WorldWideScience

Sample records for change infant feeding

  1. Fertility, Infant Feeding, and Change in Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howrigan, Gail A.

    1988-01-01

    Although the Yucatec pattern of child care conforms on the whole to the pattern seen in other agrarian societies, it is currently becoming destabilized as the society becomes more modern. Some of the developing customs, such as bottle-feeding, are maladaptive, at least in the short run. (RH)

  2. [Infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on.

  3. The difficulty with responding to policy changes for HIV and infant feeding in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paoli Marina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When and how to wean breastfed infants exposed to HIV infection has provoked extensive debate, particularly in low-income countries where safe alternatives to breastfeeding are rarely available. Although there is global consensus on optimal infant-feeding practices in the form of guidelines, practices are sub-optimal in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Policy-makers and health workers face many challenges in adapting and implementing these guidelines. Methods This paper is based on in-depth interviews with five policy-makers and 11 providers of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV, participant observations during clinic sessions and site visits. Results The difficulties with adapting the global infant-feeding guidelines in Malawi have affected the provision of services. There was a lack of consensus on HIV and infant-feeding at all levels and general confusion about the 2006 guidelines, particularly those recommending continued breastfeeding after six months if replacement feeding is not acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. Health workers found it particularly difficult to advise women to continue breastfeeding after six months. They worried that they would lose the trust of the PMTCT clients and the population at large, and they feared that continued breastfeeding was unsafe. Optimal support for HIV-infected women was noted in programmes where health workers were multi-skilled; coordinated their efforts and had functional, multidisciplinary task forces and engaged communities. The recent 2009 recommendations are the first to support antiretroviral (ARV use by mothers or children during breastfeeding. Besides promoting maternal health and providing protection against HIV infection in children, the new Rapid Advice has the potential to resolve the difficulties and confusion experienced by health workers in Malawi. Conclusions The process of integrating new evidence into

  4. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness.

  5. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness. PMID:26194743

  6. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  7. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  8. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  9. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  10. Illegitimacy, Infant Feeding Practices and Infant Survival in Sweden 1750–1950

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, John; Brändström, Anders; Edvinsson, Sören

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine regional variations in infant mortality and how these were related to the improvements in the survival of infants.4 Were there distinct regional differences in infant mortality during the early nineteenth century, that is, at the outset of the decline of infant mortality? Did these patterns change as mortality declined? One of the most important factors influencing levels of infant mortality is related to infant feeding practices, in particular breast-f...

  11. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  12. Does opening a milk bank in a neonatal unit change infant feeding practices? A before and after study

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    Fernández Cooke Elisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Donor human milk banks are much more than simple centers for collection, storage, processing, and distribution of donor human milk, as they cover other aspects and represent a real opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding. The aim of our study is to assess the impact that opening a human milk bank has had on the proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge and other aspects related to feeding children with birth weight Methods The study included babies of Results Children born in 2008 commenced feeding 16 hours earlier than those born in 2006 (p = 0.00. The proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge was 54% in 2006 and 56% in 2008 (p = 0.87. The number of days they received their mother's own milk during the first 28 days of life was 24.2 days in 2006, compared to 23.7 days in 2008 (p = 0.70. In 2006, 60% of infants received infant formula at least once in the first 28 days of life, compared to 37% in 2008 (p = 0.01. Conclusions The opening of a donor human milk bank in a neonatal unit did not reduce the proportion of infants exclusively fed with breast milk at discharge, but did reduce the proportion of infants that received infant formula during the first four weeks of life. Also, having donor human milk available enables commencement of enteral feeding earlier.

  13. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men For Women For Seniors Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers By Dayle Hayes, MS, RD ... of Pediatrics (AAP) agree: Well-planned vegetarian and vegan eating patterns are healthy for infants and toddlers. ...

  14. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  15. Historical review of the changing pattern of infant feeding in developing countries: the case of Malaysia, the Caribbean, Nigeria and Zaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J; Ashworth, A

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged lactation and early supplementation have been traditional practices among low-income mothers in Malaysia, the Caribbean, Nigeria and Zaire. Early supplementation is still the norm but there have been some substantial changes in the types of supplement offered. Thus, except in Zaire, there is now widespread use of processed milks as supplements for very young infants. The use of processed milks began in the 1920s in Malaysia and the Caribbean, but not until the 1960s in Nigeria. Processed milks are, as yet, rarely used in Zaire. The use of processed milks has not, however, led to the abandonment of traditional paps. The latter are still given as supplements to young infants in Nigeria and to older infants in Malaysia and the Caribbean. Breast-feeding duration has declined in Malaysia and the Caribbean although initiation is almost universal. In Nigeria and Zaire most low-income mothers continue to breast-feed for at least 12 months. The changes in the types of supplements used and in breast-feeding duration are analogous to the changes observed in industrialised countries from the mid-19th century, and many of the associated factors are similar: urbanisation; female participation in the labour force; increased availability of processed milks and their promotion both by companies and the health sector; and the regimentation of breast-feeding. This review highlights the negative role played by the health sector in the past, and discusses its future role in promoting and supporting breast-feeding. PMID:3324358

  16. An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory g...

  17. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  18. IS INFANT FEEDING ON COMPLEMENTARY FOOD REQUIRES ADDITIONAL PREBIOTICS?

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    Befikadu Tariku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, where more than 400 bacterial species are found. Bacterial colonization of the gut begins at birth, as newborns are maintained in a sterile status until the delivery begins, and continues throughout life, with notable age-specific changes. Human milk oligosaccharides are complex glycans that are highly abundant in human breast milk. It is generally accepted that human milk oligosaccharides have prebiotic effects, selectively serving as a source of energy and nutrients for desired bacteria to colonize the infant intestine. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides varied, indicates that the protective ability of breast milk based on human milk oligosaccharides vary. Prebiotic is commonly tested on infants not started complementary food as ingredients in formula and in adults. This review was intended to describe the outcomes of the prebiotic on the infants of complementary feeding age range and their tolerance to it. The study tried to identify articles published on the prebiotic and infants with complementary feeding age range. There were four studies on the complementary feeding age range of infants about the tolerance and effect of prebiotics use. Based on the gastrointestinal symptoms finding of the studies, the addition of the prebiotics were tolerated. All studies were based on the supplementation of the prebiotics to the formula or cereals. There is a need to identify the effect of addition of prebiotics to the infants of breastfeeding during introduction of complementary feeding, both by supplementation and based on the foods containing prebiotics.

  19. Technical inventions that enabled artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants, called hand-feeding, was unsafe well into the 19th century. This paper aims to identify technical innovations which made artificial feeding less dangerous. In rapid succession from 1844 to 1886, the vulcanization of rubber, production of rubber teats, cooling machines for large-scale ice production, techniques for milk pasteurization, evaporation and condensation, and packing in closed tins were invented or initiated. Remarkably, most of these inventions preceded the discovery of pathogenic bacteria. The producers of proprietary infant formula made immediate use of these innovations, whereas in the private household artificial feeding remained highly dangerous - mostly because of ignorance about bacteria and hygiene, and partly because the equipment for safe storage, transport, preparation and application of baby food was lacking.

  20. Economy in the feeding of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, E; Delaney, J; Dwyer, J T

    1977-02-01

    The food costs of various infant feeds were examined with focus on how these vary and the cost differences between different feeding patterns in the 1st year of life. The objectives were: 1) to compare prices for branded commercial milk-based products with other types of formulas and breast milk, and with each other according to source of supply, 2) to compare prices of different sources of Beikost (foods other than milk or formulas) used in feeding babies and how these vary by form (home made versus various types of commercially prepared products) and among brands, 3) to review total annual costs of 5 different hypothetical feeding patterns and actual patterns; and 4) to summarize factors other than price which may be significant in the economics and efficiency of infant feeding. National price survey data on a large number of commercial products from several companies producing food for infants were made available for this study. In addition, during June 1976 price surveys were conducted in several large supermarkets, small grocery stores, and drugstores in the Boston area to furnish information on local price differentials. The least expensive acceptable food for an infant was found to be a home made evaporated milk formula. While food costs were quite low, the formula must be prepared, and preparation time was slightly longer than it was with pre-mixed products. Whole milk was the most inexpensive milk-based feed but was undesirable for infant feeding, at least in the early months of life. On a moderate cost diet which supplies the extra nutrients required for lactation primarily from animal resources, lactation ranked in the middle from the standpoint of food cost. The various commercial milk-based feeds were nearly twice the cost of evaporated milk formulas. Concentrated formulas were least expensive, followed by powdered, with ready-to-feed products being the most expensive. Costs of breast feeding for a year ranged from $156 to $281, depending on the diet

  1. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  2. 'These are modern times': infant feeding practice in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, L

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, Malaysian women (Malay, Indian and Chinese) breastfed their infants as a matter of course and for an extended period of time; only elite Chinese women might have resorted to a wet-nurse. But the introduction of condensed and dehydrated milk in colonial Malaya from the late nineteenth century, and the later marketing also of commercially manufactured baby foods, led to some variation in traditional practice. Structural changes, industrialiZation and urbanisation affected social as well as economic life, and again these broad changes had an impact on infant feeding. Today, few women remain unfamiliar with the wide range of infant food products sold in the most isolated provision shops. This paper focuses on key sociological factors that might predict the frequency and duration of breastfeeding and weaning patterns. The data analysed below, collected during semi-structured interviews with 278 women presenting at Maternal and Child Health Clinics in Peninsular Malaysia, are in part confusing. They suggest that the women most likely to bottle feed only or to breast feed for a short period, and to use commercial baby foods, are young, with one child only, who reside in urban or peri-urban areas and have a reasonable household income. Higher educated women, and women whose husbands are in non-traditional occupations, are also less likely to breast feed or to do so for an extended period. But the profile of infant feeding practices is by no means clear. One of the shortcomings of the study relates to the method of collection of data, and highlights the need for detailed ethnographic studies to better explore the variability and complexity of the patterns of infant feeding. PMID:6695200

  3. Development of Gastrointestinal Motility and Feeding Techniques in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Çam, Halit; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Mıkla, Şerare

    1994-01-01

    Premature infants have high energy and nutrient requirements for their rapid growth On the other hand they have many feeding problems caused by motility immaturities such as poor sucking and swallow reflexes a small stomach capacity and a weak gag reflex The purpose of this review is to discuss the enteral feeding techniques and the feeding schedule in premature infants Key words: Premature Infant Development Of Gastrointestinal Motility Feeding Techniques

  4. [Development of oral feeding skills in the preterm infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C

    2007-09-01

    Preterm infants cannot readily transition from tube to oral feeding. Such difficulty often delays their discharge from the hospital and mother-infant reunion. Therefore, understanding the development of the necessary skills preterm infants need to acquire for safe and successful oral feeding is essential. It is now recognized that a mature sucking pattern consisting of the rhythmic alternation of suction and expression is not sufficient for an infant to feed by mouth safely. Rather, an adequate coordination of sucking, swallowing, and respiration appear to be crucial if the infant is to feed with no episodes of desaturation, apnea, bradycardia, and/or aspiration. Studies have shown the benefits of some interventions in facilitating oral feeding in the preterm infant. However, it remains to be determined whether these effects can be generalized.

  5. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Caren; Van Wouwe, JP; Reijneveld, SA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged = 38 wk of gestation, with a bir

  6. Evaluation of Feeding Torerance in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzetti, V.

    2016-01-01

    Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is an important and common problem in obstetrics. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate: 1. Feeding issues in IUGR preterm infants; 2. Clinical and strumental parameters as predictors of feeding tolerance in IUGR preterm infants; 3. Splanchnic a

  7. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  8. Exposure to Large-Scale Social and Behavior Change Communication Interventions Is Associated with Improvements in Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Mwangi, Edina M.; Tesfaye, Roman; Abebe, Yewelsew; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Optimal breastfeeding (BF) practices in Ethiopia are far below the government’s targets, and complementary feeding practices are poor. The Alive & Thrive initiative aimed to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through large-scale implementation of social and behavior change communication interventions in four regions of Ethiopia. The study assessed the effects of the interventions on IYCF practices and anthropometry over time in two regions–Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and Tigray. A pre- and post-intervention adequacy evaluation design was used; repeated cross-sectional surveys of households with children aged 0–23.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1494) and with children aged 24–59.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1475) were conducted at baseline (2010) and endline (2014), respectively. Differences in outcomes over time were estimated using regression models, accounting for clustering and covariates. Plausibility analyses included tracing recall of key messages and promoted foods and dose-response analyses. We observed improvements in most WHO-recommended IYCF indicators. Early BF initiation and exclusive BF increased by 13.7 and 9.4 percentage points (pp), respectively. Differences for timely introduction of complementary foods, minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD), and consumption of iron-rich foods were 22.2, 3.3, 26.2, 3.5, and 2.7 pp, respectively. Timely introduction and intake of foods promoted by the interventions improved significantly, but anthropometric outcomes did not. We also observed a dose-response association between health post visits and early initiation of BF (OR: 1.8); higher numbers of home visits by community volunteers and key messages recalled were associated with 1.8–4.4 times greater odds of achieving MDD, MMF, and MAD, and higher numbers of radio spots heard were associated with 3 times greater odds of achieving MDD and MAD. The interventions were

  9. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles.

  10. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  11. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  12. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  13. Breast Feeding And Its Significance In Infant Feeding Practices In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavady Bhavani

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on breast-feeding practices have revealed a satisfactory situation in many parts of the country. However, adequacy in terms of quality and quantity of breast milk has not been studied much. Reports available indicate secretion of adequate amount of milk by the mother. This however should not be equated with adequacy of nutrients to this growing child. Concentrations of vitamins are low. The immunologica factors, proteins, minerals and calorie content are in the normal ranges observed in milk samples obtained from well-nourished mother. Breast-feeding should be recommended for as long as possible with adequate supplements. This will have a salubrious effect on the infant and help mothers in spacing births of children. Growth of infants fed soley on breast milk is satisfactory during the first 4 to 5 months. Proper time and type of supplements to be recommended for the community in general need to be studied. Effect of work outside the house on the mother and child, if any, has not received the attention it deserves. High priority has to be a corded to this study, in the present context of dynamic change occurring in the country in relation to the working status of women. Indian is considered a developing country and Indians are conservative by nature. Attitude of the community to infant feeding has not change much except in the educated urban elite and a small section of the poor who consider practice among the former as ideal. The concern and anxiety expressed with regard to breast-feeding by health personnel in foreign countries have not evoked the same response in our country. Reasons are many but if any single reason is to be assigned, it is the popularity of breast-feeding in a vast majority of our mothers. This article will highlight the findings of selected surveys on breast-feeding in the context of our present infant and pre-school feeding practices and refers to the quality and quantity of breast milk briefly.

  14. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  15. The Value of Listening to Grandmothers’ Infant-Feeding Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Grassley, Jane S.; Eschiti, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of storytelling as a foundation for communicating with grandmothers about breastfeeding. The benefits of storytelling are applied to an analysis of infant-feeding stories that grandmothers told during a focus group study conducted by the authors. Thirty-five grandmothers participated in the study. A qualitative content analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that grandmothers’ infant-feeding stories provided insights into the peop...

  16. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30% had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%, while 12 (14% required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%, prematurity (33% or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%. Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22% had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82% were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding.

  17. Relationship between maternal obesity and infant feeding-interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data regarding the relationship between maternal adiposity and interaction and feeding of infants and possible contribution to childhood obesity. In this study we determined the relationship between maternal body weight and composition and infant feeding patterns and maternal-infant interaction during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (EMTAC. Methods The amount of time four obese (BMI = 33.5 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and three normal weight (BMI = 23.1 ± 0.6 kg/m2 biological mothers, spent feeding and interacting with their infants, along with what they ingested, was recorded during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the EMTAC. The seven infants were 4.9 ± 0.7 months, 69 ± 3 cm, 7.5 ± 0.8 kg, 26 ± 3 % fat and 29 ± 25 percentile for weight for length. Energy and macronutrient intake (kcal/kg were assessed. Maternal body composition was determined by air displacement plethysmorgraphy and that of the infants by skin-fold thicknesses. Pearson correlations and independent t-tests were utilized for statistical analysis (p Results Infants born to obese biological mothers consumed more energy (87.6 ± 18.9 vs. 68.1 ± 17.3 and energy as carbohydrate (25 ± 6 vs.16 ± 3; p Conclusion Greater maternal body weight and percent body fat were associated with greater infant energy intakes. These infants were fed less frequently and consumed more carbohydrates in a shorter period of time as compared to infants from normal weight biological mothers. These variations in feeding patterns may predispose certain infants to obesity.

  18. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history.

  19. Maternal Infant Feeding Behaviors and Disparities in Early Child Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Rachel S.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Hauser, Nicole R.; Messito, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although disparities in child obesity exist during infancy, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Assessing dissimilarities in feeding practices, styles, and beliefs may provide a better understanding of these mechanisms. This study sought to identify modifiable maternal-infant feeding behaviors that may contribute to disparities in early child obesity.

  20. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need

  1. Feeding premature infants after hospital discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Doris E

    1998-01-01

    Supplying adequate nutrition to premature infants is an ongoing challenge. Common medical conditions that premature infants develop and therapies given to them can increase their nutritional requirements or interfere with the delivery of nutrients. This article outlines factors to consider when prescribing appropriate diet and nutritional supplements at hospital discharge.

  2. Oral Feeding Competences of Healthy Preterm Infants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bertoncelli

    2012-01-01

    from 2009 up to 2011. Main Results. Increasingly robust alertness prior to and during feeding does positively impact the infant’s feeding Skills. The review found that oral and non-oral sensorimotor interventions, provided singly or in combination, shortened the transition time to independent oral feeding in preterm infants and that preterm infants who received a combined oral and sensorimotor intervention demonstrated more advanced nutritive sucking, suck-swallow and swallow-respiration coordination than those who received an oral or sensorimotor intervention singly.

