WorldWideScience

Sample records for change measurement truth

  1. Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jon

    2014-04-01

    What exactly do we mean by truth? Although the concept is nebulous across the array of theoretical perspectives in psychoanalysis, it is fundamental to all discourses. Is psychoanalysis in a position to offer a theory of truth despite the fact that at present it has no explicit, formal theory regarding the matter? A general metatheory is proposed here that allows for discrete categories and instantiations of truth as metacontextual appearance. In revisiting the ancient notion of aletheia as disclosedness or unconcealment, we may discover a distinct psychoanalytic contribution to truth conditioned on unconscious processes reappropriated from Heidegger's project of fundamental ontology. Construed as a dialectics of truth, this notion accords well with how psychoanalysts understand the dynamic unconscious and how it functions to both reveal and conceal. Given that clinical experience demonstrates the workings of dynamic unconscious activity, psychoanalytic theory may contribute a vocabulary relevant to philosophy by explicating the motives and mechanisms that create the appearances of contextual truth as such, phenomena whose causes have previously gone undescribed.

  2. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  3. Truth Control of Dublicate Measurings under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to truth control of dublicate measurings of technological variables under conditions of data deficit on characteristics of measuring facilities and controlled variables.The proposed control method improves a probability to detect and identify untrue dublicate measurings.

  4. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  5. Speaking truth to power revisited: science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserforschung; Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien

    2000-07-01

    The issue of climate change from the perspectives of climate change scientists and climate policy makers is discussed using results from two survey questionnaires. Emphasis is given to the German context. Included is the self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the importance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Conclusions indicate that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science, and have assigned a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change than have scientists. (orig.) [German] Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogenaktionen wird diskutiert, wie sich die Problematik von Klimaveraenderungen aus der Perspektive von Klimaforschern und aus der Perspektive von mit Klimapolitik befassten Entscheidungstraegern darstellt. Die Betonung liegt auf den Verhaeltnissen in Deutschland. Eingeschlossen ist eine Einschaetzung des aktuellen Standes der Klimaforschung durch die Wissenschaftler selbst sowie der Bedeutung, welche von politischen Entscheidungstraegern verschiedenen Informationsquellen beigemessen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass sich politische Entscheidungstraeger auf zahlreiche Informationsquellen verlassen, die nur indirekt die Resultate der Klimaforschung wiedergeben und, dass dieser Personenkreis das Problem der Klimaveraenderungen als draengender ansieht als die Wissenschaftler selbst. (orig.)

  6. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    It is typically expected that if a mechanism is truthful, then the agents would, indeed, truthfully report their private information. But why would an agent believe that the mechanism is truthful? We wish to design truthful mechanisms, whose truthfulness can be verified efficiently (in the...... computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money for...

  7. Truth Troubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis Owen, Jillian A.; McRae, Chris; Adams, Tony E.; Vitale, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    "truth" is an issue of public discussion, research, and everyday performance. Processes of navigating truth, however, are obscure and often unknown. In this project, the authors highlight truth(s) of written life texts. They conceive of truth as "a" rather than "the" "rhetorical device" to use for evaluating personal research and believe that…

  8. Truth conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2009-01-01

    Truth conditions are used to determine whether a sentence is true or not in semantics. This article gives some examples both in English and Japanese to analyze truth conditions. Besides, the importance and the application of truth conditions are also mentioned.

  9. THE SEARCH FOR PSYCHIC TRUTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Emphasizing psychic truths as the major domain of psychoanalysis, the author explores the complexity of defining such psychic truths. It is suggested that thinking of levels of psychic truths is the most useful approach. How to understand trauma and historical truth within this context is examined. The role of the analyst as aiding the search for psychic truths, rather than functioning as psychic "truth teller," is discussed within the context of paradigmatic changes in the psychoanalytic method that form an emerging common ground. PMID:27112742

  10. Judicial Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Licuta Coman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All major world encyclopedias define the essence of a phenomenon as being the unification of traits and necessary internal relations, with a relative stability in connection with adjacent phenomena. In this study, we chose to investigate a concept that is the essence of the law, namely, the judicial truth. Starting from the social intent of the law, which is to regulate the social relations, we proposed as a priority objective of this study to highlight the idea that the science of law disregards any subjective human judgment and any values outside the values of true and false. So, in this paper, we analyzed both the concept of truth and the judicial truth. The legal phenomenon is not a specific thing, and its scientific truth is an argumentative construction of the idea of justice, depending on a legal doctrine or another.

  11. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE PROBLEM OF TRUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard B

    2016-04-01

    After briefly reviewing Freud's search for "the truth" in psychoanalytic treatments, the author discusses Bion's views on truth and its prominence in his thinking. The author then addresses various definitions of truth, drawing particularly on recent comments by Ogden (2015). Considerations of the relationship between truth and philosophy, and of that between truth and the arts, follow; the author then returns to a focus on psychoanalytic truth as emergent. Our view of the latter has been strongly influenced, he notes, by changing views of therapeutic action and the goals of psychoanalysis.

  12. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE PROBLEM OF TRUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard B

    2016-04-01

    After briefly reviewing Freud's search for "the truth" in psychoanalytic treatments, the author discusses Bion's views on truth and its prominence in his thinking. The author then addresses various definitions of truth, drawing particularly on recent comments by Ogden (2015). Considerations of the relationship between truth and philosophy, and of that between truth and the arts, follow; the author then returns to a focus on psychoanalytic truth as emergent. Our view of the latter has been strongly influenced, he notes, by changing views of therapeutic action and the goals of psychoanalysis. PMID:27112744

  13. Evaluating the truth brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Price, Simani; Blahut, Steven

    2005-03-01

    The American Legacy Foundation developed the truth campaign, an aspirational antismoking brand for adolescents. This study tested whether a multidimensional scale, brand equity in truth, mediates the relationship between campaign exposure and youth smoking. We collected brand equity responses from 2,306 youth on a nationally representative telephone survey. Factor analysis indicates that the scale has excellent psychometric properties and effectively measures brand equity. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediation hypothesis. Results show that brand equity mediates the relationship between truth and smoking. Analyses of potential cofounders show this relationship is robust. Behavioral branding (brands about a behavior or a lifestyle) is an important public health strategy. PMID:15804907

  14. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  15. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  16. Discovering the truth beyond the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerhild; Jors, Karin; Block, Susan

    2015-03-01

    The question "What is truth?" is one of the oldest questions in philosophy. Truth within the field of medicine has gained relevance because of its fundamental relationship to the principle of patient autonomy. To fully participate in their medical care, patients must be told the truth-even in the most difficult of situations. Palliative care emphasizes patient autonomy and a patient-centered approach, and it is precisely among patients with chronic, life-threatening, or terminal illnesses that truth plays a particularly crucial role. For these patients, finding out the truth about their disease forces them to confront existential fears. As physicians, we must understand that truth, similar to the complexity of pain, is multidimensional. In this article, we discuss the truth from three linguistic perspectives: the Latin veritas, the Greek aletheia, and the Hebrew emeth. Veritas conveys an understanding of truth focused on facts and reality. Aletheia reveals truth as a process, and emeth shows that truth is experienced in truthful encounters with others. In everyday clinical practice, truth is typically equated with the facts. However, this limited understanding of the truth does not account for the uniqueness of each patient. Although two patients may receive the same diagnosis (or facts), each will be affected by this truth in a very individual way. To help patients apprehend the truth, physicians are called to engage in a delicate back-and-forth of multiple difficult conversations in which each patient is accepted as a unique individual.

  17. The truth is out there: measured, calculated and modelled benthic fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Protsenko, Elizaveta

    2016-04-01

    In a modern Earth science there is a great importance of understanding the processes, forming the benthic fluxes as one of element sources or sinks to or from the water body, which affects the elements balance in the water system. There are several ways to assess benthic fluxes and here we try to compare the results obtained by chamber experiments, calculated from porewater distributions and simulated with model. Benthic fluxes of dissolved elements (oxygen, nitrogen species, phosphate, silicate, alkalinity, iron and manganese species) were studied in the Baltic and Black Seas from 2000 to 2005. Fluxes were measured in situ using chamber incubations (Jch) and at the same time sediment cores were collected to assess the porewater distribution at different depths to calculate diffusive fluxes (Jpw). Model study was carried out with benthic-pelagic biogeochemical model BROM (O-N-P-Si-C-S-Mn-Fe redox model). It was applied to simulate biogeochemical structure of the water column and upper sediment and to assess the vertical fluxes (Jmd). By the behaviour at the water-sediment interface all studied elements can be divided into three groups: (1) elements which benthic fluxes are determined by the concentrations gradient only (Si, Mn), (2) elements which fluxes depend on redox conditions in the bottom water (Fe, PO4, NH4), and (3) elements which fluxes are strongly connected with organic matter fate (O2, Alk, NH4). For the first group it was found that measured fluxes are always higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (1.5changing redox conditions some processes in the bottom water and/or on the sediment surface (oxidation, adsorption, particles dissolution, etc.) are faster than diffusion and play an important role in the benthic flux formation for these elements. For the third group measured fluxes could be often overestimated, especially for coastal shallow stations, up to 50%, because of intensive decomposition of OM and/or organisms respiration in the isolated bottom

  18. The truth is out there: measured, calculated and modelled benthic fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Protsenko, Elizaveta

    2016-04-01

    In a modern Earth science there is a great importance of understanding the processes, forming the benthic fluxes as one of element sources or sinks to or from the water body, which affects the elements balance in the water system. There are several ways to assess benthic fluxes and here we try to compare the results obtained by chamber experiments, calculated from porewater distributions and simulated with model. Benthic fluxes of dissolved elements (oxygen, nitrogen species, phosphate, silicate, alkalinity, iron and manganese species) were studied in the Baltic and Black Seas from 2000 to 2005. Fluxes were measured in situ using chamber incubations (Jch) and at the same time sediment cores were collected to assess the porewater distribution at different depths to calculate diffusive fluxes (Jpw). Model study was carried out with benthic-pelagic biogeochemical model BROM (O-N-P-Si-C-S-Mn-Fe redox model). It was applied to simulate biogeochemical structure of the water column and upper sediment and to assess the vertical fluxes (Jmd). By the behaviour at the water-sediment interface all studied elements can be divided into three groups: (1) elements which benthic fluxes are determined by the concentrations gradient only (Si, Mn), (2) elements which fluxes depend on redox conditions in the bottom water (Fe, PO4, NH4), and (3) elements which fluxes are strongly connected with organic matter fate (O2, Alk, NH4). For the first group it was found that measured fluxes are always higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (1.5measured fluxes can be both much lower (practically absent) and much higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.01changing redox conditions some processes in the bottom water and/or on the sediment surface (oxidation, adsorption, particles dissolution, etc

  19. Convenient Solutions to an Inconvenient Truth : Ecosystem-based Approaches to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The World Bank's mission is to alleviate poverty and support sustainable development. Climate change is a serious environmental challenge that could undermine these goals. Since the industrial revolution, the mean surface temperature of earth has increased an average 2 degree Celsius due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Most of this change has occurred in the past...

  20. A perspective on multinational enterprises and climate change: Learning from "an inconvenient truth"?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores whether and how an important environmental issue such as climate change can not only give multinational enterprises the opportunity to develop "green" firm-specific advantages (FSAs), but also help reconfigure key FSAs that are viewed as the main sources of firms' profitability, growth, and survival. We examine the nature and geography of such FSA development, and develop two organizing frameworks, which are subsequently applied to climate change, using information from Gl...

  1. A perspective on multinational enterprises and climate change: Learning from "an inconvenient truth"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; J. Pinkse

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores whether and how an important environmental issue such as climate change can not only give multinational enterprises the opportunity to develop "green" firm-specific advantages (FSAs), but also help reconfigure key FSAs that are viewed as the main sources of firms' profitability,

  2. Measuring temporary employment. Do survey or register data tell the truth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, D.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main variables in the Dutch Labour Force Survey is the variable measuring whether a respondent has a permanent or a temporary job. The aim of our study is to determine the measurement error in this variable by matching the information obtained by the longitudinal part of this survey with

  3. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-3). [solar radiation and thermal radiation brightness temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneously with Skylab overpasses in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. The solar radiation region from 400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radiation region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were investigated. The measurements of direct solar radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical depth; the total and reflected solar radiation were analyzed for target reflectivity. These analyses were used in conjunction with a radiative transfer computer program in order to calculate the amount and spectral distribution of solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP sensors. The instrumentation and techniques employed, calibrations and analyses performed, and results obtained are discussed.

  4. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

  5. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging, T 2, to the relaxation parameter T 2 * measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T 2 data were transformed to pseudo-T 2 * data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T 2 * obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31

    , respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Time change, jumping measure and Feller measure

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ping

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we shall investigate some potential theory for time change of Markov processes. Under weak duality, it is proved that the jumping measure and Feller measure are actually independent of time change, and the jumping measure of a time changed process induced by a PCAF supported on $V$ coincides with the sum of the Feller measure on $V$ and the trace of the original jumping measure on $V$.

  8. Revuz measures under time change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we shall study how energy functionals and Revuz measures change under time change of Markov processes and provide an intuitive and direct approach to the computation of the Levy system and jumping measure of time changed process.

  9. Truth and Dare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Cecilie Ullerup; Liebmann, Andreas

    An artistic documentation of the workshop Truth and Dare at The Danish National School of Performing Arts - Continuing Education......An artistic documentation of the workshop Truth and Dare at The Danish National School of Performing Arts - Continuing Education...

  10. Institutions of Variable Truth Values:An Approach in the Ordered Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应明生

    1995-01-01

    The concept of institution of variable truth values is introduced and some main results about institutions are generalized.In particular,some properties of institutions of variable truth values preserved by change of truth values are established.

  11. THE MAN WHO WOULD BE EVERYTHING (TO EVERYONE): THE UNCONSCIOUS REALITIES AND FANTASIES OF PSYCHIC TRUTH AND CHANGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jody Messler

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores the psychoanalyst's dilemmas in treating a man who came for analysis as a self-identified compulsive liar. The decision as to whether or not to treat this man, and how to do so without getting caught up in a web of deceit and manipulation, raises issues about the nature of unconscious fantasy and its relationship to psychic truth. Therapeutic action as it involves the activation of multiple internal self-other configurations and their psychodynamic relationship to each other is also explored. PMID:27112743

  12. THE MAN WHO WOULD BE EVERYTHING (TO EVERYONE): THE UNCONSCIOUS REALITIES AND FANTASIES OF PSYCHIC TRUTH AND CHANGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jody Messler

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores the psychoanalyst's dilemmas in treating a man who came for analysis as a self-identified compulsive liar. The decision as to whether or not to treat this man, and how to do so without getting caught up in a web of deceit and manipulation, raises issues about the nature of unconscious fantasy and its relationship to psychic truth. Therapeutic action as it involves the activation of multiple internal self-other configurations and their psychodynamic relationship to each other is also explored.

  13. "Telling" Truths: Wounded Truths and the Activity of Truth Telling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    It appears that being young and queer seems to be all about woundedness: it means experiencing suffering, including the risk of suicide, increased drug use, homelessness and violence. Yet how are these wounded truths told, and further, why is it that people in education seem to tell them "unproblematically"? This paper considers these questions by…

  14. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Künne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  15. Withholding truth from patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-31

    The issue of whether patients should always be told the truth regarding their diagnosis and prognosis has afforded much debate in healthcare literature. This article examines telling the truth from an ethical perspective. It puts forward arguments for and against being honest with patients, using a clinical example to illustrate each point.

  16. Truth and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary criticism. (TB)

  17. Measurement of solar radius changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBonte, B.J.; Howard, R.

    1981-11-20

    Photoelectric solar radius measurements since 1974 at Mount Wilson show no change in the solar radius, with a limit of about 0.1 arc second (1 standard deviation), over the interval. The limit is set by residual systematic effects.

  18. Visual truths of citizen reportage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Stuart; Peters, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In striving to better understand issues associated with citizen contributions to newsmaking in crisis situations, this article identifies and elaborates four specific research problematics – bearing witness, technologies of truth-telling, mediating visualities and affectivities of othering...... – in order to recast more familiar modes of enquiry. Specifically, it provides an alternative heuristic to theorize the journalistic mediation of citizen imagery, and the myriad ways this process of negotiation maintains, repairs and at times disrupts the interstices of professional–amateur boundaries....... Rather than centring analysis on how crisis events highlight change, it discerns the basis for a critical tracing of the material configurations and contingencies shaping journalistic imperatives towards generating visually truthful reportage. In seeking to move debates about how best to enliven digital...

  19. The Concept of Truth Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Weir

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available “Truth regime” is a much used but little theorized concept, with the Foucauldian literature presupposing that truth in modernity is uniformly scientific/quasi-scientific and enhances power. I argue that the forms of truth characteristic of our present are wider than Foucault recognized, their relations to power more various, and their historicity more complex. The truth regime of advanced modernity is characterized by multiple, irreducible truth formulae that co-exist and sometimes vie for dominance. A truth formula stabilizes a network of elements: a relation between representation and presentation (words and things, truth and non-truth, and the place of the subject in discourse. Our contemporary truth regime comprises radically heterogeneous truthful knowledges – science, governance, religion/politics, and common culture – that have distinct histories and relations to power.

  20. Archaeological Evidence for Abrupt Cimate Change: Results from Satellite Imagery Analysis and Subsequent Ground-Truthing in the El-Manzalah Region, Northeast Egyptian Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcak, S. H.

    2003-12-01

    The abrupt global climate changes recorded at 8.2, 5.2 and 4.2 ka BP caused a wide range of transformations within ancient societies, including the focus of this study: ancient Egypt . In the case of the climatic changes that occurred at 4.2 ka BP, scholars have debated hotly the events surrounding the "collapse" of the Old Kingdom. Despite such studies into the Old Kingdom's "collapse", there have been insufficient regional settlement pattern studies in Egypt to augment hypotheses concerning the mechanisms behind the cultural transformations that occurred at the end of the Old Kingdom. Utilizing a combination of satellite imagery analysis and subsequent ground-truthing techniques over a broad region in the East Delta, this study aims to reconstruct pharaonic settlement distributions in relation to the changing northeast delta topography, river courses, marshlands, and coastline. Although geo-political and religious factors played varying roles in settlement patterns, this study overlies the economic and environmental components behind the settlement of individual sites and areas. For instance, prior to the formation of the Manzala lagoon, beginning in the 4th century AD, the Mendesian branch of the Nile flowed past Mendes and its satellite, maritime port at Tell Tebilla: As early as the Old Kingdom, Tell Tebilla provided an ideal location for the formation of a town, being well-located to exploit both riverine and maritime transportation routes through trade, and regional floral and faunal resources from hunting, fishing, cultivation and animal husbandry. Key factors such as long-term fluctuations in precipitation, flood levels, and river courses, can affect dramatically the fortunes of individual settlements, areas, and regions, resulting in the decline and abandonment of some sites and the foundation and flourishing of other sites, especially within marginal regions. The Egyptian delta represents an ideal region for studying the impacts of climatic changes

  1. Measurement of solar radius changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, B. J.; Howard, R.

    1981-01-01

    Results of daily photometric measurements of the solar radius from Mt. Wilson over the past seven years are reported. Reduction of the full disk magnetograms yields a formal error of 0.1 arcsec in the boustrophedonic scans in the 5250.2 A FeI line. 150 scan lines comprise each observation; 1,412 observations were made from 1974-1981. Measurement procedures, determination of the scattered light of the optics and the atmosphere, and error calculations are described, noting that days of poor atmospheric visibility are omitted from the data. The horizontal diameter of the sun remains visually fixed while the vertical component changes due to atmospheric diffraction; error accounting for thermal effects, telescope aberrations, and instrument calibration are discussed, and results, within instrument accuracy, indicate no change in the solar radius over the last seven years.

  2. Truth, body and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl-Thure Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the words of welcome to the symposium on Religion and the Body on 16 June 2010. In a religious context ‘truth’ is like a mantra, a certain imperative to believe in sacred things. The concept of truth and falseness arises, when we as humans compare reality, as we experience it through our senses, with the representation we have in our memory, a comparison of new information with stored information. If we look for the truth, we have to search in the human mind. There we will also find religion.

  3. Peculiarity of understanding of truth within traditional and active approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Solonko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    The present article focuses on the problem of understanding of truth during different historical stages. Special attention is paid to the transition from archaic worldview to active approach which implies substantial changes in relationship between the world and human beings. Plato's allegory of the cave is chosen as a perfect illustration of a new vision of truth that combines traditional and original elements. The author emphasizes the specific of three basic approaches to the truth outline...

  4. The Inconvenient Truth. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiou, T.

    2007-01-15

    Essay-type of publication on what should happen next after Al Gore's presentations on the Inconvenient Truth about the impacts of climate change. The essay states in the first lines: 'We've seen the movie, so we know the first part - we're in trouble deep. And it's time, past time, for at least some of us to go beyond warning to planning, to start talking seriously about a global crash program to stabilize the climate.

  5. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  6. On Fast Post-Processing of Global Positioning System Simulator Truth Data and Receiver Measurements and Solutions Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Post-Processing of data related to a Global Positioning System (GPS) simulation is an important activity in qualification of a GPS receiver for space flight. Because a GPS simulator is a critical resource it is desirable to move off the pertinent simulation data from the simulator as soon as a test is completed. The simulator data files are usually moved to a Personal Computer (PC), where the post-processing of the receiver logged measurements and solutions data and simulated data is performed. Typically post-processing is accomplished using PC-based commercial software languages and tools. Because of commercial software systems generality their general-purpose functions are notoriously slow and more than often are the bottleneck problem even for short duration experiments. For example, it may take 8 hours to post-process data from a 6-hour simulation. There is a need to do post-processing faster, especially in order to use the previous test results as feedback for a next simulation setup. This paper demonstrates that a fast software linear interpolation algorithm is applicable to a large class of engineering problems, like GPS simulation data post-processing, where computational time is a critical resource and is one of the most important considerations. An approach is developed that allows to speed-up post-processing by an order of magnitude. It is based on improving the post-processing bottleneck interpolation algorithm using apriori information that is specific to the GPS simulation application. The presented post-processing scheme was used in support of a few successful space flight missions carrying GPS receivers. A future approach to solving the post-processing performance problem using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is described.

  7. WHEN IS TRUTH RELEVANT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Fonagy, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The authors argue that the experience of knowing and having the truth about oneself known in the context of therapy is not an end in itself; rather, it is important because the trust engendered by this experience (epistemic trust or trust in new knowledge) opens one up to learning about one's social world and finding better ways to live in it. The authors consider the consequences of a lack of epistemic trust in terms of psychopathology.

  8. Meaning, Truth and Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Bevir, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This essay approaches Derrida through a consideration of his writings on Saussure and Husserl. Derrida is right to insist, following Saussure, on a relational theory on meaning: words do not have a one to one correspondence with their referents. However, he is wrong to insist on a purely differential theory of meaning: words can refer to reality within the context of a body of knowledge. Similarly, Derrida is right to reject Husserl's idea of presence: no truths are simply given to consciousn...

  9. Lying relies on the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the truth, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert truth activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the truth or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the truth, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by truth distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of truth distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of truth telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the truth activation in the lying process.

  10. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  11. On Truth and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hjort Bundgaard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main currents. First, it argues that an affinity or similarity can be identified between the philosophy of Gianni Vattimo (the so-called “Weak Thinking” and the “Discourse Theory” of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The two theorizations are engaged with related problems, but have conceptualized them differently; they share central insights, but understand them with different vocabularies. The article furthermore illuminates as regards what this affinity consists in, and it discusses the differences and similarities between the two theoretical positions. The second current of the article takes the ‘postmodern’ philosophical problems of anti-foundationalism and nihilism as its point of departure. It raises the questions of: 1 how it is possible at the same time to take the critique of universality and objectivity seriously and still believe in the value of ethics and science; and, 2 how we are to understand emancipation if there is no necessary relationship between truth and freedom. The article investigates the status, meaning and interconnection of the categories of truth, knowledge, ethics, politics and emancipation in the light of the absence of metaphysical first principles. The article concludes that: A faith can constitute a “weak foundation” of knowledge and ethics; and, B nihilism can be combined with the political and ethical ambitions of universal human emancipation and radical democracy.

  12. Fiction Is Truth, and Sometimes Truth Is Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carol Lakey

    2008-01-01

    The art of fiction tells truth because it is the truth of life that goes into making good fiction: love, hate, fear, courage, delight, sorrow, betrayal, loyalty, confusion, choice, circumstance, luck, injustice. These essential qualities, says the author, are also the qualities of sound theology, with a sense of time and place; and raising…

  13. The truth comes naturally! Does it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Verschuere; S. Shalvi

    2014-01-01

    Does the truth come naturally? And by implication, does this mean that a lie may not come as naturally as the truth? Truth-Default Theory and the Information Manipulation Theory 2 diverge in their opinion on whether people’s natural response is to lie or tell the truth. In line with Truth-Default Th

  14. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Debey; J. De Houwer; B. Verschuere

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  15. Measure change in multitype branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggins, J.D.; Kyprianou, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Kesten-Stigum theorem for the one-type Galton-Watson process gives necessary and sufficient conditions for mean convergence of the martingale formed by the population size normed by its expectation. Here, the approach of Lyons, Peres and Pemantle (1995) to this theorem, which exploits a change o

  16. An existential theory of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Cannon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to present a simplified account of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers - namely, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, and Marcel. It is designed to serve as a supplement to conventional textbook treatments of the nature of truth, which typically ignore the contributions that existentialists have made to the topic. An existential theory of truth stresses the epistemological (not ontological indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one’s personal participation in determining them. Contrary to superficial interpretations, this theory does not do away either with a transcendent reality or with objectivity. What is rejected is anything that would circumvent the necessary task of participating, oneself, in the epistemological determination of truth.

  17. Picturing truth and reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebmann Marian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an account of the workshop run at the conference Truth and reconciliation in the former Yugoslavia: Where are we now and where to go? Even in such a short workshop, it seemed that it was possible to share difficult areas of the past, and move on to looking at hopes for the future. The use of art materials seemed to facilitate the expression of aspects difficult to put into words. There seems to be potential for extending this method. Yet it is not without its dangers, if used with a vulnerable group of people, or in an insecure situation, or in an insensitive way. It could open doors which are difficult to shut again. The ability of art to bring up memories and emotions is both its strength and its risk.

  18. Twardowski On Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Simons

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Of those students of Franz Brentano who went on to become professional philosophers, Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938 is much less well-known than his older contemporaries Edmund Husserl and Alexius Meinong. Yet in terms of the importance of his contribution to the history of philosophy, he ranks among Brentano’s students behind at most those two, possibly only behind Husserl. The chief contribution of Twardowski to global philosophy came indirectly, through the influence of his theory of truth on his students, and they on their students, and so on. The most important of these grandstudents is one whom Twardowski presumably knew but never taught, and whose adopted name is obtained by deleting four letters from his own: Tarski.

  19. Davidson, Dualism, and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Happy accidents happen even in philosophy. Sometimes our arguments yield insights despite missing their target, though when they do others can often spot it more easily. Consider the work of Donald Davidson. Few did more to explore connections among mind, language, and world. Now that we have critical distance from his views, however, we can see that Davidson’s accomplishments are not quite what they seem. First, while Davidson attacked the dualism of conceptual scheme and empirical content, he in fact illustrated a way to hold it. Second, while Davidson used the principle of charity to argue against the dualism, his argument in effect treats the principle as constitutive of a conceptual scheme. And third, while Davidson asserted that he cannot define what truth ultimately is—and while I do not disagree—his work nonetheless allows us to saymore about truth than Davidson himself does. I aim to establish these three claims. Doing so enriches our understanding of issues central to the history of philosophy concerning how, if at all, to divvy up the mental or linguistic contribution, and the worldly contribution, to knowledge. As we see below, Davidson was right in taking his work to be one stage of a dialectic begun by Immanuel Kant.1 He was just wrong about what that stage is. Reconsidering Davidson’s views also moves the current debate forward, as they reveal a previously unrecognized yet intuitive notion of truth—even if Davidson himself remained largely unaware of it. We begin however with scheme/content dualism and Davidson’s argument against it.

  20. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.

    2015-12-01

    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect surface geologic and topographic signatures of interest. This work includes a preliminary comparison of surface signatures detected from varying standoff distances to assess current sensor performance and benefits.

  1. MODELING THE DEGREE OF TRUTHFULNESS

    OpenAIRE

    PAUL P. WANG; CHIH HSUN HSIEH

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports some novel approach on linguistic logic with our intention to realize CWW, Computing With Words, via a simple example which consists of only five words. As a by product, this simple example of the linguistic logical system may serve as a mathematical model, modeling the degree of truthfulness in daily usage. The five words set of a linguistic variable modeling the degree of truthfulness are; true, nearly true, undecided, nearly false and false. We subjectively choose trapez...

  2. The Discussion about Truth Viewpoint and its Significance on the View of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facheng Shang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a discussion about truth viewpoint and its significance on the view of Broad-spectrum Philosophy, which inherit and develop the truth of Marxist philosophy Broad-spectrum. Philosophy provides a unique perspective; it introduces the concept of observocontrol mode, which regards the truth as an image in the equivalence class. By changing the observocontrol mode, it reveals “Multilobe” of the truth of the same objective. To answer the question on "how to test the truth", it constructs the procedures and criteria to knowledge the truth. These researches have an important revelation on the enrichment and development of the study of Marxism truth theory.

  3. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  4. Correspondence Truth and Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Karakostas, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    The logic of a physical theory reflects the structure of the propositions referring to the behaviour of a physical system in the domain of the relevant theory. It is argued in relation to classical mechanics that the propositional structure of the theory allows truth-value assignment in conformity with the traditional conception of a correspondence theory of truth. Every proposition in classical mechanics is assigned a definite truth value, either 'true' or 'false', describing what is actually the case at a certain moment of time. Truth-value assignment in quantum mechanics, however, differs; it is known, by means of a variety of 'no go' theorems, that it is not possible to assign definite truth values to all propositions pertaining to a quantum system without generating a Kochen-Specker contradiction. In this respect, the Bub-Clifton 'uniqueness theorem' is utilized for arguing that truth-value definiteness is consistently restored with respect to a determinate sublattice of propositions defined by the state...

  5. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  6. Measuring Severity and Change in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Eugene; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes the State of Mind (SOM) Questionnaire, which measures severity and change of clinical state in anorexia nervosa. A study of 42 anorexia patients and 4 control groups showed a strong correlation between depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and the Anorexia Scale, which comprise the SOM. (JAC)

  7. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time. PMID:27315354

  8. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.

  9. Truth Commission Impact: An Assessment of How Commissions Influence Politics and Society (SWP 16)

    OpenAIRE

    Bakiner, Onur

    2011-01-01

    This paper defines truth commission impact as the effect of truth commissions on government policy, judicial processes and social norms. It isolates impact from the causal effects of similar post-conflict institution-building and other transitional justice and conflict resolution measures. It examines ten causal mechanisms through which truth commissions are expected to influence politics and society. Immediate political impact through the implementation of recommendations and delayed politic...

  10. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  11. The Bain of Two Truths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2010-01-01

    A common view among methodologists is that truth and convergence are related in such a way that scientific theories in their historical order of appearance contribute to the convergence to an ultimate ideal theory. It is not a fact that science develops accordingly but rather a hypothetical thoug...

  12. Theatre of/or Truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The famous scene near the end of The Truman Show (Peter Weir, 1998), when Truman’s boat hits the wall of the television studio that has been his life’s scenery, is a moment of truth. Fans throughout the world hold their breath, glued to their television sets. Will Truman finally discover that his li

  13. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  14. Initial judgment task and delay of the final validity-rating task moderate the truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarevic, Lena; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Repeatedly seen or heard statements are typically judged to be more valid than statements one has never encountered before. This phenomenon has been referred to as the truth effect. We conducted two experiments to assess the plasticity of the truth effect under different contextual conditions. Surprisingly, we did not find a truth effect in the typical judgment design when using a ten minutes interval between statement repetitions. However, we replicated the truth effect when changing the judgment task at initial statement exposure or when using an interval of one week rather than ten minutes. Because none of the current truth effect theories can fully account for these context effects, we conclude that the cognitive processes underlying truth judgments are more complex than has hitherto been assumed. To close the theoretical gap, we propose a revised fluency attribution hypothesis as a possible explanation of our findings.

  15. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts i...

  16. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J. C. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Solstad, S. [Inst. for Energy Technologoy, Halden (Norway)

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  17. Direct measurements of the magnetic entropy change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique; von Moos, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    An experimental device that can accurately measure the magnetic entropy change, Δs, as a function of temperature, T, and magnetic field, H, is presented. The magnetic field source is in this case a set of counter-rotating concentric Halbach-type magnets, which produce a highly homogeneous applied...

  18. Reversing the Truth Effect: Learning the Interpretation of Processing Fluency in Judgments of Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Repeated statements receive higher truth ratings than new statements. Given that repetition leads to greater experienced processing fluency, the author proposes that fluency is used in truth judgments according to its ecological validity. Thus, the truth effect occurs because people learn that fluency and truth tend to be positively correlated.…

  19. 75 FR 44093 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... June 29, 2010, (75 FR 37526) ] (FR Doc. 2010-14717) amending Regulation Z, which implements the Truth...'s amendatory instructions. This document corrects that error. 0 In final rule, FR Doc. 2010-14717, published on June 29, 2010, (75 FR 37526) make the following corrections: PART 226--TRUTH IN...

  20. Truth and the Capability of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and truth, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of truth and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of truth is understood to be…

  1. Changing domains in human capital measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The management context is dynamic; this is especially evident in human capital as the primary source of value creation as opposed to physical and natural resources. In response, measurement methodologies have moved from a transactional approach (strategy implementation to a transformational approach (human capital contribution paradigm, as well as diverging into different purposes. To date, there has been little overlap on recent domains to consider in managing and measuring the contribution of the human resource function and employees, and how to unlock and add value.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and describe changing domains within human capital management to be managed and measured.Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of changing measurement domains to aid practitioners to manage and measure the contribution of the human resource function and employees, in order to unlock and add value and ultimately contribute to the success of an organisation.Research design, approach and method: Unstructured, in-depth interview data of purposively selected cases from a selected panel of human resource practitioners specialising in human capital measurement was thematically analysed in this exploratory-descriptive investigation.Main findings: Findings suggested that seven domains should be managed and measured. These domains highlight new areas of impact and levels of management. In addition, crossdomain relationships in measurement allow for an understanding of the impact and potential value on which to capitalise.Practical/managerial implications: New domains to manage and measure focus the attention of practitioners beyond the transactional performance management paradigm to a transformational approach to influence the business strategy. Higher education institutions need to develop students’ cognitive skills to facilitate systems thinking.Contribution: This study suggests a new

  2. The Truth about Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Buekens, Filip; Truyen, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    When we evaluate the outcomes of investigative actions as justified or unjustified, good or bad, rational or irrational, we make, in a broad sense of the term, evaluative judgments about them. We look at operational accuracy as a desirable and evaluable quality of the outcomes and explore how the concepts of accuracy and precision, on the basis of insights borrowed from pragmatics and measurement theory, can be seen to do useful work in epistemology. Operational accuracy (but not metaphysical...

