long-standing experience teaching development, present strategies for teaching normal development in undergraduate and graduate medical education. This article provides an overview of licensing body requirements, teaching methodology, audiovisual and textbook resources, goals and objectives (knowledge, skills, and attitudes), and sample curricula for teaching human development to medical students, general psychiatry residents, and child and adolescent psychiatry residents. The challenges of teaching development to various groups of trainees with different required course lengths and expected levels of competency, using lifespan and topical approaches, are reviewed.

  19. Population change and educational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, J E

    1982-06-01

    The 4 principal conditions of a stable society are: 1) minimum disruption of ecological processes, 2) maximum conservation of material and energy or an economy of stock rather than flow, 3) a population in which recruitment equals loss, and 4) a social system in which individuals can enjoy rather than be restricted by the 1st 3 conditions. In 1960 the developing countries set goals relating to education including the achievement of universal primary education, the eradication of illiteracy, and the provision of secondary and tertiary education to meet manpower needs. The countries with the highest enrollment ratios in 1980 were Korea, 100%, Singapore, 100%, Malaysia, 94%, Philippines 80.6%, Thailand, 77.8%, and Iran 75.5%. Eradication of illiteracy has not been reached since by 1990 Afghanistan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan will have illiteracy rates of over 50% and as a result of increases in the absolute number of illiterates over the period of 1970-90 in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, the number of illiterates in the developing countries of Asia will increase from 339.1 million in 1970 to 425.6 million in 1990. The females and rural population are especially disadvantaged groups in terms of education; 98.4% of rural females are illiterate as compared to 63.8% of urban males and in Iran 91.7% of rural females compared with 31.3% of urban males are illiterate. One reason for shortfalls in the achievement of educational goals is rapid population growth, especially of school-age groups; for instance the total population aged 6-11 in Indonesia increased by 89.3%. In a study on the Philippines conducted in 1975 it was found that, for the series of high projections, the schedule of age-specific fertility rates observed for 1968-72 resulting in a total fertility rate of 5.89 would remain constant throughout the projection period, the death rate would decline by 4.8 points, international migration would remain negligible; for the low projections

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AMONG MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The improved health of all people is the ultimate goal of medical education. Every student works hard to get into the best educational institution in order to pursue a competent career. Every institution has its core objective as imparting high standards of education and bringing out well trained students. The environment in which a student learns and grows is crucial to the overall development. AIM: To assess the perceptions of medical students of their educational environment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross sectional study was undertaken in a medical college with third year medical undergraduate students as the participants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An internationally validated 50 item questionnaire, Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM was administered to students. There are five aspects to the questionnaire based on Students’ Perception of Learning, Students’ Perception of the Teachers, Students’ Academic Self Perception, and Students’ Perception of the Atmosphere and Students’ Social Self Perception. The students responded to each question of the subscale by a 5 point Likert scale ranging from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree. RESULTS: All the subscales were totaled and an average score was calculated to be 114.79/200. As per the classification in DREEM Scale a score between 101- 150 certifies an environment with ‘More Positives than Negatives’. The students found the teachers knowledgeable, had learnt the importance of empathy, were confident of clearing exams and were very happy with their circle of friends. CONCLUSIONS: As per the final score, students are satisfied with their training environment and find the atmosphere conducive to learning. Teachers are encouraging and the students have a good social life. The results project good training to produce competent doctors in the society