  3. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  4. Feeding the feeble: steps towards nourishing preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes historic steps in feeding techniques and knowledge on the nutritional needs of premature infants. Devices to overcome weak sucking and swallowing were developed from 1851 to 1920, including tube feeding by gavage, medicine droppers and pipettes, feeding bottles with an air inlet, and beaked spoons for nasal feeding. Indwelling nastrogastric tubes were in use from 1951. For alleged safety concerns in the 1950s, postnatal feeding was postponed until a week of starvation was reached, and studies showed an association with neurological handicaps. The premature infant's elevated need for energy, protein, and minerals has been established since 1919. However, these remained controversial, and nutritional practices continued to lag behind theoretical knowledge. Concentrated formula was developed in the 1940s, parenteral supplementation in the 1960s, and human milk fortifiers in the 1970s. In the 1990s, necrotizing enterocolitis was found to be more frequent in infants who were fed formula than in those who were fed human milk. Recently, probiotics were shown to reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Nevertheless, compared with other aspects of neonatal medicine, there is still remarkably little evidence on how to feed preterm infants. PMID:24706425

  5. Feeding the feeble: steps towards nourishing preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes historic steps in feeding techniques and knowledge on the nutritional needs of premature infants. Devices to overcome weak sucking and swallowing were developed from 1851 to 1920, including tube feeding by gavage, medicine droppers and pipettes, feeding bottles with an air inlet, and beaked spoons for nasal feeding. Indwelling nastrogastric tubes were in use from 1951. For alleged safety concerns in the 1950s, postnatal feeding was postponed until a week of starvation was reached, and studies showed an association with neurological handicaps. The premature infant's elevated need for energy, protein, and minerals has been established since 1919. However, these remained controversial, and nutritional practices continued to lag behind theoretical knowledge. Concentrated formula was developed in the 1940s, parenteral supplementation in the 1960s, and human milk fortifiers in the 1970s. In the 1990s, necrotizing enterocolitis was found to be more frequent in infants who were fed formula than in those who were fed human milk. Recently, probiotics were shown to reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Nevertheless, compared with other aspects of neonatal medicine, there is still remarkably little evidence on how to feed preterm infants.

  6. Feeding considerations in infants born with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Subramanya Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants born with the congenital deformity of cleft lip and or palate suffer from varieties of complications since the day 1 of their life. The most important of which is the feeding difficulty which leads to insufficient food intake and thereby causing deleterious effects on their overall development leading to malnutrition and death in some cases. However, research into the anatomical variations of these infants in the region of lip and palate has led to the development of several types of feeders and their modifications which would help them thrive well in the initial days and also for later. Hence, it is worth important to know about them in detail and help these infants and their families psychologically so that the infants do not suffer from feeding difficulties anymore.

  7. Infant feeding practices of migrant farmlaborers in Northern Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley, Beth

    1989-01-01

    The infant feeding practices and associated environment of 49 infants (6-23 months) of migrant farm laborers in Northern Colorado were investigated during the summer of 1987. Information was collected on 1) breastfeeding practices, 2) introduction of foods and liquids, 3) nutrition and health practices and inadequacies, 4) home living environment, 5) health history, and 6) demographics. Data on the sources of food and nutrition information was collected regarding the 1) u...

  8. Glucose polymer supplementation of feeds for very low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Raffles, A; Schiller, G; Erhardt, P; Silverman, M

    1983-01-01

    The feeds of 14 very low birthweight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) were supplemented with a glucose polymer (Caloreen) at the rate of 6 g/kg body weight daily. Seven day periods of supplementation were alternated with seven day periods of normal feeding. Adding the glucose polymer significantly increased the rate of weight gain in these infants from 105 g/week to 140 g/week; growth rates in terms of length and head circumference were not affected. No adverse effects were noted. Gluc...

  9. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kojo Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n=27] and mixed feeding [MF; n=13] in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P=.034. Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg, although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m2 versus 3.8 kg/m2 and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1% were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.

  10. Improving Outcomes for Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology through Standardized Feeding during the Interstage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Weston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is identified as the most common birth defect with single ventricle physiology carrying the highest mortality. Staged surgical palliation is required for treatment, with mortality historically as high as 22% in the four- to six-month period from the first- to second-stage surgical palliation, known as the interstage. A standardized postoperative feeding approach was implemented through an evidence-based protocol, parent engagement, and interprofessional team rounds. Five infants with single ventricle physiology preprotocol were compared with five infants who received the standardized feeding approach. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to evaluate the hypotheses that infants in the intervention condition would consume more calories and have a positive change in weight-to-age z-score (WAZ and shorter length of stay (LOS following the first and second surgeries compared to infants in the control condition. After the protocol, the change in WAZ during the interstage increased by virtually one standard deviation from 0.05 to 0.91. Median LOS dropped 32% after the first surgery and 43% after the second surgery. Since first- and second-stage palliative surgeries occur within the same year of life, this represents savings of $500,000 to $800,000 per year in a 10-infant model. The standardized feeding approach improved growth in single ventricle infants while concurrently lowering hospital costs.

  11. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  12. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p tube feeding (p Ultrasonic homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants. PMID:8229535

  13. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  14. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  15. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes.

  16. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  17. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2...

  18. An Opinion on "Staging" of Infant Formula: A Developmental Perspective on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is a dynamic fluid with compositional changes occurring throughout the period of lactation. Some of these changes in nutrient concentrations reflect the successively slowing growth rate and developmental changes in metabolic requirements that infants undergo during the first year of life. Infant formula, in contrast, has a static composition, intended to meet the nutritional requirements of infants from birth to 6 or 12 months of age. To better fit the metabolic needs of infants and to avoid nutrient limitations or excesses, we suggest that infant formulas should change in composition with the age of the infant, that is, different formulas are created/used for different ages during the first year of life. We propose that specific formulas for 0 to 3 months (stage 1), 3 to 6 months (stage 2), and 6 to 12 months (stage 3) of age may be nutritionally and physiologically advantageous to infants. Although this initially may impose some difficult practical/conceptual issues, we believe that this staging concept would improve nutrition of formula-fed infants and, ultimately, improve outcomes and make their performance more similar to that of breast-fed infants.

  19. Effects of Early Feeding Support on the Postoperative Weight Gain Status of Infants with Esophageal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ghorbani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infants may lose their body resources after surgery due to inadequate nutrient intake and undergoing long periods of fasting after surgery for esophageal atresia, increases risk of several complications. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of early feeding support on the postoperative weight gain status of infants with esophageal atresia. Method: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on 36 infants with esophageal atresia (type C selected 48 hours after surgery during July 2015-March 2016 at Dr. Sheikh Hospital of Mashhad, Iran. In the intervention group, detecting no lack of leakage on chest X-ray, feeding was initiated and the control group received routine feeding. Neonatal weight changes were measured daily using a digital scale (TANITA model since the first day after the surgery and one month after discharge from the hospital. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16 by independent T-test and Chi-square. Results: Mean neonatal weight on admission was 2558.1±337.4 grams in the intervention group and 2547.6±856 grams in the control group (P=0.47. Results of independent T-test showed that daily weight gain before and after feeding was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (P=0.01. Moreover, weight gain one month after discharge had a significant difference between infants of the intervention and control groups (P=0.03. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, early feeding support could improve the weight index of neonates with esophageal atresia. Considering the possible complications and long-term consequences of surgery, early initiation of feeding could be an appropriate remedial measure in infants with esophageal atresia.

  20. Breastfeeding and lactation research: exploring a tool to measure infant feeding patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Noel-Weiss, Joy; Taljaard, Monica; Kujawa-Myles, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant feeding categories, often referred to as breastfeeding definitions, form the basis to describe infant feeding patterns; especially, breastfeeding duration and degree of breastfeeding exclusivity. Researchers use a variety of algorithms and no validated tool exists to measure feeding patterns for research purposes. The goal of this research project was to develop and test a tool to measure patterns of infant feeding for breastfeeding and lactation research. Methods We used a ...

  1. The Voice of Low-Income Adolescent Mothers on Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mills, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent mothers' feeding practices impact infant weight gain. Infant obesity, especially in low-income families, is rapidly increasing. The aim of the exploratory study reported here was to identify factors affecting low-income African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers' infant feeding practices and useful learning…

  2. Eating in "SINC": Safe Individualized Nipple-Feeding Competence, a Quality Improvement Project to Explore Infant-Driven Oral Feeding for Very Premature Infants Requiring Noninvasive Respiratory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Stacey R; Kostecky, Linda L; Blachly, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    Oral feeding is a developmental task for all premature infants. often, independent nipple feeding is the last barrier to discharge home from the NICU. A relationship exists between consistent, infant-driven feeding management practices and improved feeding performance. Conversely, a random approach to feeding may contribute to poor short-term and long-term clinical outcomes. We report a quality improvement project that was undertaken across five NICUs in an urban setting. our aim was to safely initiate and advance nipple feeding for very preterm neonates (born at positive airway pressure therapy. A novel algorithm entitled "eating in SINC: Safe individualized nipple-Feeding Competence" was developed. Safe individualized nipple-feeding competence involves the baby, the parents, and the health care team by using infant-driven strategies, common language, and developmentally appropriate goals while supporting fragile neonates to be skilled feeders. PMID:27461200

  3. Infant feeding choices: experience, self-identity and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Naomi; Harvey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In England, 78% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and, in the UK, less than 1% exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to do so. This study investigated women's infant feeding choices using in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of infants aged 7-18 weeks. Using content analysis, four themes emerged: (1) information, knowledge and decision making, (2) physical capability, (3) family and social influences, (4) lifestyle, independence and self-identity. While women were aware of the 'Breast is Best' message, some expressed distrust in this information if they had not been breastfed themselves. Women felt their own infant feeding choice was influenced by the perceived norm among family and friends. Women described how breastfeeding hindered their ability to retain their self-identities beyond motherhood as it limited their independence. Several second-time mothers felt they lacked support from health professionals when breastfeeding their second baby, even if they had previously encountered breastfeeding difficulties. The study indicates that experience of breastfeeding and belief in the health benefits associated with it are important factors for initiation of breastfeeding, while decreased independence and self-identity may influence duration of breastfeeding. Intervention and support schemes should tackle all mothers, not just first-time mothers.

  4. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed E Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of mothers on the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of the Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 123 women who had delivered within the last year were interviewed in a house-to-house survey. A study instrument was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Most of the mothers were aged less than 30 years (78.04% and were Hindus (73.9%. Most were illiterate (69.9% and belonged to the lower socioeconomic class (97.5%. The majority were housewives (99.1% and multiparous (68.2%. Most had initiated breastfeeding (78.8% within 24 hours of delivery. About 15.4% of the infants did not receive colostrum and 22.8% of the infants were not exclusively breastfed. Ghutti (water mixed with honey and herbs, boiled water, tea, and animal milk were commonly used pre-lacteal feeds. About 47.2% of the respondents were not aware of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. About one quarter of the mothers started complementary feeding before the child was six months old. About half the deliveries had taken place at home and only a quarter of the females had had three or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. The birth weight of the majority (78% of newborns was not measured. A majority (69.9% of the mothers did not receive advice on child feeding. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed

  5. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  6. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future.

  7. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future. PMID:26429347

  8. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  9. Effect of Four Approaches to Oral Feeding Progression on Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita H. Pickler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study of preterm infants was to test the effect of four approaches to the time of transition from gavage to full oral feedings, time to discharge, and weight gain during the transition. Methods. A randomized experimental design was used with four intervention groups: early start (32 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience (gradually increasing oral feedings offered per day; early start/maximum experience (oral feedings offered at every feeding opportunity; late start (34 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience; and late start/maximum experience. Results. The analysis included 86 preterm infants. Once oral feedings were initiated, infants in the late start/maximum experience group achieved full oral feeding and were discharged to home significantly sooner than infants in either early start group. Although not significantly different, these infants also achieved these outcomes sooner than infants in the late start/slow progressing experience group. There were no differences in weight gain across groups. Conclusions. Results suggest starting oral feedings later in preterm infants may result in more rapid transition to full oral feedings and discharge although not at early postnatal ages. Provision of a more consistent approach to oral feeding may support infant neurodevelopment and reduce length of hospitalization.

  10. Bottle feeding and ideology in colonial Malaya: the production of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, L

    1982-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the correlation between high infant morbidity and mortality rates and the increased incidence of bottle feeding. The shift from prolonged breast feeding to a mixed regime or the exclusive use of sweetened condensed milk or infant formula has been related to the promotional activities of milk companies, and typically has been presented as a relatively recent development in Third World countries. However, the marketing of tinned and powdered milk only partially explains the increased use of these products. In colonial Malaya, condensed milk was marketed from the late 19th century. Infant formula was available from the turn of the century and was widely advertised, first in the English-language press and later also in the vernacular presses. At the same time, other social and cultural factors served to discourage breast feeding. There were changes in ideas regarding ideal body weight for both women and infants, and regarding infant care and diet; these ideas were presented in the mass media. In addition, maternal and child health clinics, established in the 1920s to reduce the high infant mortality rate, both propagated popular beliefs about infant weight and supplied milk and educated women to artificially feed their infants. Industry, the media, and health services all promoted, if not always intentionally, bottle feeding rather than breast feeding. Bottle feeding as an ideal, if not a reality, was thus well established before the intensive promotion of milk products by multinational corporations that followed the political independence of the colony. PMID:6754637

  11. Feeding Practices among Infants in a Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Das Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper feeding practices during infancy are necessary for the growth and development of infants and to prevent malnutrition. This study was conducted to describe the feeding practice among infants in a rural area in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2013. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews of 212 mothers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding rates were 40.6% and 97.3%, respectively. One third of the mothers practiced prelactal feeding, and honey was the most common item. Maternal illness (72.7% was the most common reason for not giving breast milk. Infant formula was used as an alternative food in majority of the cases (72.7%. Conclusion: Percentage of exclusive breast feeding was not satisfactory. Encouragement of female education is recommended to improve feeding practices and infant care.

  12. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain.

  13. WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study: protocol design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gail G; Hirschman, Jay D; Owens, Tameka A; McNutt, Suzanne W; Sallack, Linnea E

    2014-03-01

    The federal Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), which began in the 1970s, has undergone revisions in the past several years, including revision to contents of the supplemental food "packages" in 2009 based on recommendations provided by an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee of The National Academies. In 2010, the IOM held a workshop to examine and recommend research priorities for the program. The overall purpose of the current (ie, second) WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study (ITFPS-2) is to conduct a nationally representative, longitudinal study of contemporary WIC infant and toddler feeding practices. This study will update earlier studies and collect information on variations in WIC program components. The study will also assess ways in which WIC may address obesity in early childhood and examine changes in feeding practices that may stem from the 2009 food package revisions. The sample is drawn from the universe of WIC sites nationally, excluding only those with an insufficient volume of eligible participants. Eligibility for the study includes the ability to be interviewed in English or Spanish. Approximately 8000 women and infants are being sampled, and ∼ 4000 are expected to participate. Eligible women are invited to participate during their WIC enrollment visit, and informed consent is sought. The design includes a core sample to be followed until the infant reaches age 2 y and a supplemental sample to be used in some cross-sectional analyses to ensure adequate representation of groups that might be underrepresented in the core sample. Participants will complete up to 11 interviews (core sample) or 4 interviews (supplemental sample) each except for the prenatal interview, which includes a quantitative 24-h recall of food intake for the infant. Eighty sites have been sampled across 26 states and 1 territory. Instruments have been developed and pretested in both English and Spanish, and interviewers

  14. The scope and practice of behaviour change communication to improve infant and young child feeding in low- and middle-income countries: results of a practitioner study in international development organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; Van Liere, Marti; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    We describe features of the landscape of behaviour change communication (BCC) practice devoted to infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in low- and middle-income countries by practitioners in international development organizations. We used an iterative, snowball sampling procedure to identify participants, and the self-administered questionnaire contained pre-coded questions and open-ended questions, relying primarily on content analysis to derive generalizations. Highlights of findings include (i) IYCF-specific BCC is usually delivered within the context of other public health messages and programmes; (ii) technical assistance with programme development and implementation are primary activities, and evaluation-related work is also common; and (iii) formative research and evaluation is universal, but process evaluation is not. With respect to scaling up nutrition: (i) use of mass media and digital technology generally play only a minor role in BCC activities and are not currently an integral part of BCC programming strategies and (ii) only 58% of the participants report activities related to communication with policy makers. The individuals who comprise the community of BCC leaders in the area of IYCF are a diverse group from the perspective of academic backgrounds and nationalities. In addition to nutrition, public health, agriculture and adult learning are common disciplinary backgrounds. In our view, this diversity is a source of strength. It facilitates continuing growth and maturation in the field by assuring inputs of different perspectives, theoretical orientations and experiences. PMID:25753402

  15. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. PMID:27187461

  16. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Toh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO, 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001. These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  17. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Video Coding Scheme, IFSVCS) applied to both interview and video-taped data. We found that the most frequent feeding styles identified for both interviews and videotaped observations was restrictive, but that mothers were roughly equally divided among predominantly controlling (pressuring or restrictive) and less controlling (laissez-faire or indulgent) styles across methods. However, for over 2/3 of the sample, there was a lack of correspondence between interview and video-taped feeding styles. This unique characterization and comparison of observed and reported infant feeding styles provides additional insights into parental feeding approaches among mothers of infants at high risk of obesity, and highlights the need for further study of feeding style assessment and potential impact on infant weight outcomes. PMID:17336423

  18. Intravenous fluids versus gastric-tube feeding in hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis: a randomized, prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Amir; Raibin, Karine; Dabbah, Husein; Chistyakov, Irina; Srugo, Isaac; Even, Lea; Bzezinsky, Nurit; Riskin, Arieh

    2013-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends intravenous fluids for infants with bronchiolitis who are unable to sustain oral feedings. Our randomized, prospective pilot study shows that gastric tube feeding (in 31 infants) is feasible and demonstrated comparable clinical outcomes with intravenous fluids (in 20 infants) among hospitalized infants ≤6 months of age with moderate bronchiolitis.