  3. 78 FR 79286 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... establish. In the 2013 Escrows Final Rule, 78 FR 4726 (January 22, 2013), the Bureau established such an... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold... (Truth in Lending) to reflect a change in the asset size threshold for certain creditors to qualify...

  4. In vivo measurement of protein functional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Wang, Zhicheng Zhang, Qinyi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational changes in proteins are fundamental to all biological functions. In protein science, the concept of protein flexibility is widely used to describe protein dynamics and thermodynamic properties that control protein conformational changes. In this study, we show that urea, which has strong sedative potency, can be administered to fish at high concentrations, and that protein functional changes related to anesthesia induction can be measured in vivo. Ctenopharyngodon idellus (the grass carp has two different types of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, urea-insensitive and urea-sensitive, which are responsible for the heat endurance of fish. The urea-sensitive NMDA receptor showed high protein flexibility, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor showed less flexibility, and the protein that is responsible for ethanol anesthesia showed the lowest flexibility. The results suggest that an increase in protein flexibility underlies the fundamental biophysical mechanisms of volatile general anesthetics.

  5. The Hard Truth: Problems and Issues in Urban School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisrael, Sean

    2012-01-01

    "The Hard Truth" is a book written for principals and school administrators who want to implement effective change. The topics of the book candidly discuss the problems, people, and issues that get in the way of true school reform; and what building level principals can personally do attain the best possible outcomes.

  6. Categorical Foundations of Quantum Logics and Their Truth Values Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiris, E

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a foundational sheaf theoretical scheme for the comprehension of quantum event structures, in terms of localization systems consisting of Boolean coordinatization coverings induced by measurement. The scheme is based on the existence of a categorical adjunction between presheaves of Boolean event algebras and Quantum event algebras. On the basis of this adjoint correspondence we prove the existence of an object of truth values in the category of quantum logics, characterized as subobject classifier. This classifying object plays the equivalent role that the two-valued Boolean truth values object plays in classical event structures. We construct the object of quantum truth values explicitly and argue that it constitutes the appropriate choice for the valuation of propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems.

  7. Direct measurements of the magnetic entropy change

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique; von Moos, Lars; Bjørk, Rasmus; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An experimental device that can accurately measure the magnetic entropy change, Δs, as a function of temperature, T, and magnetic field, H, is presented. The magnetic field source is in this case a set of counter-rotating concentric Halbach-type magnets, which produce a highly homogeneous applied field with constant orientation. The field may be varied from 0 to 1.5 T in a continuous way. The temperature stability of the system is controlled to within ±10 mK and the standard range for the cur...

  8. 一种改进的基于MMTD的网络应用类型识别方法%Improvement of Network Application Type Identification Based on Measure of Medium Truth Degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨哲睿; 成卫青

    2012-01-01

    Internet application identification is important in network management. This paper aims to improve application type identification of Internet flows related to medium mathematics. It proposes a novel application type identification method based on MMTD(Measure of Medium Truth Degree). The efficiency of the original method shows the potential and advantages. But the parameters used in the method were probably based on network expertise and the experience of the artificial statistics and analysis of features of flows. The lack of systemic method of calculations of parameters affected the use and promotion of the identification method. This paper improves the original method in followings. First,it proposes mappings between truth scales and metrics values that reflect the distribution characteristics of metrics of objects and the corresponding method of calculation of truth scales. Second, it proposes a method of metrics selection and a method of weights calculation based on intensity degrees of distribution characteristics of metrics. Third, it proposes a method that can calculate feature parameters of internet flow attributes by rigorous statistics and data processing methods. The experimental result demonstrates efficiency of the proposed method.%网络管理在很多方面需要识别网络流的应用类型.文中旨在改进和完善一种融合了中介数学理论的基于流统计特征的识别方法——基于MMTD(中介真值程度度量)的应用识别方法.原方法在效率上表现出了优越性和发展潜力,但方法中用到的参数基本都是基于网络专业知识和对流属性值的人工统计分析凭经验确定的.参数的确定没有系统的方法,影响识别方法的使用与推广.文中对原方法进行了如下改进与完善:(1)提出了一种能够反映对象测度(属性)分布特性的测度值与谓词对应关系,并给出了相应的真值程度计算方法;(2)提出了一种基于测度值分布密集程度的

  9. Academic Training: Telling the truth with statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23, 24 & 25 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Telling the truth with statistics by G. D'Agostini / NFN, Roma, Italy The issue of evaluating and expressing the uncertainty in measurements, as well as that of testing hypotheses, is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the frontier cases typical of particle physics experiments. Fundamental aspects of probability will be addressed and the applications, solely based on probability theory, will cover several topics of practical interest, including counting experiments, upper/lower bounds, systematic errors, fits and comparison of hypotheses. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  10. Truth on Stage, Truth in Life: Boal and Stanislavski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the concept of scenic truth, this paper discusses the influences of the Stanislavski method in the early experiments of the Arena Theatre of São Paulo, and also shows traces of the Russian master’s principles in the Poetics of the Oppressed of Augusto Boal. The primary objective of the article is to encourage the construction of Forum Theatre, which uses physical rigor and Stanislavski’s psychological breakdown as points of departure. This work can be developed as the actor’s internal logic during the phase that precedes the creative process, before the intervention of audiences, and within professional staging of Forum Theatre with more long lasting results.

  11. THEOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL THEORIES OF TRUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Grosshans

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Examining some theological and philosophical theories of truth, the author concentrates his attention on the experience of giving concrete reality to the Christian discourse about truth and at the same time contrasting this search with the attempts of philosophy to define truth. He draws the reader’s attention to the understanding of truth in language and communication. In his article he discusses the essential theories of truth which are characteristic of western philosophy: classical, correspondent, coherent, pragmatic, communicative and ontic. The author notes the specific traits of a theological understanding of truth and contends that it is based on an ontologically higher level than that of the classic definition of truth viewed simply in relation to reality and the understanding. The knowledge of God given to the Christian faith by the activity of the triune God, is in itself perfect and therefore in no need of further development. It is on this basis that theology develops its knowledge of faith, sweeping aside everything which is not in accord with this fundamental affirmation of faith or with the witness of revealed truth

  12. Ethics and Truth in Archival Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The complexities of the ethics and truth in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and truth in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…

  13. Hiding an Inconvenient Truth : Lies and Vagueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Garcia, M.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Potters, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    When truth conflicts with e¢ ciency, can verbal communication destroy efficiency? Or are lies or vagueness used to hide inconvenient truths? We consider a sequential 2-player public good game in which the leader has private information about the value of the public good. This value can be low, high,

  14. 76 FR 35723 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994, Public Law 103-325, 108 Stat. 2160 (60 FR 15463). These... CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... that interprets the requirements of Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The Board is required to...

  15. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  16. 75 FR 46837 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Improvement Act of 1994, Public Law 103-325, 108 Stat. 2160 (60 FR 15463). These amendments, contained in Sec... / Wednesday, August 4, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 Truth in... requirements of Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The Board is required to adjust annually the dollar...

  17. Students' Conceptions of Knowledge, Information, and Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Loughlin, Sandra M.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, everyday conceptions of knowledge, information, and truth were investigated as 161 US undergraduates completed three online tasks that investigated understandings of these foundational constructs. For the first task, respondents graphically represented the interrelations of knowledge, information, and truth; the second task required…

  18. Truth Approximation, Social Epistemology, and Opinion Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Kelp, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights some connections between work on truth approximation and work in social epistemology, in particular work on peer disagreement. In some of the literature on truth approximation, questions have been addressed concerning the efficiency of research strategies for approximating the

  19. ON LANGUAGE AND TRUTH IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    The author's focus in this paper is on the role that language plays in bringing to life the truth of the patient's lived experience in the analytic session. He discusses particular forms of discourse that enable the patient to experience with the analyst the truth that the patient had previously been unable to experience, much less put into words, on his own. The three forms of discourse that the author explores-direct discourse, tangential discourse, and discourse of non sequiturs-do not simply serve as ways of communicating the truth; they are integral aspects of the truth of what is happening at any given moment of a session. The truth that is experienced and expressed in the analytic discourse lies at least as much in the breaks (the disjunctions) in that discourse as in its manifest narrative.

  20. ON LANGUAGE AND TRUTH IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    The author's focus in this paper is on the role that language plays in bringing to life the truth of the patient's lived experience in the analytic session. He discusses particular forms of discourse that enable the patient to experience with the analyst the truth that the patient had previously been unable to experience, much less put into words, on his own. The three forms of discourse that the author explores-direct discourse, tangential discourse, and discourse of non sequiturs-do not simply serve as ways of communicating the truth; they are integral aspects of the truth of what is happening at any given moment of a session. The truth that is experienced and expressed in the analytic discourse lies at least as much in the breaks (the disjunctions) in that discourse as in its manifest narrative. PMID:27112745

  1. Change of measure up to a random time: Details

    OpenAIRE

    D\\"orte Kreher

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends results of Mortimer and Williams (1991) about changes of probability measure up to a random time under the assumptions that all martingales are continuous and that the random time avoids stopping times. We consider locally absolutely continuous measure changes up to a random time, changes of probability measure up to and after an honest time, and changes of probability measure up to a pseudo-stopping time. Moreover, we apply our results to construct a change of probability ...

  2. Organizational Climate for Change in Schools: Towards Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Suggests a socio-psychological approach to the definition and measurement of school organizational climate for change. The measurement instrument, the Organizational Climate for Change Questionnaire, is described. (Author/DB)

  3. Changes in "thermal lens" measure diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.

    1980-01-01

    In an extension of "thermal lens" effect to new applications and better resolution, two laser beams combine to rapidly measure thermal diffusivity and other molecular dynamic properties. New double-beam technique handles very small samples unlike classical techniques for measuring diffusivity. It can be used for measurements on samples undergoing stress, making it applicable to data collection for structural engineering.

  4. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts is a painful trauma, which endangers individual moral norms, threatens the national identity and requires, on individual level, plugging in the defense mechanism, in order to prevent penetration of painful emotions into the consciousness. Primitive psychological mechanisms of defense, focused around splitting (projection, denial, are the main obstacles in accepting the truth both on individual and group level. There is also another extreme form of reaction manifested through "hypertrophy" of the truth and one-sided self-accusation. In this paper the author presents psychological explanation of the process of accepting the truth as the prerequisite for reconciliation and transformation of the conflict.

  5. The Myth and Truth : Non-regular Employment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    A lot of Japanese including the mass media believe that young men play the lead in non-regular employment. It is, however, only a myth. In truth, the leading parts of non-regular employment are middle-aged women and elderly people, both men and women. In addition, such a situationwill not change at least for a while. The reality of this no-regular employment is clarified from an analysis of the detailed tabulation of the Labor Force Survey.

  6. Truthfulness in science teachers’ corporeal performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Relations between science teachers’ corporeal performances and their statements regarding these actions are discussed. Dispositions of truthfulness are applied to grasp the personal nuances in these relations. Three teachers’ corporeal performances and truthfulness are analysed. Diana shows effort......, sincerity and trustworthiness in dealing with classroom management. Jane shows effort, fidelity and honesty in developing outdoor teaching. Simon shows transparency, objectivity and sincerity in his support of colleagues. By addressing the relations in the vocabulary of truthfulness the teachers...... in this study appear as professionals with personal dedication towards improvement of specific activities in a science teacher’s work and teaching....

  7. Truth-value transmittal fuzzy reasoning interpolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianping; LEUNG Yee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly associate fuzzy reasoning algorithm with the interpolation algorithm and discuss the limitation of defuzzification methods used commonly in the fuzzy reasoning algorithm. Secondly, we give a new fuzzy reasoning algorithm in case of single input, called the truth-value transmittal method, and discuss its properties. Finally, we analyze the rationality to adopy the truth-value transmittal method as the defuzzification method of full implication triple I method, and show that although CRI and triple I fuzzy reasoning method are different from fuzzy output set, they are uniform finally under the truth-value transmittal defuzzification method.

  8. THEORY OF TRUTH AND ITS REALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna. G

    2014-01-01

    Truth is a deeper subject then it at first appears. A concept which confronts us at the start of discussion is the different forms of truth which all the "truth theories" assume. On an existant level everything which lies within our consciousness is in its own way true. The god Mars is true in its existance as idea, it is not however true as a physicalized incaration. It is these embodied facts which the Correspondence theory deals with, its theory is that that which is true i...

  9. Comparison of algorithms for ultrasound image segmentation without ground truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Karan; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    Image segmentation is a pre-requisite to medical image analysis. A variety of segmentation algorithms have been proposed, and most are evaluated on a small dataset or based on classification of a single feature. The lack of a gold standard (ground truth) further adds to the discrepancy in these comparisons. This work proposes a new methodology for comparing image segmentation algorithms without ground truth by building a matrix called region-correlation matrix. Subsequently, suitable distance measures are proposed for quantitative assessment of similarity. The first measure takes into account the degree of region overlap or identical match. The second considers the degree of splitting or misclassification by using an appropriate penalty term. These measures are shown to satisfy the axioms of a quasi-metric. They are applied for a comparative analysis of synthetic segmentation maps to show their direct correlation with human intuition of similar segmentation. Since ultrasound images are difficult to segment and usually lack a ground truth, the measures are further used to compare the recently proposed spectral clustering algorithm (encoding spatial and edge information) with standard k-means over abdominal ultrasound images. Improving the parameterization and enlarging the feature space for k-means steadily increased segmentation quality to that of spectral clustering.

  10. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimation of nonuniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multiscene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored, and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed algorithm to outperform the state of the art across several measures and shadow categories. To complement our data set, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research. PMID:27607503

  11. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimation of nonuniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multiscene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored, and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed algorithm to outperform the state of the art across several measures and shadow categories. To complement our data set, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  12. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases: such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame which allows us efficient estimation of non-uniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multi-scene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed new algorithm to outperform the state-of-the-art across several measures and shadow category. To complement our dataset, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  13. The Experience of Truth in Jazz Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    2015-01-01

    This is a book on truth, experience, and the interrelations between these two fundamental philosophical notions. The questions of truth and experience have their roots at the very heart of philosophy, both historically and thematically. This book gives an insight into how philosophers working...... in the fields of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics respond to challenges posed by these questions, not only in relation to the history of philosophy, but to philosophy itself. The book contains texts written by distinguished professors and in particular by young scholars. It is the result...... of a mutually inspired collaboration between the Philosophy Departments at the University of Aarhus and the University of Turin, that is: between Danish and Italian philosophers, who met up in Aarhus during the graduate conference “The Experience of Truth – The Truth of Experience: Between Phenomenology...

  14. 75 FR 66553 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ..., 2009. 15 U.S.C. 1639e(b), (c). See Sec. 226.36(b); 73 FR 44522, 44604 (Jul. 30, 2008) (2008 Appraisal... System 12 CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 208... Regulation Z; Docket No. R-1394 RIN AD-7100-56 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the...

  15. From the value of truth to truth as a value and as a norm

    OpenAIRE

    Tiercelin, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    In summary, we can, I think, find the following interesting elements in the pragmatists’ approach to truth. 1. A nice balance of several components of the theories of truth The pragmatists do not refuse the classical theories of truth as much as they present a fine balance of some of their elements while providing a framework which makes it possible for us to understand them better. If they reject correspondence, they do insist on the fact that truth is independent, up to a point, of what we ...

  16. PRICE LEVEL CHANGES AND FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Salvary, Stanley C. W.

    2004-01-01

    Debates on inflation have subsided, but the issue is not dead. Debates on this issue are as perennial as the grass; as soon as there are continuous and significant increases in the level of prices, the debates will be resumed with much vigor. Therefore, the issue has to be addressed in spite of the cessation of debate at this time. Many arguments have been presented that under conditions of changes in the general level of prices financial statements are irrelevant and uninterpretable. Accordi...

  17. The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.

  18. New Developments in the Analysis and Measurement of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephan

    The problem of change scores' correlation with initial status and the problem of low reliability in the measurement of change are addressed. By treating the correlation between initial status and change as a design problem rather than a statistical issue, research questions can be formulated in terms of changes in the shapes of growth curves…

  19. Paradoxical Truths and Persistent Myths: Reframing the Team Competence Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-01-01

    Medicine has conventionally had an individualist orientation to competence. Individual competence is conceptualized as a stable possession that, once acquired, holds across contexts. Individual competence is necessary; however, it is insufficient for quality health care. We also need to attend to collective competence in order to grapple with paradoxical truths about teamwork, such as: competent individuals can form incompetent teams. Collective competence is conceptualized as a distributed capacity of a system, an evolving, relational phenomenon that emerges from the resources and constraints of particular contexts. This article outlines a set of paradoxical truths about teamwork in health care and uses the concept of collective competence to explain how they can hold true. It then considers a set of persistent myths about teamwork which have their roots in an individualist orientation, exploring how they hold us back from meaningful change in how we educate for, and practice as, health care teams. Finally, the article briefly considers the implications of these truths and myths for educational issues such as interprofessional education and competency-based health professional education. PMID:27584064

  20. [The problem of truth in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    2000-01-01

    Psychiatry has forgotten too early about the problem of truth (Zutt). In the first treatises on delusions, these are described as pathological errors, as mistakes in the ability to judge reality. For French psychiatry, delusions are false ideas of pathological origin, resistant to logical argumentation that alter the ability to judge reality, a concept still present in DSM-IV, in which it is defined as wrong beliefs that normality imply a wrong interpretation of perceptions of experiences. As a consequence, delusions are classified according to its contents. German psychiatry however seeks for the structures underlying to all delusions, some authors have even defended the notion of a single psychosis. The Heidelberg School, so well analyzed by Laín, developed a psychopathology which dismantled the notion of delusion then accepted (falseness is a relative and accessory notion and the lack of information plays an important role, as well as cultural and religious factors). K. Schneider describes the two forms of delusion: delusional perception and delusional occurrence. Both concepts have been criticized, therefore it is necessary to consider truth as a process and not as a state and to take into account the contributions of the philosophy of science and psychoanalysis. The concept of truth of Aristotle (the adaptation of the logos to the thing) is the one that has prevailed along history. But, for Heidegger the truth as aletheia (the process of revealing) is deeper and allows, applied to psychopathology, the connection of truth, liberty and relationship between human beings. As a consequence, the error of delusion, its lack of liberty, is also a lack of communication. The process of getting closer to truth is marked by an ethical attitude of tolerance. PMID:11205045

  1. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  2. Sensitive Measures of Condition Change in EEG Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, L.M.; Gailey, P.C.; Protopopescu, V.

    1999-03-10

    We present a new, robust, model-independent technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data. We define indicators of condition change by comparing distribution functions (DF) defined on the attractor for time windowed data sets via L{sub 1}-distance and {chi}{sup 2} statistics. The new measures are applied to EEG data with the objective of detecting the transition between non-seizure and epileptic brain activity in an accurate and timely manner. We find a clear superiority of the new metrics in comparison to traditional nonlinear measures as discriminators of condition change.

  3. Camera on Vessel: A Camera-Based System to Measure Change in Water Volume in a Drinking Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Ayoola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A major problem related to chronic health is patients’ “compliance” with new lifestyle changes, medical prescriptions, recommendations, or restrictions. Heart-failure and hemodialysis patients are usually placed on fluid restrictions due to their hemodynamic status. A holistic approach to managing fluid imbalance will incorporate the monitoring of salt-water intake, body-fluid retention, and fluid excretion in order to provide effective intervention at an early stage. Such an approach creates a need to develop a smart device that can monitor the drinking activities of the patient. This paper employs an empirical approach to infer the real water level in a conically shapped glass and the volume difference due to changes in water level. The method uses a low-resolution miniaturized camera to obtain images using an Arduino microcontroller. The images are processed in MATLAB. Conventional segmentation techniques (such as a Sobel filter to obtain a binary image are applied to extract the level gradient, and an ellipsoidal fitting helps to estimate the size of the cup. The fitting (using least-squares criterion between derived measurements in pixel and the real measurements shows a low covariance between the estimated measurement and the mean. The correlation between the estimated results to ground truth produced a variation of 3% from the mean.

  4. [Truth disclosure in medicine: psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, M Luz

    2005-06-01

    Truth telling in medicine is difficult and stressful. Medical training teaches to mitigate pain and suffering, but death and health deterioration causes feelings of frustration among physicians. Physicians tend to conceal bad news to avoid the suffering caused by such adverse information. However, veracity is an integral part of a respectful relationship and is the basis of confidence between patients and health providers. However, confusing truthfulness with a mere exposure of all the available information is an oversimplification of the problem. Therefore the real issue drifts from "how convenient is to communicate the truth" to "how to share the information with my patient" in a setting in which he can express his feeling and thoughts. Communicating the truth is an ethical imperative. The patient has the right to be informed and the physician must provide this information timely and taking into account the capacity, interest and emotional status of the patients. Therefore prudence, warmth and bioethical reasoning are required for a good medical practice. PMID:16075136

  5. 75 FR 12333 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ..., 2009. See 74 FR 36077 (July 2009 Regulation Z Interim Final Rule). On January 12, 2010, the Board.... See 75 FR 7658 (February 2010 Regulation Z Rule). This proposed rule implements the provisions of the... System 12 CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 49 /...

  6. 76 FR 11319 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... final rules pursuant to the Board's authority in Section 129(l)(2)(A). 73 FR 44522, July 30, 2008 (2008... of the Dodd-Frank Act. See 75 FR 58505 (September 2010 Escrow Proposal). Accordingly, the Board... 7100-AD54 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final...

  7. 76 FR 22947 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... authority under the Truth in Lending Act and the Credit Card Act. See 75 FR 7662 and 75 FR 37528. For... Credit Card Act that became effective on August 20, 2009. See 74 FR 36077 (July 2009 Interim Final Rule... effective on February 22, 2010. See 75 FR 7658 (February 2010 Final Rule). Independent of the Credit...

  8. 75 FR 80675 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R- 1394), amending Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement... interim final rule published in the ] Federal Register of October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R..., (75 FR 66554) make the following corrections: 1. On page 66555, in the first column, line 24,...

  9. Linguistic Truth Values Lattice Implication Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiao-dong; XU Yang

    2006-01-01

    In order to study uncertainty reasoning and automatic reasoning with linguistic terms, in this paper, the set of basic linguistic truth values and the set of modifiers are defined, according to common sense; partially orderings are defined on them. Based on it, a lattice implication algebra model L18 of linguistic terms is built; furthermore, its some basic properties are discussed.

  10. Empirical progress and nomic truth approximation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Theodorus

    2014-01-01

    In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000) I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic truth approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of

  11. Are the Moral Fixed Points Conceptual Truths?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan; Streumer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Terence Cuneo and Russ Shafer-Landau have recently proposed a new version of moral non-naturalism, according to which there are non-natural moral concepts and truths but no non-natural moral facts. This view entails that moral error theorists are conceptually deficient. We explain why moral error th

  12. Folded Compact Range Development and Coherent Change Detection Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    A novel, folded compact range configuration has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories compact range antenna and radar cross section measurement facility, operated by the Radar/Antenna Department 2343, as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD) measurements. This report describes the development of the folded compact range configuration, as well as the initial set of coherent change detection measurements made with the system. These measurements have been highly successful, and have demonstrated the viability of the folded compact range concept in simulating SAR CCD measurements. It is felt that follow-on measurements have the potential of contributing significantly to the body of knowledge available to the scientific community involved in CCD image generation and processing, and that this tool will be a significant aid in the research and development of change detection methodologies.

  13. Truth-Telling by Wrong-Doers? The Construction of Avowal in Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The truth commission has emerged in the last thirty years as a distinct juridical form that views the production of truth as necessary, and in some cases sufficient, for achieving justice. In his history of truth-telling in juridical forms, Michel Foucault conducts a genealogy of avowal (or confession in western judicial practice; critical to his definition of avowal is that the truth-teller and wrong-doer must be the same subject. In my analysis, I consider avowal in light of a relatively recent judicial innovation: the truth commission, with Canada’s Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC as a particular case. The TRC’s emphasis on the testimony of victims rather than perpetrators means that truth-telling and wrong-doing are decoupled in this juridical form, suggesting that avowal is not a function of truth commissions according to Foucault’s criteria. Does this mean that truth commissions are not involved in truth production, or perhaps that they are not a juridical form in the lineage of those examined by Foucault? The truth commission is a juridical form that Foucault was unable to address because it developed only after his death, and it is possible that it challenges his core understanding of avowal; however, the truth commission also appears to be consistent with trends that he predicted about the role of truth-telling in the modern judicial system.

  14. Peirce's Truth-functiona Analysis and the Origin of Truth Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Anellis, Irving H

    2011-01-01

    We explore the technical details and historical evolution of Charles Peirce's articulation of a truth table in 1893, against the background of his investigation into the truth-functional analysis of propositions involving implication. In 1997, John Shosky discovered, on the verso of a page of the typed transcript of Bertrand Russell's 1912 lecture on "The Philosophy of Logical Atomism" truth table matrices. The matrix for negation is Russell's, alongside of which is the matrix for material implication in the hand of Ludwig Wittgenstein. It is shown that an unpublished manuscript identified as composed by Peirce in 1893 includes a truth table matrix that is equivalent to the matrix for material implication discovered by John Shosky. An unpublished manuscript by Peirce identified as having been composed in 1883-84 in connection with the composition of Peirce's "On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation" that appeared in the American Journal of Mathematics in 1885 includes an example ...

  15. Measures for assessing practice change in medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increasing numbers of randomised trials and systematic reviews examining the efficacy of interventions designed to bring about a change in clinical practice. The findings of this research are being used to guide strategies to increase the uptake of evidence into clinical practice. Knowledge of the outcomes measured by these trials is vital not only for the interpretation and application of the work done to date, but also to inform future research in this expanding area of endeavour and to assist in collation of results in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Methods The objective of this review was to identify methods used to measure change in the clinical practices of health professionals following an intervention aimed at increasing the uptake of evidence into practice. All published trials included in a recent, comprehensive Health Technology Assessment of interventions to implement clinical practice guidelines and change clinical practice (n = 228 formed the sample for this study. Using a standardised data extraction form, one reviewer (SH, extracted the relevant information from the methods and/or results sections of the trials. Results Measures of a change of health practitioner behaviour were the most common, with 88.8% of trials using these as outcome measures. Measures that assessed change at a patient level, either actual measures of change or surrogate measures of change, were used in 28.8% and 36.7% of studies (respectively. Health practitioners' knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 22.8% of the studies and changes at an organisational level were assessed in 17.6%. Conclusion Most trials of interventions aimed at changing clinical practice measured the effect of the intervention at the level of the practitioner, i.e. did the practitioner change what they do, or has their knowledge of and/or attitude toward that practice changed? Less than one-third of the trials measured, whether or not any change

  16. 75 FR 58489 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... rule would have guidance on how to interpret and comply with the statutory requirements. 74 FR 60143... CFR Part 226 Regulation Z; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The final rule implements Section 131(g) of the Truth in Lending Act...

  17. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a...

  18. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truth-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be...

  19. Measuring Resistance to Change at the Within-Session Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, Francois; Rios, Americo; Cabrera, Felipe

    2006-01-01

    Resistance to change is often studied by measuring response rate in various components of a multiple schedule. Response rate in each component is normalized (that is, divided by its baseline level) and then log-transformed. Differential resistance to change is demonstrated if the normalized, log-transformed response rate in one component decreases…

  20. Performance measurement of workplace change in two different cultural contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasi

  1. Quality Changes of Frozen Meat During Storage and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jiangping

    2010-01-01

    The frozen is a common method of meat storage, generally applications in meat industrial. However, the quality of meat still have taken place changes even in the low temperature, This article discussion on the changes of frozen meat quality during freezing storage, and give the corresponding control measures.

  2. TRUTHS Hidden in Plain View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Thomas M.; Jones, Alan C.; Aronoff, Gail

    2010-01-01

    If schools are to improve, they must abandon the business-oriented rhetoric of the accountability movement and concentrate on what we know will improve student achievement: improving the quality of instruction in all classrooms. To accomplish this, educators first must define high-quality teaching and measure how closely teachers in the classrooms…

  3. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients.

  4. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  5. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  6. Virtue and truth in clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, G

    1995-06-01

    Since the time of Hippocrates, medical science sought to develop a practice based on "knowledge rather than opinion". However, in the light of recent alternative approaches to healing and a philosophy of science that, through thinkers like Kuhn, Rorty, and Foucault, is critical of claims to objective truth, we must reappraise the way in which medical interventions can be based on proven pathophysiological knowledge rather than opinion. Developing insights in Foucault, Lacan, and Wittgenstein, this essay argues for a recovery of the Aristotelian idea of a techne, where there is a dynamic interplay between praxis and conceptualization. The result is a post-Kuhnian epistemology for medical science that recognizes the evaluative dimension of knowledge, but that also looks to a Platonic conception of the good as the ultimate constraint on human thought, thus avoiding the radically self-contained accounts of truth found in some post-modern thinkers.

  7. An inconvenient truth; Une verite qui derange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Gore

    2007-01-15

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  8. Truth and beauty in contemporary urban photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colistra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Does city still need photography? Or does it show itself more effectively through other forms of communication? The question brings us back almost two hundred years ago, at the time of the spread of the first daguerreotypes, when the query was: Does city still need painting? The question raises several other issues - truth and beauty, analogical and digital, truth and photo editing - that this essay examines by comparing some images. We are convinced that “the more we can speak of a picture, the more unlikely it is to speak of photography” (R. Barthes. The essay describes the work of some artists/photographers who have addressed the issue of urban photography. Works in which the figurative and visionary component is based on the interaction of traditional shooting techniques and processes of digital post-production.

  9. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  10. [Truth telling of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes R, Paola; Prato, Juan Andrés

    2012-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is becoming an increasingly common problem due to population aging. Most of the research on truth telling in relation to diagnosis has been done in oncology. However, although growing, there has a lack of interest about attitudes held among physicians towards disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Physicians, family caregivers and patients have different views about it. The reasons most often given for communicating the diagnosis are the right to know, relief of anxiety to know the cause of memory problems, early access to treatment and ability to plan ahead. On the contrary, the reasons for concealing the diagnosis are based on the right not to know, the anxiety associated to knowing the diagnosis and the absence of curative therapies for the disease. The aim of this paper is to report the current state of literature on diagnostic truth telling in dementia, review the ethical principles involved, and finally give a strategy to address the issue.

  11. Telling the truth and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-11-30

    Gillon discusses the conflicting moral implications of the principles of respect for autonomy and of beneficence and non-maleficence when telling patients the truth about their illnesses and treatments. The case for nondisclosure is usually based on three major arguments: that doctors' Hippocratic obligations to benefit and not harm their patients take precedence over not deceiving them; that the range of possible conditions and prognoses makes it difficult for physicians to know the full truth or for patients to comprehend it; and that patients do not wish to be told dire news. Gillon rejects each of these arguments, contending that avoiding deceit is a basic moral norm that can be defended from utilitarian as well as deontological points of view. With regard to the argument concerning patient attitudes, he recommends that pilot studies be done, asking patients what their preferences are at the time they register with a doctor or hospital.

  12. Truth, Reason, and Faith in Modern Civilisation: The violence of truth and the truth of violence in modern �secular� Western civilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is truth? What is reason? What is faith? These questions have been hotly debated and have been the cause of violence prior to the rise of the modern and so-called secular state. The rise of the modern �secular� state was founded on the distinction between reason and faith thus bringing to an end the religious violence which was inspired by their respective truths. The concept of truth will be questioned, thus questioning the �truth� that reason and faith can be neatly separated from each other and consequently that the secular and religious can be separated into neat categories. There is an inherent violence (political, religious and linguistic in the Truth(s, be it the truths of either religion or secular reason, namely the originary linguistic violence of truth. This article will ask the question: How can one speak of truth, reason and faith in a modern civilisation and seek ways beyond the violence of truths towards interdisciplinary open dialogue of a democracy still to come?

  13. Quality measurement and system change of cancer care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggstrom, David A; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2011-12-01

    Cancer care quality measurement and system change may serve as a case example for larger possibilities in the health care system related to other diseases. Cancer care quality gaps and variation exist across both technical and patient-centered cancer quality measures, especially among vulnerable populations. There is a need to develop measures that address the following dimensions of quality and its context: disparities, overuse, patient-centeredness, and uncertainty. Developments that may promote system change in cancer care delivery include changes in the information market, organizational accountability, and consumer empowerment. Information market changes include public cancer care quality reporting, enabled by health information exchange, and incentivized by pay-for-performance. Moving organizational accountability, reimbursement, and quality measurement from individual episodes of care to multiple providers providing coordinated cancer care may address quality gaps associated with the fragmentation of care delivery. Consumer empowerment through new technologies, such as personal health records, may lead to the collection of patient-centered quality measures and promote patient self-management. Across all of these developments, leadership and ongoing research to guide informed system changes will be necessary to transform the cancer care delivery system.

  14. Do citation systems represent theories of truth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.

  15. The Vienna School for Truth Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Hijab, Wasfi A.

    2002-01-01

    The [fantasy] Vienna School for Truth Exploration was founded by Ludwig Wittgenstein in 1918 [the Tractatus"s Preface date]. Its aim: Prepare students for exploring the world and its reality. Its textbook: The famous Tractatus. Its motto: "Argue or Agree!" The School has a peculiar aura of back-to-the-future, since its students have already been to a mid-nineteen forties Ludwig Wittgenstein"s lectures at Cambridge. It may get confusing, as these "two" philosophers happ...

  16. Belief, truth, and the enigma of error.

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Mariann

    2006-01-01

    The thesis discusses problems related to the American Philosopher Donald Davidson’s (1917-2003) views upon beliefs, truth and error. Underlying questions are; what are the basic conditions for knowledge? What are the prerequisites for understanding other human beings? What are the conditions for emergence of beliefs that can be true or false? The thesis focuses on the role that our inherited characteristics play in understanding other human beings, and these are seen in relation to the signif...

  17. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2015-12-01

    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism. PMID:26615543

  18. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2015-12-01

    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism.

  19. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Technique to Measure Changes in Intracranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    2002-11-01

    Changes in intracranial pressure can be measured dynamically and non-invasively by monitoring one or more cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile components. Pulsatile components such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures are partially transferred to the cerebrospinal fluid by way of blood vessels contained in the surrounding brain tissue and membrane. As intracranial pressure varies these cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile components also vary. Thus, intracranial pressure can be dynamically measured. Furthermore, use of acoustics allows the measurement to be completely non-invasive. In the preferred embodiment, phase comparison of a reflected acoustic signal to a reference signal using a constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop ultrasonic device allows the pulsatile components to be monitored. Calibrating the device by inducing a known change in intracranial pressure allows conversion to changes in intracranial pressure.

  20. Trends in Mapping, Measuring, and Monitoring Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, T. R.; Hansen, M.

    2007-12-01

    The necessity for improved maps and statistics documenting the rates and characteristics of land cover change from local to global scales has been driven by the acceptance that land change has pervasive and substantial environmental consequences. The expanding need for accurate land cover change characteristics data over long time periods and large geographic areas has stimulated both methodological and mission advances. Two important methodological advances include the use of the continuous fields approach for quantifying key landscape characteristics including vegetation cover and surface imperviousness, and the increased emphasis on using probability sampling to precisely estimate land cover change rates. We are using Landsat-based sampling within ecoregions to assess 1972-2000 land change in the United States. An additional methodological trend is the use of multi-source remotely sensed data for land cover change assessments. An example that blends these three elements is our use of MODIS and Landsat to map and measure 2000-2005 global deforestation. MODIS forest fraction maps provide an annual source of forest change locations that provides an efficient means to stratify probable change. Automated classification of randomly sampled Landsat scenes provide a means for detecting forest change within forest biomes and generating precise estimates of period deforestation. Studies such as this are enabled by the NASA Earth Observing System program and the NASA-USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission. Together, these missions extend the global Earth observation record to unprecedented levels and enable new generations of detailed land change assessments.

  1. Measuring Changes in the Economics of Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Christopher; Rich, Eugene; DesRoches, Catherine; Reschovsky, James; Kogan, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    For the latter third of the twentieth century, researchers have estimated production and cost functions for physician practices. Today, those attempting to measure the inputs and outputs of physician practice must account for many recent changes in models of care delivery. In this paper, we review practice inputs and outputs as typically described in research on the economics of medical practice, and consider the implications of the changing organization of medical practice and nature of physician work. This evolving environment has created conceptual challenges in what are the appropriate measures of output from physician work, as well as what inputs should be measured. Likewise, the increasing complexity of physician practice organizations has introduced challenges to finding the appropriate data sources for measuring these constructs. Both these conceptual and data challenges pose measurement issues that must be overcome to study the economics of modern medical practice. Despite these challenges, there are several promising initiatives involving data sharing at the organizational level that could provide a starting point for developing the needed new data sources and metrics for physician inputs and outputs. However, additional efforts will be required to establish data collection approaches and measurements applicable to smaller and single specialty practices. Overcoming these measurement and data challenges will be key to supporting policy-relevant research on the changing economics of medical practice.

  2. Measuring Changes in the Economics of Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Christopher; Rich, Eugene; DesRoches, Catherine; Reschovsky, James; Kogan, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    For the latter third of the twentieth century, researchers have estimated production and cost functions for physician practices. Today, those attempting to measure the inputs and outputs of physician practice must account for many recent changes in models of care delivery. In this paper, we review practice inputs and outputs as typically described in research on the economics of medical practice, and consider the implications of the changing organization of medical practice and nature of physician work. This evolving environment has created conceptual challenges in what are the appropriate measures of output from physician work, as well as what inputs should be measured. Likewise, the increasing complexity of physician practice organizations has introduced challenges to finding the appropriate data sources for measuring these constructs. Both these conceptual and data challenges pose measurement issues that must be overcome to study the economics of modern medical practice. Despite these challenges, there are several promising initiatives involving data sharing at the organizational level that could provide a starting point for developing the needed new data sources and metrics for physician inputs and outputs. However, additional efforts will be required to establish data collection approaches and measurements applicable to smaller and single specialty practices. Overcoming these measurement and data challenges will be key to supporting policy-relevant research on the changing economics of medical practice. PMID:26105674

  3. Calibrated BOLD using direct measurement of changes in venous oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Ian D; Hall, Emma L; Wharton, Samuel J; Pritchard, Susan E; Francis, Susan T; Gowland, Penny A

    2012-11-15

    Calibration of the BOLD signal is potentially of great value in providing a closer measure of the underlying changes in brain function related to neuronal activity than the BOLD signal alone, but current approaches rely on an assumed relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). This is poorly characterised in humans and does not reflect the predominantly venous nature of BOLD contrast, whilst this relationship may vary across brain regions and depend on the structure of the local vascular bed. This work demonstrates a new approach to BOLD calibration which does not require an assumption about the relationship between cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow. This method involves repeating the same stimulus both at normoxia and hyperoxia, using hyperoxic BOLD contrast to estimate the relative changes in venous blood oxygenation and venous CBV. To do this the effect of hyperoxia on venous blood oxygenation has to be calculated, which requires an estimate of basal oxygen extraction fraction, and this can be estimated from the phase as an alternative to using a literature estimate. Additional measurement of the relative change in CBF, combined with the blood oxygenation change can be used to calculate the relative change in CMRO(2) due to the stimulus. CMRO(2) changes of 18 ± 8% in response to a motor task were measured without requiring the assumption of a CBV/CBF coupling relationship, and are in agreement with previous approaches.

  4. Majoritarian democracy undermines truth-finding in deliberative committees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lorenz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aggregated judgments of many usually outperform individual estimates of vaguely known facts. Communication among individuals may, however, undermine this wisdom-of-crowd effect because it makes judgments mutually dependent. Deliberative democratic theory, on the other hand, suggests that communication promotes correct decisions. We investigate this puzzle about the positive and negative consequences of consensus formation on the wisdom of crowds using experimental methods. Subjects in small deliberative committees had to communicate and thereafter judge vaguely known facts. We varied the agreement rules in groups and compared the groups’ change of performance from initial to final estimates. Interestingly, groups’ performance worsened on average when they had to reach a majority decision. Groups came on average closer to the truth if they had to decide unanimously or if they did not have any restrictions to reach agreement. The low performance under majority rule is robust against different knowledge questions, group sizes and communication types. The majority rule may be worst because it makes people too focused to reach a majority so that valuable minority opinions are disregarded or not even voiced. This implies that majoritarian democracy may be less suitable for truth-finding than less or more restrictive quorum rules.

  5. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  6. Method for Measuring Changes in Surface Tension on Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Weisberg, David S.; Dworkin, Martin

    1983-01-01

    The surface tension of agar surfaces was determined by measuring the contact angles formed by drops of various hydrophobic liquids on the surface and then calculating the composite surface free energy function by solving a series of simultaneous equations derived from these data. This method was used to measure the change in the surface tension of agar produced by the addition of various concentrations of albumin. The resulting curve was typical of the effect of increasing concentrations of s...

  7. Measuring multivariate redundant information with pointwise common change in surprisal

    OpenAIRE

    Robin A. A. Ince

    2016-01-01

    The problem of how to properly quantify redundant information is an open question that has been the subject of much recent research. Redundant information refers to information about a target variable S that is common to two or more predictor variables Xi. It can be thought of as quantifying overlapping information content or similarities in the representation of S between the Xi. We present a new measure of redundancy which measures the common change in surprisal shared between variables at ...

  8. Measuring change in work behavior by means of multisource feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, Froukje; Visscher, Adrie; Scheerens, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of interventions is among the most critical issues faced by the field of human resource development today. This study addresses the potential of multisource feedback for training evaluation. The central research question is whether or not it is possible to measure change in wo

  9. A Proposed Alternative Measure for Climate Change Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Background/Issue There currently exists no comprehensive metric to measure and value anthropogenic changes in carbon flux between geospheric carbon sinks. We propose that changes in carbon residence time within geospheres be used as a metric to assess anthropogenic changes in carbon flux, and the term 'carbon quality' (cq) be used to describe such changes. Carbon residence time represents the inverse of carbon flux; as carbon flux increases, the corresponding cq will decrease, and vice versa. Focusing on atmospheric carbon emissions as a measure of anthropogenic activity on the environment ignores the fungible characteristics of carbon that are crucial in both the biosphere and the worldwide economy. The ubiquitous carbon molecule enables the enormous diversity in the biosphere, as well as the widespread, strategic economic presence of carbon in the world economy. Focusing on a single form of inorganic carbon as a proxy metric for the plethora of anthropogenic activity and carbon compounds will prove inadequate, convoluted, and unmanageable. A broader, more basic metric is needed to capture the breath and scope of carbon activity. Results/Conclusions We propose a logarithmic vector scale for cq to measure anthropogenic carbon flux. The distance between vector points, e.g. the starting and ending residence times, would represent the change in cq. A base-10 logarithmic scale would allow the addition and subtraction of exponents to calculate changes in cq. As carbon moves between carbon reservoirs, the change in cq is measured as: cq = b ( log10 [mean carbon residence time] ) where b represents the carbon price coefficient for a particular country. For any country, cq measures the climate change potential for any organic carbon when converted to inorganic CO2, or to any lower residence time carbon state. The greater the carbon fees for a country, the larger the b coefficient would be, and the greater the import fees would be to achieve carbon parity on imports from

  10. Longitudinal measurement invariance, stability and change of anger and cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Merjonen, Päivi; Raitakari, Olli T; Hintsanen, Mirka

    2014-06-01

    Anger and hostility are key concepts in behavioral medicine, but little is known about their stability over life course. A sample of 3,074 individuals from six age groups (aged 15-30 at the baseline) were selected from a population-based study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance, stability and change in anger and cynicism from early to middle adulthood over 15 years. Cynicism, a facet of hostility, and anger were measured 4 times in 1992, 1997, 2001 and 2007. Final longitudinal measurement invariance models achieved partial strict measurement invariance, indicating good measurement consistency over time. Rank-order stability of anger and cynicism was found to be moderate. Mean levels of anger and cynicism decreased over time, but in anger the decline was faster among women. The variance of anger and cynicism also increased over time, but in cynicism the rate of change was higher among men. Altogether, anger and cynicism show measurement invariance and moderate stability from early adulthood to middle adulthood.

  11. Logic and truth: Some logics without theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Sen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of tautologies, is inessential in order to define validity of an argument.

  12. University: truth, scientific research and professional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Betancourt-Serna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical overview of the university institution based on the ternary chronological paradigm– Medieval University (XI-XVIII centuries, Modern University (XIX and XX centuries and Contemporary University (XXI century and on. Then, it takes into account the university purposedetermined nature according to the historical period: Truth (Medieval University, scientific research (Modern University and professional training ( Contemporary University. It also considers the scientist typology as follows: humanist (Medieval University, experimental (Modern University and geonomic (Contemporary University. First and second ternary contemporary models have disregarded the prior models to some extent. Nonetheless, the three purpose-determined models contribute to figure out the university institution identity.

  13. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  14. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar S. Kolosovas-Machuca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p<0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p<0.001 and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  15. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyal, Ravinder Kumar; Raghavendra Prasad, B.

    2007-03-01

    We report the pump--probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.

  16. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravinder Kumar Banyal; B Raghavendra Prasad

    2007-03-01

    We report the pump-probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.

  17. Validating the truth of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of truth evaluation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    We investigated processes of truth validation during reading. Participants responded to 'true' and 'false' probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/'true', false/'false') facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/'false', false/'true'), indicating truth validation. Evidence for truth validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500-1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that truth validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion.

  18. Tarski’s one and only concept of truth

    OpenAIRE

    Smid, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    In a recent article, David (Tarski’s convention T and the concept of truth, pp. 133–156, 2008) distinguishes between two interpretations of Tarski’s work on truth. The standard interpretation has it that Tarski gave us a definition of truth in-L within the meta-language; the non-standard interpretation, that Tarski did not give us a definition of true sentence in L, but rather a definition of truth, and Tarski does so for L within the metalanguage. The difference is crucial: for on the ...

  19. Perjury versus Truth-Revelation: Quantity or Quality of Testimony

    OpenAIRE

    Winand Emons

    2001-01-01

    In trials witnesses often slant their testimony to advance their interests.To obtain truthful testimony, courts rely on perjury rules. We show that perjury rules are not truth-revealing and we derive a truth-revealing mechanism for the same set of restrictions under which perjury rules operate. If the judge uses a truth-revealing mechanism, he will get less testimony than under perjury because the defendant will not present a witness with unfavorable news; however, testimony is of higher qual...

  20. The truth on journalism: relations between its practice and discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bertasso Ribeiro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretically approach over the relations that journalism establishes with the concept of truth. The notion of truth in Foucault leads the debate. This reflection centers on how journalism builds discursive strategies that produces effects of truth on itsreports. The journalist discourse presents itselfas truthful, although its constructive discourse of the world is a result of rules, practices and values. The debate of “truth” allows us to comprehend the complexity and particularities of journalism as a discursive practice that has reflection in the social knowledge of reality.

  1. Residual limb volume change: Systematic review of measurement and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Sanders, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. This systematic review assesses what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: group I: descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; group II: studies investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care in people with lower-limb amputation; and group III: studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. We found that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, limited evidence exists regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with transtibial amputation in the early postoperative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required.

  2. Measurement of cell volume changes by fluorescence self-quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, J.F.; Litman, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    At high concentrations, certain fluorophores undergo self-quenching, i.e., fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing fluorophore concentration. Accordingly, the self-quenching properties can be used for measuring water volume changes in lipid vesicles. In cells, quantitative determination...... of water transport using fluorescence self-quenching has been complicated by the requirement of relatively high (mM) and often toxic loading concentrations. Here we report a simple method that uses low (muM) loading concentrations of calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) to obtain intracellular...... concentrations of the fluorophore calcein suitable for measurement of changes in cell water volume by self-quenching. The relationship between calcein fluorescence intensity, when excited at 490 nm (its excitation maximum), and calcein concentration was investigated in vitro and in various cultured cell types...

  3. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee’s performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. Performance measurement methods which include an integrated perspective of performance have become essential. In addition, it has been realised that corporate real estate can contribute to organisational performance (Nourse and Roulac, 1993, De Vries et al., 2008, Lindholm, 2008, Den Heijer, 2011, Jensen et al., 2012. For this reason, worldwide organisations started to implement new ways of working in a more open and flexible work environment. Although there are various objectives and drivers of workplace change, the common objectives are to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. The new workplace does not only aim at achieving cost efficiency, but it should also support employee satisfaction and productivity.This PhD research focuses on both themes i.e. performance measurement of workplace change. The aim of this research is to provide a conceptual framework that visualises the impact of workplace change on employees’ responses to the new work environment and to present guidelines on performance measurement of workplace change

  4. A global optimization paradigm based on change of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saikat; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2015-07-01

    A global optimization framework, COMBEO (Change Of Measure Based Evolutionary Optimization), is proposed. An important aspect in the development is a set of derivative-free additive directional terms, obtainable through a change of measures en route to the imposition of any stipulated conditions aimed at driving the realized design variables (particles) to the global optimum. The generalized setting offered by the new approach also enables several basic ideas, used with other global search methods such as the particle swarm or the differential evolution, to be rationally incorporated in the proposed set-up via a change of measures. The global search may be further aided by imparting to the directional update terms additional layers of random perturbations such as 'scrambling' and 'selection'. Depending on the precise choice of the optimality conditions and the extent of random perturbation, the search can be readily rendered either greedy or more exploratory. As numerically demonstrated, the new proposal appears to provide for a more rational, more accurate and, in some cases, a faster alternative to many available evolutionary optimization schemes. PMID:26587268

  5. Settling No Conflict in the Public Place: Truth in Education, and in Rancierean Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This essay offers an educational understanding of truth deriving from the work of Jacques Ranciere. Unlike other educational accounts--the traditional, progressive, and critical accounts--of truth that take education as a way of approaching pre-existing truths (or lack of pre-existing truths), this essay establishes an account of truth that is…

  6. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex

    2010-03-01

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  7. Measurements of Photo-induced Changes in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, C. H.; Sinclair, M. B.; Mc Branch, D.; Heeger, A. J.; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    We have used the highly sensitive technique of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) to measure changes in the infrared absorption spectra of MEHPPV, P3HT and Polydiacetylene-4BCMU induced by pumping these polymers with light above the {pi} - {pi}* transition energy. In contrast to previous chopped light transmission measurements of these effects, the PDS technique can directly measure the buildup or decay of the absorption coefficient, {alpha}, on the time scale of second to days. In the case of MEHPPV we observe that the time scale of seconds to days. In the case of MEHPPV we observe that above-gap light causes the appearance of a broad infrared peak in {alpha}, which continues to grow-in hours after the pump light is first applied. For this polymer the general shape of the absorption spectra in the unpumped state mimics the photo-induced changes, suggesting that remnant photo-induced states determine the maximum transparency observed under normal experimental conditions. For P3HT and to a lesser extent, MEHPPV, we also observe irreversible photo-induced absorption components which we tentatively identify with photo-induced oxidation of the polymer matrix.

  8. Some Arguments for the Operational Reading of Truth Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gomułka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main question of our article is: What is the logical form of statements containing expressions such as “… is true” and “it is true that …”? We claim that these expressions are generally not used in order to assign a certain property to sentences. We indicate that a predicative interpretation of these expressions was rejected by Frege and adherents to the prosentential conception of truth. We treat these expressions as operators. The main advantage of our operational reading is the fact that it adequately represents how the words, “true” and “truth,” function in everyday speech. Our approach confirms the intuition that so-called T-equivalences are not contingent truths, and explains why they seem to be—in some sense—necessary sentences. Moreover, our operational readingof truth expressions dissolves problems arising from the belief that there is some specific property—truth. The fact that we reject that truth is a certain property does not mean that we deny that the concept of truth plays a very important role in our language, and hence in our life. We indicate that the concept of truth is inseparable from the concept of sentence and vice versa—it is impossible to explicate one of these concepts without appeal to the other.

  9. On authenticity: the question of truth in construction and autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Freud was occupied with the question of truth and its verification throughout his work. He looked to archaeology for an evidence model to support his ideas on reconstruction. He also referred to literature regarding truth in reconstruction, where he saw shifts between historical fact and invention, and detected such swings in his own case histories. In his late work Freud pondered over the impossibility of truth in reconstruction by juxtaposing truth with 'probability'. Developments on the role of fantasy and myth in reconstruction and contemporary debates over objectivity have increasingly highlighted the question of 'truth' in psychoanalysis. I will argue that 'authenticity' is a helpful concept in furthering the discussion over truth in reconstruction. Authenticity denotes that which is genuine, trustworthy and emotionally accurate in a reconstruction, as observed within the immediacy of the analyst/patient interaction. As authenticity signifies genuineness in a contemporary context its origins are verifiable through the analyst's own observations of the analytic process itself. Therefore, authenticity is about the likelihood and approximation of historical truth rather than its certainty. In that respect it links with Freud's musings over 'probability'. Developments on writing 'truths' in autobiography mirror those in reconstruction, and lend corroborative support from another source. PMID:22212034

  10. Counseling without Truth: Toward a Neopragmatic Foundation for Counseling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents an overview of contemporary developments in philosophy regarding the status of truth and discusses the implications of these ideas for the practice of counseling. Counseling without truth is presented as a desirable option when a neopragmatic frame of reference is adopted.

  11. 76 FR 43111 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... related to mortgage loan originator compensation (the September 2010 final rule). See 75 FR 58509, Sept...; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Final rule... commentary to Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The commentary applies...

  12. 77 FR 69738 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Regulation Z on December 22, 2011, and the Bureau's Regulation Z is located at 12 CFR part 1026. 76 FR 79768... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...) is publishing a final rule amending the official interpretations for Regulation Z (Truth in...

  13. On authenticity: the question of truth in construction and autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Freud was occupied with the question of truth and its verification throughout his work. He looked to archaeology for an evidence model to support his ideas on reconstruction. He also referred to literature regarding truth in reconstruction, where he saw shifts between historical fact and invention, and detected such swings in his own case histories. In his late work Freud pondered over the impossibility of truth in reconstruction by juxtaposing truth with 'probability'. Developments on the role of fantasy and myth in reconstruction and contemporary debates over objectivity have increasingly highlighted the question of 'truth' in psychoanalysis. I will argue that 'authenticity' is a helpful concept in furthering the discussion over truth in reconstruction. Authenticity denotes that which is genuine, trustworthy and emotionally accurate in a reconstruction, as observed within the immediacy of the analyst/patient interaction. As authenticity signifies genuineness in a contemporary context its origins are verifiable through the analyst's own observations of the analytic process itself. Therefore, authenticity is about the likelihood and approximation of historical truth rather than its certainty. In that respect it links with Freud's musings over 'probability'. Developments on writing 'truths' in autobiography mirror those in reconstruction, and lend corroborative support from another source.

  14. Accuracy in Detecting Truths and Lies: Documenting the "Veracity Effect."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Timothy R.; Park, Hee Sun; McCornack, Steven A.

    1999-01-01

    Conducts four studies on detecting truth and lies. Suggest that the single best predictor of detection accuracy may be the veracity of message being judged. Finds that truths are judged with substantially greater accuracy than lies. Findings suggest that there is a need for reassessment of many commonly held conclusions about deceptive…

  15. INNOVATION RATE OF CHANGE MEASUREMENT PART 1: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Vega-González

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to characterize the different stages of history according the type of technology available. The last fiftyyears of human history have been referred to as “The Information Age" because of the great advancements andinnovations of technology in electronics, computers and communications. The first part of this work presents amethod based on the generation and exploitation of a database for the measurement of information technologygradients. The lack of the innovative data in earlier historic times is compensated by the consideration of thetransport technologies as IT. The obtained result is a clear exponential growth curve. If the IT is driver of the globalchange, the notorious changes in the resulting graph can be related to the appearance of the Kondrattief cycles or"K" waves. Modelski [48] pointed out that the evolution of economic processes is closely related to the rate ofgrowth in technological learning. According to the obtained results, the expected rate of change for IT innovationduring the first two decades of the XXI Century will surely surpass the rate of change of technological learning. Thiswill probably generate a non-sustainable system unless a change in the human consciousness occurs. Apparently,the sustainable evolution of the world system will depend on the appropriate technological selections, provokingthe adjustment of innovation gradients to the rates of technological learning within the next generational cycles.

  16. A comprehensive network of measuring stations to monitor climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, P. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Andreae, M. (Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)); Kabat, P. (Wageningen Univ. and Research Centre (Netherlands)); Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature have been rather stable at the time scale of millennia, although rather large variations have occurred during longer periods. The extensive use of fossil fuels and destruction of forests have recently increased the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Temperature and circulation of water on the globe are reacting to the increase in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. Mankind urgently needs knowledge on the present climate change and on its effects on living nature. We propose that a network of comprehensive measuring stations should be constructed, utilizing modern technology to provide documentation of the climate change and data for research related to it. To be able to cover spatial and temporal variations, a hierarchy of stations is needed. (orig.)

  17. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements. PMID:27474181

  18. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements.

  19. Why several truths can be true.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meland, Eivind; Brodersen, John

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we offer a perspective on complementarity, acknowledging that it is not possible for human perception and cognition to grasp reality with unambiguous concepts or theories. Therefore, multiple concepts and perspectives are valid when they are not exaggerated beyond reasonable limits and do not claim exclusive validity. We recommend a humble stance enabling respectful dialogue between different perspectives in medical science and practice. KEY POINTS No single perspective in clinical or scientific medicine can exhaustively explain medical phenomena. Scientific attitude is characterised by a willingness to look for objections against what we prefer as truths. Complementarity or unifying contradictions are concepts that allow for humility and pluralism in clinical and scientific medicine. PMID:27406215

  20. Note: Work function change measurement via improved Anderson method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose the modification to the Anderson method of work function change (Δϕ) measurements. In this technique, the kinetic energy of the probing electrons is already low enough for non-destructive investigation of delicate molecular systems. However, in our implementation, all electrodes including filament of the electron gun are polarized positively. As a consequence, electron bombardment of any elements of experimental system is eliminated. Our modification improves cleanliness of the ultra-high vacuum system. As an illustration of the solution capabilities, we present Δϕ of the Ag(100) surface induced by cobalt phthalocyanine layers

  1. Change of measure in the lookdown particle system

    CERN Document Server

    Hénard, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We perform various changes of measure in the lookdown particle system of Donnelly and Kurtz. The first example is a product type h-transform related to conditioning a Generalized Fleming Viot process without mutation on coexistence of some genetic types in remote time. We give a pathwise construction of this h-transform by just "forgetting" some reproduction events in the lookdown particle system. We also provide an intertwining relationship for the Wright Fisher diffusion and explicit the associated pathwise decomposition. The second example, called the linear or additive h-transform, concerns a wider class of measure valued processes with spatial motion. Applications include: -a simple description of the additive h-transform of the Generalized Fleming Viot process, which confirms a suggestion of Overbeck for the usual Fleming Viot process -an immortal particle representation for the additive h-transform of the Dawson Watanabe process.

  2. Measuring cynicism toward organizational change--one dimension or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Wanous, Reichers, and Austin's (2000) measure of cynicism about organizational change (CAOC) was subjected to validation and cross-validation procedures using data collected from two Australian public sector organizations. More specifically analyses were conducted to determine whether CAOC is best understood as a single dimensional or a two dimensional construct. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggest that neither a one dimensional nor a two dimensional measurement model provided a satisfactory fit to the data. However, removal of two of the original eight items resulted in a two dimensional model, with three items in each dimension, that provided a reasonable fit to the data. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19092231

  3. Truth or dare: expertise and risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing evidence that the public is as concerned with the risks associated with technology as it is enthused by the opportunities that technology presents. Experts are increasingly referred to not so much for solutions to social problems per se, but paradoxically to problems attendant on technological solutions themselves. In these circumstances, there is an urgent need for the role of the expert to be clarified. While the public and political actors have essentially looked to experts for certainty in an uncertain world, this is precisely what scientific rationality cannot provide. The inherent modesty of science (exemplified, for example, by the need for falsifiability) must always be compromised at the point when a decision is made, when 'knowledge' becomes 'action'. There is accordingly a need to be clear about the status of scientific information or knowledge on the one hand, and the effect of the decision to act on the other - and hence the appropriate locus of responsibility. Analysing the process from expert advice through to political or economic decision can help to clarify the point at which misunderstanding arises, at which the inherently provisional truth of science is transformed into the effectively absolute truth implied by a decision to apply knowledge as technology. Recognizing that it is at this point that risks are run (as well as the opportunity for rewards created) may lead to greater clarity as to the respective roles. It may in turn offer some lessons as regards the design of risk governance arrangements and the place of experts in them. (author)

  4. An Inconvenient Truth: Barriers to Truth Recovery in the Aftermath of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mcalinden, Anne-marie

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary settled democracies, including the United States, England and Wales and Ireland, have witnessed a string of high profile cases of institutional child abuse in both church and state settings. Set against the broader literature on transitional justice, this analysis argues that there are significant barriers to truth recovery within the particular context of historical institutional abuse by the clergy in the Republic of Ireland. In the main, I argue that the frameworks of the inqu...

  5. Growth changes in internal and craniofacial flexion measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R; Sheffer, D B

    1999-09-01

    Growth changes in both internal and craniofacial flexion angles are presented for Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and modern humans. The internal flexion angle (IFA) was measured from lateral radiographs, and the craniofacial flexion angle (CFA) was calculated from coordinate data. Stage of dental development is used as a baseline for examination of growth changes and nonparametric correlations between flexion angles and dental development stage are tested for significance. In Gorilla, the IFA increases during growth. The IFA is relatively stable in Pan and modern humans. Pan and Gorilla display an increase in the CFA. However, this angle decreases during growth in modern humans. Flexion angles were derived from coordinate data collected for several early hominid crania. Measurements for two robust australopithecine crania indicate strong internal flexion. It has been suggested that cerebellar expansion in this group may relate to derived features of the posterior cranial base. In general, australopithecine crania exhibit craniofacial flexion intermediate between great apes and modern humans. The "archaic" Homo sapiens specimen from Kabwe is most similar to modern humans. PMID:10490467

  6. SuReSim: simulating localization microscopy experiments from ground truth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Varun; Herrmannsdörfer, Frank; Heilemann, Mike; Kuner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a widely used tool in many areas of research. However, designing and validating super-resolution experiments to address a research question in a technically feasible and scientifically rigorous manner remains a fundamental challenge. We developed SuReSim, a software tool that simulates localization data of arbitrary three-dimensional structures represented by ground truth models, allowing users to systematically explore how changing experimental parameters can affect potential imaging outcomes.

  7. Truthfulness in science teachers’ bodily and verbal actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A dramaturgical approach to teacher’s personal bodily and verbal actions is applied through the vocabulary of truthfulness. Bodily and verbal actions have been investigated among Danish primary and lower secondary school science teachers based on their narratives and observations of their classroom...... actions. The analysis shows how science teachers engage truthfully in pupil relations through an effort of applying classroom management, among other things. In all, this indicates that if science education research wants to understand science teachers’ personal relations to teaching science it could...... be beneficial to address the truthfulness of science teachers’ narratives and actions....

  8. Structural Health Monitoring in Changing Operational Conditions Using Tranmissibility Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Devriendt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses frequency domain transmissibility functions for detecting and locating damage in operational conditions. In recent articles numerical and experimental examples were presented and the possibility to use the transmissibility concept for damage detection seemed quite promising. In the work discussed so far, it was assumed that the operational conditions were constant, the structure was excited by a single input in a fixed location. Transmissibility functions, defined as a simple ratio between two measured responses, do depend on the amplitudes or locations of the operational forces. The current techniques fail in the case of changing operational conditions. A suitable operational damage detection method should however be able to detect damage in a very early stage even in the case of changing operational conditions. It will be demonstrated in this paper that, by using only a small frequency band around the resonance frequencies of the structure, the existing methods can still be used in a more robust way. The idea is based on the specific property that the transmissibility functions become independent of the loading condition in the system poles. A numerical and experimental validation will be given.

  9. Evaluation of technological measures to cope with climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Yulchi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Onogawa Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Because the global warming (climate change) is recognized as a highly probable phenomenon in the next century, the countermeasures to cope with this issue is really Important. International discussion Is progressing towards the conclusion of the treaty to stabilize global warming. Therefore, now is the time to take concrete action to reduce the emission to the greenhouse gases (GHG). To find the way to reduce the emission of the GHG, the procedure as next should be taken. (1) Systematic estimation of GHG emission (GHG analysis), (2) Identification of conventional and Innovative technologies, (3) Assessment of individual sectoral technologies, (4) Comprehensive evaluation of countermeasures as a whole. Both in the U.S.A. and Japan, this kind of research have been made independently. Among these processes, the standard methodologies should be established on the GHG analysis, the assessment of individual technologies and the comprehensive evaluation. From such a background, it is important to discuss the way to evaluate technological measures to cope with climate change between the specialist from the U.S.A. and Japan. And still required to search the possibility to establish a joint project between both countries.

  10. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur. PMID:10103812

  11. Telling the truth in a crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: My presentation will focus on communicating in a crisis. Drawing on my experience as NATO's Spokesman during the Kosovo air campaign and, more recently, the fight against terrorism in Afghanistan, I will outline the pressures that the media place on organizations once they are in the media spotlight. I will discuss the importance of real time information, how to deal with mistakes and how to organize a media campaign in order to seize the initiative and put one's message across. What kind of organization do you need and how do you ensure that all the players are properly coordinated? What are the target audiences and how do you deal effectively with opponents seeking to discredit your handling of the crisis? My presentation will look at the respective merits of using TV, radio, newspapers and Internet as means of crisis communication. It will also highlight the increasing role of NGOs in setting the media agenda. In an environment dominated by PR executives and 'spin doctors', the challenge is to combine truth and credibility with organization and professionalism while staying calm under pressure. How NATO attempted to meet this challenge in Kosovo, learning from the inevitable mistakes it made along the way, will be a lesson that applies to any organization caught - voluntarily or involuntarily - in a sudden crisis. (author)

  12. Characterizing Truthful Multi-Armed Bandit Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Babaioff, Moshe; Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    We consider a multi-round auction setting motivated by pay-per-click auctions for Internet advertising. In each round the auctioneer selects an advertiser and shows her ad, which is then either clicked or not. An advertiser derives value from clicks; the value of a click is her private information. Initially, neither the auctioneer nor the advertisers have any information about the likelihood of clicks on the advertisements. The auctioneer's goal is to design a (dominant strategies) truthful mechanism that (approximately) maximizes the social welfare. If the advertisers bid their true private values, our problem is equivalent to the "multi-armed bandit problem", and thus can be viewed as a strategic version of the latter. In particular, for both problems the quality of an algorithm can be characterized by "regret", the difference in social welfare between the algorithm and the benchmark which always selects the same "best" advertisement. We investigate how the design of multi-armed bandit algorithms is affect...

  13. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Stan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics (where the author uses a thesis that forms a part of his own philosophy in order to reconstruct and understand the ideas of another philosopher and anideological hermeneutics (where he uses a statement expressing an interest of the community whereof he is a member in order to interpret and reconstruct the text of another philosopher. In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the interpreter wishes to unveil a truth about the philosophical text, in the other two he israther expressing a desire to talk about himself, his own beliefs and convictions, or about the beliefs of his community of reference.

  14. "Angels & Demons" - Distinguishing truth from fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Dan Brown's best-selling novel "Angels & Demons" was published in French on 2 March. A web page on CERN's public site is dedicated to separating truth from fiction in this novel. After the extraordinary success of Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", one of his earlier novels "Angels & Demons", published in 2000, has now become a best seller and has generated a flood of questions about CERN. This detective story is about a secret society, the Illuminati, who wish to destroy the Vatican with an antimatter bomb stolen from - wait for it - CERN! Inevitably, CERN has been bombarded with calls about the technologies described in the novel that are supposed to be under development in the Laboratory. The Press Office has always explained that, even if the novel appears to be very informative, it is in fact a mixture of fact and fiction. For instance, according to the novel CERN is supposed to own a plane that can cover the distance between Massachusetts in the United States and Switzerland in just over an hour! ...

  15. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur.

  16. Measurement methods and accuracy analysis of Chang'E-5 Panoramic Camera installation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Tan, Xu; Wang, Wenrui; Chen, Wangli; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Li, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    Chang'E-5 (CE-5) is a lunar probe for the third phase of China Lunar Exploration Project (CLEP), whose main scientific objectives are to implement lunar surface sampling and to return the samples back to the Earth. To achieve these goals, investigation of lunar surface topography and geological structure within sampling area seems to be extremely important. The Panoramic Camera (PCAM) is one of the payloads mounted on CE-5 lander. It consists of two optical systems which installed on a camera rotating platform. Optical images of sampling area can be obtained by PCAM in the form of a two-dimensional image and a stereo images pair can be formed by left and right PCAM images. Then lunar terrain can be reconstructed based on photogrammetry. Installation parameters of PCAM with respect to CE-5 lander are critical for the calculation of exterior orientation elements (EO) of PCAM images, which is used for lunar terrain reconstruction. In this paper, types of PCAM installation parameters and coordinate systems involved are defined. Measurement methods combining camera images and optical coordinate observations are studied for this work. Then research contents such as observation program and specific solution methods of installation parameters are introduced. Parametric solution accuracy is analyzed according to observations obtained by PCAM scientifically validated experiment, which is used to test the authenticity of PCAM detection process, ground data processing methods, product quality and so on. Analysis results show that the accuracy of the installation parameters affects the positional accuracy of corresponding image points of PCAM stereo images within 1 pixel. So the measurement methods and parameter accuracy studied in this paper meet the needs of engineering and scientific applications. Keywords: Chang'E-5 Mission; Panoramic Camera; Installation Parameters; Total Station; Coordinate Conversion

  17. Seducing for Truth and Justice: Civil Society Initiatives for the 1965 Mass Violence in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari Wahyuningroem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines both civil society initiatives that seek to address the mass violence of 1965 and 1966 and the state’s responses to them. Unlike other political-transition contexts in the world, a transitional justice approach is apparently a formula that state authorities have found difficult to implement nationally for this particular case. The central government has, through its institutions, sporadically responded to some of the calls from civil society groups and has even initiated policy reforms to support such initiatives. Nevertheless, these responses were not sustained and any suggested programmes have always failed to be completed or implemented. Simultaneously, however, NGOs and victims are also voicing their demands at the local level. Many of their initiatives involve not only communities but also local authorities, including in some cases the local governments. In some aspects, these “bottom-up” approaches are more successful than attempts to create change at the national level. Such approaches challenge what Kieran McEvoy refers to as an innate “seductive” quality of transitional justice, but at the same time these approaches do, in fact, aim to “seduce” the state to adopt measures for truth and justice.