  19. A study of marketing and its effect on infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, A

    2001-09-01

    A baby milk market was created in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was conceived through the mutual attraction of the manufacturers and doctors. This has partly attributed to the change from breast to artificial feeding. This study was conducted to determine whether marketing had any effect on infant feeding practices. Fifty Malay mothers whose last child was aged less than five years were asked, by questionnaire and by interview, to identify whether several marketing methods influenced their decision on the selection of infant feeding practice. It was found that these mothers felt milk advertisements on television were attractive (72%), were influenced by others to buy a particular brand of formula (38.4%), were influenced by free milk samples to buy a particular brand of milk formula (65.2%) and were not influenced by their doctors on the chosen method of feeding (68%). More studies should be conducted on a bigger sample in other settings and targeting other methods of marketing to substantiate the above results. Further, similar studies among Chinese and Indian mothers are also required. PMID:11732077

  20. Women Literacy and Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) Block of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Davey Sanjeev , Davey Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infant feeding practices have significant effect on the child nutrition, which largely dependent upon the mothers correct knowledge and awareness for the same. Objective: To find out effect of rural women empowerment through literacy on infant feeding practices in an ICDS block. Material and Methodology: Interview of the mothers of registered children up to 6 years in the rural ICDS block for the feeding practices and recording of the weight of those registered children by the sal...

  1. Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159392.html Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome' C-section birth ... microbiomes" are altered by cesarean births, antibiotics and formula feeding. "The microbiome is really important in how ...

  2. Characterization of the developmental stages of sucking in preterm infants during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Alagugurusamy, R; Schanler, R J; Smith, E O; Shulman, R J

    2000-07-01

    It is acknowledged that the difficulty many preterm infants have in feeding orally results from their immature sucking skills. However, little is known regarding the development of sucking in these infants. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the bottle-feeding performance of preterm infants is positively correlated with the developmental stage of their sucking. Infants' oral-motor skills were followed longitudinally using a special nipple/bottle system which monitored the suction and expression/compression component of sucking. The maturational process was rated into five primary stages based on the presence/absence of suction and the rhythmicity of the two components of sucking, suction and expression/compression. This five-point scale was used to characterize the developmental stage of sucking of each infant. Outcomes of feeding performance consisted of overall transfer (percent total volume transferred/volume to be taken) and rate of transfer (ml/min). Assessments were conducted when infants were taking 1-2, 3-5 and 6-8 oral feedings per day. Significant positive correlations were observed between the five stages of sucking and postmenstrual age, the defined feeding outcomes, and the number of daily oral feedings. Overall transfer and rate of transfer were enhanced when infants reached the more mature stages of sucking. We have demonstrated that oral feeding performance improves as infants' sucking skills mature. In addition, we propose that the present five-point sucking scale may be used to assess the developmental stages of sucking of preterm infants. Such knowledge would facilitate the management of oral feeding in these infants.

  3. Fabricating feeding plate in CLP infants with two different material: A series of case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is a family′s biggest concerns when a child is born with cleft lip and/or palate. The goal for that child is to have as near normal feeding as possible. This report presents fabrication of feeding plates in two infants born with cleft lip and palate using two different materials.

  4. Picky Eating Habits or Sensory Processing Issues? Exploring Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Rains, Kari W.

    2010-01-01

    For infants and toddlers demonstrating feeding problems, it is critical to find the basis for the problems to create more pleasurable mealtimes for the child, his or her family members, and caregivers. Feeding difficulties can affect general health, developmental gains, and emotional well-being. Understanding the cause of feeding problems and…

  5. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk. PMID:26088812

  6. Breast feeding and growth in a group of selected 0 to 24 months infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHO is undertaking a combined growth study in several countries, in order to establish adequate growth curves for breast-feeding infants. Present growth charts in use, were obtained in a sample of breast and artificial feeding infants, which have overestimated the growth needs. In our country during the last two decades the number of mothers who decide to breast-feed their infants has permanently grown, due to the implementation of health care programs that promote, mother-infant interaction tight after birth, in all Public Hospitals, and education programs for the mothers, during both antenatal and post natal control of mother and child. The last figures obtained in a country sample of 10000 mother-infant pair, shows that 45% of the mothers are exclusively breast-feeding their infants at 6 months of age. This figure could increase if our infants were evaluated by the adequate charts, because it is of common use that many health professionals suggest to stop breast-feeding because the infant is not growing according the charts in use. The anthropometric study proposed by WHO will benefit considerably by adding determination of breast-milk intake using isotopic dilution of deuterium, a standard procedure proposed by Coward et al and extensively used in our country. The proposed study will also include milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) and energy density of milk to correlate energy supply, milk volume and growth. (author)

  7. Associations between infant feeding practices and length, weight, and disease in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, nonexclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough. We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 centimeters and weight by 0.25 kilograms and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8%, 12%, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or nonmilk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices.

  8. Effects of the neonatal intensive care unit environment on preterm infant oral feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickler RH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita H Pickler,1 Jacqueline M McGrath,2 Barbara A Reyna,3 Heather L Tubbs-Cooley,1 Al M Best4, Mary Lewis,3 Sharon Cone,3 Paul A Wetzel51Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut and Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA; 3VCU Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Dentistry, 5School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the effect of neonatal intensive care unit environmental characteristics (perceived levels of light and sound, and time of day in open unit wards and single-family rooms (SFRs on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants.Design: Data were collected at each scheduled oral feeding for 87 preterm infants from the first oral feeding until discharge. Data included the prescribed volume of feeding and the volume consumed, the infant's level of wakefulness before feeding, and the nurse's perception of light and sound.Results: Data were collected on 5111 feedings in the ward unit and 5802 in the SFR unit from feedings involving 87 preterm infants. Light and sound were rated significantly lower in the SFR (χ2 = 139 and 1654.8, respectively. Feeding times of 9 am, 12 noon, and 3 pm were associated with the highest perceived levels of light and sound, regardless of unit design (P < 0.0001. Moderate light levels and feeding times of 12, 3, and 6 am were associated with improved feeding outcomes. Infants consumed a greater proportion of their prescribed feeding volume when fed in the open ward and when awake before feeding.Conclusion: Further study on the clinical effects of unit design is needed, as is study on the effects of environmental stimuli, so that interventions can be appropriately developed and tailored for infants needing the most support for optimal development.Keywords: NICU design, clinical outcomes, environment

  9. The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Sullivan, Serena E; de Jersey, Susan J; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-10-01

    Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted. PMID:27133549

  10. Feeding very-low-birth-weight infants: our aspirations versus the reality in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. Corpeleijn; M.J. Vermeulen; C.H. van den Akker; J.B. van Goudoever

    2011-01-01

    Recently, new guidelines for enteral feedings in premature infants were issued by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. Nevertheless, practice proves difficult to attain suggested intakes at all times, and occurrence of significant pote

  11. Is there an advantage for preterm infants to feed orally in an upright or sidelying position?

    OpenAIRE

    LAU, CHANTAL

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, nursing staff and feeding therapists have promoted the upright and sidelying bottle feeding positions as ‘optimal’ for preterm infants. To verify such benefits, very low birth weight infants were randomized to being fed in the customary semi-reclined (control), upright, or side-lying position. The primary outcome was days from start to independent oral feeding. Secondary outcomes included infants’ oral feeding skill levels monitored when taking 1,2, 3–5, and 6–8 oral fee...

  12. Infant feeding practices in Kenya, Mexico and Malaysia. The rarity of the exclusively breast-fed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, H J; Ashworth, A

    1987-02-01

    Infant feeding practices of 6149 mothers in Kenya, Mexico and Malaysia are reported. A high proportion of mothers initiated breast-feeding in each country regardless of social class. Most Kenyan mothers continued to breast-feed for at least 12 months. In Mexico and Malaysia, however, breast-feeding was discontinued relatively early, especially among urban mothers. Early supplementation of breast-fed infants with milk and/or other food was a common practice in each of the three countries. Among breast-fed infants below 4 months of age, the percentages who were exclusively breast-fed in the urban elite, urban poor and rural groups respectively were 6, 14 and 21 per cent in Kenya, 8, 19 and 31 per cent in Mexico, and 11, 9 and 11 per cent in Malaysia. Supplementation of breast-fed infants in the first two months of life was more likely to be with infant formula than with any other milk or food. At three months of age, however, nonmilk foods were the most common supplements in all population groups with the exception of those in urban Kenya. The policy implications are discussed.

  13. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  14. Influences on infant feeding decisions of first-time mothers in five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, H; Williams, P.; Von Rosen-Von Hoewel, J; Laitinen, K.; Jakobik, V; Martin-Bautista, E; Schmid, M.; Egan, B; Morgan, J.; Decsi, T.; Campoy, C.; Koletzko, B; Raats, MM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant feeding decisions made by new parents have significant health implications. The study aimed to investigate: influences on infant feeding decisions; characteristics of mothers reporting reliance on alternative information sources; associations between reliance on different sources and intentions to exclusively breastfeed and introduce complementary foods later; and subsequent breastfeeding and weaning behaviours. SUBJECTS/METHODS: First-time mothers in five Europe...

  15. A descriptive study of Cambodian refugee infant feeding practices in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Labbok Miriam; Melvin Cathy; Straub Becky

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine Cambodian refugee mothers' infant feeding beliefs, practices, and decision making regarding infant feeding in the U.S. and to explore if a culturally-specific breastfeeding program is appropriate for this community. Methods A self-administered questionnaire and a 30 minute in-person interview were used to collect information from nine women. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed, answers compiled, and themes from e...

  16. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  17. Paternal postnatal depressive symptoms, infant sleeping and feeding behaviors, and rigid parental regulation: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshaw, Wendell D; Muscat, Tracey; Obst, Patricia L; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Paternal postnatal depression (PND) is now recognized as a serious and prevalent problem, associated with poorer well-being and functioning of all family members. Aspects of infant temperament, sleeping and feeding perceived by parents as problematic are associated with maternal PND, however, less is known about paternal PND. This study investigated depressive symptoms (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS)) in 219 fathers of infants aged from 1 to 24 weeks (median 7.0 weeks). Infant predictor variables were sleeping problems, feeding problems and both mother and father reported temperament. Control variables were partner's support, other support and life events. Rigidity of parenting beliefs regarding infant regulation was also measured as a potential moderating factor. Infant feeding difficulties were associated with paternal depressive symptoms, subsuming the variance associated with both sleep problems and temperament. This relationship was not moderated by regulation beliefs. It was concluded that infant feeding is important to fathers. Fathers of infants with feeding difficulties may not be able to fulfill their idealized construction of involved fatherhood. Role incongruence may have an etiological role in paternal PND.

  18. Early cessation of breast milk feeding in very low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killersreiter, B; Grimmer, I; Bührer, C; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to comparatively assess the duration of breast milk feeding and to analyze risk factors for early cessation of breast milk feeding in term and very preterm infants. A cohort study was performed in 89 consecutive very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (2500 g born in the same hospital matched for gender and multiplicity. Median duration of breast milk feeding, as determined from charts and questionnaires mailed to the mothers at 6 and 12 months corrected age, was 36 days in VLBW infants, compared to 112 days in control infants (P35 years and spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy following infertility treatment) in term infants. Multivariate analysis revealed that VLBW, smoking and low parental school education were independent negative predictors of breast milk feeding. While these results emphasize the need for special support of VLBW infant mothers promoting lactation, the relationships between smoking, school education and breast milk feeding in both strata show that efforts to increase breast milk feeding require a public health perspective.

  19. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  20. Demotivating infant feeding counselling encounters in southern Africa: do counsellors need more or different training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, I; Jaffe, A

    2008-03-01

    Ethnographic research was conducted in eleven low-resource settings across Swaziland, Namibia and South Africa to explore how the perceptions and experiences of counselling health workers, pregnant women and recent mothers could be used to improve infant feeding counselling in the context of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. We found many counselling encounters to be demotivating. Mothers often reported feeling judged, stigmatised and shamed. Counsellors complained of mothers' poor compliance and passive resistance and reported suffering from stress, depression and burnout. We observed a rift between the mothers and counselling nurses, with both parties holding opposing agendas grounded in conflicting realities, expectations, experiences and needs. While the clients framed the visit as a consultation, counsellors framed it as health education, towards one exclusive purpose; to save the baby. Two communication modes prevailed in the counselling encounter: in theory, the counselling format was non-directive and client-centred but, in practice, most encounters reverted to information-based health education. Neither counselling format enabled the counsellors to acknowledge the reality of the two opposing agendas in the conversation and manage its dynamics. In order to achieve success - which, for the health service, is framed as persuading mothers to test for HIV and disclose the result - counsellors often felt compelled to be prescriptive and authoritative and reverted at times to confronting, judging and shaming mothers. Yet to adhere to their feeding choice consistently, mothers need to be motivated towards the significant behaviour change that this implies: to change their traditional roles and identities as women. For infant feeding counselling in the context of HIV/AIDS to become effective in southern Africa, a different format is therefore required; one that can acknowledge and manage these opposing agendas and conflicting realities and also enable

  1. Feeding practices in infants: ritual factors dominating mother's education - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Ritual and customary factors have much impact then mother's education on breast feeding practices of infants. Apart from education, breast feeding awareness programme should be increased including both literate and illiterate mothers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1642-1647

  2. Complementary Feeding and Growth of Infant and Young Child in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-YING CHANG; WU HE; CHUN-MING CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand the status and problems of complementary feeding and to explore the strategy of improving complementary feeding for infants and young children in China. Method Data of urban and rural children were selected from the China Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (CFNSS) dataset to describe the status of complementary feeding and growth of children. Logistic Regression was used to analyze the relationship between child growth and the complementary feeding pattern. Results Applications of foods that come from animals, vegetable/fruit and dairy product in complementary feeding were negatively correlated to the prevalence of stunting and underweight. Attributable risk (AR) of no application of vegetable/fruit in complementary feeding to stunting was 30.2%, to underweight 35.4%; AR of no application of foods from animal products in complementary feeding to stunting was 2g.2%, to underweight 11.7%; and the AR of no application of diary products in complementary feeding to stunting was 27.4%, to underweight was 15.9%. Conclusion Complementary feeding contributed to the improvement of infants and young children growth in China. There is an urgent need to develop health education in the public on infants and young children complementary feeding, in the mean time, it is pressing to pay attention and take actions to develop and promote affordable, acceptable, and accessible fortified complementary food in rural areas of China.

  3. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  4. [Effect of breast feeding and psychosocial variables upon psychomotor development of 12-month-old infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andraca, I; Salas, M I; López, C; Cayazzo, M S; Icaza, G

    1999-09-01

    This study evaluates the participation of psychosocial variables in the relation between breast feeding (BF) and psychomotor development (PMD) in dyads with different BF duration. We assessed 138 mother-infant dyads, divided in two groups: 86 received BF as unique source of milk feeding for at least 6 months (prolonged BF group) and 52 were weaned before 45 days of age (early weaning group). General information about pregnancy, delivery and feeding was collected in a non experimental prospective design. At 6-7 months of age a milk feeding situation was observed at home, and mother-infant interactional patterns were recorded through a specially designed scale. At 12 months of age the PMD was assessed (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Infant temperament, home stimulation, mother depression and family stress were also measured. Similar family characteristics were observed in both study groups. Early bonding and first feeding experiences were different, both reported as better in the prolonged BF group. Moreover, dyads of this group showed a higher variety and quality of mother-infant interactional patterns during feeding, with a higher synchrony and reciprocity in the relationship. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were similar in both groups. Explicatory variables for MDI and PDI are different in both study groups. Dyads who attained prolonged BF conform from a psychosocial perspective--a different group than the early weaned. PMID:10667261

  5. 'Please don't put the whole dang thing out there!': a discursive analysis of internet discussions around infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Lazard, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of breastfeeding is an important focus of intervention for professionals working to improve infant health outcomes. Literature in this area focuses largely on 'choices' and 'barriers to breastfeeding'. It is our argument, however, that women's cultural context plays a key role in infant feeding 'choices'. In this article, we explore contested representations of infant feeding and infant feeding choices in public debates conducted on a large British parenting website. To sample dominant representations of infant feeding circulating in UK culture, two threads were chosen from the debating board of a busy online parenting community (105 and 99 individual posts, respectively). Participants on the threads were largely women. A feminist informed Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to deconstruct the intersecting constructions of gender, childhood and motherhood implicit in public discussions about infant feeding choices. We identify dominant constructions of women who breastfeed or bottle feed, social representations of both forms of infant feeding, and explore the relationship between constructions of infant feeding choices and constructions of 'good' or 'bad' motherhood. This analysis functions to trouble the individualist assumptions underpinning the notion of infant feeding 'choices', considering the cultural context within which British mothers 'choose' how to feed their babies.

  6. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  7. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pdiversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly

  8. Effect of the change of peripheral blood serum lgG and different feeding methods on the immune function of infants%婴儿外周血血清IgG变化情况及不同喂养方式对其免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉姣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨婴儿外周血血清免疫球蛋白G( IgG)变化情况及不同喂养方式对免疫功能的影响。方法:将180例婴儿随机分为对照组(母乳喂养无抚触)、母乳喂养抚触组、人工喂养抚触组和混合喂养抚触组各45例。分别于婴儿出生后3、20、43 d,3、6个月采外周血,进行放射免疫法测定血清中IgG含量,并进一步采用APAP单抗桥酶标法测定T细胞亚群,散射法免疫浊度测定IgM、IgA含量。结果:母乳喂养抚触组IgG含量相对于其他各组下降趋势较为缓慢( P<0.05);通过检测婴儿血清中T细胞亚群补体,发现母乳喂养抚触组中CD8+与其他各组含量比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);采用Spearman相关分析得出婴儿血清中免疫功能相关蛋白的高低与纯母乳喂养、抚触以及年龄具有相关性( P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论:通过母乳喂养并进行一定的抚触干预,可使婴儿体内的免疫功能得到提高,降低IgG的下降速度,有利于婴儿健康成长。%Objective:To investigate the effect of the change of peripheral blood serum IgG and different feeding methods on the immune function of infants. Methods:180 infants were randomly divided into the control group( without breast feeding),breast feeding group,bottle-feeding group and miXed feeding group(45 infants in each group). The peripheral blood of the infants were drawn respectively on the 3rd,20th and 43rd and in 3 and 6 months after the infants were born,the content of IgG,T cell subsets and the content of IgM and IgA were respectively determined. Results:The contents of IgG in serum decreased and the tending was more slowly in the breast feeding group than the other groups(P<0. 05);through the detection of T cell subsets,the difference in the comparison of the content of CD8+ was sta-tistically significant between the breast feeding group and the other groups(P<0. 05);the associated protein level with immune

  9. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  10. Salivary FOXP2 expression and oral feeding success in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maki, Monika; Maron, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether salivary FOXP2 gene expression levels at the initiation of oral feeding attempts are predictive of oral feeding success in the premature newborn. In this prospective study, saliva samples from 21 premature infants (13 males; birth gestational age [GA]: 30–34 wk) were collected around the initiation of oral feeding trials. Total RNA was extracted and underwent reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification for FOXP2...