  18. Job Changes and Wage Changes: Estimation with Measurement Error in a Binary Variable*

    OpenAIRE

    Bergin, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Many studies of labour market dynamics use survey data so it is valuable to know about the quality of the data collected. This paper investigates job transitions in Ireland over the period 1995 to 2001, using the Living in Ireland Survey, the Irish component of the European Community Household Panel. In applied work on job mobility, researchers often have to rely on self-reported accounts of tenure to determine whether or not a job change has taken place. There may be measurement error in the...

  19. News, truth and crime: the Westray disaster and its aftermath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, J.L. [Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada). Department of Sociology and Criminology

    2005-07-01

    A study of the way the media portrayed the Westray Mine disaster and its aftermath over the period 1992 to 2002 is presented. The chapters titles are; power, discourse, and the production of news as truth; the explosion and its aftermath; studying the press and Westray; the press and the presentation of Westray's truth; and the politics of truth and the invisibility of corporate crime. News articles reporting the accident and outcome were sampled, coded, and evaluated by content analysis. It is concluded that the various media represented alternative truths, but did not label the corporation as criminal. This was missing from the media's reporting of the disaster.

  20. Women's Heart Disease: Join the Heart Truth Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Join The Heart Truth Community Past Issues / Winter ... introduced as the national symbol for women and heart disease awareness in 2002 by the NHLBI. The Red ...

  1. Belief Elicitation : A Horse Race among Truth Serums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2011-01-01

    In survey studies, probabilistic expectations about uncertain events are typically elicited by asking respondents for their introspective beliefs. If more complex procedures are feasible, beliefs can be elicited by incentive compatible revealed preference mechanisms (“truth serums”). Various mechani

  2. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  3. Inferring Ground Truth from Subjective Labelling of Venus Images

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Padhraic; Fayyad, Usama; Burl, Michael; Perona, Pietro; Baldi, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    In remote sensing applications "ground-truth" data is often used as the basis for training pattern recognition algorithms to generate thematic maps or to detect objects of interest. In practical situations, experts may visually examine the images and provide a subjective noisy estimate of the truth. Calibrating the reliability and bias of expert labellers is a non-trivial problem. In this paper we discuss some of our recent work on this topic in the context of detecting small volcanoes in ...

  4. ABOUT SCIENTIFIC TRUTHS AND ERRORS IN ECONOMIST`S LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2010-01-01

    The ideas have a fundamental importance for world’s destiny. So, the scholar in economics has the consciousness responsibility to make the difference between correct and incorrect ideas. Within the human civilization world of thinking, the scientific ideas (universal truth) represent the essence of logical structure of human mind and, in the mean time, the truths about the human action and society that can be discovered by the man. In this approach, I will argue why the scholar honestmindedne...

  5. Public relations and journalism: truth, trust, transparency and integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Truth, trust, integrity and reputation are key concepts for understanding the relationship between journalists and public relations practitioners. This the paper: first, considers the current debate on the inter-relationship between journalism and public relations; second distinguishes varieties of public relations and journalism; third, analyses the Editorial Intelligence controversy; fourth, deconstructs aspects of "truth" and "trust" in the context of that debate; fifth, considers why the ...

  6. Causality and Truth [Cauzalitate şi adevăr

    OpenAIRE

    Dinga Emil

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to discuss the concept of truth in its relation with causality. More exactly, the relation of causality between… causality and truth recognition is exposed and debated. The three types of truth are presented and examined in the light of the paper purpose, commenting on the consequences of the concordance-truth type, as well as crucial questions in knowledge and praxeology.

  7. Measuring past changes in ENSO variance using Mg/Ca measurements on individual planktic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitto, T. M.; Grist, H. R.; van Geen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Previous work in Soledad Basin, located off Baja California Sur in the eastern subtropical Pacific, supports a La Niña-like mean-state response to enhanced radiative forcing at both orbital and millennial (solar) timescales during the Holocene. Mg/Ca measurements on the planktic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides indicate cooling when insolation is higher, consistent with an ';ocean dynamical thermostat' response that shoals the thermocline and cools the surface in the eastern tropical Pacific. Some, but not all, numerical models simulate reduced ENSO variance (less frequent and/or less intense events) when the Pacific is driven into a La Niña-like mean state by radiative forcing. Hypothetically the question of ENSO variance can be examined by measuring individual planktic foraminiferal tests from within a sample interval. Koutavas et al. (2006) used d18O on single specimens of Globigerinoides ruber from the eastern equatorial Pacific to demonstrate a 50% reduction in variance at ~6 ka compared to ~2 ka, consistent with the sense of the model predictions at the orbital scale. Here we adapt this approach to Mg/Ca and apply it to the millennial-scale question. We present Mg/Ca measured on single specimens of G. bulloides (cold season) and G. ruber (warm season) from three time slices in Soledad Basin: the 20th century, the warm interval (and solar low) at 9.3 ka, and the cold interval (and solar high) at 9.8 ka. Each interval is uniformly sampled over a ~100-yr (~10-cm or more) window to ensure that our variance estimate is not biased by decadal-scale stochastic variability. Theoretically we can distinguish between changing ENSO variability and changing seasonality: a reduction in ENSO variance would result in narrowing of both the G. bulloides and G. ruber temperature distributions without necessarily changing the distance between their two medians; while a reduction in seasonality would cause the two species' distributions to move closer together.

  8. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notarnicola, C.; Posa, F.; Refice, A.; Sergi, R.; Smacchia, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Casarano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy); De Carolis, G.; Mattia, F. [Istituto di Tecnologia Informatica Spaziale-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro di Geodesia Spaziale G. Colombo, Terlecchia, MT (Italy); Schena, V.D. [Alenia Spazio, Rome (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors.

  9. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Helen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency. Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change.

  10. A Correspondence Theory of Objects? On Kant's Notions of Object, Truth, and Actuality

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Ernst Cassirer claimed that Kant's notion of actual object presupposes the notion of truth. Therefore, Kant cannot define truth as the correspondence of a judgment with an actual object. In this paper, I discuss the relations between Kant's notions of truth, object, and actuality. I argue that Kant's notion of actual object does not presuppose the notion of truth. I conclude that Kant can define truth as the correspondence of a judgment with an actual object.

  11. An Indispensable Truth How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    2011-01-01

    Both global warming and oil shortage can be solved by controlled fusion, a clean power source that will serve mankind for millennia.� The idea of hydrogen fusion as well as its difficulties are presented in non-technical language to dispel the notion that fusion is always 50 years away.� This book also summarizes the evidence for climate change and explains the principles of both fossil and "green" energy sources to show that fusion is the best alternative for central-station power in the near term as well as the far future. Praise for An Indispensable Truth: How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet: "In this study Professor Chen outlines the underlying physics, recent progress in achieving advanced plasmas and magnetic confinement, and hopes for the future. He recognizes the difficulties that remain in engineering a fusion reactor, but he remains optimistic regarding ultimate success, yet fearful of the consequences were we to fail."- James R. Schlesinger, former Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director,...

  12. Land use change to Miscanthus: measured and modelled changes in soil carbon fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andy; Davies, Christian; Smith, Pete; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by improving the carbon (C) budgets associated with energy generation. Miscanthus distribution is very limited at present and therefore in most cases propagation will require land use change. Limited case studies have shown that changing land use to Miscanthus may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the accuracy of simulating SOC dynamics under Miscanthus for scaling purposes is limited by empirical validation data regarding the longevity of newly sequestered SOC1. Consequently, in our work the size and turnover times of different SOC fractions have been quantified through physiochemical fractionation2 under a Miscanthus plantation and an adjacent paired reference site. Twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare commercial Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK. From each plot monthly measurements of CO2 emissions were taken at the soil surface between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC and CO2 emissions resulting from Miscanthus plant matter were determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil. Stable isotope techniques were also used in conjunction with soil fractionation performed annually to establish the rate of change to different soil fractions. Soil C and fractionation was also performed on five soils from an adjacent site with continued cropping of the prior land use. There is a notable increase in SOC stocks under Miscanthus when compared with the adjacent reference site (2.05 tC ha-1 yr-1) despite fractionation indicating the Miscanthus

  13. An Upscaling Algorithm to Obtain the Representative Ground Truth of LAI Time Series in Heterogeneous Land Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechan Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upscaling in situ leaf area index (LAI measurements to the footprint scale is important for the validation of medium resolution remote sensing products. However, surface heterogeneity and temporal variation of vegetation make this difficult. In this study, a two-step upscaling algorithm was developed to obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous surfaces based on in situ LAI data measured by the wireless sensor network (WSN observation system. Since heterogeneity within a site usually arises from the mixture of vegetation and non-vegetation surfaces, the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation and land cover types were separately considered. Representative LAI time series of vegetation surfaces were obtained by upscaling in situ measurements using an optimal weighted combination method, incorporating the expectation maximum (EM algorithm to derive the weights. The ground truth of LAI over the whole site could then be determined using area weighted combination of representative LAIs of different land cover types. The algorithm was evaluated using a dataset collected in Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWater experiment. The proposed algorithm can effectively obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous cropland areas. Using the normal method of an average LAI measurement to represent the heterogeneous surface produced a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.69, whereas the proposed algorithm provided RMSE = 0.032 using 23 sampling points. The proposed ground truth derived method was implemented to validate four major LAI products.

  14. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  15. TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies): A Mission to Achieve "Climate Quality" Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. P.

    2007-12-01

    Over recent years the debate as to whether climate change is real has largely subsided, however there is still significant controversy over its cause and most importantly the scale of its impact and means of mitigation. Much of the latter relies upon the predictive capabilities of sophisticated, but highly complex models. Such models need globally sampled measurements of a variety of key indicative physical parameters, and in some cases proxies of others, as input data and whilst generally predicting similar things the detail of their outputs in the decadal time scales can be highly variable. Clearly the quality of the input data is crucial to such models. However, since the key indicators of climate change may only vary by a few percent per decade, the absolute accuracy of such data also needs to be very small to allow detection and provide some means of validating/discriminating and improving the models. At the present time, the accuracy of currently measured data from space is rarely, if ever, adequate to meet this requirement. Instead, high risk strategies are developed which rely upon overlapping and renormalizing data sets from consecutive flights of similar instruments to establish a long-term trend. Such a strategy is doomed to failure!. The only means of achieving robust data sets of sufficient quality and accuracy with a guarantee of long term reproducibility sufficient to detect the subtle indicators of climate change and its cause (anthropogenic from natural) is through traceability to SI units. Such traceability needs to be regularly re-established and guaranteed throughout the lifetime of a mission. However, given that most sensors degrade in performance during launch, and most importantly whilst in orbit, this is difficult to achieve with sufficient accuracy, since such sensors cannot easily be retrieved and taken back to a national standards laboratory for recalibration. TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies) is a

  16. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs

  17. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  18. Less Truth Than Error: Massachusetts Teacher Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Haney

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Scores on the Massachusetts Teacher Tests of reading and writing are highly unreliable. The tests' margin of error is close to double to triple the range found on well-developed tests. A person retaking the MTT several times could have huge fluctuations in their scores even if their skill level did not change significantly. In fact, the 9 to 17 point margin of error calculated for the tests represents more than 10 percent of the grading scale (assumed to be 0 to 100. The large margin of error means there is both a high false-pass rate and a high false-failure rate. For example, a person who received a score of 72 on the writing test could have scored an 89 or a 55 simply because of the unreliability of the test. Since adults' reading and writing skills do not change a great deal over several months, this range of scores on the same test should not be possible. While this test is being touted as an accurate assessment of a person's fitness to be a teacher, one would expect the scores to accurately reflect a test-taker's verbal ability level. In addition to the large margin of error, the MTT contain questionable content that make them poor tools for measuring test-takers' reading and writing skills. The content and lack of correlation between the reading and writing scores reduces the meaningfulness, or validity, of the tests. The validity is affected not just by the content, but by a host of factors, such as the conditions under which tests were administered and how they were scored. Interviews with a small sample of test-takers confirmed published reports concerning problems with the content and administration.

  19. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response knownas glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change.For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used...

  20. Measuring Sea Level Change (Vening Meinesz Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.

    2010-05-01

    For over 75 years, the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) at the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory has maintained the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. This data set has in recent years received most attention in studies of sea level rise related to climate change. However, it is also valuable in research into ocean circulation variability (oceanography), vertical land movements (geology) and geodetic datums (geodesy). This presentation will review some of the main applications of mean sea level information so far. In addition, it will point to the role of tide gauges within what is becoming a powerful combination of gauges, GPS, absolute gravity, satellite altimetry and space gravity for the study of sea and land level variations on a global basis. However, changes in mean levels are only one part of sea level research. Other topics include changes in extreme sea levels which are of practical importance as well as being interesting scientifically. Recent studies have begun to investigate changes in extremes worldwide, identifying those areas where secular changes in extremes tend to be determined by those in mean values, and areas where they are not. In addition, intriguing recent work has identified regional changes in ocean tides which are larger than expected from secular change in the tidal potential. Such tidal changes are also important within studies of extremes. This presentation will attempt to show the wide range of studies possible with a copious globally-distributed tide gauge data set, many of which are very relevant to the understanding of a changing world.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Central China and Adaptation Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yong-Jian; CUI Jiang-Xue; WAN Su-Qin; LIU Min; CHEN Zheng-Hong; LIAO Yu-Fang; WANG Ji-Jun

    2013-01-01

    In Central China, the obvious climate change has happened along with global warming. Based on the observational analysis, the climate change has significant effects, both positive and negative, in every field within the study area, and with the harmful effects far more prevalent. Under the scenario A1B, it is reported that temperature, precipitation, days of heat waves and extreme precipitation intensity will increase at respective rates of 0.38◦C per decade, 12.6 mm per decade, 6.4 d and 47 mm per decade in the 21st century. It is widely believed that these climate changes in the future will result in some apparent impacts on agro-ecosystems, water resources, wetland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, human health, energy sectors and other sensitive fields in Central China. Due to the limited scientific knowledge and researches, there are still some shortages in the climate change assessment methodologies and many uncertainties in the climate prediction results. Therefore, it is urgent and essential to increase the studies of the regional climate change adaptation, extend the research fields, and enhance the studies in the extreme weather and climate events to reduce the uncertainties of the climate change assessments.

  2. Measuring Engagement with the Potential Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, N.; Danielson, R. W.; Lombardi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Across three studies, we investigated engagement with the consequences of climate change. We drew from the conceptual change and risk analysis literatures to find the factors that determine how much people will care about future risks. Questions derived from these factors were then asked about many hypothesized consequences of climate change. These consequences were drawn from an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report (IPCC, 2012) and, in the third study, additionally from the IPCC AR5 (IPCC, 2014). The first two studies, using undergraduate students, demonstrated that some consequences were indeed considerably more engaging than others. The third study used a more representative sample of American adults, drawn from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used the Global Warming's Six Americas Screening Tool (Maibach, Leiserowitz, Roser-Renouf, Mertz, & Akerlof, 2011) in a large screening survey to find 20 participants in each of the six audiences defined by this tool. These participants were then asked about the potential consequences of climate change. Results again showed that some consequences are considered more engaging than others, and also showed the ways in which members of these six audiences perceive the consequences of climate change differently.

  3. Quantification of the flow measurement performance due to installation changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Luisa Auler da Silva [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The objective is to present a criterion to identify and quantify improvements in the performance of flowmeters due to alterations in the design of a measurement system. The method was developed aiming at improvements in the operational systems, but is also useful in custody transfer systems. Take as base the estimate of uncertainty in the measurement systems, and seek a more intuitive way so as to aggregate the experience and knowledge available in the company. The identification of the measurand is carried out based on available information, the processing of data and the method of calculation. The improvements in the installation of measurement systems are given priority based on the measurement uncertainty of the CTPL (temperature and pressure correction factor) and the MF(meter factor). In the case of the CTPL, the influence of the pressure, temperature and density instruments in the results of the measurement system is evaluated, and in the case of the MF, the influence of the calibration system. The possibilities for calibrating the flowmeter in industry are presented, also detailing the calibration of the operational meter against custody transfer systems. The analysis of networks includes calculating the uncertainty in the closing of the network balance, calculation of the uncertainties and contributions of the measurement systems that form part of the network, and a comparison of improvements and costs, calculation for each alteration in the design of the measurement system, and its cost per improvement of 0.01% in the uncertainty of the closing. (author)

  4. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro;

    2015-01-01

    DNS is often abused by Internet criminals in order to provide flexible and resilient hosting of malicious content and reliable communication within their network architecture. The majority of detection methods targeting alicious DNS traffic are data-driven, most commonly having machine learning...... of obtaining ground truth by incorporating the operator's insight in efficient and effective manner. We evaluate the proposed approach on a case study based on DNS traffic from an ISP network by comparing it with the popular labeling practices that rely on domain name and IP blacklists and whitelisting...... algorithms at their core. These methods require accurate ground truth of both malicious and benign DNS traffic for model training as well as for the performance evaluation. This paper elaborates on the problem of obtaining such a ground truth and evaluates practices employed by contemporary detection methods...

  5. The ground truth about metadata and community detection in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Peel, Leto; Clauset, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Across many scientific domains, there is common need to automatically extract a simplified view or a coarse-graining of how a complex system's components interact. This general task is called community detection in networks and is analogous to searching for clusters in independent vector data. It is common to evaluate the performance of community detection algorithms by their ability to find so-called \\textit{ground truth} communities. This works well in synthetic networks with planted communities because such networks' links are formed explicitly based on the planted communities. However, there are no planted communities in real world networks. Instead, it is standard practice to treat some observed discrete-valued node attributes, or metadata, as ground truth. Here, we show that metadata are not the same as ground truth, and that treating them as such induces severe theoretical and practical problems. We prove that no algorithm can uniquely solve community detection, and we prove a general No Free Lunch the...

  6. Is our Ground-Truth for Traffic Classification Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carela-Español, Valentín; Bujlow, Tomasz; Barlet-Ros, Pere

    2014-01-01

    The validation of the different proposals in the traffic classification literature is a controversial issue. Usually, these works base their results on a ground-truth built from private datasets and labeled by techniques of unknown reliability. This makes the validation and comparison with other...... solutions an extremely difficult task. This paper aims to be a first step towards addressing the validation and trustworthiness problem of network traffic classifiers. We perform a comparison between 6 well-known DPI-based techniques, which are frequently used in the literature for ground-truth generation....... In order to evaluate these tools we have carefully built a labeled dataset of more than 500 000 flows, which contains traffic from popular applications. Our results present PACE, a commercial tool, as the most reliable solution for ground-truth generation. However, among the open-source tools available...

  7. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  8. ECG-Based Measurements of Drug-induced Repolarization Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the abnormal repolarization both in the cellular and the surface ECG along with their relationship. It has been identified that the certain morphological changes of the monophasic action potential are predictor of TdP arrhythmia. Therefore the proporti......The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the abnormal repolarization both in the cellular and the surface ECG along with their relationship. It has been identified that the certain morphological changes of the monophasic action potential are predictor of TdP arrhythmia. Therefore...... the proportional changes of the surface ECG which corresponds to the arrhythmia-triggering MAP morphology is warranted to increase the confidence of determining cardiotoxicity of drugs....

  9. Changes in production efficiency in China identification and measuring

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bing; Watada, Junzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating  Production Efficiency in China examines production from engineering and statistics perspectives rather than from economics and mathematics perspectives. The authors present an observable benchmark as the criterion of the production efficiency to replace the unobservable production frontier surface. This book discusses several different computing technologies, controllable variable as a path of identification, changes in production efficiency by decision making on specific operating conditions, and optimal resource allocation. The book provides a channel to tap inside the success stories of China, exploiting the way of changes in production efficiency during China’s development in the past 30 years. This book examines the concepts and realization of production efficiencies across all areas of the economy. Also the book provides the perspective of foreign direct investment (FDI) absorption to identify how Chinese economy changes in production efficiency.

  10. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions with Minimal Neutrino Energy Dependence -- A NuWro Truth Study

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Luke

    2016-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo truth study examining nuclear effects in charged-current neutrino interactions using observables constructed in the transverse plane. Three distributions are introduced that show very weak dependence on neutrino flux and its associated uncertainty. Measurements comparing these distributions between quasi-elastic-like and single charged pion final states will provide new constraints of nuclear effects. It is suggested that the on-axis position in the NuMI beam provides the correct flux to take advantage of this reduced energy dependence in measuring nuclear effect-generated transverse imbalances.

  11. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  12. Electrical impedance measured changes in thoracic fluid content during thoracentesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J R; Jensen, B V; Drabaek, H;

    1994-01-01

    of each 500 ml, and at the end of the thoracentesis. We found a close linear correlation (r = 0.97) between changes in Z0 and the volume of aspirated pleural effusion (y = 0.415.x+0.093). The variability of the estimated thoracic fluid volumes was analysed with a plot of the residuals from the regression...... line, and we found that changes in thoracic fluid volume estimated by impedance technique would be within +/- 302 ml (= 2 SD). However, the absolute value of Z0 before thoracentesis could not differentiate the group of patients with pleural effusion from normal subjects (n = 28)....

  13. Fibroadenoma in the male breast: Truth or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Puneet; Kohli, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Truth or myth is seldom encountered in the practice of surgery, especially in cases of breast diseases. Yet, even after thousands of years of treating breast disease by surgeons/healers, fibroadenoma in the male breast seems to be a myth, due to the absence of fibro-glandular tissue. We wish to break this myth by our own experience as well as other studies by others all over the world, and unveil the truth that fibroadenoma in the male breast is a definitive entity and has a prevalence among the vast spectrum of breast diseases.

  14. Rick Hayes-Roth - TruthMarket [audio

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes-Roth, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Wouldn't it be nice if there were a way to make American politics just a little more rational, just a little more evidence based? Wouldn't it be even nicer if there was a website, or an app, that helped that process along? Maybe, just maybe, a promising innovation called TruthMarket can help with the problem. It's a site where people who care about the truth crowd-fund campaigns dedicated to either proving the veracity of true claims, or the falsity of wrong ones... where, in essence, you ma...

  15. Measuring changes in step parameters during an exhausting running exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Ament, W; Wierenga, R; Rakhorst, G

    1998-01-01

    A treadmill with four force transducers was used to analyze gait during running. 39 volunteers ran on a treadmill until they were exhausted. The step parameter variances showed a very distinct change in time. 17 subjects showed a sudden increase in variance. The other 22 subjects did not show such a

  16. Polymer deformation gage measures thickness change in tensile tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, H. F.; Broyles, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight deformation gage attached to a polymer specimen determines the thickness changes undergone by the specimen during the testing of its tensile and elongation properties. Mechanical noise from outside sources is dampened when the assembly is hung on a light rubber band.

  17. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  18. Reduce land degradation, climate change and adaptation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land degradation and desertification are a serious threat to the sustainability of production food in many areas of the Earth. the methods ecosystems and the concomitant effects management of climate change are altering the processes physical, chemical and biological processes that regulate the complex balance of terrestrial ecosystems and soil particularly in areas climatically characterized by conditions arid, semi-arid and dry sub humid areas. The RIO + 20 Conference has recognized the risk of desertification and it proposed for the post 2015 agenda the goal of a world 'Land Degradation Neutral'.The challenge of adaptation to changes climate will require a greater involvement scientific research in support of conservation and use of natural resources both in Italy and in all contexts where the challenge of sustainability of development is more urgent.

  19. Atmospheric pressure changes and unexplained variability in INR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael E; Shaw, Robert F; Ernst, Erika J; Alexander, Bruce; Kaboli, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Changes in atmospheric pressure may influence hepatic blood flow and drug metabolism. Anecdotal experience suggests international normalized ratio (INR) variability may be temporally related to significant atmospheric pressure changes. We investigated this potential association in a large sample of patients with multiple INRs. This is a retrospective review of outpatient anticoagulation records from the Iowa City Veteran's Affairs Medical Center and affiliated outpatient clinics from October 1999 to July 2007. All patients, receiving at least one prescription for warfarin and INR at least 30 days or more from the date of the first warfarin prescription, were identified. INRs during periods of hospitalization and vitamin K use were excluded. Proximity analysis using geocoding of ZIP codes of identified patients to the nearest National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration station was performed to assign atmospheric pressure with INR. Spearman's Rho and Pearson's correlation were used to evaluate atmospheric pressure and INR. Unique patients (1441) with 45 187 INRs were analyzed. When limited to nontherapeutic INRs following a previously therapeutic INR (1121 unique patients/5256 INRs), a small but clinically insignificant association between delta INR and delta atmospheric pressure was observed (r = -0.025; P = 0.038), but not for actual INR and atmospheric pressure (P = 0.06). Delta atmospheric pressure demonstrated greater variation during fall/winter months compared with spring/summer (0.23 vs. 0.15 inHg; P atmospheric pressure changes and INR variability. These findings refute the anecdotal experience seen in our anticoagulation clinic.

  20. Change of Measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cosmological distances is approached using a method based on the propagation of light in an expanding Universe. From the chan ge of measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances, a formula is deri ved to compute distances as a function of redshift. This formula is identical to Matti g’s formula (with q 0 = 1 / 2 which is based on Friedmann’s equations of general relativi ty.

  1. Innovation rate of change measurement part 1: Information Technology (IT)

    OpenAIRE

    L.R. Vega-González

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to characterize the different stages of history according the type of technology available. The last fiftyyears of human history have been referred to as “The Information Age" because of the great advancements andinnovations of technology in electronics, computers and communications. The first part of this work presents amethod based on the generation and exploitation of a database for the measurement of information technologygradients. The lack of the innovative data in earlie...

  2. Conceptual design of a measurement network of the global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, P.; Petäjä, T.; Bäck, J.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Vihma, T.; Laurila, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Vesala, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2016-01-01

    The global environment is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions and actions. Such activities modify aerosol and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, leading to regional and global climate change and affecting, e.g., food and fresh-water security, sustainable use of natural resources and even demography. Here we present a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network that can provide tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. The philosophy behind the conceptual design relies on physical conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum, as well as on concentration gradients that act as driving forces for the atmosphere-biosphere exchange. The network is composed of standard, flux and/or advanced and flagship stations, each of which having specific and identified tasks. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that have to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network as a whole is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity. The most comprehensive observations are envisioned to occur in flagship stations, with which the process-level understanding can be expanded to continental and global scales together with advanced data analysis, Earth system modelling and satellite remote sensing. The denser network of the flux and standard stations allows application and up-scaling of the results obtained from flagship stations to the global level.

  3. Viscoelastic changes measured in partially suspended single bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imad Younus; Mechler, Adam

    2015-07-21

    For studies involving biomimetic phospholipid membrane systems, such as membrane-protein interactions, it is crucial that the supported membrane is biomimetic in its physical properties as well as in its composition. Two often overlooked aspects of biomimicry are the need for unrestrained lipid mobility, reflected in the viscoelastic properties of the membrane, and sufficient space between the membrane and the support for the insertion of transmembrane proteins. Here we show for a series of DMPC-based membranes that a partially suspended single bilayer membrane can be formed on functionalized gold surface without tethering. These membranes exhibit sufficient freedom of motion to represent the viscoelastic properties of a free lamellar bilayer membrane as demonstrated by determining the phase transition temperatures of these single bilayer membranes from the viscosity change upon chain melting using the dissipation signal of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D). Atomic force microscopy imaging confirmed confluent, smooth membrane coverage of the QCM-D sensor that completely obscured the roughness of the sputtered gold surface. High-force AFM imaging was able to push membrane patches into the valleys of the gold morphology, confirming the inherently suspended nature of the MPA supported membrane. We show that the correlation between frequency and dissipation changes in the QCM-D sensograms is a sensitive indicator of the morphology of the membrane. PMID:26073288

  4. Belief Revision and Verisimilitude Based on Preference and Truth Orderings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.; Zwart, Sjoerd D.

    2011-01-01

    In this rather technical paper we establish a useful combination of belief revision and verisimilitude according to which better theories provide better predictions, and revising with more verisimilar data results in theories that are closer to the truth. Moreover, this paper presents two alternativ

  5. 7 CFR 1940.401 - Truth in lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.401... Housing (RH) applicants are informed of: (1) The cost and terms of credit, and (2) Their right to...

  6. Accessing Imagined Communities and Reinscribing Regimes of Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sherrie; Motha, Suhanthie; Price, Jeremy N.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we explore the complex and nebulous terrain between two theoretical concepts, imagined communities (Norton, 2000, 2001), that is, individuals' imagined affiliations with certain groups, and regimes of truth (Foucault, 1980), dominant images inscribed and reinscribed into individual consciousness until they become normative. Using…

  7. 77 FR 69736 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    .... 1376 (2010). \\3\\ 76 FR 18354 (Apr. 4, 2011). Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act transferred rulemaking... Regulation Z continues to apply to those entities.\\5\\ \\4\\ 76 FR 79768 (Dec. 22, 2011). \\5\\ Section 1029(a) of... CFR Part 226 RIN 7100-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in...

  8. 75 FR 58505 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... rules implementing the HOEPA amendments to TILA in 1995. 60 FR 15463, Mar. 24, 1995. In addition, TILA... connection with mortgage loans. 73 FR 44522, July 30, 2008 (2008 HOEPA Final Rule). The 2008 HOEPA Final Rule... 226 RIN No. AD 7100-AD54 Regulation Z; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the...

  9. 78 FR 70194 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...). \\3\\ 76 FR 18354 (Apr. 4, 2011). Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act transferred rulemaking authority for a... Regulation Z continues to apply to those entities.\\5\\ \\4\\ 76 FR 79768 (Dec. 22, 2011). \\5\\ Section 1029(a) of... CFR Part 226 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation...

  10. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  11. On the Analogy between Cognitive Representation and Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Mauricio; Solé, Albert (Solé Sabaté)

    2010-01-01

    We defend the claim that the inferential conception of representation is generally deflationary; and we show that deflationism is consistent with pluralism regarding the notion of cognitive representation. The nature and extent of this pluralism is explored by means of an analogy with the minimalist conception of truth.

  12. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2013-01-01

    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems...

  13. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  14. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined

  15. Treatment Outcome Package: Measuring and facilitating multidimensional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F; Kraus, David R; Castonguay, Louis G; Youn, Soo Jeong

    2015-12-01

    The Treatment Outcome Package (TOP; D. R. Kraus, Seligman, & Jordan, 2005) is a multidimensional routine progress and outcome measure developed for use in diverse naturalistic practice settings. In this article, we (a) provide a brief review and summary of the extant psychometric and research support for the TOP, (b) provide examples of the TOP's use in clinical training and practice, and (c) discuss the implications of the TOP for future psychotherapy training, research, and practice. In particular, we focus on the implications of risk-adjusted progress monitoring for systems of care and mental health care decision making. PMID:26641372

  16. "The Perfect Pupil": Changing Aims and Changing Measures of Success in School RE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Mairi; Muir, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In England and Wales, religious education (RE) in non-faith schools has gradually changed from Christian education to the study of many religions and philosophies. However, the core values of RE have continued to be related to concerns about social cohesion and the building of shared values. The article briefly discusses changes in RE since 1944…

  17. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  18. Broken Robustness Analysis: How to make proper climate change conclusions in contradictory multimodal measurement contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, V.

    2015-12-01

    Philosophers of science discuss how multiple modes of measurement can generate evidence for the existence and character of a phenomenon (Horwich 1982; Hacking 1983; Franklin and Howson 1984; Collins 1985; Sober 1989; Trout 1993; Culp 1995; Keeley 2002; Staley 2004; Weber 2005; Keyser 2012). But how can this work systematically in climate change measurement? Additionally, what conclusions can scientists and policy-makers draw when different modes of measurement fail to be robust by producing contradictory results? First, I present a new technical account of robust measurement (RAMP) that focuses on the physical independence of measurement processes. I detail how physically independent measurement processes "check each other's results." (This account is in contrast to philosophical accounts of robustness analysis that focus on independent model assumptions or independent measurement products or results.) Second, I present a puzzle about contradictory and divergent climate change measures, which has consistently re-emerged in climate measurement. This discussion will focus on land, drilling, troposphere, and computer simulation measures. Third, to systematically solve this climate measurement puzzle, I use RAMP in the context of drought measurement in order to generate a classification of measurement processes. Here, I discuss how multimodal precipitation measures—e.g., measures of precipitation deficit like the Standard Precipitation Index vs. air humidity measures like the Standardized Relative Humidity Index--can help with the classification scheme of climate change measurement processes. Finally, I discuss how this classification of measures can help scientists and policy-makers draw effective conclusions in contradictory multimodal climate change measurement contexts.

  19. Changes in activity after a complete spinal cord injury as measured by the Spinal Cord Independence Measure II (SCIM II)

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, B.; van Hedel, H J A; Kometer, B; Dietz, V.; Curt, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of rehabilitation efficacy in spinal cord injury (SCI) should be based on a combination of neurological and functional outcome measures. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure II (SCIM II) is an independence scale that was specifically developed for subjects with SCI. However, little is known about the changes in SCIM II scores during and after rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in functional recovery during the first year after...

  20. In Truth We Trust: Discourse, Phenomenology, and the Social Relations of Knowledge in an Environmental Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Carolan; Michael M. Bell

    2003-01-01

    In this age of debate it is not news that what constitutes 'truth' is often at issue in environmental debates. But what is often missed is an insight that the speakers of Middle English understood a millennium ago: that truth comes from trust, which, is the central theoretical position of this paper. Our point is that truth depends essentially on social relations - relations that involve power and knowledge, to be sure, but also identity. Thus, challenges to what constitutes the 'truth' are e...

  1. Ratio of the gnoseological and soterologic in Christian teaching on truth

    OpenAIRE

    Yeroshenko, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the Genesis and essence of the Christian teaching about the truth, according to its epistemological aspect from soteriological. The huge attention given by Christian theologians to the question of truth, due to the fact that a particular epistemological truth in the Christian consciousness correlates with the ontological truth that is eternally present in the divine essence, and in the person of Christ was incarnated and became complete available to the people. The a...

  2. Growth changes in measurements of upper facial positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R; Sheffer, D B

    1999-03-01

    Growth changes in the position of the midline upper face are examined for samples of Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and modern humans. Horizontal and vertical distances between nasion and the anterior end of the cribriform plate are plotted against stage of dental development. Kendall's nonparametric correlations between facial positioning and stage of dental development are tested for significance. In African apes, the upper face becomes more projecting and positioned higher relative to the anterior cranial base. The extent of this horizontal and vertical separation reflects primarily facial size. In modern humans, the upper face becomes more projecting but is relatively stable in its vertical position. Comparison of Pan and modern human crania in the youngest dental age category indicates that the upper face of modern humans is positioned lower early in postnatal life. The position of the upper face (glabella) relative to the anterior and posterior cranial base is presented for several fossil hominid crania. The fossil crania are similar to Pan and modern humans in facial projection relative to the anterior cranial base. However, glabella is positioned low in the fossil crania. Total facial projection (relative to hormion) for Sts 5 is similar to the mean for Gorilla. Fossil Homo and robust australopithecine crania display very projecting upper faces. We suggest that the upper face of Homo is projecting due to the length of the anterior cranial fossa, while robust australopithecines possess a thick frontal bone. PMID:10096679

  3. Does Truth Exist? Insights from Applied Linguistics for the Rationalism/Postmodern Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The question of whether or not truth exists is at the center of the rationalism versus postmodern debate. Noting the difficulty of defining truth, the author uses the principles of linguistics to show that semantic skewing has resulted in the concept of truth being encoded as a noun, while it is really an attribute (true). The introduction of a…

  4. The Problem of Truth in Educational Research: The Case of the Rigoberta Menchu "Controversy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John A.

    2007-01-01

    In our descriptions of things, we normally think that truth plays an important part; we value true statements over false ones and we prefer people to be truthful rather than deceitful. If these two facets of truth are important in our everyday lives, they assume even more significance in educational research because of the commitment researchers…

  5. 75 FR 7657 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... changes in terms, and advertisements. See 74 FR 5244 (January 2009 Regulation Z Rule). The second is a... practices with respect to consumer credit card accounts. See 74 FR 5498 (January 2009 FTC Act Rule). The... Clarifications) in the Federal Register. See 74 FR 20784. The Board, the OTS, and the NCUA (collectively,...

  6. 75 FR 58509 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation Z to implement changes to TILA made by the Home Ownership and Equity Act (HOEPA). 60 FR 15463; Mar... preserving responsible lending and sustainable homeownership. See 74 FR 43232; Aug. 26, 2009. The comment... amount. \\3\\ See Home Equity Lending Market; Notice of Hearings, 72 FR 30380; May 31, 2007; Home...

  7. Speed Measurement and Motion Analysis of Chang'E-3 Rover Based on Differential Phase Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pan; Qing-hui, Liu; Xin, Zheng; Qing-bao, He; Ya-jun, Wu

    2016-04-01

    On 14th December 2013, the Chang'E-3 made a successful soft landing on the lunar surface, and then carried out the tasks of separating the lander and the rover, and taking pictures of each other. With the same beam VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique to observe the signals transmitted by the lander and the rover simultaneously, the differential phase delay between them is calculated, which can reflect the minor changes of the rover's position on a scale of a few centimeters. Based on the high sensitivity of differential phase delay, the rover's speeds during 5 movements are obtained with an average of 0.056 m/s. The relationship between the rover's shake in the moving process and the lunar terrain is analyzed by using the spectrum of the residual of the differential phase delay after the first-order polynomial fitting.

  8. Approaching the truth in induction motor efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haataja, J.; Pyrhoenen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The importance of motor efficiency in the motor market is increasing. Therefore the accuracy of the efficiency value given by the manufacturer is significant. The accuracy of the efficiency determination depends on the test method used and the precision of the loss determination by the test method. Determining methods can be grouped into two broad categories: direct measurement methods and indirect methods (loss segregation methods). In the following the effect of different methods in the given motor efficiency has been investigated in more detail. While testing low voltage, polyphase squirrel cage induction motors IEC publication 34-2 allows both a direct and an indirect method to be used, but according to NEMA the IEEE-112 test method B - input-output - with loss segregation is to be used. European manufacturers prefer to use the ''summation of losses'' according to the IEC 34-2. When comparing IEC 34-2 to IEEE 112 it can be noticed that the latter one defines stabilised operating temperatures for the measurements, more accurate measuring instruments and more precise procedures to determine all losses than the IEC 34-2. The IEC 34-2 assumes an operating temperature, assumes a value for stray load loss and permits measurements at any motor operating condition with less accurate instruments. On the other hand the IEC 34-2 tolerances for motor losses are smaller than in the IEEE 112. However, it is important to note that IEEE states that besides the nominal efficiency value also a guaranteed minimum efficiency shall be shown on the nameplate. Depending on the manufacturing tolerances this minimum value can be better than the worst value that the tolerance allows. The test results shown below were measured for a high efficiency 690/400 V, four pole, general purpose 5.5 kW motor using both the IEEE 112 method B and the IEC 34-2 indirect (summation of losses) and direct methods. (orig.)

  9. Measured and CQESTR simulated soil organic carbon changes of dryland agroecosystem under climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of global climate change (CC) on C cycling and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage/loss in agroecosystems can be assessed by process-based models such as CQESTR. The CQESTR model was used to simulate the effect of tillage and N fertilization on SOC storage/loss in three long-term...

  10. A new, analysis-based, change of measure for tandem queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Werner R.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a simple analytical approximation for the overflow probability of a two-node tandem queue. From this, we derive a change of measure, which turns out to have good performance in almost the entire parameter space. The form of our new change of measure sheds an interesting n

  11. Truths and governance for adaptive management

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kent. Loftin

    2014-01-01

    Managing large-scale water resources and ecosystem projects is a never ending job, and success should be measured in terms of achieving desired project performance and not just meeting prescriptive requirements of planning and constructing a project simply on time and within budget. Success is more than studying, planning, designing, or operating projects. It is developing the right plan, getting it implemented, and seeing that it is operated and performs properly. Success requires all of ...

  12. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent inter-rater and test-retest reliability and shows convergent validity with measures of language and communication skills. The BOSCC Core total demonstrates statistically significant amounts of change over time compared to a no change alternative while the ADOS CSS over the same period of time did not. This work is a first step in the development of a novel outcome measure for social-communication behaviors with applications to clinical trials and longitudinal studies. PMID:27062034

  13. Testosterone and the Prostate: Artifacts and Truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; Kohler, Tobias S

    2016-08-01

    Despite a lack of evidence, there have been stated concerns that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can pose a risk to men suffering with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). TRT may improve components of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with worsening LUTS. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that TRT may decrease prostatic inflammation, which is also associated with worsening LUTS. The data on the relationship between TRT and LUTS have never shown worsening of LUTS, often show no change in LUTS, and occasionally show improvement. PMID:27476133

  14. Tacit knowledge mining algorithm based on linguistic truth-valued concept lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of our research work about linguistic truth-valued concept lattice. In order to provide a mathematical tool for mining tacit knowledge, we establish a concrete model of 6-ary linguistic truth-valued concept lattice and introduce a mining algorithm through the structure consistency. Specifically, we utilize the attributes to depict knowledge, propose the 6-ary linguistic truth-valued attribute extended context and congener context to characterize tacit knowledge, and research the necessary and sufficient conditions of forming tacit knowledge. We respectively give the algorithms of generating the linguistic truth-valued congener context and constructing the linguistic truth-valued concept lattice.

  15. Learning-induced changes in attentional allocation during categorization: a sizable catalog of attention change as measured by eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn M McColeman

    Full Text Available Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS, and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning.

  16. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    An important characteristic of a mobile handset is its ability to receive and transmit power. One way to characterize the performance of a handset in this respect is to use measurements of the spherical radiation pattern from which the total radiated power (TRP), total isotropic sensitivity (TIS......), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom...... and the same mounting of the handset on the phantom. In this work the influence of mounting errors on the TRP, TIS, and MEG is investigated. Knowledge about the error due to incorrect mounting is necessary in determining requirements for both the mounting accuracy as well as for other parts of the measurement...

  17. ICT and occupation-based measures of organisational change: Firm and employee outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Böckerman, Petri; Kauhanen, Antti; Maliranta, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: To examine the productivity, employment and wage effects of ICT, we apply novel occupation based measures of organisational change within firms. With these measures, we directly address the complementarities between ICT and organisational changes. Our results support the view that organisational change complements ICT investments in a productivity-enhancing manner. In particular, the ICT-driven productivity gains are associated with the destruction of routine and non-interactive tas...

  18. Effect of changing speckles in digital holography on measurements of static and vibratory displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Karl A

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study of speckle effects in measurements of static and vibratory displacements by digital holography. Such effects are shown to arise from changes in speckle fields that often occur between holographic recordings. These may be between recording holograms before and after static deformations or changes in sets of holograms recorded for vibration measurement. If the images do not change between such recordings, the effects appear to be limited mainly to round-off errors. PMID:27411207

  19. Clever Enough to Tell the Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffle, Bradley; Tobol, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a field experiment on 427 Israeli soldiers who each rolled a six-sided die in private and reported the outcome. For every point reported, the soldier received an additional half-hour early release from the army base on Thursday afternoon. We find that the higher a soldier's military entrance score, the more honest he is on average. We replicate this finding on a sample of 156 civilians paid in cash for their die reports. Furthermore, the civilian experiments reveal that two measure...

  20. Truth and Completeness in Quantum Mechanics: A Semantic Viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Garola, C

    2005-01-01

    The Einstein, Podolski and Rosen (EPR) argument aiming to prove the incompleteness of quantum mechanics (QM) was opposed by most EPR's contemporary physicists and is not accepted within the standard interpretation of QM, which maintains that QM is a complete theory. An analysis of the semantic implications of the opponent positions shows that they imply different notions of truth. The introduction of a nonclassical notion of truth within the standard interpretation is usually justified by referring to known theorems that should prove that QM is a contextual and nonlocal theory. However, these theorems are based on a doubtful implicit epistemological assumption. If one renounces it, one can provide an alternative interpretation of QM that it realistic in a semantic sense. Within this interpretation the EPR viewpoint is recovered and QM is considered a (semantically) incomplete, noncontextual and local theory. Furthermore, the new interpretation provides several suggestions for constructing a more general theor...

  1. THE JOURNEY OF TRUTH: FROM PLATO TO ZOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribut Basuki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  2. What is "truth"? Some philosophical contributions to psychiatric issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E R

    1988-02-01

    Philosophical perspectives, although eminently relevant to clinical investigation and practice, are rarely brought to bear on psychiatric topics. The author attempts to raise professional consciousness of core issues in the philosophy of science by examining the status of truth, theory, and observation in psychiatry. He evaluates prominent approaches to the problem of knowledge, particularly those of the "subjectivists" and "relativists," such as Schafer and Spence, and the "empiricists" and "inductivists," such as the proponents of DSM-III. Drawing on contemporary philosophy of science, the work of William James, and the classical Greek conviction that more truth resides in the middle than at either extreme, the author mediates between these rival points of view. PMID:3277447

  3. Truth Seeded Reconstruction for Fast Simulation in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland; Salzburger, Andreas

    The huge success of the ATLAS experiment for particle physics during Run 1 of the LHC would not have been possible without the production of vast amounts of simulated Monte Carlo data. However, the very detailed detector simulation is a highly CPU intensive task and thus resource shortages occurred. Motivated by this, great effort has been put into speeding up the simulation. As a result, other timeconsuming parts became visible. One of which is the track reconstruction. This thesis describes one potential solution to the CPU intensive reconstruction of simulated data: a newly designed truth seeded reconstruction. At its basics is the idea to skip the pattern recognition altogether, instead utilizing the available (truth) information from simulation to directly fit particle trajectories without searching for them. At the same time tracking effects of the standard reconstruction need to be emulated. This approach is validated thoroughly and no critical deviations of the results compared to the standard reconst...

  4. Aeolian dunes as ground truth for atmospheric modeling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R.K.; Titus, T.N.; Michaels, T.I.; Fenton, L.K.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aeolian dunes preserve a record of atmosphere/surface interaction on a variety of scales, serving as ground truth for both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and mesoscale climate models, such as the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). We hypothesize that the location of dune fields, expressed globally by geographic distribution and locally by dune centroid azimuth (DCA), may record the long-term integration of atmospheric activity across a broad area, preserving GCM-scale atmospheric trends. In contrast, individual dune morphology, as expressed in slipface orientation (SF), may be more sensitive to localized variations in circulation, preserving topographically controlled mesoscale trends. We test this hypothesis by comparing the geographic distribution, DCA, and SF of dunes with output from the Ames Mars GCM and, at a local study site, with output from MRAMS. When compared to the GCM: 1) dunes generally lie adjacent to areas with strongest winds, 2) DCA agrees fairly well with GCM modeled wind directions in smooth-floored craters, and 3) SF does not agree well with GCM modeled wind directions. When compared to MRAMS modeled winds at our study site: 1) DCA generally coincides with the part of the crater where modeled mean winds are weak, and 2) SFs are consistent with some weak, topographically influenced modeled winds. We conclude that: 1) geographic distribution may be valuable as ground truth for GCMs, 2) DCA may be useful as ground truth for both GCM and mesoscale models, and 3) SF may be useful as ground truth for mesoscale models. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. On telling the truth to patients with dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Marzanski, Marek

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To discover what dementia sufferers think is wrong with them, what they have been told and by whom, and what they wish to know about their illness. Background Ethical guidelines regarding telling truth appear to be equivocal. Declarations of cognitively intact subjects, attitudes of family members, and current psychiatric practice all vary, but no previous research has been published concerning what patients with dementia would like to know about their diagnosis and prognosis. Desi...

  6. Incompatibility of Happiness and Truth in Brave New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 张敏; 夏梅花

    2014-01-01

    Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is called one of the“Anti-Utopian Trilogy”because of its obvious political empha-sis. Yet the following analysis about its theme shows that it is more than a science fiction or political fable. It was given more phil-osophical significance. The fact that happiness and truth cannot be compatible in the World Stare actually gives a warning to the modern society which depends too much on technical development and material prosperity.

  7. Is Truth an Epistemic Goal? A Conversationalist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Penelas

    2010-01-01

    One of the consequences of Richard Rorty’s critique of traditional epistemology is the rejection of veroteleologism, that is, the thesis according to which truth is the end or goal of inquiry. This article aims at consolidating the anti-veroteleological position, on the basis of a critical examination of a series of critiques made from both “realist” and Peircean-style pragmatist perspectives. Consequently, the debate centers on some considerations formulated by Alvin Goldman and Akeel Bilgra...

  8. Fuzzy logic of quasi-truth an algebraic treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nola, Antonio; Turunen, Esko

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the first algebraic treatment of quasi-truth fuzzy logic and covers the algebraic foundations of many-valued logic. It offers a comprehensive account of basic techniques and reports on important results showing the pivotal role played by perfect many-valued algebras (MV-algebras). It is well known that the first-order predicate Łukasiewicz logic is not complete with respect to the canonical set of truth values. However, it is complete with respect to all linearly ordered MV –algebras. As there are no simple linearly ordered MV-algebras in this case, infinitesimal elements of an MV-algebra are allowed to be truth values. The book presents perfect algebras as an interesting subclass of local MV-algebras and provides readers with the necessary knowledge and tools for formalizing the fuzzy concept of quasi true and quasi false. All basic concepts are introduced in detail to promote a better understanding of the more complex ones. It is an advanced and inspiring reference-guide for graduate s...

  9. ADAPTIVE MEASUREMENT METHOD BASED ON CHANGING-CURVATURE FOR UNKNOWN FREE-FORM SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shixiong; Wang Wen; Chen Zichen

    2004-01-01

    Current measurement method for unknown free-form surface has low efficiency. To acquire given precision, a lot of null points are measured. Based on change surface curvature, a new measurement planning is put forward. Sample step is evaluated from the change curvature and the locally-bounded character of extrapolating curve. Two coefficients, maximum error coefficient and local camber coefficient, are used to optimize sampling step. The first coefficient is computed to avoid sampling-point exceeding the measurement range and the second control sampling precision. Compared with the other methods, the proposed planning method can reduce the number of the measuring-point efficiently for the given precision. Measuring point distributes adaptively by the change surface curvature. The method can be applied to improve measurement efficiency and accuracy.

  10. How to measure working memory capacity in the change detection paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Morey, Candice C.; Cowan, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Although the measurement of working memory capacity is crucial to understanding working memory and its interaction with other cognitive faculties, there are inconsistencies in the literature on how to measure capacity. We address the measurement in the change detection paradigm, popularized by Luck

  11. To forget or not to forget: mnemonic “renunciation” effect and the subjective evaluation of the truth of autobiographical memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourkova V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying patterns of influence deliberate lie on deferred confidence of reliability of autobiographical memories is current problem for legal psychology. We reviewed the variability of autobiographical memories in the context of legal practice. In addition, we conducted the experimental field study of the dynamics of subjective assessments of the reliability of memories. It was found that truthful confirmation and false refutation of reliable last episodes, as well as after a truthful refutation and false confirmation of unreliable last episodes lead to regular changes in the subjective assessment of the reliability. The mnemonic "renunciation effect" is that a false refutation of a reliable episode leads to its forgetting and a truthful refutation of an unreliable episode leads to its erroneous inclusion in autobiographical memory.

  12. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  13. Change? What change? An Exploration of the Use of Mixed-Methods Research to Understand Longitudinal Measurement Variance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, P.J.; Boeije, H.R.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    A primary objective of panel studies is to analyze change. The same questionnaire is used to compare data recorded at various times. Panel designs assume that the meaning of the questions and the concept of interest are stable over time. Analyses of measurement invariance often show the contrary. A

  14. Change? What change? An exploration of the use of mixed-methods research to understand longitudinal measurement variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, P.J.; Boeije, H.R.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    A primary objective of panel studies is to analyze change. The same questionnaire is used to compare data recorded at various times. Panel designs assume that the meaning of the questions and the concept of interest are stable over time. Analyses of measurement invariance often show the contrary. A

  15. Estimation of Uncertainty in Tracer Gas Measurement of Air Change Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Iizuka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple and economical measurement of air change rates can be achieved with a passive-type tracer gas doser and sampler. However, this is made more complex by the fact many buildings are not a single fully mixed zone. This means many measurements are required to obtain information on ventilation conditions. In this study, we evaluated the uncertainty of tracer gas measurement of air change rate in n completely mixed zones. A single measurement with one tracer gas could be used to simply estimate the air change rate when n = 2. Accurate air change rates could not be obtained for n ≥ 2 due to a lack of information. However, the proposed method can be used to estimate an air change rate with an accuracy of

  16. Truths and governance for adaptive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kent. Loftin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing large-scale water resources and ecosystem projects is a never ending job, and success should be measured in terms of achieving desired project performance and not just meeting prescriptive requirements of planning and constructing a project simply on time and within budget. Success is more than studying, planning, designing, or operating projects. It is developing the right plan, getting it implemented, and seeing that it is operated and performs properly. Success requires all of these, and failing any of these results in wasted resources and potential for doing great harm. Adaptive management can help make success possible by providing a means for solving the most complex problems, answering unanswered questions, and, in general, reducing uncertainty. Uncertainties are the greatest threats to project success. Stakeholder support and political will are ultimately essential in achieving project success. Project success is often impossible to achieve if uncertainties persist. Resolving uncertainties quickly and efficiently facilitates the greatest forward progress in the shortest possible time. Uncertainties must be reduced or resolved to a sufficient level, not over-resolved or under-resolved. Over-resolving presents a value trade-off between additional knowledge and the cost of getting it. Under-resolving trades greater risks of failure for cost savings. Resolutional sufficiency varies from uncertainty to uncertainty, and applying risk-based logic is helpful in determining what is sufficient. Adaptive management can bring great efficiency and produce high returns on investment. Project-stopping uncertainties get resolved, and resources are spent wisely. Organizational governance must understand adaptive management and value it. Adequate time and money must be provided. Adaptive management must be integrated into other organizational processes such as project management and project delivery. Integrating adaptive management requires a new

  17. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Insights into the Goal of Transformative Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Czyzewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Government of Canada announced the approval of a final Residential Schools Settlement Agreement with the collaboration of the four churches responsible (United, Anglican, Presbyterian, Catholic, the federal government and residential school survivors. Schedule "N" of the Agreement lists the mandate of the TRC; therein, the TRC states one of its goals as: (d to promote awareness and public education of Canadians about the system and its impacts. Can education - as the TRC hopes to engender - truly be transformative, renewing relationships and promoting healing in the process of forging these new relationships? The literature reviewed and the conferences attended highlighted that generating empathy maybe a necessary ingredient for the instigation of social change, but is insufficient. Transformation through education, or reconciliation through truth-telling, testimonial reading and responsible listening would mean claiming a genuine, supportive responsibility for the colonial past. Educational policy and media initiatives are fundamental to creating awareness, developing public interest and support of the TRC's recommendations. However, authors also stress the importance of critical pedagogy in the whole process of truth andreconciliation, and that real reconciliation would require confronting the racism that initiated these institutions and allowed for a decontextualization of their impacts.

  18. Phantom-based ground-truth generation for cerebral vessel segmentation and pulsatile deformation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Sedlacik, Jan; Kording, Fabian; Werner, René

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic and mechanical factors of the vascular system are assumed to play a major role in understanding, e.g., initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Among those factors, cardiac cycle-related pulsatile motion and deformation of cerebral vessels currently attract much interest. However, imaging of those effects requires high spatial and temporal resolution and remains challenging { and similarly does the analysis of the acquired images: Flow velocity changes and contrast media inflow cause vessel intensity variations in related temporally resolved computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography data over the cardiac cycle and impede application of intensity threshold-based segmentation and subsequent motion analysis. In this work, a flow phantom for generation of ground-truth images for evaluation of appropriate segmentation and motion analysis algorithms is developed. The acquired ground-truth data is used to illustrate the interplay between intensity fluctuations and (erroneous) motion quantification by standard threshold-based segmentation, and an adaptive threshold-based segmentation approach is proposed that alleviates respective issues. The results of the phantom study are further demonstrated to be transferable to patient data.

  19. Measurement of changes in water thickness in plant materials using very low-energy neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, U. [University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)]. E-mail: Uzuki-m@agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Kawabata, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Hino, M. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Nicolai, B.M. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W De Croylaan, B3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2005-04-21

    Low-energy neutron radiographic images of Hedera leaves were obtained using the very cold neutron (VCN) beam at Institut Laue-Langevin, France. A change in hydrogen concentration measured in a short period by means of neutron radiography indicates a change in water concentration in the plant. A regression model was evaluated to estimate changes in water thickness of the leaves and, the resolution of this method was smaller than 5 {mu}m. The method was effective to measure small changes in water thickness of thin plant leaves.

  20. Measurement of changes in water thickness in plant materials using very low-energy neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, U.; Kawabata, Y.; Hino, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Nicolaï, B. M.

    2005-04-01

    Low-energy neutron radiographic images of Hedera leaves were obtained using the very cold neutron (VCN) beam at Institut Laue-Langevin, France. A change in hydrogen concentration measured in a short period by means of neutron radiography indicates a change in water concentration in the plant. A regression model was evaluated to estimate changes in water thickness of the leaves and, the resolution of this method was smaller than 5 μm. The method was effective to measure small changes in water thickness of thin plant leaves.

  1. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloecker, Katja [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); BHS Linz, Department of Orthopaedics, Linz (Austria); Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg (Austria); Salzburg, Institute of Anatomy, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring (Germany); Guermazi, A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), Boston, MA (United States); Hitzl, W. [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg, Research Office, Salzburg (Austria); Hunter, D.J. [University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Sydney (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8 % to 29.9 % (SRM -0.82; p < 0.001). Change in medial meniscus extrusion in a central image (SRM 0.18) and in the central five slices (SRM 0.22) did not reach significance, but change in extrusion across the entire meniscus (SRM 0.32; p = 0.03) and in the relative area of meniscus extrusion (SRM 0.56; p < 0.001) did. There was a reduction in medial meniscus volume (10 %; p < 0.001), width (7 %; p < 0.001), and height (2 %; p = 0.08); meniscus substance loss was strongest in the posterior (SRM -0.51; p = 0.001) and weakest in the anterior horn (SRM -0.15; p = 0.31). This pilot study reports, for the first time, longitudinal change in quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. (orig.)

  2. Improving the measurement of longitudinal change in renal function: automated detection of changes in laboratory creatinine assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Poh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRenal function is reported using the estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. However, eGFR values are recorded without reference to the particular serum creatinine (SCr assays used to derive them, and newer assays were introduced at different time points across the laboratories in the United Kingdom. These changes may cause systematic bias in eGFR reported in routinely collected data, even though laboratory-reported eGFR values have a correction factor applied.DesignAn algorithm to detect changes in SCr that in turn affect eGFR calculation method was developed. It compares the mapping of SCr values on to eGFR values across a time series of paired eGFR and SCr measurements.SettingRoutinely collected primary care data from 20,000 people with the richest renal function data from the quality improvement in chronic kidney disease trial.ResultsThe algorithm identified a change in eGFR calculation method in 114 (90% of the 127 included practices. This change was identified in 4736 (23.7% patient time series analysed. This change in calibration method was found to cause a significant step change in the reported eGFR values, producing a systematic bias. The eGFR values could not be recalibrated by applying the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation to the laboratory reported SCr values.ConclusionsThis algorithm can identify laboratory changes in eGFR calculation methods and changes in SCr assay. Failure to account for these changes may misconstrue renal function changes over time. Researchers using routine eGFR data should account for these effects.  

  3. Reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements in hector experimental techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in making reactivity change measurements on HECTOR are described and discussed. Pile period measurements were used in the majority of oases, though the pile oscillator technique was used occasionally. These two methods are compared. Flux determinations were made in the vicinity of the fuel element samples using manganese foils, and the techniques used are described and an error assessment made. Results of both reactivity change and flux measurements on 1.2 in. diameter uranium and plutonium-uranium alloy fuel elements are presented, these measurements being carried out in a variety of graphite moderated lattices at temperatures up to 450 deg. C. (author)

  4. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.

    2012-07-01

    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  5. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  6. 'For men arousal is orientation': Bodily truthing, technosexual scripts, and the materialization of sexualities through the phallometric test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidzunas, Tom; Epstein, Steven

    2015-04-01

    We trace the history of the phallometric test--which measures erections of men exposed to visual erotic stimuli to characterize sexualities--in order to account for its functioning as a 'truthing technology'. On the basis of a content analysis of 410 key scientific journal article abstracts, we argue that since its invention in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s, phallometry has been employed within three distinct assemblages: as a test of predominance of sexual desire, as a test for therapeutic efficacy, and as a threshold test of sexual risk. Drawing on works of theorists of materialization and proponents of script theory, we argue that within each assemblage phallometric testing materializes male desire and renders it measurable via a 'technosexual script'. We consider the performative effects of phallometry in establishing scientific conceptions of normal and abnormal sexualities. At the same time, through attention to debates among practitioners and broader controversies surrounding the employment of phallometry, we examine the limits of researchers' abilities to establish the broader credibility of the test and capture the phenomenon of sexual desire. This analysis contributes to the study of truthing technologies (or 'truth machines') as a class, while also helping to build bridges between science and technology studies and sexuality studies. PMID:26477205

  7. Measuring children’s distress during burns dressing changes: literature search for measures appropriate for indigenous children in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw QA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinette Louw1,2, Karen Grimmer-Somers2, Angie Schrikk31Department of Physiotherapy, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 2International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 3Red Cross Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Virtual reality is consistently reported as effective in reducing pain and anxiety in children during burns dressing changes in recent Western studies. Pain scales are a commonly reported outcome measure. Virtual reality is persuasive for all children in distress during medical procedures, because it is a nonaddictive, novel, and inexpensive form of distraction which can be applied repeatedly with good effect. We intend to use virtual reality in South Africa for the many children hospitalized with severe burns from mechanisms rarely seen in the Western world (paraffin/kerosene stoves exploding, electrical fires, shack/township fires, boiling liquid spills. Many severely burnt children are indigenous South Africans who did not speak English, and whose illiteracy levels, cultures, family dynamics, and experiences of pain potentially invalidate the use of conventional pain scales as outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to identify objective measures with sound psychometric properties and strong clinical utility, to assess distress during burns dressing changes in hospitalized indigenous South African children. Choice of measures was constrained by the burns dressing change environment, the ethics of doing no harm whilst measuring distress in vulnerable children, and of capturing valid measures of distress over the entire burns dressing change procedure.Methods: We conducted two targeted systematic reviews of the literature. All major library databases were searched, and measures with strong psychometric properties and sound clinical utility were sought.Results: Seven potentially useful measures were identified, ie

  8. Optimization of Focal Position of Ultrasonic Beam in Measurement of Small Change in Arterial Wall Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaru; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2001-05-01

    We have previously developed a method for measurement of a small change in thickness of the arterial wall during a single cardiac cycle [H. Kanai, M. Sato, Y. Koiwa and N. Chubachi: IEEE Trans. UFFC 43 (1996) 791]. The resultant change in thickness is shown to be useful for the in vivo assessment of the regional elasticity of the arterial wall. Although the accuracy of the measurement of the change in thickness is found to be within 1 μm, it is affected by the interference of ultrasonic pulses. In this study, we simulate the propagation of ultrasonic pulses transmitted and received by a linear probe. In the simulation experiments, the ultrasonic pulses generated by a computer are reflected by a tube, which has a small change in wall thickness of 10 μm. The optimum focal position of the ultrasonic beam is determined by evaluating the root-mean-square (rms) error in the measured change in thickness.

  9. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    OpenAIRE

    Brake, B.; M. J. van der Ploeg; Rooij, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil) by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geo...

  10. A New Measure of the Producer Welfare Effects of Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, David S.

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that the statistical reliability of the conventional method of estimating the effects of technological change on producer welfare is often quite poor. I present a method that enhances the statistical reliability of such estimates. I emphasize that when measuring the welfare effects of technological change, valuable information can be gleaned from data on input prices and quantities. This type of data is often available, but the conventional measure typically does not tak...

  11. Importance of sensitivity to change as a criterion for selecting health status measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Ziebland, S.; Jenkinson, C.; Mowat, A

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the sensitivity to change over time of four health status instruments in relation to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN--Observational three month study of four self assessed instruments (arthritis impact measurement scales (AIMS), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), Nottingham health profile (NHP), functional limitations profile (FLP)). SETTING--One rheumatology unit. PATIENTS--101 patients with definite or classic rheumatoid arthritis. MAIN MEASURES--Change s...

  12. Relationship between anthropometric measures and early electrocardiographic changes in obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mutiso, Steve Kyende; Rono, Dennis Kipkemoi; Bukachi, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Background The degree of cardiovascular function impairment parallels the degree of obesity and obese subjects have abnormal changes on the electrocardiogram (ECG). Early ECG changes in obesity have not been previously studied. The objective of the present study was to determine the early ECG changes in obese rats and their relationship with anthropometric measurements. Results At seven weeks all rats in the experiment were obese and in sinus rhythm. In the experiment resting heart rate was i...

  13. The Media is the Measure: Technical change and employment, 1909-49

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Alexopoulos; Jon Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in sorting out the empirical relationship between technical change and employment is attributable, at least in part, to the shortcomings associated with traditional measures of the former. In this paper, we use new indicators of technical change that we believe resolve many issues associated with other methods of identifying technology shocks, and use them to explore the impact of technical change on employment from 1909-49. The payoff to this effort is substantial for at least t...

  14. A network of scintillometers for ground-truthing of surface fluxes in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleissl, J.; Hong, S.; Gomez, J. D.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2007-05-01

    A network of seven scintillometer transects was established in New Mexico in 2006 covering different soils, vegetation types, and altitudes. Scintillometers measure spatially-averaged sensible heat fluxes over transects of 0.5 - 4 kms, i.e., over footprints comparable in size to several pixels of a satellite image. The Surface Energy Balance for Land (SEBAL) algorithm is applied to radiances from Landsat and MODIS to obtain net radiation Rnet, soil heat flux G, and sensible heat flux H. The latent heat flux is obtained from the energy balance equation as LE = Rnet - G - H. The scintillometer measurements are used to validate and calibrate the SEBAL sensible heat flux product. Results from this ground-truthing experiment and plans for automated and calibrated daily evapotranspiration maps will be presented.

  15. CRITERIA OF TRUTHFULNESS AND THE SCIENTIFIC QUALITY IN POST-MODERN KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mukha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the criteria of truth in post-modern philosophy, taking into account the ways it is defined in both the classical and non-classical traditions. Specific to post-modern philosophy is the absence of a universal language of narration and the traditional methods in which knowledge is recognized as legitimate. Basing himself on these concepts, the author examines the problem of the ideal of scientific quality and the transformations this idea has undergone in contemporary philosophy. Truth is understood basically through two means which govern our relation to truth: the will to truth and the concern for truth. These also appear as defining factors of truth in various types of post-modern philosophy: social-operative, social-political, and aesthetic

  16. On Known Unknowns: Fluency and the Neural Mechanisms of Illusory Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Brashier, Nadia M; Wing, Erik A; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The "illusory truth" effect refers to the phenomenon whereby repetition of a statement increases its likelihood of being judged true. This phenomenon has important implications for how we come to believe oft-repeated information that may be misleading or unknown. Behavioral evidence indicates that fluency, the subjective ease experienced while processing information, underlies this effect. This suggests that illusory truth should be mediated by brain regions previously linked to fluency, such as the perirhinal cortex (PRC). To investigate this possibility, we scanned participants with fMRI while they rated the truth of unknown statements, half of which were presented earlier (i.e., repeated). The only brain region that showed an interaction between repetition and ratings of perceived truth was PRC, where activity increased with truth ratings for repeated, but not for new, statements. This finding supports the hypothesis that illusory truth is mediated by a fluency mechanism and further strengthens the link between PRC and fluency.

  17. Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

    2012-08-01

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'. PMID:22065242

  18. Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

    2012-08-01

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'.

  19. Measuring individual significant change on the Beck Depression Inventory-II through IRT-based statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob; Zevalkink, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual chan

  20. Evaluating Ranking Strategies in Assessing Change when the Measures Differ across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Kim, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a ranking strategy was evaluated for comparing subgroups' change using identical, equated, and nonidentical measures. Four empirical data sets were evaluated, each of which contained examinees' scores on two occasions, where the two occasions' scores were obtained on a single identical measure, on two equated tests, and on two…

  1. Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.

  2. The moment of truth for WIMP dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Gianfranco

    2010-11-18

    We know that dark matter constitutes 85 per cent of all the matter in the Universe, but we do not know of what it is made. Amongst the many dark matter candidates proposed, WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles) occupy a special place, because they arise naturally from new theories that seek to extend the standard model of particle physics. With the advent of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and a new generation of astroparticle experiments, the moment of truth has come for WIMPs: either we will discover them in the next five to ten years, or we will witness their inevitable decline. PMID:21085174

  3. De-culturising the Bible: Translation as Truth-Transcribed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    , in Jehovah’s witnesses’ world view is paradoxically conceived as an expression God’s gift to mankind, and a demonic site of truth confusing. This paper shall argue that translating the Bible according to Jehovah’s witnesses consists of de-culturising the biblical message in order to restore its would...... the other existing Bible translations in Arabic. Producing a Bible translation of their own means a re-introduction and popularisation of the Divine name Jehovah/Jahveh as a universal Deity in Arabic Biblical tradition, which in the history of Arabic Bible translation has been identified with the Jewish...

  4. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate...

  5. Respuestas a "Needs, Values and Truth", de David Wiggins

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Putnam

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo, se trata de presentar algunas opiniones criticas sobre el significado de "verdad" lingüístico y pragmático, en la obra Needs, Values, Truth de Wiggins. Se explora el sentido de la "verdad" en su contexto gramatical y en su significación contextual. Es difícil suponer un concepto "absoluto" de verdad, sobre todo si lo relacionamos con el con texto ético de la acción. Referidas la ideas de Wiggins a Williams, David son, Peirce, Wittgenstein, Habermas, ...

  6. A beginner's guide to belief revision and truth maintenance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    This brief note is intended to familiarize the non-TMS audience with some of the basic ideas surrounding classic TMS's (truth maintenance systems), namely the justification-based TMS and the assumption-based TMS. Topics of further interest include the relation between non-monotonic logics and TMS's, efficiency and search issues, complexity concerns, as well as the variety of TMS systems that have surfaced in the past decade or so. These include probabilistic-based TMS systems, fuzzy TMS systems, tri-valued belief systems, and so on.