  11. Iron sufficiency with prolonged exclusive breast-feeding in Peruvian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R A; Howanitz, P J; Oski, F A

    1981-10-01

    Serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin concentrations were measured in seven Peruvian infants, who ranged in age from 7.5-12.0 months (mean: 9.3 months), who had been exclusively breast-fed all their lives. No infant had evidence of iron deficiency as reflected by a reduced serum ferritin, or an increased erythrocyte porphyrin. Mean serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin values in these seven infants were similar to those of 40 nonanemic, noniron-deficient U.S. infants who ranged in age from 9 to 12 months, on a mixed diet. These findings illustrate that exclusively breast-feeding an infant for at least 9 months of life meets the iron requirements of the full-term infant.

  12. [A study on the mother-infant interaction in teaching and feeding situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K J

    1990-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide the basic information for nursing intervention in infant teaching and feeding situation. The subjects were 30 pairs of mother and her infant (9 month) who were normally delivered at 3 university hospital in Seoul area. The data collection was conducted by observation using videotaperecord from September 27, 1989 to February 26, 1990 in their home. The measurement tools used by this researcher were Nursing child Assessment Teaching scale (NCATS) and Nursing child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) which was developed by Barnard. The higher sum of "yes" score means the higher mother-infant interaction level. Mother-Infant interaction behaviors in both situations were based on 6 subcategories;sensitivity to cue, response to distress, social-emotional growth fostering, cognitive growth fostering, clarity of + cues, and responsiveness to parent. The data collected through above method were analyzed by mean and t-test and the results were as follows. 1. The sum of maternal behavior score was 40.2 out of 50.0 in teaching situation and 37.9 out of 50.0 in feeding situation. Out of the 4 subcategories on maternal behavior in both situation, the highest subcategory was shown by response to infant's distress and the lowest subcategory by cognitive growth fostering. 2. The sum of infant behavior score was 14.7 out of 23 in teaching situation and 17.9 out of 26 in feeding situation. Out of the 2 categories on infant behavior in both situation, the highest sub category was shown by the clarity of infant's cue in both situation. 3. There was a statistical significance between father's educational level and mother-infant interaction in teaching situation; college group was higher than high school group, particularly in category of sensitivity to infant's cue and cognitive growth fostering. 4. There was a statistical significance in teaching situation between mother's educational level and mother-infant interaction; college group was higher than

  13. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M. du Plessis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT, are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them.Objectives: Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal, pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants.Method: Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled.Results: The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%, distraction osteogenesis (0.9% and tracheotomy (2.3% for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems were handled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids. This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants.Conclusion: Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plate and the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growth and development in infants with FRT.

  14. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  15. Early complementary feeding is associated with low nutritional status of young infants recovering from diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Kabir, I; Habte, D

    1996-06-01

    Young infants admitted to hospital for diarrhoea were studied to identify and understand the reasons for early complementary feeding and to examine its effect on nutritional status. Of 132 infants, 71 percent were being breastfed, 24 percent had already stopped, and 5 percent had never been breastfed. Complementary feeds were started by the mothers when infants' median age (range) was 27 (1-180) days. Mothers' perceptions regarding breastmilk being insufficient (53 per cent) or causing diarrhoea (19 percent), were the major reasons for complementary feeding. The mean weight-for-age of the infants given complementary feeds before the age of 2 months was 72 percent of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards, compared to 82 percent in those starting after 2 months of age (P = 0.01). Similarly, the mean weight-for-length in these two groups were 86 and 91 percent, respectively (P = 0.04). Initiation of early complementary feeding is associated with infant malnutrition and this alarming trend should be strongly discouraged. PMID:8699586

  16. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

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    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months.Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants.Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey.Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996.Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  17. HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

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    Blystad Astrid

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on

  18. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

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    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  19. Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India?

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Monal R.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Suchindran, Chirayath; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3 to 5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on 600 mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questio...

  20. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

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    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  1. Prevailing breast feeding practices of infants attending paediatric out-patient department

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    Manjunatha Swamy R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to know the prevailing infant feeding practices in infants and to identify the problems affecting infant and young child feeding practices and to analyze the environmental factors influence the mothers, families and caregivers in infant feeding. Methods: The present study is a hospital based observation study. A total of 501 mothers and their infants attending new born paediatric OPD, immunization clinic of department of paediatrics for various reasons of health care were recruited for the study after their informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. Information about the first feed after birth, time of initiation of breastfeeding, duration of exclusive breast feeding, time of introduction of complementary feeding, knowledge of feeding skills, mother's concept of adequacy of breast milk were collected in the structured, pre tested proforma by personal one to one interview with the mothers. All the mothers of infants from 0 to 1 year were included. Statistical analysis: The data obtained by the interview were analyzed with regarding to mothers education level, religion and other related parameters pertaining to feeding practices. Percentages of parameters were calculated and analyzed. Results: Majority of the mothers belong to the age group of 18 to 30 years (96.01%, prelacteal feeds were given by a good number of mothers (42.32%, 60.66% mothers were given the sugar water as the prelacteal feed and 71.56% mothers have used cup and spoon to give prelacteal feeds. 75.25% of the mothers have practiced giving colostrum, 72.26% of mothers were breastfeeding their baby for 5 to 10 minutes during each feed at an interval of 0.5 hours to 3.5 hours. Majority of mothers (34.73% had the knowledge of starting of weaning at six months and 46.88% of mothers were giving weaning food twice daily. Conclusion: Significant number of mothers had discarded colostrum and most of the mothers intended to give only

  2. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saadia Ijaz; Tayyaba Ijaz; Raja Kamran Afzal; Muhammad Masood Afzal; Osama Mukhtar; Nayab Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economi...

  3. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

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    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  4. Feeding practices and nutritional status of infants in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, John G; Kimambo, Stella C; Lwelamira, James E

    2013-07-01

    Breast feeding practice especially exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is a major determinant of child growth and development. In Tanzania, most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternative feeding too early in life. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting EBF and the relationship between feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants. This cross-sectional survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The study involved lactating women recruited from five randomly selected health facilities. Demographic, clinical, knowledge and practices related to infant feeding as well as infant anthropometric information were collected. Infant nutritional status was assessed based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight- for- height. There were wide variations in knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among women. Majority (92%) of the respondents gave colostrums to infants although more than 50% did not know its benefits. Eight percent of the respondents discarded colostrums on the account that it is not good for their neonates. Only 23.1% of the respondents thought that infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first six months of infancy. Ninety-eight percent of infants < 1 month of age received breast milk only, compared with 28.5% of infants aged 2-3 months and 22.3% among those who were above 3 months of age. No child in the ≥ 4 months old was exclusively breastfed. Over 80% of the infants had normal weights, 13% were stunted and 8% wasted. EBF was associated with higher scores for height- for- age Z (P < 0.05) and weight- for- height Z (P < 0.01). Age, education level and occupation of respondents were important predictors of EBF. Overall, breast feeding practices in the study population were largely suboptimal. As a result, considerable proportions of children had poor health indicators. Thus, correct breastfeeding practices should be

  5. Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Randi J; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Gut colonization by beneficial bacteria in early life is necessary for establishing the gut mucosal barrier, maturation of the immune system and preventing infections with enteric pathogens. Mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and use of antibiotics are some of many factors that have been described to influence early life colonization. Dysbiosis, the absence of normal colonization, is associated with many disease conditions. Pre- and probiotics are commonly used as supplementation in infant formula, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides for stimulation of Bifidobacterium growth aiming to mimic the high levels of these commensal bacteria in the gut of breastfed infants. Studies suggest that probiotic supplementation may be beneficial in prevention and management of disease (e.g., reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children). Although these studies show promising beneficial effects, the long-term risks or health benefits of pre- and probiotic supplementation are not clear. PMID:27048895

  6. Concentrated milk feeds and their relation to hypernatraemic dehydration in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Steel, A E

    1975-08-01

    The composition of milks usually fed to 25 infants admitted to hospital with a dehydrating illness was studied. 15 hypernatraemic babies had been given feeds of greater sodium concentration and osmolality than those fed to the 10 infants whose plasma sodium was below 150 mEq/l. Hypernatraemic dehydration may be followed by death or permanent brain damage. Most infants in the survey were receiving milk with a sodium content greater than that advised by the manufacturers. Suggestions are made for reducing the sources of error commonly made in the reconstitution of dried milk formulae.

  7. Exploring the Effect of Mass Media on Perceptions of Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylaska-Davies, Paula

    2015-09-01

    This qualitative study explored women's perceptions of mass media and infant feeding. Mass media is a universal means of communication with potential to impact social norms. Data obtained from interviews with women (n = 20) were compared with text and visual representation from Internet sites (n = 12) on parenting and infant feeding. Themes from interviews reflected information represented on Internet sites. Participants offered suggestions for future media messages, such as public service announcements of breastfeeding. Participants emphasized that public opinion needs to be altered, and breastfeeding in public would then be viewed as the norm.

  8. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Karen; Hesketh Kylie; Crawford David; Salmon Jo; Ball Kylie; McCallum Zoë

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour) from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding A...

  9. Feeding Patterns and Emotional Care in Breastfed Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P.; Ellwood, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested breastfed infants have improved bonding and attachment or cognitive development outcomes. However, mechanisms by which these differences might develop are poorly understood. We used maternal time use data to examine whether exclusively breastfeeding mothers spend more time in close interactive behaviors with…

  10. HIV and infant feeding in Malawi: public health simplicity in complex social and cultural contexts

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    Chinkonde Jacqueline R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of when and how to best wean infants born to mothers with HIV requires complex answers. There are clinical guidelines on best approaches but limitations persist when applying them in diverse low-income settings. In such settings, infant-feeding practices are not only dependent on individual women’s choices but are also subject to social and cultural pressures. However, when developing infant-feeding policies little attention has been paid to these pressures, even though they may yield useful empirical knowledge on the various forces that shape the infant-feeding dilemmas confronting women with HIV. This study aimed to a identify the infant-feeding challenges that women with HIV faced when they were advised to wean their children at an early age of six months and b explore how the women adhered to their infant-feeding options while facing and managing these challenges. Methods This study was conducted between February 2008 and April 2009 at two public health facilities where services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV were implemented. Repeated in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 HIV-positive women. Two of the 20 women were also chosen for case studies which included home visits. Results Several interdependent factors including the conflicting pressures of sexual morality and the demands of nurturing and motherhood, in conditions of abject poverty, impeded the participating women from following medical advice on infant feeding. If they adhered to the medical advice, the women would encounter difficulty maintaining their ascribed roles as respected wives, mothers and members of the society at large. The necessity of upholding their moral standing through continued breastfeeding, which signified HIV-negative status, put pressure on them to ignore the medical advice. Conclusions The infant-feeding dilemmas for women with HIV are complex. The integration of public health efforts with context

  11. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

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    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  12. Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern.

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    Ernesto Cortés-Castell

    Full Text Available To analyse the association in newborns between blood levels of phenylalanine and feeding method and gestational age.This observational, cross-sectional study included a sample of 11,829 infants between 2008 and 2013 in a Spanish region. Data were recorded on phenylalanine values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula, or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (<32, 32-37, ≥37, gender and days since birth at the moment of blood collection. Outcomes were [phenylalanine] and [phenylalanine] ≥95th percentile. Associations were analysed using multivariate models [linear (means difference and logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios].Higher phenylalanine values were associated with lower gestational age (p<0.001 and with intravenous feeding (p<0.001.The degree of prematurity and intravenous feeding influenced the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the newborn. Caution should be taken in [phenylalanine] for newborns with intravenous feeding, monitoring them carefully. Very preterm infants given the recommended amount of amino acids should also be strictly monitored. These findings should be taken into consideration and call for adapting the amounts to the needs of the infant.

  13. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

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    Swift Judy A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need

  14. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  15. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Meha Mayuri; Vivek Garg; Chandan Mukherji; Divya Aggarwal; Sanjeev Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk) are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs). Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year o...

  16. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-f

  17. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

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    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  18. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  19. Feeding patterns of mexican infants recorded in the 1988 National Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Lezana; Kurt Long; Marta Rivera; Juan Rivera; Mauricio Hernández

    1995-01-01

    Infant feeding patterns iii Mesico were cirm.red using dato frorn the 1988 Narioiicrl Nutrition Surve?.. The l~revalence of brecist:feeding ~r~nong infi111t.s declined porn 86% at hirtl~ to approsiriiate~ 40% qfter three nlonths r,f age. The Izcicard rafe of terinintrting brerist- feeding increused by 38% cit tlie ntrtioncrl leve1 and by 87% iil the northern regio11 with ecich increineilt in kousehold lii~ing conditions, decreased 50% in rzird rnuniciycilitie.s in the south and decreasecl l7y...

  20. Infant feeding counselling of HIV-infected women in two areas in Kenya in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Waithaka, Margaret; Greiner, Ted

    2014-11-01

    While WHO no longer recommends individual infant feeding counselling to HIV-positive women, it may still be practised in some settings and for specific cases. In any case, lessons can be learned by examining how well front line health workers are able to take on counselling tasks. This qualitative study was designed to assess how counsellors deal with challenges they face in two Kenyan provinces. It consisted of brief post-counselling exit interviews with 80 mothers, observations of 21 counselling sessions and 11 key informant interviews. Much infant feeding counselling was of reasonable quality, better than often reported elsewhere. However, nutrition and infant feeding were given low priority, counsellors' training was inadequate, individual postnatal counselling as well as growth monitoring and promotion were rarely done and complementary feeding was inadequately covered. Acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe (AFASS) assessments were not of satisfactory quality. Breast milk expression was mentioned only to a minority and the possibility of heat treatment during the transition to cessation was not mentioned. Counsellors were often biased in discussing risks of breastfeeding and replacement feeding. Implementing the new WHO guidance will reduce the need for AFASS assessments, greatly simplifying both the government's and counsellors' tasks.

  1. Efficacy of semielevated side-lying positioning during bottle-feeding of very preterm infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Knafl, George J; Hodges, Eric A; Nix, William B

    2014-01-01

    Very preterm (VP, ≤30 wk gestational age) infants are at risk for impaired lung function, which significantly limits their ability to eat. A semielevated side-lying (ESL) position is a feeding strategy that may improve oral feeding by supporting breathing during feeding. The study evaluated the efficacy of the ESL position compared with the semielevated supine (ESU) position on physiological stability and feeding performance of bottle-fed VP infants. Using a within-subject crossover design, 6 VP infants were bottle-fed twice on 1 day, in both the ESL and ESU positions in a random order. Physiological stability (heart rate, oxygen saturation [SaO2], and respiratory characteristics) and feeding performance (percent intake, proficiency, efficiency, and duration of feeding) were measured before and/or during feeding. Very preterm infants fed in the ESL position demonstrated significantly less variation in heart rate, less severe and fewer decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate that was closer to the prefeeding state, shorter and more regular intervals between breaths, and briefer feeding-related apneic events. No significant differences for SaO2 or feeding performance were found. The findings indicate that the ESL position may support better regulation of breathing during feeding, thereby allowing VP infants to better maintain physiological stability throughout feeding.

  2. The role of infant appetite in extended formula feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch

  3. Translating global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context: the development of culturally sensitive counselling tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methods Formative research using a combination of qualitative methods preceded the development of the intervention and mapped existing practices, perceptions and attitudes towards HIV and infant feeding (HIV/IF among mothers, counsellors and community members. Intervention Mapping (IM protocol guided the development of the overall intervention strategy. Theories of behaviour change, a review of the international HIV/IF guidelines and formative research findings contributed to the definition of performance and learning objectives. Key communication messages and colourful graphic illustrations related to infant feeding in the context of HIV were then developed and/or adapted from existing generic materials. Draft materials were field tested with intended audiences and subjected to stakeholder technical review. Results An integrated set of infant feeding counselling tools, referred to as 'job aids', was developed and included brochures on feeding methods that were found to be socially and culturally acceptable, a Question and Answer Guide for counsellors, a counselling card on the risk of transmission of HIV, and an infant feeding toolbox for demonstration. Each brochure describes the steps to ensure safer infant feeding using simple language and images based on local ideas and resources. The brochures are meant to serve as both a reference material during infant feeding counselling in the ongoing prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT of HIV programme and as take home material for the mother. Conclusion The study underscores the importance of formative research and a systematic theory

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that can influence infant feeding practices in American Indian mothers.

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    Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2014-10-01

    The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434

  5. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF INFANT FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EASTERN INDIA

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    Ratan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world's major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival , birth spacing , and the prevent ion of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation , duration , and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the knowledge , attitude and practices of infant feeding and , to assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among women in rural area of West Bengal , India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross - sectional study was conducted on mothers of childr en less than two year of age attending the outpatient department of Malda Medical College and Hospital , a rural medical college in Eastern India. A total of 200 mothers were interviewed who were randomly selected. A structured , pretested and predesigned qu estionnaire was used to collect information on the socio - demographic profile and infant feeding practice. RESULTS : Mothers of male children were 65% and female children were 35%. 44% were literate upto middle school and 28% with primary education. 14% mothe rs were illiterate. 52% of mothers had the knowledge about initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour of birth whereas only 28% practiced it. 80% mothers had the knowledge of exclusive breast feeding but only 60% practiced it. 24% of infants had received p relacteal feeds and only 2% breast fed upto 24 months. CONCLUSIONS : Despite higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding , awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was low. Creating an awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding will strengthen and support this common practice in rural communities and avoid early introduction of complementary foods for socio - cultural

  6. Women's liberation and the rhetoric of "choice" in infant feeding debates

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    Hausman Bernice L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short essay examines infant formula marketing and information sources for their representation of "choice" in the infant feeding context, and finds that while providing information about breast and bottle feeding, infant formula manufacturers focus on mothers' feelings and intuition rather than knowledge in making decisions. In addition, the essay considers how "choice" operates in the history of reproductive rights, shifting the discourse from a rights-based set of arguments to one based on a consumerist mentality. Utilizing the work of historian Rickie Solinger and a 2007 paper for the National Bureau of Labor Statistics, I argue that the structure of market work, and not abstract maternal decision making, determine mothers' choices and practices concerning infant feeding. For true freedoms for mothers to be achieved, freedoms that would include greater social provisions for mothers, our culture will have to confront how structural constraints make breastfeeding difficult, as well as how the concept of choice divides mothers into those who make good choices and those who do not.

  7. Nutritional and behavioural aspects of nasogastric tube feeding in infants receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis.

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    Warady, B A; Kriley, M; Belden, B; Hellerstein, S; Alan, U

    1990-01-01

    Eight infants initiated chronic peritoneal dialysis and received nasogastric tube feedings during their first month of life. In each case, the nasogastric tube feedings were initiated because of poor oral intake and the desire to avert the development of an aversive feeding interaction between parent and child. The nutritional regimen was designed to allow normal or catch up weight gain appropriate for height age. The caloric and protein intake of the infants averaged 98.5 +/- 10.2 kcal/kg/day and 2.7 gm/kg/day, respectively, during the first year of life. Between 25% and 100% of the formula intake was provided by the nasogastric route. Group standard deviation score for height was -1.74 +/- 0.7 at one year. Five of the infants received behavioral therapy because of persistent food refusal. Therapy consisted of reinforcing prompted food acceptance and ignoring food refusal. This approach was conducted by a multidisciplinary team and successfully converted the non-oral feeder to a total oral feeding regimen in each case. PMID:1982822

  8. [Feeding disorders in infants and toddlers: At-risk situations and predisposing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubedout, S; Cascales, T; Mas, E; Bion, A; Vignes, M; Raynaud, J-P; Olives, J-P

    2016-06-01

    Feeding disorders and food refusal can be found in 25% of infants, with a minority of them having an organic explanation. Failure to thrive and/or severe malnutrition are found in 3-5% of infants in this population. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk factors of feeding disorders in infants and children less than 3 years of age. This study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2014 and included 103 children, 57 with feeding and/or eating disorders and 46 healthy children considered to be normal eaters. Parents participated in a structured interview and completed a data sheet to record the mode of delivery, neonatal status, medical history, milk feeding, and medical treatment. Statistical analysis indicated that cesarean delivery, prematurity, neonatal diseases, history of eating disorders in the family, consumption of protein hydrolysates, and treatment with proton pump inhibitors were highly significant risk factors in children with eating disorders. In the present study, we showed that several prenatal and postnatal conditions or interventions were associated with the development of eating disorders in young children. Recommendations for future studies include identifying environmental risk factors and implementing prevention programs focused on family, caregivers, as well as healthcare professionals. The objective is to allow physicians to efficiently sort out the wide variety of conditions, categorize them for therapy, and when necessary refer patients to specialists in the field. PMID:27133367

  9. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

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    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  10. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.

  11. Feeding obturator appliance for an infant with cleft lip and palate

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    P Chandna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clefts of the palate, alveolus and lip are some of the most frequently encountered anomalies of the face. This article presents a case report of a neonate with cleft lip and palate in whom a feeding obturator was delivered. This article demonstrates the indications, construction, and benefits of a palatal obturator in an 11-day-old infant with a bilateral cleft lip and palate.

  12. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

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    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  13. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  14. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  15. Women Literacy and Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS Block of Delhi

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    Davey Sanjeev , Davey Anuradha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding practices have significant effect on the child nutrition, which largely dependent upon the mothers correct knowledge and awareness for the same. Objective: To find out effect of rural women empowerment through literacy on infant feeding practices in an ICDS block. Material and Methodology: Interview of the mothers of registered children up to 6 years in the rural ICDS block for the feeding practices and recording of the weight of those registered children by the salter weighing scale for their nutritional status. Results: Three fourth of the children had received ceremonial feed in the form of honey or gutti and 40 percent of the mothers in our study has discarded colostrums, considering it as ‘bad milk’. Exclusive breast feeding was received by 34.6% children. As literacy level of mothers increased the nutritional status of children was better. This could be because most of the women who are middle school passed or above are non working, so are able to give more time for care and feeding practices. The Severe malnutrition (grade III and IV was evident only in illiterate category of mothers, where 58.7% women were working in unskilled or semiskilled job outside home. Conclusion: Women living in chronic hunger are forced to unskilled jobs for income generation for the family, thereby influencing the feeding practices of their children. In such scenario AWCs and AWWs can be a unique opportunity with their focused approach to take care of severe and moderate malnutrition.

  16. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  17. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

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    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  18. Healthy babies through infant-centered feeding protocol: an intervention targeting early childhood obesity in vulnerable populations

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    Horodynski Mildred A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor feeding practices during infancy contribute to obesity risk. As infants transition from human milk and/or formula-based diets to solid foods, these practices interfere with infant feeding self-regulation and healthy growth patterns. Compared with other socioeconomic groups, lower-income mothers are more likely to experience difficulty feeding their infants. This may include misinterpreting feeding cues and using less-than-optimal feeding styles and practices, such as pressuring infants during mealtimes and prematurely introducing solid food and sweetened beverages. The Healthy Babies trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-infant dyads. The educational intervention is being conducted during the infant's first 6 months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year and is based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods/Design We will describe our study protocol for a multisite randomized control trial being conducted in Colorado and Michigan with an anticipated sample of 372 economically and educationally disadvantaged African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian mothers with infants. Participants are being recruited by county community agency staff. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention consists of six in-home visits by a trained paraprofessional instructor followed by three reinforcement telephone contacts when the baby is 6, 8, and 10 months old. Main maternal outcomes include a maternal responsiveness, b feeding style, and c feeding practices. Main infant outcome is infant growth pattern. All measures occur at baseline and when the infant is 6 and 12 months old. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes will address whether the home-based early nutrition education intervention is effective

  19. [Infant feeding practices in Nouakchott: between medical guidelines and grandmothers’ instructions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagana, Moussa Salatou; Kane, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to the age of six months and continuation of partial breastfeeding up to the age of two years, in addition to nutritionally adequate and safe food. In Mauritania, despite some progress, most mothers do not comply with these recommendations. The aim of this study, conducted in Nouakchott, was to evaluate breastfeeding and feeding practices, and measure factors associated with achievement of the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The methodology combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by questionnaires among 330 mothers from different departments of the capital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were then conducted with Mauritanian grandmothers in order to understand their roles and perceptions about infant feeding. Before the age of 6 months, the exclusive breastfeeding rate was 18.4%, the predominant breastfeeding rate was 44.3% and the partial breastfeeding with milk rate was 28.1%. In addition, 9.2% of infants received supplementary feeding. We found that 50.5% of mothers were aware of the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding, but only 14.2% complied with this recommendation. The factors significantly associated with compliance with the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding were maternal age over 35 years and multiparity. Interviews revealed that grandmothers knew about some of the nutritional recommendations, but denied their relevance based on their experience. Their advice contradicted certain medical recommendations. Our study revealed inadequacies concerning the mother’s knowledge and more frequently their practices in terms of infant feeding. The gap between knowledge and practice can be essentially explained by the relative importance attributed to recommendations by the mothers, as well as the confrontation between medical recommendations and grandmothers’ traditional knowledge. PMID:27392058

  20. How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence

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    Rachael W. Taylor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Baby-Led Weaning (BLW is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons, and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines; the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed.

  1. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

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    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  2. A descriptive study of Cambodian refugee infant feeding practices in the United States

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    Labbok Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine Cambodian refugee mothers' infant feeding beliefs, practices, and decision making regarding infant feeding in the U.S. and to explore if a culturally-specific breastfeeding program is appropriate for this community. Methods A self-administered questionnaire and a 30 minute in-person interview were used to collect information from nine women. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed, answers compiled, and themes from each question identified. Results All participants practiced either traditional Cambodian diet (pregnancy and postpartum diet including, tnam sraa, herbs mixed with either wine or tea, traditional Cambodian rituals (like spung, amodified sauna or both, despite having lived in the U.S. for many years. All nine women initiated breastfeeding, however eight women introduced infant formula while in hospital. Perceived low milk supply and returning to work were the main reasons cited for partial breastfeeding and early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusion While causes of initiation of other foods are similar to those found in the U.S. as a whole, a culturally-specific Cambodian breastfeeding support program may help overcome some breastfeeding problems reported by Cambodian refugee mothers who have immigrated to the United States.

  3. Predicting and understanding mothers' infant-feeding intentions and behavior: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, A S; Proffitt, C; Smart, J L

    1983-04-01

    The present study examines the applicability of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to the prediction and understanding of how primiparous and multiparous mothers intended to feed their infants and how they actually fed these infants during the 6 weeks following delivery. Measures of attitudes to behavior, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions were taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. Behavior was assessed by self-report 6 weeks postpartum. In most respects the findings supported the theory of reasoned action. However, attitudes to behavior were found to make an independent and significant contribution to the prediction of infant-feeding behavior, and the previous behavior of multiparous mothers explained an independent and significant proportion of variation in their behavioral intentions. The relative importance of the attitudinal and normative components of the theoretical model tended to vary according to whether the mothers had direct experience of the criterion behavior. Further analysis revealed that mothers who breast-fed during the 6-week postpartum period differed from those who bottle-fed exclusively during this period on a number of behavioral beliefs, outcome evaluations, and normative beliefs, and on one measure of motivation to comply. The implications of these findings for the theory of reasoned action are discussed.

  4. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  5. Feeding and Nutrition of Infants and Young Children. Guidelines for the WHO European Region. WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Fleischcer Michælsen, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Good feeding practices will prevent malnutrition and early growth retardation, which is still common in some parts of the WHO European Region, especially countries of the former Soviet Union. Despite the importance of nutrition and feeding of infants and young children, limited attention has been...

  6. Innovations in infant milk feeding: from the past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is important for life science and economy, but the value of innovation for public health depends on its impact on promoting health. Breastfeeding is not innovative but evolved slowly over 250-300 million years, yet its total benefits are not surpassed by more innovative ways of infant feeding. Until the 19th century, infants fed inadequate breast milk substitutes suffered from high mortality. In 1865 a major improvement was von Liebig's 'soup for infants', the first breast milk substitute based on chemical human milk analysis, soon followed by commercial applications. Other early innovations include whey protein-dominant formula, addition of specific carbohydrates to promote bifidobacteria ('prebiotic') and of live bacteria ('probiotic'), predecessors of apparently recent innovations. Opportunities for innovations exist since many outcomes in formula-fed infants do not match those in breastfed populations. Of concern, expected economic benefits through innovations may override scientific arguments. Business and marketing desires must be counterbalanced by independent pediatric and scientific evaluation. Developing innovations with relevant outcome effects is complex, costly and cannot be expected to occur every few years. Cooperation between academic investigators, small and medium enterprises with high innovative potential, and large industries promotes progress and should be facilitated, e.g. by public research funding. PMID:20664212

  7. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  8. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  9. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z-scores...... (WAZ) from 0 to 5, 5 to 9, 9 to 18 and 18 to 36 months were analysed for relations with body composition (anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance) at 3 years by multivariate regression analysis. BWZ and change in WAZ from 0 to 5 months were positively associated with BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat...

  10. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  11. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  12. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters. PMID:27440698

  13. Feeding Intolerance and Poor Growth in Infants with Gastroschisis: Longitudinal Experience with Consecutive Patients over Thirteen Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni Balgi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To investigate in-hospital factors associated with delayed tolerance of full volume enteral nutrition and 2 To assess longitudinal growth in a contemporary population of infants with gastroschisis.Design: Retrospective single-center study of all infants with gastroschisisSetting: Level III neonatal intensive care unit in a free-standing Children’s HospitalDuration: 13.5 yearsMaterials & Methods: Detailed data regarding demographics, nutritional support, growth, and infant outcomes was collected for all infants with gastroschisis. Linear regression was used to investigate in-hospital factors associated with feeding intolerance and poor growth.Results: For 52 infants, the median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks, the median postnatal age to achieve full feeds was 22 days, and median in-hospital weight gain was 18 gm/day. With linear regression, there was a positive association between time to full feeds and both hospital length of stay (adjusted R2=0.503, p<0.0001 and (unexpectedly in-hospital weight gain (adjusted R2=0.125, p=0.0248. There was a negative association between in-hospital weight gain and preterm birth (adjusted R2=0.125, p=0.0356. For infants with longitudinal growth data, 35% had a weight <5th percentile (of whom 67% were preterm.Conclusions: Many infants with gastroschisis have poor growth before and after hospital discharge. Aggressive feeding advancement may be a contributing factor to this finding and preterm infants may be at greater risk for poor growth than term infants.

  14. The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the expression of food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Erin L; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-11-01

    Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M=30.4, SD=5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother-child feeding relationship is still required. PMID:25014743

  15. Feeding demand conditions and plasma cortisol in socially-housed squirrel monkey mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champoux, M; Hwang, L; Lang, O; Levine, S

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that experimentally altering the accessibility and availability of food can have profound impact on behavior and adrenocortical activity in nonhuman primate species. In this study, groups of mother-infant squirrel monkey dyads were housed in either high demand (HFD: 120% normal daily food intake provided), low demand (LFD: 600% normal daily food intake provided) or variable demand (VFD: alternating two-week blocks of low demand and high demand) conditions for 12 weeks. During the 12-week experimental foraging phase, animals in the HFD group exhibited prolonged and consistent cortisol elevations. The cortisol levels in the VFD group reflected the ambient demand condition, with higher levels exhibited during the high demand phases of the study, and lower values when the low demand condition was in effect. Overall, mothers were more affected by the experimental manipulation than were infants. The experimental condition did not affect the infants' response to a 24-h separation from their mothers. A suppression of cortisol levels, particularly in the HFD group, was observed upon resumption of ad-libitum feeding. PMID:11337131

  16. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level mercury (Hg exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24 µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99 µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001 and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015, the duration (months of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001, and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033. In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles, dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001 and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017, were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg

  17. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.;

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be...

  18. Infant feeding patterns and risk of acute respiratory infections in Baghdad/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatha S. Al-Sharbatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: exclusive breastfeeding has been shown to protect infants from contracting various diseases. The aims of this study were: to examine the relationships between infant feeding patterns and the risk of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI, and to assess the importance of some factors that can increase such risk.

    Methods: a case-control study was carried out during the period between February 1st 2005 - May 1st 2005. The study included 137 infants who were hospitalized in the Children Welfare Teaching Hospital for ARIs during the period of study (a case definition of acute lower respiratory infection as given by the WHO (1995 was used. The Control group included 157 healthy infants who were randomly selected from two primary health care centers of the AI-Karkh sector of Baghdad for immunization. The risk of various factors thought to be associated to ARI were studied, these being: non-modifiable (age, gender, birth order, parent education, crowded residence, family history of asthma and history of ARIs in household members in previous 2 weeks and modifiable (short duration of breastfeeding, cigarette smoking in proximity to the infant, delayed immunization and malnutrition. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders and for calculating adjusted odds ratios.

    Results: formula fed infants had a 2.7 times higher risk (CI:1.6-4.68 for ARIs compared to breast fed infants. Infants who had undergone a short duration of breastfeeding (<3 months had a 1.4 times increased risk or ARI (CI: 0.89—2.23. Additional factors that were associated with higher ARIs were, female gender (OR= 2.0, CI:1.3-3.3, low educational level of mothers (OR= 6.4, CI:3.2-12.7 and fathers (OR=4.5, CI:2.27-8.78, crowded residence (OR= 4.5, CI: 2.6-7.8, positive history of ARIs in household members in the 2 weeks prior to the study (OR= 5.5, CI:3.3-9.3, family history of asthma (OR = 2.6, CI:1

  19. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  20. Infant and young child feeding practices and its determinants in an urbanized village of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices are fundamental for the survival, health, growth, and development of children. It is important to study factors that determine these practices in a community. The present study is designed to assess the prevalence of optimal IYCF practices and its determinants in an urbanized village of Delhi. Materials and Methods: Mothers of children 0-23 months of age were interviewed using a structured and semi open-ended questionnaire to record information on IYCF practices. Results: A total of 194 children were included in the study. Breastfeeding (BF was initiated within 1 h of birth in 49.5% of children. Early initiation of BF was significantly higher in children born in government institutions, normal births and in families with higher income. Prelacteal feeds were given by 47.4% of mothers, children born at home and private institution and caesarean births received prelacteal feeds more often. Colostrum was given by 79.4% of the mothers. Children born in the government institution were more likely to receive colostrum (P < 0.05. The prevalence of exclusive BF (EBF for 6 months or more was 56.5%. It was higher in children of first birth order and institutional births (P < 0.05. Complementary feeding was started at 6 months in 54.6% of these children. Children of mothers with higher education and boys were more likely to be started on timely complementary feeding than girls. Conclusions: The IYCF practices in the area were not satisfactory, although better than the national average. Early initiation and EBF for 6 months were higher in children born in government institutions. Thus, awareness about IYCF practices has to be increased among the health personnel in the public and private sectors and mothers.

  1. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  2. A STUDY ON FEEDING PRACTICES OF INFANTS IN THE FIELD PRACTICING AREA OF RURAL HEALTH TRAINING CENTER, SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE, NANDYAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available : BACK GROUND: Good nutrition is essential for growth, development and survival of infants. Objective: To study knowledge, attitude and practices of infant feeding among rural mothers. To identify factors associated with growth and morbidity among infants. METHODOLOGY: Community based cross sectional study which was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012.Rural mothers were selected by simple random sampling method and interviewed using pretested questionnaire. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data was analyzed by means, proportions, percentages and chi-square test. Pinfants were males. 39.3% of infants were females. Statistical correlation exists between social class and birth weight. (p<0.02.In 90.6% of infants colostrum was not given.94% of infants were breast fed. In 41% of infants weaning was started at 9 to 12 months. Only 20% infants were normal and 52.7% were with grade-1 malnutrition. 20.7% mothers were boiling utensils which were used for infant feeding.96.7% mothers told breast feeding was best for babies.38.7% mothers were not aware that colostrum given in first hour would reduce infant mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Awareness must be generated among mothers regarding infant feeding and better living conditions through health education. Health workers should provide it at grass root levels

  3. Post discharge formula fortification of maternal human milk of very low birth weight preterm infants: an introduction of a feeding protocol in a University Hospital

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    Abeer El Sakka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW. Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430, length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027, and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217 in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls, P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources.