  7. Truth Finding on the Deep Web: Is the Problem Solved?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian; Dong, Xin Luna; Lyons, Kenneth; Meng, Weiyi; Srivastava, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    The amount of useful information available on the Web has been growing at a dramatic pace in recent years and people rely more and more on the Web to fulfill their information needs. In this paper, we study truthfulness of Deep Web data in two domains where we believed data are fairly clean and data quality is important to people's lives: {\\em Stock} and {\\em Flight}. To our surprise, we observed a large amount of inconsistency on data from different sources and also some sources with quite l...

  8. Logical frameworks for truth and abstraction an axiomatic study

    CERN Document Server

    Cantini, A

    1996-01-01

    This English translation of the author's original work has been thoroughly revised, expanded and updated. The book covers logical systems known as type-free or self-referential. These traditionally arise from any discussion on logical and semantical paradoxes. This particular volume, however, is not concerned with paradoxes but with the investigation of type-free sytems to show that: (i) there are rich theories of self-application, involving both operations and truth which can serve as foundations for property theory and formal semantics; (ii) these theories provide a new outlook on classical

  9. Is Truth an Epistemic Goal? A Conversationalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Penelas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of Richard Rorty’s critique of traditional epistemology is the rejection of veroteleologism, that is, the thesis according to which truth is the end or goal of inquiry. This article aims at consolidating the anti-veroteleological position, on the basis of a critical examination of a series of critiques made from both “realist” and Peircean-style pragmatist perspectives. Consequently, the debate centers on some considerations formulated by Alvin Goldman and Akeel Bilgrami in favor of veroteleologism and against positions such as Rorty’s.

  10. The Truth About the Internet and Online Predators

    CERN Document Server

    Dingwell, Heath; Peterson, Fred L

    2011-01-01

    To help readers avoid and recognize risky behaviors, The Truth About the Internet and Online Predators explains many of the dangers associated with the Internet. The A-to-Z entries detail the social, legal, and personal risks of Internet use, while personal testimonies and question-and-answer sections provide readers with an inside look at common issues online. Entries include:. Bullies and cyberbullying. Characteristics of online predators. Chat rooms and instant messaging. Internet safety. Parental control. Peers and peer pressure. Phishing and pharming. Privacy issues. Social networking Web

  11. [The duty to tell the truth with regard to a person with Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyen, Octavie; Cornet, Marielle; Zeringer, Marie; Neyen, Constance

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of a project relating to ethical questioning, pupils in their penultimate year at Mabillon des Ardennes high school gathered testimonies which revealed that the truth is sometimes hidden from people with Alzheimer's disease. Why is this right to the truth not always respected? In what circumstances does it happen? What are the reasons? What are the potential consequences? Reflection is required around the question of the respect of the right to the truth for people with cognitive disorders.

  12. Fiber optic sensor for the measurement of the respiratory chest circumference changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchenko, Anatoly; Khanokh, Boris; Shomer, Yoseph; Nitzan, Meir

    1999-04-01

    A fiber optic sensor for the measurement of the respiratory depth has been developed. The sensor is composed of a bent optic fiber which is connected to an elastic section of a chest belt, so that its radius of curvature changes during respiration due to the respiratory chest circumference changes (RCCC). The measurement of light transmission through the bent fiber provides information on its curvature changes, since a higher fraction of light escapes through the core-cladding surface of a fiber bent to a lower radius of curvature. The sensor can quantitatively measure the RCCC, though in relative terms, and it is sensitive enough to detect the changes of the chest circumference due to the heart belt. Measurements of the RCCC were simultaneously performed with photoplethysmography (PPG)--the measurement by light absorption of the cardiac induced blood volume changes in the tissue--and significant correlation was found between the RCCC and some parameters of PPG signal. The fiber optic respiratory depth sensor enables the quantitative assessment of the respiratory induced changes in the cardiovascular parameters.

  13. Managing change in performance measures – An inter-company case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Salloum, M; Cedergren, S.

    2012-01-01

    The field of performance measurement and management (PMM) is well filled with frameworks, models and guidelines addressing what to measure and how to design a performance measurement system (PMS). However, what has been less examined so far is how to ensure that PM evolve in tandem with their environments. Further, the few approaches available today are prescriptive and outlines how or what practitioners should do in order to manage change in their PM. Thus, a gap exists in understanding how ...

  14. International Accounting: Proposed Changes to IAS 39 - Measurement Issues: Die Änderungsvorschlage des IASB

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Kropp

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the subsequent measurement of financial instruments under IAS/IFRS. After giving an overview of the general approaches to the subsequent measurement of financial instruments and some background on the development of IAS 39, this paper first deals with the current provisions of IAS 39. The paper then presents and discusses the proposed changes to subsequent measurement as suggested by the Exposure Draft on proposed amendments to IAS 32 „Financial Instruments: Disclosure a...

  15. Measuring changes in functional status among patients with schizophrenia: the link with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, Louis S; Buchanan, Robert; Purdon, Scot; Brewster-Jordan, Jessica; Zhao, Yang; Revicki, Dennis A

    2006-10-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) includes neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and problem solving. These deficits have been shown to be linked to impairment in functional status (eg, social behavior, work performance, and activities of daily living) among patients with schizophrenia in cross-sectional studies. Less is known about the relationship between cognitive and functional change over time, such as potential functional implications of treatment-related improvement in CIAS. The purpose of this review is to summarize research on the association between change in CIAS and change in functional status, to discuss responsiveness of functional outcomes measures, and to provide recommendations for future research and measure development. Nine longitudinal studies were located on the link between CIAS and functional status, and 8 functional outcomes measures were used across these studies. The 9 studies offer initial support for a link between change in cognitive function and change in functional status. However, inconsistent findings across studies indicate that available research is preliminary, and substantial questions remain unanswered. Shortcomings of functional status measures are noted: most instruments were not developed for the target population, and none have demonstrated responsiveness to cognitive change among schizophrenic patients. It is recommended that new functional outcome measures be developed that are specifically designed to be responsive to change in cognition, with domains previously shown to be related to cognitive ability. When creating new functional outcomes measures for assessment of patients with schizophrenia, responsiveness to change in CIAS should be evaluated as part of the development and validation process. PMID:16829550

  16. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  17. Optimization of Condition of Ultrasonic Beam for Measurement of Small Change in Thickness of Arterial Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaru; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2002-05-01

    We previously developed a method for measuring small changes in thickness of the arterial wall during one cardiac cycle. Knowledge of this change in thickness is useful for in vivo assessment of the regional elasticity of the arterial wall. In this study, from computer simulations, it is found that measurement error depends on the distance of the ultrasonic beam from the center of the artery and it can be reduced by optimally setting the focal position. In basic experiments using a silicone rubber tube and in in vivo experiments with a human carotid artery, it is found that by optimizing the focal position, measurement of the change in thickness becomes more robust against mispositioning of the ultrasonic beam. From these results, it is demonstrated that optimum focal positioning provides more robustness in measurement, even if there is arterial wall motion causing the position of the ultrasonic beam to deviate from the center of the artery.

  18. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  19. An Uninformative Truth: The Logic of Amarin’s Off-Label Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2016-01-01

    Spencer Phillips Hey and Aaron Kesselheim propose that informativeness—asserting scientific facts—rather than truthfulness ought to be the standard for regulating commercial speech about pharmaceuticals.

  20. An Uninformative Truth: The Logic of Amarin's Off-Label Promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer Phillips Hey; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2016-01-01

    Spencer Phillips Hey and Aaron Kesselheim propose that informativeness—asserting scientific facts—rather than truthfulness ought to be the standard for regulating commercial speech about pharmaceuticals.

  1. THE QUEST FOR TRUTH AS THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PRACTICE: A TRADITIONAL FREUDIAN-KLEINIAN PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2016-04-01

    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice.

  2. THE QUEST FOR TRUTH AS THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PRACTICE: A TRADITIONAL FREUDIAN-KLEINIAN PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2016-04-01

    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice. PMID:27112741

  3. Theory of (n) truth degrees of formulas in modal logic and a consistency theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG GuoJun; DUAN QiaoLin

    2009-01-01

    The theory of (n) truth degrees of formulas is proposed in modal logic for the first time. A consistency theorem is obtained which says that the (n) truth degree of a modality-free formula equals the truth degree of the formula in two-valued propositional logic. Variations of (n) truth degrees of formulas w.r.t. n in temporal logic is investigated. Moreover, the theory of (n) similarity degrees among modal formulas is proposed and the (n) modal logic metric space is derived therefrom which contains the classical logic metric space as a subspace. Finally, a kind of approximate reasoning theory is proposed in modal logic.

  4. Myths and Truths of Nitinol Mechanics: Elasticity and Tension-Compression Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsek, Ashley N.; Paranjape, Harshad M.; Stebner, Aaron P.

    2016-08-01

    Two prevalent myths of Nitinol mechanics are examined: (1) Martensite is more compliant than austenite; (2) Texture-free Nitinol polycrystals do not exhibit tension-compression asymmetry. By reviewing existing literature, the following truths are revealed: (1) Martensite crystals may be more compliant, equally stiff, or stiffer than austenite crystals, depending on the orientation of the applied load. The Young's Modulus of polycrystalline Nitinol is not a fixed number—it changes with both processing and in operando deformations. Nitinol martensite prefers to behave stiffer under compressive loads and more compliant under tensile loads. (2) Inelastic Nitinol martensite deformation in and of itself is asymmetric, even for texture-free polycrystals. Texture-free Nitinol polycrystals also exhibit tension-compression transformation asymmetry.

  5. Attributes of Truthful Versus Deceitful Statements in the Evaluation of Accused Child Molesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Johnston

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect deception, in everyday social interactions and psychological evaluations, can literally mean the difference between life and death. Beyond physiological and nonverbal techniques for detecting deception, research has focused on criteria designed to evaluate the content of verbal statements to distinguish between true or actually experienced events versus internally manufactured or fabricated events. Criteria from two techniques that have received empirical support, criteria-based content analysis and reality monitoring, were used to create an 11-item Deception Detection Checklist (DDCL. In this study, 130 college undergraduates used the DDCL to rate the exculpatory statements of two accused child molesters: one truthful, the other untruthful. The 11 items composing the DDCL, as well as a measure of perceived truthfulness, were all scored on 7-point Likert-type scales. Nine of the 11 items on the DDCL significantly differentiated between the true and untrue statements in the predicted direction. Overall scores on the DDCL indicated that the false statement was rated as significantly more deceptive than the true statement. The DDCL possessed good reliability, and a series of factor analyses provided strong support for the construct validity of the measure. The 7 psychometrically strongest items from the DDCL included variables assessing the extent to which statements included clarity of detail, spatial details, temporal details, and contextual details, as well as the relevance, reconstructability, and realism of the statement. These results indicate that subjects were able to use this measure to reliably differentiate between true and false statements made by accused child molesters.

  6. Truth and Fibble-Fable in Renaissance Satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Madžarevič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the years of my close involvement with wor(lds’ transactions, as a translator, in the triangle of the Renaissance doctors Rabelais, Montaigne, and, yes, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, the French author of the novel Journey to the End of Night (1932, their views on satire can be considered from a rather unconventional angle. By means of an imaginary morbid epistolary medical council, the impromptu introduction tries to entangle this peculiar trio in a freewheeling alliance, leading to the assumption that every translation defies the interpretational ambiguities of the utopian Thelema motto “Do as you will”. In the satirical context of all source and target faces, it is always acting on the verge of the paradoxical encomium, the hypothetical pasticcio, and obscurantist reversals of the original text. Of course, the issue at stake here is one of the convolutions of Erasmus’ Praise of Folly, Rabelais’ utopian Thelema Abbey, and the German Epistles of Obscure Men in pathetically wretched Latin. This paper deals with Renaissance and humanist satire, focusing on Rabelais’ five books of Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532–1564 and the interplay between the ideas of truth, truthfulness, and seriousness. In addition, the paper deals with how the Renaissance spirit of this satirical contemporary and ally of ours challenges the issue of verbal boundaries and the materiality of language.

  7. A Truthful Mechanism for Offline Ad Slot Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Jon; Nikolova, Evdokia; Pal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We consider the "Offline Ad Slot Scheduling" problem, where advertisers must be scheduled to "sponsored search" slots during a given period of time. Advertisers specify a budget constraint, as well as a maximum cost per click, and may not be assigned to more than one slot for a particular search. We give a truthful mechanism under the utility model where bidders try to maximize their clicks, subject to their personal constraints. In addition, we show that the revenue-maximizing mechanism is not truthful, but has a Nash equilibrium whose outcome is identical to our mechanism. As far as we can tell, this is the first treatment of sponsored search that directly incorporates both multiple slots and budget constraints into an analysis of incentives. Our mechanism employs a descending-price auction that maintains a solution to a certain machine scheduling problem whose job lengths depend on the price, and hence is variable over the auction. The price stops when the set of bidders that can afford that price pack exa...

  8. In situ measurement of gas composition changes in radio frequency plasmas using a quartz sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method using a quartz sensor (Q-sensor) was developed to observe gas composition changes in radio frequency (rf) plasmas. The output depends on the gases' absolute pressure, molecular weight, and viscosity. The pressure-normalized quartz sensor output depends only on the molecular weight and viscosity of the gas. Consequently, gas composition changes can be detected in the plasmas if a sensor can be used in the plasmas. Influences imparted by the plasmas on the sensor, such as those by reactive particles (e.g., radicals and ions), excited species, electrons, temperature, and electric potentials during measurements were investigated to test the applicability of this quartz sensor measurement to plasma. The Q-sensor measurement results for rf plasmas with argon, hydrogen, and their mixtures are reproducible, demonstrating that the Q-sensor measurement is applicable for plasmas. In this work, pressure- and temperature-normalized Q-sensor output (NQO) were used to obtain the gas composition information of plasma. Temperature-normalization of the Q-sensor output enabled quartz sensor measurements near plasma electrodes, where the quartz sensor temperature increases. The changes in NQO agreed with results obtained by gas analysis using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results confirmed that the change in NQO is mainly attributable to changes in the densities and kinds of gas molecules in the plasma gas phase, not by other extrinsic influences of plasma. For argon, hydrogen, and argon-hydrogen plasmas, these changes correspond to reduction in nitrogen, production of carbon monoxide, and dissociation of hydrogen molecules, respectively. These changes in NQO qualitatively and somewhat quantitatively agreed with results obtained using gas analysis, indicting that the measurement has a potential application to obtain the gas composition in plasmas without disturbing industrial plasma processes.

  9. A comparison of conventional and retrospective measures of change in symptoms after elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörning Hans

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring change is fundamental to evaluations, health services research and quality management. To date, the Gold-Standard is the prospective assessment of pre- to postoperative change. However, this is not always possible (e.g. in emergencies. Instead a retrospective approach to the measurement of change is one alternative of potential validity. In this study, the Gold-Standard 'conventional' method was compared with two variations of the retrospective approach: a perceived-change design (model A and a design that featured observed follow-up minus baseline recall (model B. Methods In a prospective longitudinal observational study of 185 hernia patients and 130 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients (T0: 7-8 days pre-operative; T1: 14 days post-operative and T2: 6 months post-operative changes in symptoms (Hernia: 9 Items, Cholecystectomy: 8 Items were assessed at the three time points by patients and the conventional method was compared to the two alternatives. Comparisons were made regarding the percentage of missing values per questionnaire item, correlation between conventional and retrospective measurements, and the degree to which retrospective measures either over- or underestimated changes and time-dependent effects. Results Single item missing values in model A were more frequent than in model B (e.g. Hernia repair at T1: model A: 23.5%, model B: 7.9%. In all items and at both postoperative points of measurement, correlation of change between the conventional method and model B was higher than between the conventional method and model A. For both models A and B, correlation with the change calculated with the conventional method was higher at T1 than at T2. Compared to the conventional model both models A and B also overestimated symptom-change (i.e. improvement with similar frequency, but the overestimation was higher in model A than in model B. In both models, overestimation was lower at T1 than at T2 and lower

  10. The seventh servant: the implications of a truth drive in Bion's theory of 'O'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotstein, James S

    2004-10-01

    Drawing upon Bion's published works on the subjects of truth, dreaming, alpha-function and transformations in 'O', the author independently postulates that there exists a 'truth instinctual drive' that subserves a truth principle, the latter of which is associated with the reality principle. Further, he suggests, following Bion's postulation, that 'alpha-function' and dreaming/phantasying constitute unconscious thinking processes and that they mediate the activity of this 'truth drive' (quest, pulsion), which the author hypothesizes constitutes another aspect of a larger entity that also includes the epistemophilic component drive. It purportedly seeks and transmits as well as includes what Bion (1965, pp. 147-9) calls 'O', the 'Absolute Truth, Ultimate Reality, O' (also associated with infinity, noumena or things-in-themselves, and 'godhead') (1970, p. 26). It is further hypothesized that the truth drive functions in collaboration with an 'unconscious consciousness' that is associated with the faculty of 'attention', which is also known as 'intuition'. It is responsive to internal psychical reality and constitutes Bion's 'seventh servant'. O, the ultimate landscape of psychoanalysis, has many dimensions, but the one that seems to interest Bion is that of the emotional experience of the analysand's and the analyst's 'evolving O' respectively (1970, p. 52) during the analytic session. The author thus hypothesizes that a sense of truth presents itself to the subject as a quest for truth which has the quality and force of an instinctual drive and constitutes the counterpart to the epistemophilic drive. This 'truth quest' or 'drive' is hypothesized to be the source of the generation of the emotional truth of one's ongoing experiences, both conscious and unconscious. It is proposed that emotions are beacons of truth in regard to the acceptance of reality. The concepts of an emotional truth drive and a truth principle would help us understand why analysands are able to

  11. A Benefit Measurement Framework for an Online Contract Change Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Sun; Tejas Oza

    2008-01-01

    The contract change management (CCM) system is an online collaboration tool, which supports the contract change management process of new engineering contract (NEC) contract. It is currently used in practice on a wide range of civil, power, and building projects in the UK. The aim of this study is first to iden-tify the tangible and intangible benefits of the system through a user survey; then to develop a framework to measure these benefits. A questionnaire survey is conducted, which reveals that CCM can help project teams improve process effectiveness, reduce risk of process failures, and increase the compliance with NEC requirements. Subsequently, a spreadsheet tool is developed to allow CCM users to calculate the tan-gible cost savings as a result of using the system. For intangible benefits, a change management maturity model (CM3) is developed, which provides a measurement framework for assessing the improvement of a project team's capability in dealing with contract changes.

  12. A Comparison of Kretschmann-Raether Angular Regimes for Measuring Changes in Bulk Refractive Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KASUNIC, K.J.

    1999-09-16

    We compare 2 angular regimes for the measurement of changes in the real refractive index of bulk fluid analytes. The measurements are based on the use of the Kretschmann-Raether configuration to sense a change in reflectivity with index. Specifically, we numerically simulate the relative sensitivities of the total internal reflection (TIR) and surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) regimes. For a fixed-angle apparatus, the method which gives the greatest change in reflectivity varies with metal film thickness. For films thicker than the skin depth, the SPR regime is the most sensitive to index changes. For thinner films, however, the TIR angle is then dominant, with increases in sensitivity on the order of 75% for 10 nm gold or silver media.

  13. Managing change in performance measures: a case study on practice and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Salloum, Mohammed; Myrelid, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline how a large manufacturing organisation handles change in its performance measurement system (PMS) and the challenges associated with it. The empirics presented have been collected through a case study. The findings display that the organisation deploys two processes for handling change, one with the starting point in the business plan and the other within an operational development program. Several challenges are highlighted relating to the IT-system, c...

  14. Investment in flood protection measures under climate change uncertainty. An investment decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruin, Karianne de

    2012-11-01

    Recent river flooding in Europe has triggered debates among scientists and policymakers on future projections of flood frequency and the need for adaptive investments, such as flood protection measures. Because there exists uncertainty about the impact of climate change of flood risk, such investments require a careful analysis of expected benefits and costs. The objective of this paper is to show how climate change uncertainty affects the decision to invest in flood protection measures. We develop a model that simulates optimal decision making in flood protection, it incorporates flexible timing of investment decisions and scientific uncertainty on the extent of climate change impacts. This model allows decision-makers to cope with the uncertain impacts of climate change on the frequency and damage of river flood events and minimises the risk of under- or over-investment. One of the innovative elements is that we explicitly distinguish between structural and non-structural flood protection measures. Our results show that the optimal investment decision today depends strongly on the cost structure of the adaptation measures and the discount rate, especially the ratio of fixed and weighted annual costs of the measures. A higher level of annual flood damage and later resolution of uncertainty in time increases the optimal investment. Furthermore, the optimal investment decision today is influenced by the possibility of the decision-maker to adjust his decision at a future moment in time.(auth)

  15. Interferometer for Measuring Fast Changes of Refractive Index and Temperature in Transparent Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Hussmann, E. K.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A double‐beam interferometer has been designed for detecting changes of refractive index in transparent liquids associated with the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, due to short electron beam pulses from an accelerator. The response time of the interferometer is less than 0.2 μsec......, and refractive index changes of the order of 10−7 can be measured, corresponding to a temperature change of ∼10−3  °C and an absorbed dose in water of ∼350 rad. The interferometer can be used as either a real‐time or integrating radiation dosimeter, if the temperature coefficient of the refractive index (dn...

  16. Estimation of Aboveground Biomass Change for Tropical Deciduous Forest in Bago Yoma, Myanmar between year 2000 and 2014 using Landsat Images and Ground Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Wynn, K. Z.; Ryu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Even with recently increased awareness of the environmental conservation, the degradation of tropical forests are still one of the major sources of global carbon emission. Especially in Myanmar, the pressure to develop natural forest is growing rapidly after the change from socialism to capitalism in 2010. As the initial step of the forest conservation, the aboveground biomass(AGB) of South Zarmani Reserved Forest in Bago Yoma region were estimated using Landsat 8 OLI after the evaluation with 100 sample plot measurements. Multiple linear regression (MLR) model of band values and their principal component analysis (PCA) model were developed to estimate the AGB using the spectral reflectance from Landsat images and elevation as the input variables. The MLR model had r2 = 0.43, RMSE = 60.2 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 70.1%, Bias = -9.1 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -10.6%, and p < 0.0001, while the PCA model showed r2 = 0.45, RMSE = 55.1 tons/ha, relative RMSE = 64.1%, Bias = -8.3 tons/ha, Bias (%) = -9.7%, and p < 0.0001. The AGB maps of the study area were generated based on both MLR and PCA models. The estimated mean AGB values were 74.74±22.3 tons/ha and 73.04±17.6 tons/ha and the total AGB of the study area are about 5.7 and 5.6 million tons from MLR and PCA, respectively. Then, Landsat 7 ETM+ image acquired on 2000 was also used to compare the changing of AGB between year 2000 and 2014. The estimated mean AGB value generated from the Landsat 7 ETM+ image was 78.9±16.9 tons/ha, which is substantially decreased about 7.5% compared to year 2014. The reduction of AGB increased with closeness to village, however AGB in distant areas showed steady increases. In conclusion, we were able to generate solid regression models from Landsat 8 OLI image after ground truth and two regression models gave us very similar AGB estimation (less than 2%) of the study area. We were also able to estimate the changing of AGB from year 2000 to 2014 of South Zarmani Reserved Forest, Bago Yoma

  17. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Cesar; Rezica Sudar; Zorica Jurković; Ines Mihaljević; Hrvoje Lepeduš; Krunoslav Dugalić; Marija Viljevac; Domagoj Šimić

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L.) during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days) and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivar...

  18. Relation between measurable and principal characteristics of radiation-induced shape-change of graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Arjakov, M V; Panyukov, S V; Ivanov, O V; Pokrovskii, A S; Kharkov, D V

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of studies of radiation-induced shape-change of reactor graphite GR-280, through the series of measurements of samples with different orientation of cutting with respect to the direction of extrusion, a conclusion is made about the existence of polycrystal substructural elements - domains. Domains, like graphite as a whole, possess the property of transverse isotropy, but have different amplitudes of shape-change and random orientations of the axes of axial symmetry. The model of graphite, constructed on the basis of the concept of domains allowed to explain from a unified point of view most of existing experimental data. It is shown that the presence of the disoriented domain structure leads to the development of radiation-induced stresses and to the dependence of the shape-change on the size of graphite samples. We derive the relation between the shape-change of finite size samples and the actual shape-change of macro-graphite.

  19. Coherent change detection and interferometric ISAR measurements in the folded compact range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    A folded compact range configuration has been developed ant the Sandia National Laboratories` compact range antenna and radar-cross- section measurement facility as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of distributed target samples (i.e. gravel, sand, etc.). The folded compact range configuration has previously been used to perform coherent-change-detection (CCD) measurements, which allow disturbances to distributed targets on the order of fractions of a wavelength to be detected. This report describes follow-on CCD measurements of other distributed target samples, and also investigates the sensitivity of the CCD measurement process to changes in the relative spatial location of the SAR sensor between observations of the target. Additionally, this report describes the theoretical and practical aspects of performing interferometric inverse-synthetic-aperture-radar (IFISAR) measurements in the folded compact range environment. IFISAR measurements provide resolution of the relative heights of targets with accuracies on the order of a wavelength. Several examples are given of digital height maps that have been generated from measurements performed at the folded compact range facility.

  20. Hiding an Inconvenient Truth : Lies and Vagueness (Revision of DP 2008-107)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Garcia, M.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Potters, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    When truth conflicts with efficiency, can verbal communication destroy efficiency? Or are lies or vagueness used to hide inconvenient truths? We consider a sequential 2-player public good game in which the leader has private information about the value of the public good. This value can be low, high

  1. Children's Categorization and Evaluation of Different Types of Lies and Truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigated 4-, 8-, and 11-year-olds' ability to categorize intentionally false and true statements as lies and truths. Found that older children were more likely to categorize false statements as lies and true statements as truths than were 4-year-olds. Antisocial lies were rated as most serious, and "white lies" as least serious. Anticipated…

  2. Acoustic seafloor discrimination with echo shape parameters: A comparison with the ground truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walree, P.A. van; Tȩgowski, J.; Laban, C.; Simons, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Features extracted from echosounder bottom returns are compared with the ground truth in a North Sea survey area. The ground truth consists of 50 grab samples for which the grain size distribution, and the gravel and shell contents were determined. Echo envelopes are analysed for two single-beam ech

  3. Lying and Truth-Telling in Children: From Concept to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fen; Bao, Xuehua; Fu, Genyue; Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on children's moral knowledge about lying and truth-telling and their actual lie- or truth-telling behaviors, research to examine the relation between these two is extremely rare. This study examined one hundred and twenty 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds' moral understanding of lies and their actual lying…

  4. Visualization of ground truth tracks for the video 'Tracking a "facer's" behavior in a public plaza'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager.......The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager....

  5. 12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226). Related delegations of authority are... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement....

  6. Critical Inquiry as Virtuous Truth-Telling: Implications of Phronesis and Parrhesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickup, Austin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines critical inquiry and truth-telling from the perspective of two complementary theoretical frameworks. First, Aristotelian phronesis, or practical wisdom, offers a framework for truth that is oriented toward ethical deliberation while recognizing the contingency of practical application. Second, Foucauldian parrhesia calls for…

  7. 78 FR 10901 - Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Rules Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 31 / Thursday, February 14, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA14 Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Truth in Lending Act...

  8. On the Notion of Truth in Quantum Mechanics: a Category-Theoretic Standpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Zafiris, Elias

    The category-theoretic representation of quantum event structures provides a canonical setting for confronting the fundamental problem of truth valuation in quantum mechanics as exemplified, in particular, by Kochen-Specker's theorem. In the present study, this is realized on the basis of the existence of a categorical adjunction between the category of sheaves of variable local Boolean frames, constituting a topos, and the category of quantum event algebras. We show explicitly that the latter category is equipped with an object of truth values, or classifying object, which constitutes the appropriate tool for assigning truth values to propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems. Effectively, this category-theoretic representation scheme circumvents consistently the semantic ambiguity with respect to truth valuation that is inherent in conventional quantum mechanics by inducing an objective contextual account of truth in the quantum domain of discourse. The philosophical implications of the resulting account are analyzed. We argue that it subscribes neither to a pragmatic instrumental nor to a relative notion of truth. Such an account essentially denies that there can be a universal context of reference or an Archimedean standpoint from which to evaluate logically the totality of facts of nature. In this light, the transcendence condition of the usual conception of correspondence truth is superseded by a reflective-like transcendental reasoning of the proposed account of truth that is suitable to the quantum domain of discourse.

  9. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  10. CT-measured regional specific volume change reflects regional ventilation in supine sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuld, Matthew K; Easley, R Blaine; Saba, Osama I; Chon, Deokiee; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hoffman, Eric A; Simon, Brett A

    2008-04-01

    Computer tomography (CT) imaging techniques permit the noninvasive measurement of regional lung function. Regional specific volume change (sVol), determined from the change in lung density over a tidal breath, should correlate with regional ventilation and regional lung expansion measured with other techniques. sVol was validated against xenon (Xe)-CT-specific ventilation (sV) in four anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated sheep. Xe-CT used expiratory gated axial scanning during the washin and washout of 55% Xe. sVol was measured from the tidal changes in tissue density (H, houndsfield units) of lung regions using the relationship sVol = [1,000(Hi - He)]/[He(1,000 + Hi)], where He and Hi are expiratory and inspiratory regional density. Distinct anatomical markings were used to define corresponding lung regions of interest between inspiratory, expiratory, and Xe-CT images, with an average region of interest size of 1.6 +/- 0.7 ml. In addition, sVol was compared with regional volume changes measured directly from the positions of implanted metal markers in an additional animal. A linear relationship between sVol and sV was demonstrated over a wide range of regional sV found in the normal supine lung, with an overall correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.66. There was a tight correlation (R(2) = 0.97) between marker-measured volume changes and sVol. Regional sVol, which involves significantly reduced exposure to radiation and Xe gas compared with the Xe-CT method, represents a safe and efficient surrogate for measuring regional ventilation in experimental studies and patients.

  11. Experience of Events of Truth in Hermeneutic Conversation With Text: Ethics and Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Berit; Nåden, Dagfinn; Eriksson, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore what the experience of events of truth can entail in hermeneutic dialogue with text as well as the significance this can have for hermeneutic methodology in caring science. Experience of events of truth is discussed based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological perspective and on Emmanuel Levinas's ethical perspective. A veritable experience of an event of truth is a testimony to the responsibility we take for the Other and to our humanity. Experience of events of truth requires that there is a connection of esteem between ethics and ontology in the reader's understanding of what Hans-Georg Gadamer calls the subject matter (Sache). The experience of events of truth has methodological significance for caring science in that it can contribute to the disclosure of ontological evidence and inform caregiving and caring science.

  12. Experience of Events of Truth in Hermeneutic Conversation With Text: Ethics and Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Berit; Nåden, Dagfinn; Eriksson, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore what the experience of events of truth can entail in hermeneutic dialogue with text as well as the significance this can have for hermeneutic methodology in caring science. Experience of events of truth is discussed based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological perspective and on Emmanuel Levinas's ethical perspective. A veritable experience of an event of truth is a testimony to the responsibility we take for the Other and to our humanity. Experience of events of truth requires that there is a connection of esteem between ethics and ontology in the reader's understanding of what Hans-Georg Gadamer calls the subject matter (Sache). The experience of events of truth has methodological significance for caring science in that it can contribute to the disclosure of ontological evidence and inform caregiving and caring science. PMID:27641279

  13. Respuestas a "Needs, Values and Truth", de David Wiggins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Putnam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se trata de presentar algunas opiniones criticas sobre el significado de "verdad" lingüístico y pragmático, en la obra Needs, Values, Truth de Wiggins. Se explora el sentido de la "verdad" en su contexto gramatical y en su significación contextual. Es difícil suponer un concepto "absoluto" de verdad, sobre todo si lo relacionamos con el con texto ético de la acción. Referidas la ideas de Wiggins a Williams, David son, Peirce, Wittgenstein, Habermas, se considera que la suposición de que la verdad está asociada a la analogía, la identidad, la equivalencia, no es suficiente para obtener el grado de certeza de las cosas. Es ne cesaria una indagación más profunda sobre la intencionalidad y el relativismo donde la "verdad" se funda.

  14. Beyond Einstein ... Are we all afraid of the Truth?

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M

    2006-01-01

    The power-point presentation \\cite{ppt} provided herein shows exactly why Einstein's field equations of his general relativity are based on an illogical approach to representing the observable world. Einstein had, in fact, discarded these equations way back in 1928 when he had began his solitary search for a unified field theory. However, the rest of us learned, taught, and also put too much faith for too long (for more than seventy years) in an illogical approach to representing the observable world. Consequently, we have developed great reluctance, resulting from dogmatic perceptions, prestige, reputation, ..., that is holding us back from orienting ourselves in the ``right'' direction to the understanding of the observable phenomena. This raises the question mentioned in the title: Are we all afraid of the Truth? Rhetorically speaking, we could then also ask: are we all afraid of Virginia Woolf? In the sequel, I also illustrate my approach to going Beyond Einstein for developing an appropriate mathematical...

  15. Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Comstock

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative Of the theologians and philosophers now writing on biblical narrative, Hans Frei and Paul Ricoeur are probably the most prominent. It is significant that their views converge on important issues. Both are uncomfortable with hermeneutic theories that convert the text into an abstract philosophical system, an ideal typological structure, or a mere occasion for existential decision. Frei and Ricoeur seem knit together in a common enterprise; they appear to be building a single narrative theology. I argue that the appearance of symmetry is an illusion. There is a fundamental conflict between the ‘pure narrativism’ of Frei and the ‘impure narrativism’ of Ricoeur. I give reasons for thinking that Ricoeur’s is the stronger position.

  16. James Morrison 《Songs For You, Truth For Me》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    James Morrison找来了《Undiscovered》的原班人马来一同制作《Songs For You,Truths For Me》。包括共同创作的《Martin Brammer》。《Steve Robson》和《Eg White》。同时,也有One Republic的Ryan Tedder这位新血加入创作团队,The Nashville弦乐四重奏也再度为专辑献奏。James Morrison那毫不掩饰的浪漫情怀以及那宽阔的胸怀,像是座灯塔般闪耀歌坛。

  17. Reluctant to Change: Self-Enhancing Responses to Diverging Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audia, Pino G.; Brion, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    Although there is extensive evidence that past performance influences the propensity to make changes, research on how decision makers respond to diverging performance measures has been sparse. This paper addresses this gap in an experimental and a field study in which we examine how decision makers respond to the ambiguity introduced by two…

  18. Clinical utility of in-socket residual limb volume change measurement: Case study results

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Allyn, KJ; Myers, TR

    2009-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure conductive tissue, extracellular fluid volume changes in the residual limbs of four unilateral trans-tibial amputee subjects during standing and walking conditions. Results were useful towards clinical assessment, patient education, and decision-making about treatment.