  4. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  5. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC. PMID:23557509

  6. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Women's diets often decrease with regard to amounts per meal and day as well as diversity if a household's access to food is limited. The result is a monotonous diet that, in particular, negatively affects women's nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation and, thus, the infant. The infant's diet is of utmost importance, as it needs to meet the nutrient requirements especially during the first 2 years of life, a critical window for the child's healthy development. In Cambodia, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are poor. Preparation of a special complementary meal in addition to breast milk feeds for children aged 6-23 months is often not a common habit. Instead, children eat watery, plain rice porridges that do not meet the nutrient requirements at this young age. A lack of adequate caring practices such as responsive feeding exacerbates the risk of malnutrition. Caregivers are often unaware of the importance of nutrition during the first 2 years of life regarding its effects on children's growth. In 2012, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was started in two provinces of northern Cambodia: Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. To contribute to reducing child mortality by addressing malnutrition among children 6-23 months of age, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented a nutrition-sensitive agriculture project with nutrition-specific actions, i.e. a nutrition education intervention was embedded in a food security project. Wealth, a child's age, and maternal education were identified as determinants of a child's dietary diversity. The older the child and/or the wealthier the household, the more diverse the child's diet. Maternal education was positively associated with the child's dietary diversity. Household dietary diversity was significantly associated with child dietary diversity in a model including group, child's age, maternal education, and wealth as confounders. The RCT also showed that a 2- to 3-month

  7. Infant sleep and feeding patterns are associated with maternal sleep, stress, and depressed mood in women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Iko, Ijeoma N; Machan, Jason T; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age ± SD = 28.3 ± 5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p = .02) and lower sleep efficiency (p = .04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p = .008) and duration of infant feeding (p = .008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress.

  8. Dynamic Change of Fecal Calprotectin in Very Low Birth Weight Infants during the First Month of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Smith, P. Brian; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Calprotectin is a cytosolic component of neutrophils. Fecal calprotectin (FC) level is a useful marker for exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease in children. FC may be a useful marker for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Objective To determine normal baseline levels of FC and observe dynamic changes of FC levels over the first postnatal month in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods FC levels of 14 VLBW infants (gestational age 23–30 weeks, birth weight ≤1,500 g) were serially measured in the first postnatal month. Demographics, feeding regimens, antibiotic use, laboratory and x-ray results, and maternal information were recorded. We assessed how FC levels changed over time, varied with nutritional source and differed between sick versus well infants. Results FC levels were not related to gestational age or feedings regimen. FC levels tended to decrease with increasing age (p = 0.121) and feeding volumes (p = 0.179). FC levels differed between ‘well’ and ‘sick’ infants (122.8 ± 98.9 vs. 380.4 ± 246.3 μg/g stool, p 350 μg/g stool was noted with signs of gastrointestinal injury, such as bloody stool and bowel perforation. FC levels decreased after initiation of treatments in sick infants who recovered. Conclusions FC levels may be a marker for early diagnosis and resolution of gastrointestinal illnesses in VLBW infants. Its utility for early diagnosis and assessment of resolution of NEC should be studied in a larger cohort of VLBW infants. PMID:18784422

  9. Reflections on global policy documents and the WHO's infant feeding guidelines: lessons learnt

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    Sellen Daniel W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the papers in this thematic series have illustrated, the postnatal prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT strategy has struggled with lack of local relevance. In an attempt to increase our understanding of the great dissonance between the policy intention and the experiences of the participants in concrete PMTCT programmes, we will in these concluding remarks draw upon writings in institutional ethnography. Through the concept of 'global texts' we reflect upon the scientific and ideological underpinnings of the WHO policy guidelines on HIV and infant feeding, and the influence that this policy has had across multiple local settings. The particular impact of the global postnatal PMTCT policy guidelines on the position of breastfeeding lies at the core of the discussion.

  10. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  11. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on splanchnic uptake of leucine in the postabsorptive state in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pipaon, MS; Vanbeek, RHT; Quero, J; Perez, J; Wattimena, DJL; Sauer, PJJ

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a controlled, randomized trial to study the effect of minimal enteral feeding on leucine uptake by splanchnic tissues, as an indicator of maturation of these tissues, in preterm infants in the first week of life. Within a few hours after birth, while receiving only glucose, a primed con

  12. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Oral Motor Interventions on Feeding and Swallowing in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedson, Joan; Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an evidence-based systematic review and provide an estimate of the effects of oral motor interventions (OMIs) on feeding/swallowing outcomes (both physiological and functional) and pulmonary health in preterm infants. Method: A systematic search of the literature published from 1960 to 2007 was conducted. Articles meeting the…

  13. Infant and Young Child Feeding: a Key area to Improve Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.

  14. Commercial 'ready-to-feed' infant foods in the UK: macro-nutrient content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Nazanin; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Pollard, Lucie V; Pullen, Frank S; Snowden, Martin J; Zotor, Francis B

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative analyses of the macronutrient content of eight popular commercial 'ready-to-feed' baby meals for 6-9-month old infants in the UK market have been undertaken in order to ascertain their nutritional suitability in relation to the total daily dietary intake as well as nutritional profiling of the products. The chemical analyses conducted included Kjeldhal for protein, acid hydrolysis and extraction for fat, phenol sulphuric acid for carbohydrate and Association of Official Analytical Chemists 985.29 for fibre. The only difference found between different varieties (meat- and vegetable-based) was with respect to the protein content (P=0.04) per 100 g of food. The experimentally determined concentrations of macronutrients (g/100 kcal) were compared with the declared values provided by the manufacturers on the product labels and, despite some variations, the values obtained comply with regulatory requirements (Commission Directive 2006/125/EC). The total daily intake of fat (27.0 g per day) - based on the menu composed from commercial complementary food - is suggested to exceed the daily recommended values for fat (31%), if the intake of snacks and desserts are incorporated. These findings imply that the formulation of recipes, based on a standard commercial menu, is an important consideration in relation to the nutritional quality of the diet of infants. PMID:23020067

  15. The Effect of Creating an Artificial Night On Physiological Changes in Preterm Infants

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    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Preterm infants are exposed to irregular light for several weeks or months in the Neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU. This lack of maternal entrainment, the exposure to irregular extrauterine lighting and care in the nursery may contribute to the disturbances in body temperature, sleep and physiological changes that are commonly experienced by preterm infants. Materials and Methods This is a randomized clinical trial dual group study, 38 preterm infants (gestational age of 30-34 weeks due to prematurity hospitalized at NICU of Ghaem Hospital, Iran, were evaluated within 10 days. Infants were divided into two groups of 1200-1700 and 1701-2200g based on the weight and the weight of each group were randomized into artificial night (dark period was from 19 to 7 during incubator was covered with linen cloth & light period was from 7 to 19 removed the cover and control groups (continuous lighting. Mothers & infants through questionnaires, interviews, observation & document completion, changes in physiologic & weight before entering the study & then physiologic changes twice a day, weight & feeding tolerance were collected daily. Data were analyzed using SPSS version16 software. Results The two groups were matched in terms of other variables. Mean gestational age was (31.39+1.39 weeks in both groups, mean weight at study entry in period light of the (1415.8+ 263.46 and (1471.6 + 244.47 was in continuous lighting. The difference in oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, respectively, higher and lower in the intervention group than the control group. Result of the statistical analysis of repeated measures suggests that the difference between the two groups was significant (P

  16. Cardiovascular MRI without sedation or general anesthesia using a feed-and-sleep technique in neonates and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI in small children generally necessitates the use of general anesthesia. We describe our initial results with a new technique that we name the feed-and-sleep method, whereby an infant can undergo a cardiac MRI without the need for general anesthesia or sedation. The infant is fasted for 4 h prior to the scan and is then fed by his mother prior to the scan. He is then swaddled with 1 to 2 infant sheets before being placed in a vacuum-bag immobilizer. As air is removed from the bag, the immobilizer becomes a rigid cradle that fits the infant's body. We prioritize the sequences according to the purpose of the study and in the order of clinical importance. Between January 2010 and January 2011 a total of 20 infants with the median age 14.5 days (minimum 2 days, maximum 155 days) underwent CMR studies via this method. All were performed successfully with no distress to the infant. The median scan time was 46.5 min (minimum 20, maximum 66). All had complex congenital heart defects and all planned sequences were acquired with sufficient quality to allow accurate diagnosis and to plan appropriate surgery. Using this technique, infants younger than 6 months can complete a cardiovascular MRI without the need for sedation or general anesthesia. We advocate the incorporation of this safe and reliable technique into routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  17. Cardiovascular MRI without sedation or general anesthesia using a feed-and-sleep technique in neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windram, Jonathan; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Shariat, Masoud; Greer, Mary-Louise; Yoo, Shi-Joon [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Crawford, Mark W. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Anesthesia, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    MRI in small children generally necessitates the use of general anesthesia. We describe our initial results with a new technique that we name the feed-and-sleep method, whereby an infant can undergo a cardiac MRI without the need for general anesthesia or sedation. The infant is fasted for 4 h prior to the scan and is then fed by his mother prior to the scan. He is then swaddled with 1 to 2 infant sheets before being placed in a vacuum-bag immobilizer. As air is removed from the bag, the immobilizer becomes a rigid cradle that fits the infant's body. We prioritize the sequences according to the purpose of the study and in the order of clinical importance. Between January 2010 and January 2011 a total of 20 infants with the median age 14.5 days (minimum 2 days, maximum 155 days) underwent CMR studies via this method. All were performed successfully with no distress to the infant. The median scan time was 46.5 min (minimum 20, maximum 66). All had complex congenital heart defects and all planned sequences were acquired with sufficient quality to allow accurate diagnosis and to plan appropriate surgery. Using this technique, infants younger than 6 months can complete a cardiovascular MRI without the need for sedation or general anesthesia. We advocate the incorporation of this safe and reliable technique into routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  18. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirements are a function of age, sex, and feeding mode. Work from others has demonstrated increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) in formula-fed infants as compared to breast-fed infants. However, in practice many breast-fed infants also receive additional formula or cows' milk. At 4 months, we found that energy intake (kcal/d) in breast-fed infants also receiving cows' milk (BCFM) was 18% higher than that of infants who receive breast milk as the only source of milk (BM) (BCFM infants, 97.9 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 83.1 kcal/kg/d, p=0.008). At 8 months increased minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) and SMR were found in BCFM infants (MOEE: BCFM infants, 51.6 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 48.0 kcal/kg/d, p=0.041). TEE was also slightly higher, but not significantly so. Fat mass and fat mass index were higher in BCFM infants (p=0.016 and p=0.013). Reference data for growth or energy requirements have been based on infants from high SES to assure that they would be growing optimally with no constraints to health. In developed countries, obesity used to be a problem in the higher SES families. In countries in transition, there is a shift of the prevalence of obesity towards lower SES infants, but this depends on the stage of transition. On the other hand, poor living conditions may result in growth faltering, and an increase in TEE and ER. We observed higher TEE in low SES as compared to high SES infants (high SES, 62.9 kcal/kg/d, low SES, 75.9 kcal/kg/d, p=0.005), MOEE was not increased, and the higher TEE in low SES infants should be contributed to high activity energy expenditure. Analysis of covariance showed that this should be contributed increased crowding in the low SES families. In conclusion, the development of universally applicable values for energy requirements based on data from infants selected from particular social groups, without reference to feeding pattern, may not be acceptable. At both 4 and 8 months

  19. Early initiation of breast feeding but not bottle feeding increase exclusive breastfeeding practice among less than six months infant in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Pemberian asi eksklusif merupakan salah satu upaya dalam menurunkan kematian bayi dan neonatal. Namun, prevalensi asi eksklusif di Indonesia masih rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai hubungan inisiasi menyusu dini dan penggunaan botol/dot dengan praktek asi eksklusif pada bayi di bawah usia 6 bulan di Indonesia. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2013. Sub-sampel adalah bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan. Dari 7226 bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan, 6397 memiliki data yang lengkap untuk dilakukan analisis. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox. Hasil: Dari 6397 responden, 44% mendapatkan asi eksklusif. Inisiasi menyusu dini, penggunaan botol, pelayanan kesehatan pasca persalinan, tempat tinggal dan status sosial ekonomi berhubungan dengan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. Anak yang mendapat inisiasi menyusu dini 66% lebih besar kemungkinan untuk memperoleh asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak memperoleh inisiasi menyusu dini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI: 1,45 – 1,90]. Anak yang menggunakan dot/kempeng memiliki kemungkinan 71% lebih rendah untuk asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak menggunakan dot/kempeng (RRa = 0,29; 95% CI: 0,25 – 0,34. Kesimpulan: Inisiasi menyusu dini dapat meningkatkan pemberian asi eksklusif, sedangkan penggunaan dot dapat menurunkan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:44-8 Kata kunci: asi eksklusif, inisiasi menyusu dini, dot  Abstract Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is a intervention to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. However,the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia remains low. The aim of the study was identify the association of early initiation and bottle-feeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice among infant less than six month in Indonesia. Methods: This study was a part of Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS 2013

  20. Intestinal proteome changes during infant necrotizing enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Smith, Birgitte; Qvist, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Changes in the intestinal and colonic proteome in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) may help to characterize the disease pathology and identify new biomarkers and treatment targets for NEC. Methods: Using gel-based proteomics, proteins in NEC-affected intestinal and coloni...

  1. Infant feeding and school attainment in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performance in intelligence tests tends to be higher among individuals breastfed as infants, but little is known about the association between breastfeeding and achieved schooling. We assessed the association of infant feeding with school achievement in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. Unlike high-income country settings where most previous studies come from, breastfeeding is not positively associated with socioeconomic position in our cohorts, thus reducing the likelihood of a spurious positive association. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants included 10,082 young adults from five birth cohorts (Brazil, India, Guatemala, the Philippines, and South Africa. The exposures variables were whether the subject was ever breastfed, total duration of breastfeeding, and age at introduction of complementary foods. We adjusted the estimates for age at follow up, sex, maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, birthweight and socioeconomic position at birth. The key outcome was the highest grade achieved at school. In unadjusted analyses, the association between ever breastfeeding and schooling was positive in Brazil, inverse in the Philippines, and null in South Africa; in adjusted analyses, these associations were attenuated. In Brazil, schooling was highest among individuals breastfed for 3-12 months whereas in the Philippines duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with schooling; and null associations were observed in South Africa and Guatemala. These associations were attenuated in adjusted models. Late introduction of solid foods was associated with lower schooling achievement in Brazil and South Africa. CONCLUSION: Measures of breastfeeding are not consistently related to schooling achievement in contemporary cohorts of young adults in lower and middle-income countries.

  2. Effectiveness of peer-counseling for promoting optimal complementary feeding practices among infants belonging to urban slums of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwal Vandana, Passi Santosh Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding practices is important in reducing malnutrition in infants and young children. Yet, India has dismal rates of optimal complementary feeding practices which are not rising. Aim: This study aimed to find the impact of the educational intervention directed through peer counselors to promote optimal complementary feeding practices. Methods and materials: This is an Interventional study, which has been conducted in an urban slum of Delhi using multi-stage random sampling. From the study area two sectors were randomly selected. From one sector, 54 pregnant women were selected who were not given any counselling forming the non-intervention group. From the other sector, 159 pregnant women were selected to form the intervention group (Igr which were further divided into 3 sub-groups; one sub-group was imparted counselling by a nutrition professional (Igr A; n=53 and the other two (Igr B1;n=53 and Igr B2;n=53 by the peer counselors who where the local health workers trained for promoting optimal infant feeding practices. The infants were followed up till their first birthday and in order to study the impact of counseling, the complementary feeding practices of the intervention and the non-intervention groups have been compared Results: In the intervention groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly higher as compared to the non-intervention group (67.5 % vs. 4.2 %. In the intervention groups, 2.6 per cent infants received semi-solid/ solid foods before the age of 6 months, 75.1 percent between 6 – 7 months and the rest by the age of 9 months. However, in the Non-Igr, the respective figures were 48.9, 19.4 and 25.4 per cent; and at the age of one year, 6.4 per cent infants were still being given predominantly mother’s milk. 99.3 per cent infants in the Igrs as compared to 82.3 per cent in the Non-Igr (P<0.05 continued to receive breast milk till the age of

  3. The Effects of Pre-feeding Oral Stimulations and Non-nutritive Sucking on Physical Growth and Independent Oral Feeding of Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding failures and oral feeding problems in preterm infants result in long-term health complications. In this study, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of oral stimulation along with non-nutritive sucking (NNS on independent oral feeding initiation and weight gain in preterm infants. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out at Aliasghar Hospital in Tehran, Iran, 2014. A total of 50 26-32 weeks gestational age hospitalized infants, who were fed through tubes, were recruited in the study. The newborns were randomized into A, B and C groups. In the A and B groups, the neonates were stimulated through oral stimulation as well as non-nutritive sucking for 5 or 10 days, while in the group C, no especial intervention was performed. Infants' mean daily weight gain, the number of days until initiation of oral feeding, oral feeding progression, the number of days until reaching full oral feeding and date of discharge were recorded. The obtained data were analyzed and compared in the three groups using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Of all the participants, 25 cases (55.55% were male. Mean gestational age at birth and mean birth weight were 28.64±1.93 weeks and 1337.11±185.07 grams, respectively. In the group A, newborns' weight at reaching four and eight oral feedings per day and their weights at discharge were significantly higher than the other two groups (P=0.016, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Mean daily weight gain in the group A was higher (84.2850 g than the other groups (69.5814 vs. 64.2677 g. However, ANOVA results showed that this difference was not significant (P=0.108. Moreover, independent samples t-test indicated that this difference between groups A and C was significant (P=0.049. Conclusion: In clinically stable preterm neonates, oral stimulation and should be implemented to increase their weight; however, further studies are required to address this issue.