  19. Changing the Concept and Measure of Service Quality in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitecki, Danuta A.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic instrument SERVQUAL has been developed to measure customer expectations and perceptions of service. This article describes a study that investigated how applicable SERVQUAL is to academic libraries and how influential the study's findings might be in changing concepts of the management of academic library services. Two SERVQUAL…

  20. A Conceptual and Measurement Framework to Guide Policy Development and Systems Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a conceptual and measurement framework that provides a template for guiding policy development and systems change. The framework is built on the concepts of vertical and horizontal alignment, system-level processes, and organization-level practices. Application of the framework can structure the thinking and analytic…

  1. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Kolarik, Barbara;

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air quality in dwellings is largely determined by the air change rate (ACR) and the magnitude of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient, which may result in low ACRs. In the present study, the monthly ACR averages were measured...

  2. A Linguistic Communication Measure for Monitoring Changes in Chinese Aphasic Narrative Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM) in monitoring changes of narrative production in five Chinese adults with aphasia in the period of spontaneous recovery (SR group) and four who underwent anomia therapies (Tx group). Language samples elicited from a picture description task were…

  3. Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4-5oC, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island phenomenon in cities by absorbing increased solar radiation. This will lead to further increases in temperatures in an urban microclimate with negative implications for energy and water consumption, human health and discomfort, and local ecosystems. The current urban heat island phenomenon and its impacts are described. The relationships between climate change and urban heat island impacts are discussed. Potential adaptation measures to those impacts are also discussed and proposed. (author)

  4. Research on the measurement of the price change of telecom services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-juan

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to measure the total change of the telecom service price (TSP) in China due to the complexity of TSP and the diversity of telecom service. This article analyzes the relation between telecom service revenue and traffic volumes of telecom service and deduces the method of measuring the total change in tendency of telecom price, which is based on the consumer's actual payment for telecom services. After describing the changing trend of TSP with the time series data from 1949 to 2000, the TSP showed a continuous declining tendency during 1949~1975. In contrast, the TSP showed a rising tendency from 1976 to 1991 and a sharp declining trend after 1992. Empirical tests and actual background of telecom reform support the results.

  5. The Heart Truth Campaign Inspires Women’s Heart Health Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: February Is Women’s Heart Month The Heart Truth Campaign Inspires Women’s Heart Health Action Past Issues / ... of Contents On February 9, 2011, The Heart Truth unveiled its annual Red Dress Collection 2011 Fashion ...

  6. Personal reflections on the highlights and changes in radiation and radioisotope measurement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robin P.; Lee, Kyoung O.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the recent changes that the authors have perceived in the use of radiation and radioisotope measurement applications. The first change is that due to the increased use of Monte Carlo simulation which has occurred from a normal evolutionary process. This is due in large part to the increased accuracy that is being obtained by the use of detector response functions (DRFs) and the simultaneous increased computational efficiency that has become available with these DRFs, the availability of a greatly improved weight windows variance reduction method, and the availability of inexpensive computer clusters. This first change is a happy one. The other change that is occurring is in response to recent terrorist activities. That change is the replacement or major change in the use of long-lived radioisotopes in radioisotope measurement and other radioisotope source applications. In general this can be done by improving the security of these radioisotope sources or by replacing them altogether by using machine sources of radiation. In either case one would like to preclude altogether or at least minimize the possibility of terrorists being able to obtain radioisotopes and use them for clandestine purposes.

  7. Shape changes in isolated outer hair cells: measurements with attached microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, G; Schacht, J

    1991-04-01

    Shape changes can be induced in isolated outer hair cells by various stimuli and quantified from digitized video-images. While overall changes in length between base and apex are easily measured, changes in defined segments of the cell require fixed landmarks on the cell body. The problem of locating such landmarks makes it difficult to assess if a change in length is uniform or largely confined to a particular segment of the cell. This information is important in identifying the location of a contractile apparatus and the elucidation of mechanisms of motility. We demonstrate here that microspheres can serve as reference points for such measurements. By attaching microspheres to cells we determined that, when outer hair cells increased their volume upon K(+)-depolarization, their middle segment shortened more significantly (14 +/- 6%) than either the basal (10 +/- 5%) or apical section (7 +/- 6%; P less than 0.01). In contrast, when cortical contractions were induced by elevating intracellular Ca2+, the elongation of the cells was more pronounced in their basal (8 +/- 2%) than their apical (6 +/- 2%; P = 0.06) or middle region (6 +/- 3%). This study provides further insight into the mechanisms of shape changes in isolated outer hair cells and illustrates a method to analyze localized changes in the absence of internal landmarks.

  8. Using Multitemporal Remote Sensing Imagery and Inundation Measures to Improve Land Change Estimates in Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing imagery can be an invaluable resource to quantify land change in coastal wetlands. Obtaining an accurate measure of land change can, however, be complicated by differences in fluvial and tidal inundation experienced when the imagery is captured. This study classified Landsat imagery from two wetland areas in coastal Louisiana from 1983 to 2010 into categories of land and water. Tide height, river level, and date were used as independent variables in a multiple regression model to predict land area in the Wax Lake Delta (WLD) and compare those estimates with an adjacent marsh area lacking direct fluvial inputs. Coefficients of determination from regressions using both measures of water level along with date as predictor variables of land extent in the WLD, were higher than those obtained using the current methodology which only uses date to predict land change. Land change trend estimates were also improved when the data were divided by time period. Water level corrected land gain in the WLD from 1983 to 2010 was 1 km 2 year -1, while rates in the adjacent marsh remained roughly constant. This approach of isolating environmental variability due to changing water levels improves estimates of actual land change in a dynamic system, so that other processes that may control delta development such as hurricanes, floods, and sediment delivery, may be further investigated. ?? 2011 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA).

  9. Investigation of metrological parameters of measuring system for small temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samynina M. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Metrological parameters of the non-standard contact device were investigated to characterize its performance in temperature change measurements in the specified temperature range. Several series thermistors with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance connected into a linearization circuit were used as the sensing element of the semiconductor device. Increasing the number of thermistors leads to improved circuitry resolving power and reduced dispersion of this parameter. However, there is the question of optimal ratio of the number of thermistors and implemented temperature resolution, due to the nonlinear resolution dependence of the number of series-connected thermoelements. An example of scheme of four similar thermistors as the primary sensor and of a standard measuring instrument, which is working in ohmmeter mode, shows the ability to measure temperature changes at the level of hundredth of a Celsius degree. In this case, a quantization error, which is determined by a resolution of the measuring system, and the ohmmeter accuracy make the main contribution to the overall accuracy of measuring small temperature changes.

  10. Inexpensive diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system for measuring changes in tissue optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Diana L.; Hayward, Joseph E.; McKee, Daniel E.; Farrell, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of changes in blood volume in tissue is important for monitoring the effects of a wide range of therapeutic interventions, from radiation therapy to skin-flap transplants. Many systems available for purchase are either expensive or difficult to use, limiting their utility in the clinical setting. A low-cost system, capable of measuring changes in tissue blood volume via diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is presented. The system consists of an integrating sphere coupled via optical fibers to a broadband light source and a spectrometer. Validation data are presented to illustrate the accuracy and reproducibility of the system. The validity and utility of this in vivo system were demonstrated in a skin blanching/reddening experiment using epinephrine and lidocaine, and in a study measuring the severity of radiation-induced erythema during radiation therapy.

  11. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. te Brake

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ≥ 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0–60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ΔV–ΔW relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5 and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5 and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616. Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ΔV–ΔW relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

  12. Europe facing climate change - a border adjustment measure to prepare the after-Kyoto?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the different relationships between the trade framework and that of the struggle against climate change, the authors address the European Union (EU) environmental strategy within the perspective of a multilateral governance of climate changes for the after-Kyoto period. After having recalled what is at stake in a border adjustment measure and outlined the difficulties of implementation of a tax-based solution at a multilateral level, the authors present the available strategies for the EU. Then, they address the strategy based on trade liberalization as incentive to the struggle against climate changes. They discuss the derogation to standard rules and finally propose a governance system between the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) and the WTO

  13. Luminescence sensitivity changes of polymineral fine grains during IRSL and [post-IR] OSL measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, H.M. E-mail: hmr@aber.ac.uk; Wintle, A.G

    2003-12-01

    Sensitivity changes during measurement sequences of infra-red-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and post-IR optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are presented for a sample of loess from northwestern China. Together with a dose recovery experiment, the results are used to investigate the ratio of 2.4 found for the D{sub e} values (for IRSL and [post-IR] OSL) obtained when using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol in which both D{sub e} values are obtained in a single sequence of measurements. Responses to test doses for both the IRSL and [post-IR] OSL show progressive luminescence sensitivity changes with repeated measurement cycles, with a slight dose dependence for the IRSL. In addition, five modified SAR procedures were used, varying preheats, filter combinations and method of measuring the luminescence signal. The D{sub e} values for all IRSL measurements were at least 50% greater than those for the [post-IR] OSL signal. A modified SAR sequence was also applied in which 0.1 s stimulations (using both IR and blue light sources) were made between all sample treatments. A lack of consistency in the measured luminescence sensitivity of the natural IRSL signal suggests that the [post-IR] OSL signal provides the more reliable value of D{sub e}.

  14. Go fly a kite : air truthing replaces ground truthing for environmental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2008-05-15

    This article discussed the use of kite aerial photography (KAP) in oil and gas exploration activities. KAP exhibits a minimal environmental footprint while providing high resolution airborne data of the Earth's surface in infrared and a variety of other media. The cost-effective technology is being employed by Alberta's oil and gas operators as well as by the environmental consulting sector. The kites fly at lower elevations than other remote sensing tools, and yield better spatial resolution on the ground. KAP can map the Earth's surface at a scale of investigation on the order of 5 to 10 centimetres. The images are placed into a geo-referenced mosaic along with poorer resolution remote sensing tools. A KAP kit can be assembled for under $1000. By using infrared KAP images, operators are able to determine the health of muskeg and swamp areas and measure the rate of photosynthesis of plants. KAP is also used to evaluate troublesome wellsite by reclamation groups. The next generation of sensors will include radio-controlled drones and miniature aircraft. 6 figs.

  15. Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbetibouo, G. A.; Hassan, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study employed a Ricardian model to measure the impact of climate change on South Africa's field crops and analysed potential future impacts of further changes in the climate. A regression of farm net revenue on climate, soil and other socio-economic variables was conducted to capture farmer-adapted responses to climate variations. The analysis was based on agricultural data for seven field crops (maize, wheat, sorghum, sugarcane, groundnut, sunflower and soybean), climate and edaphic data across 300 districts in South Africa. Results indicate that production of field crops was sensitive to marginal changes in temperature as compared to changes in precipitation. Temperature rise positively affects net revenue whereas the effect of reduction in rainfall is negative. The study also highlights the importance of season and location in dealing with climate change showing that the spatial distribution of climate change impact and consequently needed adaptations will not be uniform across the different agro-ecological regions of South Africa. Results of simulations of climate change scenarios indicate many impacts that would induce (or require) very distinct shifts in farming practices and patterns in different regions. Those include major shifts in crop calendars and growing seasons, switching between crops to the possibility of complete disappearance of some field crops from some region.

  16. A Quantitative Measure of Conformational Changes in Apo, Holo and Ligand-Bound Forms of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra; Singh, Atul Kumar; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Singh, Dev Bukhsh; Dwivedi, Seema; Gautam, Budhayash; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-06-01

    Determination of the native geometry of the enzymes and ligand complexes is a key step in the process of structure-based drug designing. Enzymes and ligands show flexibility in structural behavior as they come in contact with each other. When ligand binds with active site of the enzyme, in the presence of cofactor some structural changes are expected to occur in the active site. Motivation behind this study is to determine the nature of conformational changes as well as regions where such changes are more pronounced. To measure the structural changes due to cofactor and ligand complex, enzyme in apo, holo and ligand-bound forms is selected. Enzyme data set was retrieved from protein data bank. Fifteen triplet groups were selected for the analysis of structural changes based on selection criteria. Structural features for selected enzymes were compared at the global as well as local region. Accessible surface area for the enzymes in entire triplet set was calculated, which describes the change in accessible surface area upon binding of cofactor and ligand with the enzyme. It was observed that some structural changes take place during binding of ligand in the presence of cofactor. This study will helps in understanding the level of flexibility in protein-ligand interaction for computer-aided drug designing. PMID:26260067

  17. A global database with parallel measurements to study non-climatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Victor; Auchmann, Renate; Aguilar, Enric; Auer, Ingeborg; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Brandsma, Theo; Brunetti, Michele; Dienst, Manuel; Domonkos, Peter; Gilabert, Alba; Lindén, Jenny; Milewska, Ewa; Nordli, Øyvind; Prohom, Marc; Rennie, Jared; Stepanek, Petr; Trewin, Blair; Vincent, Lucie; Willett, Kate; Wolff, Mareile

    2016-04-01

    In this work we introduce the rationale behind the ongoing compilation of a parallel measurements database, in the framework of the International Surface Temperatures Initiative (ISTI) and with the support of the World Meteorological Organization. We intend this database to become instrumental for a better understanding of inhomogeneities affecting the evaluation of long-term changes in daily climate data. Long instrumental climate records are usually affected by non-climatic changes, due to, e.g., (i) station relocations, (ii) instrument height changes, (iii) instrumentation changes, (iv) observing environment changes, (v) different sampling intervals or data collection procedures, among others. These so-called inhomogeneities distort the climate signal and can hamper the assessment of long-term trends and variability of climate. Thus to study climatic changes we need to accurately distinguish non-climatic and climatic signals. The most direct way to study the influence of non-climatic changes on the distribution and to understand the reasons for these biases is the analysis of parallel measurements representing the old and new situation (in terms of e.g. instruments, location, different radiation shields, etc.). According to the limited number of available studies and our understanding of the causes of inhomogeneity, we expect that they will have a strong impact on the tails of the distribution of air temperatures and most likely of other climate elements. Our abilities to statistically homogenize daily data will be increased by systematically studying different causes of inhomogeneity replicated through parallel measurements. Current studies of non-climatic changes using parallel data are limited to local and regional case studies. However, the effect of specific transitions depends on the local climate and the most interesting climatic questions are about the systematic large-scale biases produced by transitions that occurred in many regions. Important

  18. 77 FR 49089 - High-Cost Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the Truth in Lending Act by expanding the types of mortgage... Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and... Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and Homeownership...

  19. DMPD: MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18191460 MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity tot...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totube...rculosis. PubmedID 18191460 Title MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructiv

  20. Know your tools - concordance of different methods for measuring brain volume change after ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal brain volume changes have been investigated in a number of cerebral disorders as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome. In stroke, unique methodological challenges are posed by dynamic structural changes occurring after onset, particularly those relating to the infarct lesion. We aimed to evaluate agreement between different analysis methods for the measurement of post-stroke brain volume change, and to explore technical challenges inherent to these methods. Fifteen patients with anterior circulation stroke underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 1 week of onset and at 1 and 3 months. Whole-brain as well as grey- and white-matter volume were estimated separately using both an intensity-based and a surface watershed-based algorithm. In the case of the intensity-based algorithm, the analysis was also performed with and without exclusion of the infarct lesion. Due to the effects of peri-infarct edema at the baseline scan, longitudinal volume change was measured as percentage change between the 1 and 3-month scans. Intra-class and concordance correlation coefficients were used to assess agreement between the different analysis methods. Reduced major axis regression was used to inspect the nature of bias between measurements. Overall agreement between methods was modest with strong disagreement between some techniques. Measurements were variably impacted by procedures performed to account for infarct lesions. Improvements in volumetric methods and consensus between methodologies employed in different studies are necessary in order to increase the validity of conclusions derived from post-stroke cerebral volumetric studies. Readers should be aware of the potential impact of different methods on study conclusions. (orig.)

  1. On-line dynamic measurement of blood viscosity, hematocrit and change of blood volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit. The dynamic changes of the macrovascular blood volumes,microvascular blood volumes and the total blood volume were observed by means of calculating from the testing result. Methods: Applying traditional viscosity measurement principle and specific wavelength optic density measurement method, an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit was developed, and the A/D multifunctionai board and the testing circuit were designed by ourselves. The system was validated by experiments both in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic effects of hypertonic saline dextran solution (HSD) and Lactatic Ringer's solution at the early stage after burn-blast combined injury were compared by this method. Results: The results showed that the system has attained the goal of the design. The changes of the blood viscosity and hematocrit could be detected effectively and continuously. The changes of macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volume could be calculated approximately. Conclusions: The system and the method can continuously on-line test the blood viscosity and hematocrit, and reveal the change and distribution of blood volumes more accurately and dearly in the therapy process by estimating changes of the macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volumes, respectively. It has confirmed that HSD treatment could increase blood pressure and attenuate tissue edema by significantly increasing total blood volume,improving macrocirculatory and microcirculatory blood volumes. This study suggested that it could be desirable to develop an experiment technique based on the method mentioned above.

  2. Know your tools - concordance of different methods for measuring brain volume change after ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid [The University of Melbourne, The Florey Institute of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Longitudinal brain volume changes have been investigated in a number of cerebral disorders as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome. In stroke, unique methodological challenges are posed by dynamic structural changes occurring after onset, particularly those relating to the infarct lesion. We aimed to evaluate agreement between different analysis methods for the measurement of post-stroke brain volume change, and to explore technical challenges inherent to these methods. Fifteen patients with anterior circulation stroke underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 1 week of onset and at 1 and 3 months. Whole-brain as well as grey- and white-matter volume were estimated separately using both an intensity-based and a surface watershed-based algorithm. In the case of the intensity-based algorithm, the analysis was also performed with and without exclusion of the infarct lesion. Due to the effects of peri-infarct edema at the baseline scan, longitudinal volume change was measured as percentage change between the 1 and 3-month scans. Intra-class and concordance correlation coefficients were used to assess agreement between the different analysis methods. Reduced major axis regression was used to inspect the nature of bias between measurements. Overall agreement between methods was modest with strong disagreement between some techniques. Measurements were variably impacted by procedures performed to account for infarct lesions. Improvements in volumetric methods and consensus between methodologies employed in different studies are necessary in order to increase the validity of conclusions derived from post-stroke cerebral volumetric studies. Readers should be aware of the potential impact of different methods on study conclusions. (orig.)

  3. Non-contact skin emissivity: measurement from reflectance using step change in ambient radiation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togawa, T

    1989-02-01

    A method of estimating skin emissivity based on reflectance measurement upon transient stepwise change in the ambient radiation temperature was proposed. To effect this change, two shades at different temperatures were switched mechanically, and the change in radiation from the skin surface was recorded through an aperture for each shade by a high-resolution, fast-response radiometer having a sensitivity within the 8-14 microns range. Measurements were made on the forehead, forearm, palm and back of the hand in 10 male and 10 female subjects. No significant differences in emissivity were observed among sites and between sexes. The overall average of the skin emissivity obtained was 0.971 +/- 0.005 (SD). This result is inconsistent with most reported skin emissivity values. However, as the former studies had many inherent inadequacies, both theoretical and experimental, it is considered that most of these reported skin emissivities are unacceptable. The method proposed in this study has the following advantages: (1) relative calibration between instruments is unnecessary, (2) non-contact measurement can be achieved, and (3) each measurement can be made within one minute.

  4. Geomorphic changes of a coral shingle cay measured using Kite Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Mitch; Duce, Stephanie; Harris, Dan; Webster, Jody M.; Thompson, Alisha; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Williams, Stefan B.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of geomorphic change in the intertidal zones of coral reefs are made using a variety of remote sensing and in-situ techniques, where variations in the coverage and spatial-temporal precision achieved are directly related to the cost of data acquisition. We present a novel, low-cost technique for measuring high-resolution changes in reef environments based on Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) and photogrammetry/structure-from-motion post-processing. KAP images are used to measure fine-scale changes in intertidal topography and sediment texture characteristics, including rubble particle size, of a coral shingle cay at One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef in the context of storm activity. Validation using Real Time Kinematic DGPS demonstrates the ability to measure topographic elevation with an error of 5.53 cm (RMSE) and a spatial resolution of 5 cm per point, an accuracy/resolution that is superior to airborne LiDAR and equivalent to terrestrial LiDAR, but at a fraction of the equipment cost.

  5. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  6. Thorax mapping for localised lung impedance change using focused impedance measurement (FIM: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayra Ferdous

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Focused Impedance Measurement (FIM is a technique where impedance can be measured with the optimum level of localization without much increase in complexity of measuring instrument. The electrodes are applied on the skin surface but the organs inside also contributes to the measurement, as the body is a volume conductor. In a healthy and disease free lung region, the air enters at breathe-in increases the impedance of the lung and impedance reduces during breathe-out. In contrast, for a diseased lung, where part of the lungs is filled with water or some fluid, air will not enter into this zone reducing impedance change between inspiration and expiration. With this idea, the current work had been executed to have general view of localised impedance change throughout thorax using 6-electrode FIM. This generated a matrix mapping from both the front and from the back of the thorax, which  afterwards provided that how impedance change due to ventilation varies from frontal plane to back plane of human bodies.

  7. Non-mydriatic video ophthalmoscope to measure fast temporal changes of the human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Ralf P.; Kolář, Radim; Odstrčilík, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of fast temporal changes of the human retina can be used to get insight to normal physiological behavior and to detect pathological deviations. This can be important for the early detection of glaucoma and other eye diseases. We developed a small, lightweight, USB powered video ophthalmoscope that allows taking video sequences of the human retina with at least 25 frames per second without dilating the pupil. Short sequences (about 10 s) of the optic nerve head (20° x 15°) are recorded from subjects and registered offline using two-stage process (phase correlation and Lucas-Kanade approach) to compensate for eye movements. From registered video sequences, different parameters can be calculated. Two applications are described here: measurement of (i) cardiac cycle induced pulsatile reflection changes and (ii) eye movements and fixation pattern. Cardiac cycle induced pulsatile reflection changes are caused by changing blood volume in the retina. Waveform and pulse parameters like amplitude and rise time can be measured in any selected areas within the retinal image. Fixation pattern ΔY(ΔX) can be assessed from eye movements during video acquisition. The eye movements ΔX[t], ΔY[t] are derived from image registration results with high temporal (40 ms) and spatial (1,86 arcmin) resolution. Parameters of pulsatile reflection changes and fixation pattern can be affected in beginning glaucoma and the method described here may support early detection of glaucoma and other eye disease.

  8. Measuring Change in Arctic Coastal Environments Using Repeat Aerial Photography and SfM Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, A.; Nolan, M.; Kinsman, N.; Richmond, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial- and ground-based photography can provide valuable information about coastal environments in space and time including the presence or absence of shorefast ice, beach characteristics and morphology, high-water indicators produced during storm surge events, bluff failure mechanisms, and habitat identification. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry and construction of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithms allow for improved mapping and analysis of coastal change in 3-dimensions at a relatively low cost. For example, analyses can include delineating shorelines based on a tidal datum, mapping inundation extent based on a known or modeled flood level, or quantifying volumetric change. Repeat aerial surveys and associated orthophoto and DEM construction serve as a powerful monitoring tool that can provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for coastal change. Along the extensive and remote coast of Alaska, high-quality imagery and elevation data are rare, in part because traditional methods of acquiring the data are cost prohibitive. Here we evaluate the usefulness of data sets acquired using small aircraft and SfM techniques for evaluating seasonal change to the beach and permafrost bluffs at Barter Island, Alaska during the summer of 2014. Considerable bluff retreat and morphological change were measured along a 2.7 km stretch of coast with net mean volume loss of approximately 28,000 ± 540 m3 between the top and the base of the bluffs. The pattern of change was dominantly landward retreat of the top of the bluffs and removal of the debris fan at the base of the bluffs. Barrier-spit overwash and migration and deposition of storm berms were also observed and accurately measured. Our results suggest that this is a cost-effective method for mapping coastal change in remote environments leading to a similar data acquisition effort for the State of Alaska, primarily for shoreline and coastal hazard mapping purposes

  9. Matters of Fact: Language, Science, and the Status of Truth in Late Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Hanscom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the status of the fact in literary and historical discourses in late colonial Korea, focusing on the elaboration of the relationship between scientific and literary truths primarily in the work of philosopher and critic Sŏ Insik (1906–?. It points to a growing tendency in late 1930s and early 1940s Korea to question the veracity of the fact (or of empiricism more broadly in an environment where the enunciation of the colonial subject had been rendered problematic and objective statements had arguably lost their connection with social reality. In a period when the relationship between signifier and referent had come into question, how did this major critic understand the relationship between science and literature, or between truth and subjectivity? Sŏ warns against a simplistic apprehension of the notion of truth as unilaterally equivalent with what he calls “scientific truth” (kwahakchŏk chilli—a nomological truth based on objective observation and confirmation by universal principles—and argues that a necessary complement to apparently objective truth is “literary truth” (munhakchŏk chinsil. Against the fixed, conceptual form of scientific thought, literary truth presents itself as an experiential truth that returns to the sensory world of the sociolinguistic subject (chuch’e as a source of credibility.

  10. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  11. The SF-36 health survey: a valid measure of changes in health status after injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopjar, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the criterion validity and responsiveness to changes over time of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) measure. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 775 patients 16 to 78 years treated for an unintentional injury at the hospital or emergency clinic in Drammen, Norway was selected for the study. Data about activity restrictions and health status measured by SF-36 were obtained by a postal questionnaire 6-10 weeks after the injury. A f...

  12. Eco-environmental Impact Assessment of the Change of Regional Industrial Structure and Regulative Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Acting as an important driving force for the change of the regional land use, the change of industrial structure also has some influences on the ecological environment. The assessment and mechanism analysis of these influences will be beneficial to the sustainable development of regional economy and the im-provement of relationships between man and earth. Taking Chuzhou City in Anhui Province as an example, on the basis of a qualitative analysis of the influence of the development of differ-ent industry on the regional ecological environment, this paper builds the influence factor of industrial structure on natural envi-ronment and the influence index of industrial structure on natural environment, makes a quantitative assessment of the change of the industrial structure and its comprehensive influences on the eco-logical environment in the Chuzhou City from 1974 to 1995. Studies show that, during the analysed period, Chuzhou City's industrial structure has changed markedly, having undergone two transformations. The influence of industrial structure on natural environment from 1974 to 1995 increased as a whole, while from 1996 to 2004, the influence of industrial structure on natural en-vironment decreased year-on-year. These changes indicate that the regional change of industrial structure results in better ecological effects. Finally, we propose appropriate regulatory measures ac-cording to our research results.

  13. Measuring brain hemodynamic changes in a songbird: responses to hypercapnia measured with functional MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignal, C; Mathevon, N [ENES EA 3988, Universite Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne (France); Boumans, T; Verhoye, M; Audekerke, J van; Linden, A van der [Bio-Imaging Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Montcel, B; Ramstein, S; Mottin, S [Hubert Curien CNRS UMR 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne (France)], E-mail: Clementine.Vignal@univ-st-etienne.fr

    2008-05-21

    Songbirds have been evolved into models of choice for the study of the cerebral underpinnings of vocal communication. Nevertheless, there is still a need for in vivo methods allowing the real-time monitoring of brain activity. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been applied in anesthetized intact songbirds. It relies on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast revealing hemodynamic changes. Non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is based on the weak absorption of near-infrared light by biological tissues. Time-resolved femtosecond white laser NIRS is a new probing method using real-time spectral measurements which give access to the local variation of absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobins. In this study, we test the efficiency of our time-resolved NIRS device in monitoring physiological hemodynamic brain responses in a songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), using a hypercapnia event (7% inhaled CO{sub 2}). The results are compared to those obtained using BOLD fMRI. The NIRS measurements clearly demonstrate that during hypercapnia the blood oxygen saturation level increases (increase in local concentration of oxyhemoglobin, decrease in deoxyhemoglobin concentration and total hemoglobin concentration). Our results provide the first correlation in songbirds of the variations in total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation level obtained from NIRS with local BOLD signal variations.

  14. Measurement and Modeling of Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability Changes in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2005-10-01

    Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A., and high-volatile bituminous coal from the Uinta-Piceance basin of Utah, U.S.A. using a newly developed strain measurement apparatus. The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain. The swelling and shrinkage (strain) in the coal samples resulting from the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and a mixture of gases was measured. Sorption-induced strain processes were shown to be reversible and easily modeled with a Langmuir-type equation. Extended Langmuir theory was applied to satisfactorily model strain caused by the adsorption of gas mixtures using the pure gas Langmuir strain constants. The amount of time required to obtain accurate strain data was greatly reduced compared to other strain measurement methods. Sorption-induced changes in permeability were also measured as a function of pres-sure. Cleat compressibility was found to be variable, not constant. Calculated variable cleat-compressibility constants were found to correlate well with previously published data for other coals. During permeability tests, sorption-induced matrix shrinkage was clearly demonstrated by higher permeability values at lower pore pressures while holding overburden pressure constant. Measured permeability data were modeled using three dif-ferent permeability models from the open literature that take into account sorption-induced matrix strain. All three models poorly matched the measured permeability data because they overestimated the impact of measured sorption-induced strain on permeabil-ity. However, by applying an experimentally derived expression to the measured strain data that accounts for the confining overburden pressure, pore pressure, coal type, and gas type, the permeability models were significantly improved.

  15. Measurement of Cervical Length Changes During Normal Pregnancy by Endovaginal Ultrasound Device

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Tahmasebi

    2009-01-01

    "nIntroduction: Cervical disability for preservation of pregnancy is called cervical insufficiency. On time diagnosis of cervical insufficiency is important for preventing actions. Endovaginal sonography is one of the most important methods. The importance of cervical length measurement is to diagnose cervical insufficiency and to decide on cerclage. In this study, we evaluated endovaginal sonography assessment of the cervical length changes during a normal pregnancy. "nMaterials an...

  16. Depth-Resolved Measurement of Transient Structural Changes during Action Potential Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Akkin, T.; Joo, C.; Boer

    2007-01-01

    We report noncontact optical measurement of fast transient structural changes in the crustacean nerve during action potential propagation without the need for exogenous chemicals or reflection coatings. The technique, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, provides real-time cross-sectional images of the nerve with micron-scale resolution to select a specific region for functional assessment and interferometric phase sensitivity for subnanometer-scale motion detection. Noncontact optic...

  17. A business performance index model that measures wealth change in Australian farm businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Sefton, Clive A.; Cox, Rodney J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of a farm-business assessment model that uses financial performance measures and tracks ‘wealth change’ to evaluate performance trends over time, and ranks the relative business performance of commercial participants. Its core component involves the use of comparative analysis, which is structured as an introductory rapid-assessment model, together with a ranking system that has been designed to differentiate the relative performance levels of farm busine...

  18. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  19. Developing Measures of Pathways that May Link Macro Social/Structural Changes with HIV Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Enrique R; Sandoval, Milagros; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Rossi, Diana; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Jones, Yolanda; Friedman, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    Macro-social/structural events ("big events") such as wars, disasters, and large-scale changes in policies can affect HIV transmission by making risk behaviors more or less likely or by changing risk contexts. The purpose of this study was to develop new measures to investigate hypothesized pathways between macro-social changes and HIV transmission. We developed novel scales and indexes focused on topics including norms about sex and drug injecting under different conditions, involvement with social groups, helping others, and experiencing denial of dignity. We collected data from 300 people who inject drugs in New York City during 2012-2013. Most investigational measures showed evidence of validity (Pearson correlations with criterion variables range = 0.12-0.71) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha range = 0.62-0.91). Research is needed in different contexts to evaluate whether these measures can be used to better understand HIV outbreaks and help improve social/structural HIV prevention intervention programs. PMID:26796384

  20. Influence of stem temperature changes on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    While natural spatial temperature gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural changes in stem temperature impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem temperature on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods changes in stem temperatures of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem temperatures during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem temperatures led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a temperature correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural temperature change based on the measured temperatures before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities.

  1. Direct measurement of sub-surface mass change using the variable-baseline gravity gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Güntner, Andreas; Abe, Maiko; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Time-lapse gravity data provide a direct, non-destructive method to monitor mass changes at scales from cm to km. But, the effectively infinite spatial sensitivity of gravity measurements can make it difficult to isolate the signal of interest. The variable-baseline gravity gradient method, based on the difference of measurements between two gravimeters, is an alternative to the conventional approach of individually modeling all sources of mass and elevation change. This approach can improve the signal-to-noise ratio for many applications by removing the contributions of Earth tides, loading, and other signals that have the same effect on both gravimeters. At the same time, this approach can focus the support volume within a relatively small user-defined region of the subsurface. The method is demonstrated using paired superconducting gravimeters to make for the first time a large-scale, non-invasive measurement of infiltration wetting front velocity and change in water content above the wetting front.

  2. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated t...

  3. Development and validation of the ACSI : measuring students' science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science

  4. Psychometric Principles in Measurement for Geoscience Education Research: A Climate Change Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.; McNeal, K.; Bowles, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding learning in geoscience classrooms requires that we use valid and reliable instruments aligned with intended learning outcomes. Nearly one hundred instruments assessing conceptual understanding in undergraduate science and engineering classrooms (often called concept inventories) have been published and are actively being used to investigate learning. The techniques used to develop these instruments vary widely, often with little attention to psychometric principles of measurement. This paper will discuss the importance of using psychometric principles to design, evaluate, and revise research instruments, with particular attention to the validity and reliability steps that must be undertaken to ensure that research instruments are providing meaningful measurement. An example from a climate change inventory developed by the authors will be used to exemplify the importance of validity and reliability, including the value of item response theory for instrument development. A 24-item instrument was developed based on published items, conceptions research, and instructor experience. Rasch analysis of over 1000 responses provided evidence for the removal of 5 items for misfit and one item for potential bias as measured via differential item functioning. The resulting 18-item instrument can be considered a valid and reliable measure based on pre- and post-implementation metrics. Consideration of the relationship between respondent demographics and concept inventory scores provides unique insight into the relationship between gender, religiosity, values and climate change understanding.

  5. Characterizing the micro structure and kinetics of fast changing samples by simultaneous polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ran; He, Honghui; Zeng, Nan; Ma, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Taking accurate measurements of the state of polarization (SOP) is the key for the success of polarization sensitive techniques which can provide rich information on the microstructure of complex scattering media, such as biological tissues. For static or slow varying samples, SOP measurements can be achieved by time-sequential recoding of different polarization components controlled by rotating polarizers and wave plates or temporal modulation devices such as photoelastic modulators or liquid crystal variable retarders. When the sample is moving or changing its status quickly, polarization components recoded at different time may correspond to different SOPs, which can lead to significant errors in the final results. Simultaneous polarization measurements are necessary for probing such dynamic samples. In this paper, using the simultaneously recorded polarization components, we are able to mimic time sequential polarization schemes and evaluate the errors. The results show that the kinetics of the sample will affect the systematic error and an increase in the statistical errors of the measured degree of polarization (DOP). We change the kinetics of samples with different stirring speed, which is indicated by the characteristic time of the auto-correlation function. It is also demonstrated that the simultaneously recorded polarization components reveals additional information on the orientation of fibrous scatterers as well as their translation and rotation kinetics.

  6. Analysis of tissue changes, measurement system effects, and motion artifacts in echo decorrelation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Fong Ming; Nagle, Anna; Subramanian, Swetha; Douglas Mast, T

    2015-02-01

    Echo decorrelation imaging, a method for mapping ablation-induced ultrasound echo changes, is analyzed. Local echo decorrelation is shown to approximate the decoherence spectrum of tissue reflectivity. Effects of the ultrasound measurement system, echo signal windowing, electronic noise, and tissue motion on echo decorrelation images are determined theoretically, leading to a method for reduction of motion and noise artifacts. Theoretical analysis is validated by simulations and experiments. Simulated decoherence of the scattering medium was recovered with root-mean-square error less than 10% with accuracy dependent on the correlation window size. Motion-induced decorrelation measured in an ex vivo pubovisceral muscle model showed similar trends to theoretical motion-induced decorrelation for a 2.1 MHz curvilinear array with decorrelation approaching unity for 3-4 mm elevational displacement or 1-1.6 mm range displacement. For in vivo imaging of porcine liver by a 7 MHz linear array, theoretical decorrelation computed using image-based motion estimates correlated significantly with measured decorrelation (r = 0.931, N = 10). Echo decorrelation artifacts incurred during in vivo radiofrequency ablation in the same porcine liver were effectively compensated based on the theoretical echo decorrelation model and measured pre-treatment decorrelation. These results demonstrate the potential of echo decorrelation imaging for quantification of heat-induced changes to the scattering tissue medium during thermal ablation.

  7. Monitoring the pollution of river Ganga by tanneries using the multiband ground truth radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Venkobachar, C.; Singh, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Shiv Pal

    The feasibility of utilising the multiband ground truth radiometer (MGTR) for monitoring the pollution of the river Ganga by tanneries at Kanpur, India is explored. Parameters targeted in the study were Secchi depth (a measure of turbidity), turbidity, tannin concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). MGTR offers reflectance in 11 bands within the spectral range of 0.45 to 0.90 μm. The reflectance data has been utilised to develop empirical relationships with Secchi depth, turbidity and tannin concentration. The spectral reflectance data does not directly indicate the measure of the COD. However, an empirical relationship between tannin concentration and COD has been established which allows an indirect measurement of the COD. The conventional environmental engineering laboratory approach for determination of the above parameters is time consuming, expensive and slow. This results in serious constraints in monitoring pollution parameters at frequent intervals for a large number of sampling points. The outcome of the study shows the viability of MGTR as a means of quick, repetitive and handy remote sensing for monitoring pollution caused by tanneries in narrow surface streams.

  8. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  9. Measuring gravity change caused by water storage variations: Performance assessment under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Lund, Sanne; Andersen, Ole Baltazar;

    2011-01-01

    lead to a loss of accuracy. As a performance test of a CG-5 for applications of time-lapse gravity in hydrology, we have measured the change in water storage in an indoor basin. The experiment was designed to resemble a field application, e.g. a pumping test, a forced infiltration experiment......Subsurface water content is an important state variable in hydrological systems. Established methods to measure subsurface water content have a small support scale which causes scaling problems in many applications. Time-lapse relative gravimetry can give an integrated measure of soil water storage...... a sensitivity of 1μGal, corresponding to a layer of 0.024 m of water in an infinitely extended horizontal sheet. For gravity surveys using relative gravity meters, the precision is highly dependent on the methods used to operate the gravimeter in the field. Systematic errors, which are difficult to detect, can...

  10. Using NEON to Measure Adaptation of Vegetation to Changes in Environmental Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. H.; Kao, R.; Gibson, C.

    2009-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform for documenting and analyzing the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments linked by cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented core site in a wildland area and two re-locatable sites, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse). Using standardized protocols and an open data policy, NEON data will be gathered from the level of the gene and organism to populations and communities, with extrapolations to the continental scale. In conjunction with environmental data, NEON will conduct field observations and analyses of biological specimens to track biodiversity, population dynamics, productivity, phenology, infectious disease, biogeochemistry and ecohydrology. Here we present a few examples of the type of research NEON will enable using this data. The NEON network will measure and scale many environmental factors that affect vegetation, e.g. temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. Direct monitoring of vegetation will enable the study of acclimatory and adaptive changes in vegetation properties over different time scales. Such data will improve the representation of vegetation responses to environmental change in models. The vision behind NEON aims to advance our ability to quantitatively predict ecological change.

  11. Past Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone Part 1: Measurement Techniques, Uncertainties and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; Maziere, M. De; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrola, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  12. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; De Mazière, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Stiller, G.; Tamminen, J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Urban, J.; van der A, R. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Vigouroux, C.; von Clarmann, T.; von Savigny, C.; Walker, K. A.; Weber, M.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  13. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hassler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC and other ozone depleting substance (ODS concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP/World Meteorological Organization (WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument. Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  14. An inconvenient truth: treatment of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, M

    2012-06-01

    The need for emergent management of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is being questioned in the literature. Open reduction rates of up to 46% have been reported in the non-emergent management of these injuries. At our institution these fractures are managed as operative emergencies by senior personnel. To examine the ongoing need for this policy we reviewed our results. All patients managed over a five year period with Gartland type IIB or III paeditric supracondylar humeral fractures were identified and a comprehensive chart and radiographic review undertaken. The mean time from injury to fracture reduction and stabilization was 6.6 h. Consultants performed or supervised 90% of cases. Open reduction was necessary in 5% of cases. Complications included a perioperative nerve injury rate of 6% and a superficial pin site infection rate of 3%. This study suggests that, despite the challenge to trauma on-call rostering, the emergency management of these injuries is advantageous to patients in units of our size. Based on the data presented here we continue our practice of emergent management. We suggest that units of a similar size to our own would show a benefit from an analogous policy albeit an inconvenient truth.

  15. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL`s Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A.

  16. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  17. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Michael

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  18. Image and Truth: On Plato’s Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Figal

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relation of Plato’s criticism of poetry in Politeia to a seemingly unusual fact that one of his most important dialogues the Symposium is essentially a poetic work, and not a philosophical one. The analysis and the interpretation of the dialogue’s content show that philosophy is concealed in it, that is, presented in its absence. Socratic dialogue-dialectical mode of argumentation constitutes only a transitory episode in the totality of the work, whereas the rest of the content is on the one hand dedicated to a pre-philosophical discourse, embodied in the speeches of all Socrates’s predecesors, and on the other in Diotima’s speech, which greatly surpasses and overcomes discoursive possibilities of philosophy. The Symposium then makes the inner tension as well as harmonious afinity of poetry and phi- losophy obvious in a poetic manner. Even though they both aspire to that which is divine, poetry aims at that which is in itself organized and adjusted, and which is, just like poetry, always an presentation of the highest divine beauty, while philosophy aims at that which is good, that is, at openness and freedom in which that which exists manifests itself in all its truth.

  19. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    A speaker’s gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., “sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins”). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  20. Topics of Truth, Kindness and Aesthetics in Chinese Education1%Topics of Truth,Kindness and Aesthetics in Chinese Education1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚丹

    2011-01-01

    The ideal goal to cultivate creative talents who "seek truth","strive for kindness" and "adore aesthetics " and are equipped with "perfect personality" should be achieved,which is expected to reach brand-new circumstances of "humans development and construction of completeness" and must and should explore "Truth","Kindness" and "Aesthetics" in Chinese education.This article is meant to explore "truth" of Chinese (language,article,literature) in the intellectual education from cognitive science and to promote students to get into quality of exploration; they should explore "kindness" in the moral education in Chinese (language,article,literature) from ethics,which is to urge wakefulness of students' moral consciousness; in addition,"aesthetics" in Chinese (language,article,literature) from aesthetic education is to spur students to construct free soul.

  1. Ultrasonic laboratory measurements of the seismic velocity changes due to CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. G.; Choi, H.; Park, Y. C.; Hwang, S.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring the behavior and movement of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface is a quite important in sequestration of CO2 in geological formation because such information provides a basis for demonstrating the safety of CO2 sequestration. Recent several applications in many commercial and pilot scale projects and researches show that 4D surface or borehole seismic methods are among the most promising techniques for this purpose. However, such information interpreted from the seismic velocity changes can be quite subjective and qualitative without petrophysical characterization for the effect of CO2 saturation on the seismic changes since seismic wave velocity depends on various factors and parameters like mineralogical composition, hydrogeological factors, in-situ conditions. In this respect, we have developed an ultrasonic laboratory measurement system and have carried out measurements for a porous sandstone sample to characterize the effects of CO2 injection to seismic velocity and amplitude. Measurements are done by ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer mounted on both ends of cylindrical core sample under various pressure, temperature, and saturation conditions. According to our fundamental experiments, injected CO2 introduces the decrease of seismic velocity and amplitude. We identified that the velocity decreases about 6% or more until fully saturated by CO2, but the attenuation of seismic amplitude is more drastically than the velocity decrease. We also identified that Vs/Vp or elastic modulus is more sensitive to CO2 saturation. We note that this means seismic amplitude and elastic modulus change can be an alternative target anomaly of seismic techniques in CO2 sequestration monitoring. Thus, we expect that we can estimate more quantitative petrophysical relationships between the changes of seismic attributes and CO2 concentration, which can provide basic relation for the quantitative assessment of CO2 sequestration by further researches.

  2. Truth and beauty in cosmology: does the Universe have an aesthetic?

    CERN Multimedia

    Impey, C

    2004-01-01

    "Astronomy is an empirical science, yet scientific definitions of truth and beauty are closely tied to the fact that mathematics appears to provide an accurate description of the physical Universe" (2 pages)

  3. The Politics of Violence, Truth, and Reconciliation in the Arab Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book treats political and cultural attempts to create truth and reconciliation processes in the Arab Middle Eat. It contains studies of Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Syria....

  4. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo David

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context.

  5. Values in Fritz Perls's Gestalt Therapy: On the Dangers of Half-Truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Eva H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines some of the values in Perls's theory of psychotherapy, which his Gestalt Prayer epitomizes. Argues that at least five of the major value claims presupposed by his psychotherapeutic theory and practice are in fact dangerous half-truths. (JAC)

  6. Theory of truth degrees of propositions in the logic system L*n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WANG Guojun

    2006-01-01

    By means of infinite product of uniformly distributed probability spaces of cardinal n the concept of truth degrees of propositions in the n-valued generalized Lukasiewicz propositional logic system L*n is introduced in the present paper. It is proved that the set consisting of truth degrees of all formulas is dense in [0,1], and a general expression of truth degrees of formulas as well as a deduction rule of truth degrees is then obtained. Moreover, similarity degrees among formulas are proposed and a pseudo-metric is defined therefrom on the set of formulas, and hence a possible framework suitable for developing approximate reasoning theory in n-valued generalized Lukasiewicz propositional logic is established.

  7. Measuring changes in water-related health and hygiene practices by developing-community households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagals, P; Nala, N P; Tsubane, T J; Moabi, M; Motaung, K C

    2004-01-01

    A population sample from a community in a developing urban area (Botshabelo), which obtains its treated water supply from a communal standpipe system, was subjected to a short Health and Hygiene Awareness and Education (HHA&E) programme to improve its practices on storing water in, and handling water from, storage containers at home. The problem was that the community's practices lead to the deterioration of the microbiological quality of the water in domestic storage containers. Measuring changes in the practices, as well as the microbiological quality of water in the containers, were the instruments used to determine whether the programme had a positive educational effect. This paper reports on selected elements of the practices measurement. Structured interviews, observations and statistical analyses assessed three variables--container hygiene, container storage and hand hygiene. Results indicated insignificant improvements in practices. This was supported by insignificant improvements in the microbiological water quality, that was still above health-safety limits. This implied that short-term "quick fix" HHA&E programmes would tend to be ineffective. Results also suggested that some negative water-hygiene habits may readily change (container hygiene and storage), while behaviour of a more personal nature, such as hand-washing, was not easily changed. PMID:15318492

  8. Fluorescence competition assay measurements of free energy changes for RNA pseudoknots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Shankar, Neelaabh; Turner, Douglas H

    2010-01-26

    RNA pseudoknots have important functions, and thermodynamic stability is a key to predicting pseudoknots in RNA sequences and to understanding their functions. Traditional methods, such as UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry, for measuring RNA thermodynamics are restricted to temperature ranges around the melting temperature for a pseudoknot. Here, we report RNA pseudoknot free energy changes at 37 degrees C measured by fluorescence competition assays. Sequence-dependent studies for the loop 1-stem 2 region reveal (1) the individual nearest-neighbor hydrogen bonding (INN-HB) model provides a reasonable estimate for the free energy change when a Watson-Crick base pair in stem 2 is changed, (2) the loop entropy can be estimated by a statistical polymer model, although some penalty for certain loop sequences is necessary, and (3) tertiary interactions can significantly stabilize pseudoknots and extending the length of stem 2 may alter tertiary interactions such that the INN-HB model does not predict the net effect of adding a base pair. The results can inform writing of algorithms for predicting and/or designing RNA secondary structures.

  9. The period and amplitude changes of Polaris (alpha UMi) from 2003 to 2007 measured with SMEI

    CERN Document Server

    Spreckley, S A

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of 4.5 years of high precision (0.1%) space-based photometric measurements of the Cepheid variable Polaris, obtained by the broad band Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) instrument on board the Coriolis satellite. The data span from April 2003 to October 2007, with a cadence of 101 minutes and a fill factor of 70%. We have measured the mean peak to peak amplitude across the whole set of observations to be 25 mmag. There is, however, a clear trend that the size of the oscillations has been increasing during the observations, with peak to peak variations less than 22 mmag in early 2003, increasing to around 28 mmag by October 2007, suggesting that the peak to peak amplitude is increasing at a rate of 1.39 \\pm 0.12 mmag yr^{-1}. Additionally, we have combined our new measurements with archival measurements to measure a rate of period change of 4.90 \\pm 0.26 s yr^{-1} over the last 50 years. However, there is some suggestion that the period of Polaris has undergone a recent decline, and comb...

  10. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Rawstorn

    Full Text Available Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80% and shuttle (-3.17±2.46% trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99. Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m. Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  11. Amendment on the strain measurement of thin-walled human skull shell as intracranial pressure changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianfang Yue; Li Wang; Feng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The human skuU,composed of tabula externa,tabula interna,and a porous diploe sandwiched in between,is deformed with changing intracranial pressure (ICP).Because the human skull's thickness is only 6 mm,it is simplified as a thin-walled shell. The objective of this article is to analyze the strain of the thin-walled shell by the stress-strain calculation of a human skull with changing ICP.Under the same loading conditions,using finite element analysis (FEA),the strains of the human skull were calculated and the results were compared with the measurements of the simulative experiment in vitro.It is demonstrated that the strain of the thin-walled shell is totally measured by pasting the one-way strain foils on the exterior surface of the shell with suitable amendment for data.The amendment scope of the measured strain values of the thin-walled shell is from 13.04% to 22.22%.

  12. Visible continuum measurements on the Alcator C Tokamak: Changes in particle transport during pellet fuelled discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spatially resolving visible light detector system is used to measure continuum radiation near 5360A on the Alcator C Tokamak. For the typically hot plasmas studied, the continuum emission is found to be dominated by bremsstrahlung radiation near this wavelength region. Accurate determinations of Z/sub eff/ are obtained from continuum measurements using independently determined temperature and density measurements. Density profiles during high density, clean pellet fueled discharges, are also determined and are used to study the changes in particle transport after injection. For discharges with sufficiently large pellet density increases, density profiles are found to become more peaked following the injection. In these cases, the profiles are found to remain peaked for the remainder of the discharge, or until a ''giant'' sawtooth or minor disruption abruptly returns the profiles to a flatter pre-pellet condition. Analysis of density profiles after pellet injection yields information about the radial diffusion and convection velocity of the plasma particles. The peakedness in the density profiles, observed after pellet injection, is attributable mostly to increases in inward convection. It is concluded that neoclassical fluxes are too small to account for these changes. 70 refs., 55 figs

  13. Measuring Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration from Its Color: A Way in Monitoring Environment Change to Plantations

    CERN Document Server

    Shibghatallah, Muhammad Abdul Hakim; Suhandono, Sony; Viridi, Sparisoma; Kesuma, Teja

    2013-01-01

    Leaf colors of a plant can be used to identify stress level due to its adaptation to environmental change. For most leaves green-related colors are sourced from chlorophyll a and b. Chlorophyll concentration is normally measured using a spectrophotometer in laboratory. In some remote observation places, it is impossible to collect the leaves, preserve them, and bring them to laboratory to measure their chlorophyll content. Based on this need, measurement of chlorophyll content is observed through its color. Using CIE chromaticity diagram leaf color information in RGB is transformed into wavelength (in nm). Paddy seed with variety name IR-64 is used in observation during its vegetation stage t (age of 0-10 days). Light exposure time {\\tau} is chosen as environmental change, which normally should be about 12 hours/day, is varied (0-12 hours/day). Each day sample from different exposure time is taken, its color is recorded using HP Deskjet 1050 scanner with 1200 dpi, and its chlorophyll content is obtained from ...

  14. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23900718

  15. Media Literacy: Using a Game to Prompt Self-Reflection on Political Truth Biases

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Vacca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine how games can both capture player biases around truthfulness and facilitate self-reflection on such patterns of biases as a pedagogical approach to media literacy. Our focus is on the study of a game called Fibber, conducted with 344 participants online. The gameplay entails guessing whether statements made by presidential candidates are mostly factual and receiving aggregate feedback on their judgment patterns and potential truth biases. Specifically we sought to ans...

  16. System for improving measurement accuracy of transducer by measuring transducer temperature and resistance change using thermoelectric voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl F. (Inventor); Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A constant current loop measuring system measures a property including the temperature of a sensor responsive to an external condition being measured. The measuring system includes thermocouple conductors connected to the sensor, sensing first and second induced voltages responsive to the external condition. In addition, the measuring system includes a current generator and reverser generating a constant current, and supplying the constant current to the thermocouple conductors in forward and reverse directions generating first and second measured voltages, and a determining unit receiving the first and second measured voltages from the current generator and reverser, and determining the temperature of the sensor responsive to the first and second measured voltages.

  17. Developing a scale to measure the situational changes in short-term study abroad programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Ching

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposing to a new culture has always been a challenging part of short-term study abroad (exchange programs. Studies have shown that these exposures, if handled correctly, should be able to provide valuable cross-cultural experiences. As the opportunities for study abroad kept increasing, understanding the changes that happen is quite crucial in preparing students before they embark to their exchange destination. To answer this question, the current study discusses the formation and validation of a set of behavioral, cognitive, and affective situational changes that students encounter during their study abroad duration in Taiwan. Focus group interviews were conducted to gather and collect a set of situational changes that most short-term study abroad students encounter. A pilot study was conducted on 219 students; afterwards the validated survey was administered nationwide with a total of 512 respondents. Structured equation modelling was used to present the confirmatory factor analysis of the measured dimensions. It is hoped that by having a validated set of situational changes that most study abroad students encounter, more effective pre/post travel preparations can be made. In addition, the data collected from the nationwide survey can also be used to determine the current state of short-term study abroad students in Taiwan.

  18. AIRSAR observations of the Gulf Stream with interpretation from sea truth and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Chubb, S. R.; Marmorino, G. O.; Trump, C. L.; Lee, J. S.; Cooper, A. L.; Askari, F.; Keller, W. C.; Kaiser, J. A. C.; Mied, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    On 20 Jul., JPL/DC-8 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) participated in the 17-21 Jul. 1990 NRL Gulf Stream (GS) experiment in preparation for SIR-C missions in 1993, 1994, and 1996 for calibration purposes and to check modes and techniques for operation at our experimental site off the east coast of the US. During this experiment, coordinated and near simultaneous measurements were performed from ship (R/V Cape Henlopen) and other aircraft (NADC/P-3 and NRL/P-3) to address scientific questions relating to the origin of 'slick-like' features observed by Scully-Power, the refraction and modulation of waves by variable currents, the effect of current and thermal fronts on radar imagery signatures and the modification of Kelvin ship wakes by fronts. The JPL/DC-8 and NADC/P-3 SAR's are fully polarimetric systems. Their composite frequency range varies between P- and X-band. We describe in detail the Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) participation in the Jul. 1990 GS experiment and present preliminary results of the ongoing analysis and interpretation of the radar imagery in the context of ground truth, other remote measurements, and modeling efforts.

  19. Novel measure of driver and vehicle interaction demonstrates transient changes related to alerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Justin R; Kerick, Scott E; McDowell, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    Driver behavior and vehicle-road kinematics have been shown to change over prolonged periods of driving; however, the interaction between these two indices has not been examined. Here we develop a measure that examines how drivers turn the steering wheel relative to heading error velocity, which the authors call the relative steering wheel compensation (RSWC). The RSWC transiently changes on a short time scale coincident with a verbal query embedded within the study paradigm. In contrast, more traditional variables are dynamic over longer time scales consistent with previous research. The results suggest drivers alter their behavioral output (steering wheel correction) relative to sensory input (vehicle heading error velocity) on a distinct temporal scale and may reflect an interaction of alerting and control. PMID:25356659

  20. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body.

  1. Method and Apparatus for Non-Invasive Measurement of Changes in Intracranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring intracranial pressure. In one embodiment, the method comprises the steps of generating an information signal that comprises components (e.g., pulsatile changes and slow changes) that are related to intracranial pressure and blood pressure, generating a reference signal comprising pulsatile components that are solely related to blood pressure, processing the information and reference signals to determine the pulsatile components of the information signal that have generally the same phase as the pulsatile components of the reference signal, and removing from the information signal the pulsatile components determined to have generally the same phase as the pulsatile components of the reference signal so as to provide a data signal having components wherein substantially all of the components are related to intracranial pressure.

  2. A novel rumor diffusion model considering the effect of truth in online social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a model to investigate how truth affects rumor diffusion in online social media. Our model reveals a relation between rumor and truth — namely, when a rumor is diffusing, the truth about the rumor also diffuses with it. Two patterns of the agents used to identify rumor, self-identification and passive learning are taken into account. Combining theoretical proof and simulation analysis, we find that the threshold value of rumor diffusion is negatively correlated to the connectivity between nodes in the network and the probability β of agents knowing truth. Increasing β can reduce the maximum density of the rumor spreaders and slow down the generation speed of new rumor spreaders. On the other hand, we conclude that the best rumor diffusion strategy must balance the probability of forwarding rumor and the probability of agents losing interest in the rumor. High spread rate λ of rumor would lead to a surge in truth dissemination which will greatly limit the diffusion of rumor. Furthermore, in the case of unknown λ, increasing β can effectively reduce the maximum proportion of agents who do not know the truth, but cannot narrow the rumor diffusion range in a certain interval of β.

  3. The effects of punishment and appeals for honesty on children's truth-telling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Arruda, Cindy; Yachison, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two types of verbal appeals (external and internal motivators) and expected punishment in 372 children's (4- to 8-year-olds) truth-telling behavior about a transgression. External appeals to tell the truth emphasized social approval by stating that the experimenter would be happy if the children told the truth. Internal appeals to tell the truth emphasized internal standards of behavior by stating that the children would be happy with themselves if they told the truth. Results indicate that with age children are more likely to lie and maintain their lie during follow-up questioning. Overall, children in the External Appeal conditions told the truth significantly more compared with children in the No Appeal conditions. Children who heard internal appeals with no expected punishment were significantly less likely to lie compared with children who heard internal appeals when there was expected punishment. The results have important implications regarding the impact of socialization on children's honesty and promoting children's veracity in applied situations where children's honesty is critical. PMID:25447716

  4. The effects of punishment and appeals for honesty on children's truth-telling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Arruda, Cindy; Yachison, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two types of verbal appeals (external and internal motivators) and expected punishment in 372 children's (4- to 8-year-olds) truth-telling behavior about a transgression. External appeals to tell the truth emphasized social approval by stating that the experimenter would be happy if the children told the truth. Internal appeals to tell the truth emphasized internal standards of behavior by stating that the children would be happy with themselves if they told the truth. Results indicate that with age children are more likely to lie and maintain their lie during follow-up questioning. Overall, children in the External Appeal conditions told the truth significantly more compared with children in the No Appeal conditions. Children who heard internal appeals with no expected punishment were significantly less likely to lie compared with children who heard internal appeals when there was expected punishment. The results have important implications regarding the impact of socialization on children's honesty and promoting children's veracity in applied situations where children's honesty is critical.

  5. Prosecuting International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine ‘Truth-Finding Trials’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maculan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth-finding trials (juicios por la verdad constitute a novel solution devised by the Argentine judicial system to cope with crimes committed by the past military dictatorship. This mechanism uses criminal courts as well as criminal procedure in order to investigate the truth about the dictatorship's crimes; however, the trials allow judges neither to establish criminal responsibility nor to punish the perpetrators of crimes. This limitation is due to the inability, imposed by the Full Stop and Due Obedience Laws, to prosecute the perpetrators of crimes.From the perspective of criminal law, truth-finding trials present two problematic features: firstly, their creation and regulation are set by judges, which has caused the development of many non-homogeneous local solutions and, secondly, their hybrid nature, which entails a possible subversion of conventional forms and goals in the context of the criminal trial.The paper also describes the current situation, since the Argentine impunity laws were declared unconstitutional and criminal proceedings reopened. The new framework provokes questions about the relationship between the reopened criminal trials and the truth-finding investigations, not only with regard to evidentiary issues but also with respect to the reason why the truth-finding investigations are still held.Finally, the shift from a non-punitive approach to the current full criminal accountability seems to suggest that truth-finding trials were merely a temporary solution, while the notion of the full prosecution and punishment of State crimes was never really set aside.

  6. Relative Sea Level Change in Western Alaska As Constructed from Satellite Altimetry and Repeat GPS Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, K. G.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kinsman, N.

    2014-12-01

    Western Alaska is a remote region populated by small communities situated in low-lying coastal environments that are sensitive to variations in local relative sea level (RSL). RSL is the measurement of sea level relative to the local ground surface. Quantification of RSL variation requires measuring vertical velocities for both tectonic motion (onshore component) and the ocean surface (offshore component). Tide gauges in conjunction with tidal benchmarks record RSL, but in Western Alaska these datums are of short duration and too sparsely distributed both temporally and spatially to be able to accurately project RSL trends. Satellite altimetry is not suited for near shore estimates, but is used in this study because of the limited tide gauge coverage both spatially and temporally. During the summers of 2013 and 2014, campaign GPS surveys of geodetic benchmarks were undertaken to produce statistically significant velocity measurements of the tectonic component of sea level change for the Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Alaska Peninsula. Occupations of tidal benchmarks were also collected to compare historic tidal records from the mid-1900s to more recent data. Preliminary results from the GPS survey suggest regional subsidence of approximately 1-2 mm/yr of the Seward Peninsula, which supports one of the current glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models available for Western Alaska. The vertical velocity of the tectonic component and the satellite derived mean sea level trend will be coupled to produce a model of RSL change in Western Alaska that will be used to aid local communities in the development of adaptation strategies for changing coastal environments.

  7. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  8. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank

  9. Inferring the zonal distribution of measured changes in the meridional overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Boer

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, hydrographic measurements have been used to argue that the meridional overturning circulation at 25° N has decreased by 30% over the last 50 years. Here, we show that the most likely interpretation consistent with this approach (i.e., with the dynamic method together with a level-of-no-motion assumption and Ekman dynamics, is that any decrease in strength of the deep western boundary current must have been compensated, not by a basin-wide increase in upper layer southward flow, but by changes in the nonlinear region, immediately outside of the Florida Straits.

  10. A radio frequency device for measurement of minute dielectric property changes in microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunrong; Wang, Pingshan

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a sensitive radio frequency (rf) device to detect small dielectric property changes in microfluidic channel. The device consists of an on-chip Wilkinson power divider and a rat-race hybrid, which are built with planar microstrip lines and thin film chip resistors. Interference is used to cancel parasitic background signals. As a result, the measurement sensitivity is improved by more than 20 dB compared with conventional transmission lines. Compared with an ultrasensitive slot antenna/cuvette assembly [K. M. Taylor and D. W. van der Weide, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1576 (2005)], the proposed rf device is two times more sensitive.

  11. Data on force-dependent structural changes of chromatin fibers measured with magnetic tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tso Chien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The compaction of chromatin fibers regulates the accessibility of embedded DNA, highly associated with transcriptional activities [1]. Single molecule force spectroscopy has revealed the great details of the structural changes of chromatin fibers in the presence of external exerted force [2–7]. However, most of the studies focus on a specific force regime [2,3,8,9]. The data here show force-extension (FE traces of chromatin fibers as measured with magnetic tweezers, covering the force regime from 0 pN to 27 pN. Those traces provide information for further studies at varied force regimes.

  12. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  13. “Way-Centered” versus “Truth-Centered” Epistemologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Horsthemke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a criticism of “indigenous knowledge” has been that this idea makes sense only in terms of acquaintance (or familiarity type and practical (or skills-type knowledge (knowledge-how. Understood in terms of theoretical knowledge (or knowledge-that, however, it faces the arguably insurmountable problems of relativism and superstition. The educational implications of this would be that mere beliefs or opinions unanchored by reason(s, such as bald assertions, superstitions, prejudice and bias, should not be included in the curriculum, at least not under the guise of “knowledge”. Worthy of inclusion are skills and practical knowledge, as are traditional music, art, dance and folklore (qua folklore. Moreover, anything that meets the essential requirements for knowledge-that could in principle be included. Against this understanding of knowledge, and its educational implications, it has been contended that indigenous knowledge places no special emphasis on “belief”, “evidence” or “truth”, but that, according to indigenous practitioners, it is rather “the way” that constitutes knowledge, harmonious interaction and appropriate models of conduct. It has been argued, further, that cognitive states are (to be seen as “maps”, as useful and practical action-guides. This is why (so the argument for “polycentric epistemologies” or “polycentric global epistemology” goes divination, rain-making, rain-discarding, shamanism, sorcery, ceremony, ritual, mysticism, etc., must be acknowledged as ways of knowing (and as educationally valuable alongside animal husbandry, botany, medicine, mathematics, tool-making, and the like. The present paper investigates whether the “way-based” epistemological response is a plausible reply to the “truth-based” critique of indigenous knowledge (systems.

  14. Selecting quantitative water management measures at the river basin scale in a global change context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Caballero, Yvan; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the European Union is the definition of programme of measures to reach the good status of the European water bodies. In areas where water scarcity is an issue, one of these challenges is the selection of water conservation and capacity expansion measures to ensure minimum environmental in-stream flow requirements. At the same time, the WFD calls for the use of economic analysis to identify the most cost-effective combination of measures at the river basin scale to achieve its objective. With this respect, hydro-economic river basin models, by integrating economics, environmental and hydrological aspects at the river basin scale in a consistent framework, represent a promising approach. This article presents a least-cost river basin optimization model (LCRBOM) that selects the combination of quantitative water management measures to meet environmental flows for future scenarios of agricultural and urban demand taken into account the impact of the climate change. The model has been implemented in a case study on a Mediterranean basin in the south of France, the Orb River basin. The water basin has been identified as in need for quantitative water management measures in order to reach the good status of its water bodies. The LCRBOM has been developed using GAMS, applying Mixed Integer Linear Programming. It is run to select the set of measures that minimizes the total annualized cost of the applied measures, while meeting the demands and minimum in-stream flow constraints. For the economic analysis, the programme of measures is composed of water conservation measures on agricultural and urban water demands. It compares them with measures mobilizing new water resources coming from groundwater, inter-basin transfers and improvement in reservoir operating rules. The total annual cost of each measure is calculated for each demand unit considering operation, maintenance and

  15. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  16. Ground Truth Observations of the Interior of a Rockglacier as Validation for Geophysical Monitoring Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, C.; Roer, I.; Hauck, C.

    2007-12-01

    Monitoring the permafrost evolution in mountain regions is currently one of the important tasks in cryospheric studies as little data on past and present changes of the ground thermal regime and its material properties are available. In addition to recently established borehole temperature monitoring networks, techniques to determine and monitor the ground ice content have to be developed. A reliable quantification of ground ice is especially important for modelling the thermal evolution of frozen ground and for assessing the hazard potential due to thawing permafrost induced slope instability. Near surface geophysical methods are increasingly applied to detect and monitor ground ice occurrences in permafrost areas. Commonly, characteristic values of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity are used as indicators for the presence of frozen material. However, validation of the correct interpretation of the geophysical parameters can only be obtained through boreholes, and only regarding vertical temperature profiles. Ground truth of the internal structure and the ice content is usually not available. In this contribution we will present a unique data set from a recently excavated rockglacier near Zermatt/Valais in the Swiss Alps, where an approximately 5 m deep trench was cut across the rockglacier body for the construction of a ski track. Longitudinal electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography profiles were conducted prior to the excavation, yielding data sets for cross validation of commonly applied geophysical interpretation approaches in the context of ground ice detection. A recently developed 4-phase model was applied to calculate ice-, air- and unfrozen water contents from the geophysical data sets, which were compared to the ground truth data from the excavated trench. The obtained data sets will be discussed in the context of currently established geophysical monitoring networks in permafrost areas. In addition to the

  17. Measurement of chemical and geometrical surface changes in a wear track by a confocal height sensor and confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winogrodzka, A.; Valefi, M.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical and chemical changes in the wear track can cause a drift in friction level. In this paper, chemical and geometrical surface changes in wear tracks are analyzed. For this, a setup with a confocal height sensor was developed to measure the local height changes on the wear track, combined w

  18. Calibration of dimensional change in finite element models using AGR moderator brick measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, K., E-mail: kevin.mcnally@hsl.gsi.gov.uk [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Hall, G. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tan, E. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Marsden, B.J. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Warren, N. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Physically based models, resolved using the finite element (FE) method, are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within a reactor. These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions (field variables), and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Historically, behaviour on material properties have been obtained from Materials Test Reactor (MTR) experiments, however data relating to samples trepanned from operating reactors are increasingly being used to improve models. Geometry measurements from operating reactors offer the potential for improving the coded relationship for dimensional change in FE models. A non-linear mixed-effect model is presented for calibrating the parameters of FE models that are sensitive to mid-brick diameter, using channel geometry measurements obtained from inspection campaigns. The work makes use of a novel technique: the development of a Bayesian emulator, which is a surrogate for the FE model. The use of an emulator allows the influence of the inputs to the finite element model to be evaluated, and delivers a substantial reduction in the computational burden of calibration.

  19. Gravity change from repeated absolute measurements in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Falk, R.; Gitlein, O.; Kaminskis, J.; Lapushka, K.; Oja, T.; Paršeliunas, E.; Petroškevičius, P.; Timmen, L.

    2009-04-01

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania belong to the margin of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound (PGR) area. Vertical rates predicted by PGR models are in the range 0 to +3 mm/yr. Our first absolute gravity campaigns in the area were performed with the JILAg-5 gravimeter in 1994-1995 when three stations were measured in each country. All three stations in Lithuania were repeated with the JILAg-5 in 2002 and one of them (Vilnius) with the FG5#221 gravimeter in 2007. In Latvia one station (Riga) was remeasured with the FG5#101 and FG5#107 (D. Stizza, NIMA) in 1986 and with the FG5#221 in 2007. In Estonia two of the stations (Suurupi and Töravere) were remeasured with the FG5#220 in 2007 and with the FG5#221 in 2008, the third (Kuressaare) was only remeasured in 2008 with the FG5#221. This amounts to seven repeated stations with time spans of 8-13 years. In interpreting gravity change, special attention must be paid to subsurface water storage, as (due to inaccessibility of crystalline bedrock) many stations are on thick sediments, the repeat measurements were partly made in different seasons, and in some cases there is evidence of strong interannual variation in hydrology. We discuss the constraints to PGR implied by the observed gravity change and compare it with PGR models and with available observations of vertical motion.

  20. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.