  4. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  5. Changing mothers' perception of infant emotion: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, R; Shepherd, C; Pearson, R.M.; Button, K. S; Munafò, M. R; Evans, J; Penton-Voak, I.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) techniques, which experimentally retrain abnormal processing of affective stimuli, are becoming established for various psychiatric disorders. Such techniques have not yet been applied to maternal processing of infant emotion, which is affected by various psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods In a pilot study, mothers of children under 3 years old (n = 32) were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three training exercises, aiming either to increase or decrease their threshold of perceiving distress in a morphed continuum of 15 infant facial images. Differences between pre- and post-training threshold were analysed between and within subjects. Results Compared to baseline thresholds, the threshold for perceiving infant distress decreased in the lowered threshold group (mean difference -1.7 frames, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -3.1 to -0.3 p=0.02), increased in the raised threshold group (1.3 frames, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.1 p<0.01), and was unchanged in the control group (0.1 frames, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.1 p=0.80). Between group differences were similarly robust in regression models, and were not attenuated by potential confounders. Conclusions The findings suggest that it is possible to change the threshold at which mothers perceive ambiguous infant faces as distressed, either to increase or decrease sensitivity to distress. This small study was intended to provide proof of concept (i.e., that it is possible to alter a mother’s perception of infant distress.) Questions remain as to whether the effects persist beyond the immediate experimental session, have an impact on maternal behaviour, and could be used in clinical samples to improve maternal sensitivity and child outcomes. PMID:26260038

  6. Predictors of ante-natal care, delivery and infant feeding practices among rural women in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    Indrapal Ishwarji Meshram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality rates and prevalence of under nutrition are high in the State Madhya Pradesh. Regular ante-natal check-ups (ANC, delivery by trained health personnel, delivery practices and optimal infant feeding practices are important to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Objectives: The aim was to assess antenatal care, delivery and infant feeding practices of mothers of <1-year-old children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This was community-based cross-sectional study carried out in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh by adopting systematic random sampling procedure. Data were collected from 5324 mothers having <1-year-old children. Information on household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars was collected from the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed to study the association between dependent and independent variables. Results and Interpretations: About 36% mothers had undergone at least three ante-natal check-ups and 73% delivered either at government or private hospitals. Only 26% mothers initiated breastfeeding within 1-h of birth and 92% fed colostrum. Step-wise regression analysis showed that ante-natal care for <3 times was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among women with high parity (≥5, illiterate women, and among lower socioeconomic group,s while home delivery was higher among women with high parity (≥5 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, among Scheduled Caste and Tribe women (OR: 1.5, illiteracy of head of HH (OR: 2, and among lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.3. Discarding colostrum was higher among illiterate women (OR: 1.6, belonging to lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.4 and delivery conducted by untrained person (OR: 3.9, while initiation of breastfeeding after 1-h of childbirth was higher among ≥30 years women (OR: 1.9, illiterate women (OR: 1.4, and delivery by untrained person (OR: 2.9. Conclusions: It was observed that antenatal care, delivery and infant and

  7. Detection of Color in Rotating Objects by Infants and Its Generalization over Changes in Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, D. K.; Day, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine whether infants can detect the color of stationary and moving objects and maintain this discrimination over change in velocity. Subjects were 80 infants ages 8 to 20 weeks. (MP)

  8. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income. PMID:25393914

  9. Egg yolk as a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P; Salem, N

    1992-02-01

    In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.

  10. Micronutrient powder use and infant and young child feeding practices in an integrated program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2016-01-01

    Integrated infant and young child feeding (IYCF)/micronutrient powder (MNP) programs are increasingly used to address poor IYCF practices and micronutrient deficiencies in low-income settings; however, little is known about how MNP use may affect IYCF practices. We describe how MNP use was associated with IYCF practices in a pilot program in select districts of Nepal where free MNP for children 6-23 months were added to an existing IYCF platform. Representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted in pilot districts with mothers of eligible children at 3 months (plains ecozone, n=1054) or 15 months (hill ecozone, rural only, n=654) after implementation of an integrated MNP/IYCF program. We used logistic regression to assess how IYCF practices varied by MNP use (none, 1-30, 30-60 sachets). At both time points, consuming 30-60 MNP sachets vs. none was associated with achieving minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet. In the 3 month survey consuming 30- 60 MNP sachets vs none was also associated with achieving minimum meal frequency and continued breastfeeding at 2 years. In this setting, addition of MNP to an existing platform of IYCF messaging did not appear detrimental to IYCF practices. PMID:27222419

  11. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G

    2016-05-01

    This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed.

  12. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine/Polydrug Use on Maternal-Infant Feeding Interactions During the First Year of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn T.; Arendt, Robert; SATAYATHUM, SUDTIDA

    2005-01-01

    The effects of prenatal cocaine use on quality of maternal-infant interactions were evaluated using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). A total of 341 (155 cocaine using; 186 non–cocaine using) low socioeconomic, primarily African-American dyads were evaluated longitudinally at birth, 6.5, and 12 months. Group differences over time were examined, controlling for covariates, using a mixed-model linear approach. Women who used cocaine during pregnancy were less sensitive to thei...

  13. Applying Rank Sum Ratio (RSR) to the Evaluation of Feeding Practices Behaviors, and Its Associations with Infant Health Risk in Rural Lhasa, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the status of feeding practices and analyze the association between feeding practice and health status among Tibetan infants, a cross-sectional survey of 386 women with children aged under 24 months was conducted in rural areas surrounding Lhasa, Tibet. All participants were selected using simple random sampling and were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Mothers were interviewed to collect information on their feeding practices. A feeding practices index was created using the rank sum ratio method. Most of the infants had been or were being breastfed at the time of the interview. The feeding practices index was significantly and inversely associated with the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection, and the odds ratio for the qualified feeding practices index vs. the non-qualified feeding practices index was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.94). There were no measurable associations observed between acute upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, and the feeding practices index after controlling for selected factors. The method of rank sum ratio provides a flexible way to evaluate feeding practices and is easy to understand. Furthermore, appropriate infant feeding practices might play a protective role in Tibetan infants' health.

  14. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  15. Apoprotein E phenotype determines serum cholesterol in infants during both high-cholesterol breast feeding and low-cholesterol formula feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M J; Salmenperä, L; Siimes, M A; Perheentupa, J; Gylling, H; Miettinen, T A

    1997-04-01

    Our objective was to establish the role of the apoprotein (apo) E phenotype in determining serum cholesterol levels in infants fed exclusively on high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk and in those fed a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat formula. The total and lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride concentrations in serum were quantified and related to the apoE phenotype in 151 infants at birth and at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Forty-four had the E3/4 or 4/4 phenotype (E4 group), 94 had the E3/3 phenotype (E3 group), and 13 had the E2/3 or 2/4 phenotype (E2 group). In cord blood, cholesterol concentrations tended to be higher in the E4 than in the E2 group. With exclusive breast-feeding, the concentrations rose significantly faster and higher in the E4 group than in the E3 group or, especially, the E2 group. The values (mmol/L, mean +/- SEM) were 1.6 +/- 0.15, 1.5 +/- 0.05, 1.4 +/- 0.1 (P = n.s.) at birth; 4.2 +/- 0.1, 3.8 +/- 0.08, 3.4 +/- 0.2 (P HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol concentrations did not depend on the apoE phenotype. Among infants fed high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk, the total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the LDL apoB concentration of those with the apoE phenotype 4/4 or 3/4 rose faster and to higher levels than in other infants. Among formula-fed infants, receiving a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat diet, the differences between the apoE groups were smaller.

  16. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  17. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  18. Teachers' Roles in Infants' Play and Its Changing Nature in a Dynamic Group Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    Using a qualitative research approach, this article explores teachers' roles in infants' play and its changing nature in an infant group care setting. Three infant teachers in a child care center were followed over three months. Observations, interviews, ongoing conversations, emails, and reflective notes were used as data sources. Findings…

  19. Decisions and advice about infant feeding: findings from sociological work in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Gill

    2004-11-01

    What are women's practices and experiences? And what are pregnant women being told about risks through breastfeeding in an area of high HIV seroprevalence? This work sets out to explore these two principal questions in terms of the implications for women, and for international and national policy guidelines on infant feeding. During a two-year sociological study in KwaZulu-Natal, semi-structured questionnaires, individual and group interviews, and an innovative storytelling element were used to probe women's decision-making concerning infant feeding. In-depth interviews were conducted with different groups of health workers, including AIDS counsellors and traditional birth attendants, and observations were made at both semi-rural and urban hospitals and clinics. The research was carried out at a time when new international and national guidelines concerning HIV and infant feeding were being circulated. The research is framed within critical and discursive theory, influenced by the work of Foucault, and located within a particular feminist theory, concerned with the modes of appropriation of 'the sexed body'. The conclusions centre on ethical considerations and the rights of women to make informed decisions about their own and their baby's health care. Reference is also made to the particular socialisation of health workers, especially maternity nurses. The importance of the earlier struggle against the unethical practices of multi-nationals is recognised, and how this has informed a robust breastfeeding culture. Scant attention has been paid to the results of studies undertaken in other African locations (mainly West Africa) where key players have introduced infant milk formula. The conclusions also engage with the question of the vertical paradigm: how women's lives have been caught up in these dilemmas and conflicts in a country with a rights' culture. PMID:25875065

  20. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  1. Infant sleep and feeding patterns are associated with maternal sleep, stress, and depressed mood in women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Iko, Ijeoma N; Machan, Jason T; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age ± SD = 28.3 ± 5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p = .02) and lower sleep efficiency (p = .04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p = .008) and duration of infant feeding (p = .008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress. PMID:26228760

  2. In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings…

  3. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators. PMID:24074323

  4. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  5. Infant Feeding Practices of Emirati Women in the Rapidly Developing City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gardner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates (UAE has been accompanied by new challenges to public health; most notably a rapid rise in chronic disease. Breastfeeding is known to improve health outcomes in adulthood, is associated with reduced risk of developing chronic disease, and is therefore an important public health issue for this rapidly increasing population. Factors associated with infant feeding practices were examined in a cohort of 125 Emirati women and their infants, with data collected at birth and 3, 6 and 15 months postpartum by questionnaires and interviews. Participants were recruited in the Corniche Hospital, the main maternity hospital in the city of Abu Dhabi. Factors affecting the duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods were investigated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Recommended infant feeding practices, such as exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods, were poorly adhered to. Factors implicated in early cessation of breastfeeding included: time to first breastfeed, mother’s education level, employment status and early introduction of complementary foods.

  6. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and the use of the Iowa Infant Attitude Feeding Scale to describe breastfeeding initiation and duration in a population of urban, Latina mothers: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Katherine E; White, Mary C.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age. Maternal attitudes toward infant feeding are correlated with chosen feeding method and breastfeeding duration. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been used to assess attitudes towards breastfeeding prenatally and is predictive of breastfeeding decisions in certain population groups. Methods ...

  7. Infant and young child feeding practices among children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to infant and young child feeding messages and promotions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Bineti S; Benjamin, Margaret; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data describing infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) in urban Tanzania. This study assessed the types of foods consumed by children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to promotions of these foods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 mothers of children less than 24 months of age who attended child health services in October and November, 2014. Among infants less than 6 months of age, rates of exclusive breastfeeding were low (40.8%) and a high proportion (38.2%) received semi-solid foods. Continued breastfeeding among 20-23-month-olds was only 33.3%. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was not prevalent, and only 3.9% of infants less than 6 months of age and 4.8% of 6-23 month-olds were fed formula. Among 6-23-month-olds, only 38.4% consumed a minimum acceptable diet (using a modified definition). The homemade complementary foods consumed by the majority of 6-23-month-olds (85.2%) were cereal-dominated and infrequently contained micronutrient-rich ingredients. Only 3.1% of 6-23-month-olds consumed commercially produced infant cereal on the day preceding the interview. In contrast, commercially produced snack foods were consumed by 23.1% of 6-23-month-olds. Maternal exposure to commercial promotions of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods was low (10.5% and 1.0%, respectively), while exposure to promotions of commercially produced snack foods was high (45.9%). Strategies are needed to improve IYCF practices, particularly with regard to exclusive and continued breastfeeding, increased dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, and avoidance of feeding commercially produced snack foods. PMID:27061958

  8. Potential impact of infant feeding recommendations on mortality and HIV-infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seksaria Vidyunmala

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. We assessed the potential impact, on HIV infection and infant mortality, of a recommendation for shorter durations of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and poor compliance to these recommendations. Methods We developed a deterministic mathematical model using primarily parameters from published studies conducted in Uganda or Kenya and took into account non-compliance resulting in mixed-feeding practices. Outcomes included the number of children HIV-infected and/or dead (cumulative mortality at 2 years following each of 6 scenarios of infant-feeding recommendations in children born to HIV-infected women: Exclusive replacement-feeding (ERF with 100% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 100% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 100% compliance, ERF with 70% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 85% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 85% compliance Results In the base model, reducing the duration of EBF from 6 to 4 months reduced HIV infection by 11.8% while increasing mortality by 0.4%. Mixed-feeding in 15% of the infants increased HIV infection and mortality respectively by 2.1% and 0.5% when EBF for 6 months was recommended; and by 1.7% and 0.3% when EBF for 4 months was recommended. In sensitivity analysis, recommending EBF resulted in the least cumulative mortality when the a mortality in replacement-fed infants was greater than 50 per 1000 person-years, b rate of infection in exclusively breast-fed infants was less than 2 per 1000 breast-fed infants per week, c rate of progression from HIV to AIDS was less than 15 per 1000 infected infants per week, or d mortality due to HIV/AIDS was less than 200 per 1000 infants with HIV/AIDS per year. Conclusion Recommending shorter durations of breast-feeding in infants born to HIV

  9. Impact of adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations on later risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Bland, Ruth M; Connelly, Andrew; Reilly, John J

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations has short-term benefits and may also help in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study reviewed the evidence on whether adherence to all elements of the WHO infant feeding recommendations (comparison group those exclusively breastfed to 6 months, introduced to appropriate complementary feeding from 6 months, with continued breastfeeding to at least 24 months; exposure group characterised by non-adherence to any of the three recommendations) is associated with reduced risk of later obesity or cardiometabolic disease. The population of interest was children not classified as very low weight (weight-for-age z-score >-3.0). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL plus, ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis were systematically searched from 2001 to July 2014, manual reference searching of a birth cohort register (http://www.birthcohorts.net/) as well as papers identified in the search and selected journals was carried out. The database search yielded 9050 records, 275 English-language full-text articles were screened, but no studies were eligible, failing to meet the following criteria: comparison (213); exposure (14); population (3); relevant outcome (5); outcome before 24 months (9); insufficient information provided (30); plus one study was qualitative. Eight studies met the inclusion criterion of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, but did not meet the other inclusion criteria. The present study has revealed an important gap in the evidence on NCD prevention, and suggestions for addressing this evidence gap are provided. PMID:26259927

  10. A summary index of infant and child feeding practices is associated with child growth in urban Shanghai

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    Ma Jing-Qiu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, an infant and child feeding index (ICFI constructed on brief recalls of breastfeeding, feeding frequency and food diversification was assumed to provide long-term prediction about child feeding practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the cross-sectional ICFI (CS-ICFI or longitudinal ICFI (L-ICFI and child anthropometric indices in downtown Shanghai, China. Methods The prospective cohort study included 180 infants aged 5-7 mo with their main caregivers who were visited 3 times every 6 months over 12 months. A CS-ICFI was constructed for each visit by using data on feeding practices based on 24-h and 7-d recalls. An L-ICFI was constructed with use of the 3 CS-ICFIs. The associations between ICFI and length-for-age z score (LAZ, weight-for-age z score (WAZ, and weight-for-length z score (WLZ were examined. The stability of the CS-ICFI was assessed by using repeatability coefficient (RC. Results The L-ICFI was positively associated with LAZ and WAZ at Visit 3(beta = 0.151, P = 0.040 and beta = 0.173, P = 0.024, respectively. Moreover, the CS-ICFI at Visit 1 was positively associated with LAZ, WAZ and WLZ (beta = 0.160, P = 0.029; beta = 0.191, P = 0.009; beta = 0.176, P = 0.020 at Visit 3, and the CS-ICFI at Visit 3 was also positively associated with LAZ (beta = 0.176, P = 0.016. Stability of the CS-ICFI was shown by the value of 0.14 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.31 of the RC, which differed significantly from 0 (P Conclusions The ICFI constructed on brief recalls based on cross-sectional studies can be used to evaluate the effects of child feeding practice on child growth.

  11. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.;

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P

  12. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  13. The challenges of adherence to infant feeding choices in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infections in South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawani LO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucky O Lawani,1 Azubuike K Onyebuchi,2 Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,3 Robinson C Onoh,2 Peter O Nkwo31School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Global and national efforts in the 21st century are directed toward the elimination of new pediatric HIV infections through evidence-based infant feeding interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, with patient preference, motivation, and adherence identified as key factors for success.Objectives: This study assessed the challenges faced by HIV-infected parturients in adhering to the national infant feeding recommendations and their infant feeding preference for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in South East Nigeria.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire-based study of 556 parturients infected with HIV/AIDS.Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.0±5.3 years. The infant feeding choices were made jointly by both partners (61.1% in the antepartum period. The HIV status disclosure rate was 89.2%. A large proportion (91.7% practiced exclusive breastfeeding with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 7.6% practiced mixed feeding because of nonadherence to their choice and national/international recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV/AIDS. This was mainly a result of pressure from family members (42.8% and cultural practices (28.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that adherence was strongly associated with age, marital status, and employment status, but not with residence, educational status, or parity.Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding is predominately the infant feeding choice among HIV

  14. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  15. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

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    Ying Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  16. Changing patterns of infant behavior and mother-infant interaction : Intra- and interindividual variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerth, C.; Van Geert, P. L. C.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-infant dyads were observed weekly at their homes for a 15-month period. In this way longitudinal data about the infants' crying, fretting/fussing, smiling and different types of physical contact with the mother were collected. The subject of this study concerns the variability and stability i

  17. Pathomorphological cardial changes in the sudden infant death syndrome

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    Rozumny D.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the relationship between the timing of fetal obliteration of communication and expression remodeling of the heart chambers, as one of the possible causative factors of SIDS, the selected material has been based on macromorphometric study. Material included 43 hearts from infants who died of SIDS. The control group consisted of 48 hearts of children suddenly dead from aspiration of gastric contents and infectious disease. The methods composed a macroscopic examination of the heart by the method of separate weighing of the complex morphometric studies, histological examination (used the following stains: hematoxylin and eosin, picrofuchsin by Van Gieson, Nissl's stain, immunohistochemical method using markers of neurofilament. The results revealed that in children who died of SIDS, obliteration of the fetal communication occurs essentially in the late period —to the age of 8 months, and the mass of the left and right ventricles of the heart exceeds the age limit of normal due to the prevalence of ventricular muscle mass and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In all parts of the heart subendocardial fibrosis in the ventricles — pronounced interstitial fibrosis has been observed. In the interatrial septum at the location at the oval window morphometric study resulted in significant predominance area percentage of connective tissue in relation to the muscle tissue. On histological sections elements of the nervous tissue — randomly arranged nerve ganglia with degenerative changes and nerve fibers were identified. Conclusion. Finally, it should be noted that the growth of cardiosclerosis in all parts of the heart in newborns and infants, who died suddenly from SIDS, extends the terms of obliteration of fetal communications, and degenerative changes in the nerve ganglia that lead to the disturbance of supply and distribution of nerve impulses that pass through them. These factors contribute to the development of hemodynamic

  18. Is the association of breastfeeding with child obesity explained by infant weight change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Rossem (Lenie); E.M. Taveras (Elsie M.); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.); K.P. Kleinman (Ken P.); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl L.); H. Raat (Hein); E. Oken (Emily)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective. Breastfeeding and infant weight change are both associated with adiposity. We examined the extent to which infant weight change mediates the association between breastfeeding and adiposity at age 3 years. Methods. We studied 884 children in a prospective cohort study. We deter

  19. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross-sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty-six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0-5 months and 29.3% of children 6-23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0-5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20-23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub-Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast-milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale. Strengthened implementation and enforcement of Cambodia's subdecree 133

  20. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub‐Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross‐sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty‐six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0–5 months and 29.3% of children 6–23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0–5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20–23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub‐Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast‐milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale.Strengthened implementation and enforcement

  1. Effect of glutamine with auxiliary enteral and parenteral nutrition on feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Cai; Chun-Hong Chen; Yan-Fang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical effects of glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on improving the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants.Methods: A total of 40 cases of low birth weight infants (LBW) in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2015 were selected, which were divided equally into the observation group and the control group according to the different nutritional intervention methods. Patients in the control group received routine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition while children of observed group received glutamine assisted enteral and parenteral nutrition. Differences of children’s growth and development indicators, nutritional status and levels of calcium and phosphorus, gastrin and motilin levels, mucosal barrier and immune function were compared between two groups. Results:After receiving nutritional intervention, children in the observation group had higher levels of serum leptin, GH, IGF-I and adiponectin than the control group patients, while Cor values were lower. The observation group patients who received nutritional intervention had higher TSF, AMC, TP, ALB, calcium and phosphorus levels than the control group, while the ALP values were lower; children of observation group who received nutrition intervention had higher GAS and MOT levels than the control group; children of observation group after intervention had higher peripheral blood CD3+T, CD4+T and CD4+/CD8+ levels than the control group children, while D-lactic acid and blood ammonia levels were lower.Conclusion:Glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition could improve the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants, and it improved the nutritional status as well as growth and development of children as a whole, and thus had positive clinical significance.

  2. Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant erythroc

  3. Breast feeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration: A preventable tragedy in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Krishnamurthy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The innumerable and compelling benefits of exclusive breastfeeding to the infant, mother, family and society are well recognized. Hypernatremic dehydration is a rare, yet potentially preventable complication of exclusive breastfeeding; the etiology being inadequate lactation. We report 2 exclusively breastfed newborn infants with serum sodium levels of 166 and 159 mEq/L, respectively. Both babies presented with excessive weight loss, fever, dehydration, and irritability. Mothers had inadequate lactation. Corresponding breast milk sodium levels were elevated in both mothers (77 and 45 mEq/l; normal 7-21 mEq/L between 3-14 d postpartum. Appropriate parenteral fluids were administered to correct dehydration and hypernatremia. Serum sodium normalized within 72 hours. Following counseling, breastfeeding was resumed after 48 hours with both the mothers achieving good lactation. Infants were finally discharged on exclusive breastfeeding. Timely recognition and awareness of this potentially lethal, but preventable condition is essential to ensure a favorable outcome.

  4. ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF FEED LOAD CHANGES IN ALCOHOL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folly R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A fed-batch alcohol fermentation on a pilot plant scale with a digital supervisory control system was evaluated as an experimental application case study of an adaptive controller. The verification of intrinsically dynamic variations in the characteristics of the fermentation, observed in previous work, showed the necessity of an adaptive control strategy for controller parameter tuning in order to adjust the changes in the specific rates of consumption, growth and product formation during the process. Satisfactory experimental results were obtained for set-point variations and sugar feed concentration load changes in the manipulated inlet flow to the fermenter

  5. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  6. 婴幼儿喂养问题影响因素研究%Influencing factors of feeding problems in infants and young children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴琼; 徐海青; 汪鸿; 王小燕; 赵职卫; 周爱琴; 罗西贝; 刘建琼; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨婴幼儿喂养问题的发生原因.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,利用婴幼儿喂养困难评分量表及婴幼儿喂养问题影响因素调查表,调查4 017名6个月~3周岁婴幼儿并进行分析.结果 早产、吐奶、便秘时间长、不易抚养是导致婴幼儿喂养问题的危险因素 (P <0.05).主要喂养人文化程度高、家庭人均月收入高、进餐时有言语性鼓励和情感交流、积极应对婴幼儿进食困难为婴幼儿喂养问题的保护因素 (P <0.05).结论 婴幼儿喂养问题发生是多因素共同作用的结果,与婴幼儿因素,家庭因素和喂养行为有关.%Objective To investigate the factors influencing infant feeding. Methods The multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 4017 infants aged from 6 months to 3 years. The factors influencing infant feeding were investigated using Montreal Children Hospital feeding scale (MCH-FS) and questionnaire. Results Premature, spits, constipation, difficult feeding were risk factors associated with infant feeding problems (P<0.05), while the caregivers with high level of education, high family income, encouragement of verbal and emotional in meals and active response to the infant were associated with decreasing risk of infant feeding problems (P<0.05). Conclusions infant feeding problems is caused by various factors including infants' health condition, family condition and feeding behavior.

  7. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  8. Cultural variation in early feeding pattern and maternal perceptions of infant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden, Manon; Meijers, Claire M. C.; Jansen, Jessica E.; De Kroon, Marlou L. A.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of healthy growth and weight may differ between cultures, which could influence feeding practises and consequently affect the development of overweight. The present study examined ethnic variation in maternal perceptions of growth and their influence on feeding practises among Turkish

  9. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajas...

  10. Changes in lung volume and ventilation during surfactant treatment in ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Miedema; F.H. de Jongh; I. Frerichs; M.B. van Veenendaal; A.H. van Kaam

    2011-01-01

    The immediate and regional effects of exogenous surfactant in open lung high-frequency oscillatory ventilated (HFOV) preterm infants are unknown. To assess regional changes in lung volume, mechanics, and ventilation during and after surfactant administration in HFOV preterm infants with respiratory

  11. IDENTIFYING BOTTLENECKS FOR APPROPRIATE INFANT FEEDING IN URBAN SLUMS, ALIGARH CITY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Mehnaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urban population is increasing rapidly. Majority of these families are poor or landless farmers and labourers, who settle down in peri-urban areas, creating slums. Urban slums are thus growing at an alarming rate. The present study was carried out with the general objective of identifying factors which prevent access to health services. Objectives: 1. To determine the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight in infants and young children. 2. To determine presence of certain micro-environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with poor nutritional status of infants and children. Methodology: Baseline study was carried out in Oct –Nov 2009 (as a part of another ongoing study and data was collected in 110 Mothers who had delivered children during the last one month. In Oct 2010 these families were visited again the infants were followed up. 39 families had shifted to another location or emigrated back to their parent state or village mostly in search of seasonal employment as reported by neighbours. One family refused to cooperate. . Two infants had died. Remaining 68 Mothers were interviewed in friendly informal manner after taking consent for study. Results: (35.4% study subjects had migrated to other areas, as reported by neighbours. Of the 68 mothers interviewed during follow up visit, previous baseline record showed that a majority were 20-30 years of age. , only 2 mothers (2.9% had exclusively breastfed for 6 months. 46 (67.6% said they had not been contacted by any health worker during the last 3 months. All 68 children were malnourished. Immunization status was poor and 94.1% children had suffered from some illness in the last one month. Conclusion: Migration is a problem which makes it difficult for providers to give continuity of care. Capacity building of the community can reduce the the bottlenecks leading to marginalization and exclusion of slum mothers from the mainstream urban health services.

  12. The impact of infant feeding patterns on infection and diarrheal disease due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. Determine the impact of dietary risk factors on patterns of infection by heat labile toxin-producing Escherichia coli (LT-ETEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ninety-eight infants were followed from birth for one year in Guadalajara, Mexico, beginning in august of 1986. Stool and breast milk samples were collected weekly from infants and their mothers, respectively. Mothers were also interviewed on a weekly basis regarding the health of the infants. Parametric hazard models were fit to durations of different LTETEC disease states determined through the analysis of stools. The child's consumption of supplemental foods and liquids as well as specific levels of LT-ETEC-specific breast milk antibodies were included in each model as time-varying covariates. RESULTS. The hazard of LTETEC asymptomatic infection increased 400 percent among children who received oats gruel (hazard rate= 4.01; 95% CI 2.77-5.24. The duration of infection was reduced if the child had had a previous LT-ETEC diarrheal episode (2.12; 95% CI 1.74-2.49 but was prolonged if the child consumed herbal teas (0.53; 95% CI 0.27-0.7. Herbal teas and high LTETEC-specific breast milk antibody levels each reduced the hazard of symptomatic infection by ninety percent. Symptomatic episodes became asymptomatic more rapidly if a child was given rice water. CONCLUSIONS. Specific weaning foods increase the risk of infection. Breastmilk antibodies and liquid infusions reduce diarrheal disease and infection duration.

  13. Preventive effect of feeding high-risk infants a casein hydrolysate formula or an ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula. A prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G;

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study of a 1-year birth cohort of 158 high-risk infants the effect of feeding breastmilk, a casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen) or a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate (Profylac) on the development of cow milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) was assessed and compared. All...

  14. Clinical features of feeding intolerance in preterm infants%早产儿喂养不耐受临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐振; 周英; 李明霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿喂养不耐受的临床特征,为早产儿喂养不耐受的防治提供临床依据.方法 2007年1月至2009年12月入住新疆医科大学第一附属医院的早产儿716例为研究对象,对其临床特征进行回顾性分析.结果 ①716例早产儿中197例(27.5%)发生喂养不耐受,其中极低出生体重儿喂养不耐受发生比率高达77.6%.临床表现中以单纯胃潴留所占比例最高(47.2%).②喂养不耐受出现时间集中在开始喂养后3d内.③喂养不耐受组早产儿胎龄和出生体重低于耐受组、开奶时间晚于耐受组、早产儿合并窒息及呼吸性疾病比例高于耐受组(P0.05).随着胎龄增大、出生体重增加、尽早开始喂养,早产儿喂养不耐受发生风险降低.结论 早产儿喂养不耐受的发生与患儿胎龄、出生体重、开奶时间及合并症有关.%Objective To study the clinical features of feeding intolerance in preterm infants in order to provide clinical evidence for preventing feeding intolerance.Methods A total of 716 preterm infants hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between January 2007 and December 2009 were enrolled.The clinical data of the infants were retrospectively studied.Results Feeding intolerance occurred in 197 (27.5%) out of 716 infants,with an incidence of 76.4% in the very low birth weight infants.Simple gastric retention (47.2%) was found as the most common clinical manifestation.Feeding intolerance usually occurred within 3 days after feeding.Compared with the pretenn infants with feeding success, the preterm infants with feeding intolerance showed lower gestational age and birth weight, more delayed feeding and higher rate of asphyxia and respiratory diseases ( P < 0.05 ).There were no significant differences in the gender, maternal age, ethnic group, delivery way and the incidence of fetal distress between the two groups.With increasing gestational age, increasing birth

  15. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parks EP, Shaikhkhalil A, Groleau V, Wendel D, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ... 2016:chap. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ...

  16. Adaptive control of feed load changes in alcohol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folly, R.; Berlim, R.; Salgado, A.; Franca, R.; Valdman, B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1997-12-01

    A fed-batch alcohol fermentation on a pilot plant scale with a digital supervisory control was evaluated as an experimental application case study of an adaptive controller. The verification of intrinsically dynamic variations in the characteristics of the fermentation, observed in previous work, showed the necessity of an adaptive control strategy for controller parameter tuning in order to adjust the changes in the specific rates of consumption, growth and product formation during the process. Satisfactory experimental results were obtained for set-point variations and sugar feed concentration load changes in the manipulated inlet flow to the fermenter. (author) 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: Valdman at H2O.EQ.UFRJ.BR

  17. The Relationship between Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 and Feeding Intolerance in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Esra Arun; Holst, Jens Juul; Duman, Nuray;

    2008-01-01

    is a common problem in preterm newborns resulting from the intestinal immaturity. The study included 20 term and 28 preterm neonates. Of preterm babies, 13 showed feeding intolerance fulfilling at least one of the following criteria: abdominal distension, increased gastric residual volume and presence of bile...

  18. Change in movement patterns asymmetry in infants with central coordination disorder in continuous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the aim of the study was to observe the dynamics of changes in postural symmetry in infants during the first year of life, undergoing a therapy using the NDT-Bobath method.

  19. A study on feeding practice of under 6 months infants attending the Nutrition Clinic of a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Shrivastava

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: while breast feeding is a natural act, it is also a learned behavior. The right technique of feeding in the right position is the key to success of breastfeeding.Methods: to assess the feeding practice including positioning, attachment and suckling of under 6 months’ infants, a cross-sectional study was undertaken at R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, India, among 99 mothers in 2010.Results: 59.8% mothers completed feeding from one breast before going to the next breast. 77.3% mothers alternated their breasts during subsequent feeds. 41.2% babies were well attached, 47.4% babies were correctly positioned.Conclusions: there is a need to teach the mothers  the techniques of correct positioning and attachment, especially, in the post natal period before discharge from the hospital after delivery. 

  20. Developmental Changes in Infant Attention to Dynamic and Static Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddy, D. Jill; Colombo, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 4- and 6-month-olds' responses to static or dynamic stimuli using behavioral and heart-rate-defined measures of attention. Infants looked longest to dynamic stimuli with an audio track and least to a static stimulus that was mute. Overall, look duration declined with age to the different stimuli. The amount of time spent in…

  1. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p < 0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p < 0.01). BMI across time during pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored.

  2. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Yuan Xue; Huijuan Zhao; Takashi Kusaka; Masanori Ueno; Yukio Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  3. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2007-08-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  4. Changes in Heart Rate Variability in a Premature Infant with Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Uhrikova; Branislav Kolarovszki; Kamil Javorka; Michal Javorka; Katarina Matasova; Hana Kolarovszka; Mirko Zibolen

    2012-01-01

    Objective - To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design - The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 d...

  5. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and sustaining use of nutrition services in similar contexts.

  6. Analysis of risk factors in premature infants with feeding intolerance%早产儿喂养不耐受的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 佐日汗·艾依莎; 王琳; 刘亚玲; 徐崇民; 刘亚兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence factors of feeding intolerance in premature infants. Method:The incidence of feeding intolerance in 134 premature infants were observed. Logistic analysis between feeding intolerance and 19 factors including gender, pregnancy-gravidity history, gestational age and so on were performed. Result:The incidence of feeding intolerance in premature infants was 47. 8%;the incidences in infants whose birth weight (BW)>2500g, 2 000 g 34 w, 32 w2500 g、2000 1 500 g34周、32周

  7. Influence of feeding practices and associated factors on the nutritional status of infants in rural areas of Madhya Pradesh state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Indrapal Ishwarji; Kodavanti, Mallikharjun Rao; Chitty, Gal Reddy; Manchala, Ravindranath; Kumar, Sharad; Kakani, Sreerama Krishna; Kodavalla, Venkaiah; Avula, Laxmaiah; Narsimhachary Veera, Brahmam Ginnela

    2015-03-01

    A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in rural Madhya Pradesh (MP). The nutritional status of infants was assessed using WHO Child Growth Standards. Only 26% of infants received breast-feeding within 1 hour of birth. About 57% of children 6 to 11 months old received complementary feeding (CF). The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 41%, 29%, and 33%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of underweight and stunting was 1.4 times higher among children belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes compared with others, 1.4 to 1.6 times among children from households with the lowest wealth index, and 1.5 times among children of illiterate mothers. Hygienic practices, birth weight, home delivery, and CF practices were also significantly (P < .01) associated with undernutrition in multivariate analysis. Undernutrition is an important health problem in MP, and urgent steps are required to formulate policies and strategies to improve infant and young child feeding practices, socioeconomic conditions, and literacy and encouraging institutional delivery and personal hygiene.

  8. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  9. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  10. Rotary Motion Impairs Attention to Color Change in 4-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavsek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Continuous color changes of an array of elements appear to stop changing if the array undergoes a coherent motion. This "silencing" illusion was demonstrated for adults by Suchow and Alvarez ("Current Biology", 2011, vol. 21, pp. 140-143). The current forced-choice preferential looking study examined 4-month-old infants' sensitivity to the…

  11. Developmental changes in motor cortex activity as infants develop functional motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Meehan, Sean K; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2016-09-01

    Despite extensive research examining overt behavioral changes of motor skills in infants, the neural basis underlying the emergence of functional motor control has yet to be determined. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) from 22 infants (11 six month-olds, 11 twelve month-olds) as they reached for an object, and stepped while supported over a treadmill. Based on the developmental systems framework, we hypothesized that as infants increased goal-directed experience, neural activity shifts from a diffused to focal pattern. Results showed that for reaching, younger infants showed diffuse areas of M1 activity that became focused by 12 months. For elicited stepping, younger infants produced much less M1 activity which shifted to diffuse activity by 12 months. Thus, the data suggest that as infants gain goal-directed experience, M1 activity emerges, initially showing a diffuse area of activity, becoming refined as the behavior stabilizes. Our data begin to document the cortical activity underlying early functional skill acquisition.

  12. Developmental changes in motor cortex activity as infants develop functional motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Meehan, Sean K; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2016-09-01

    Despite extensive research examining overt behavioral changes of motor skills in infants, the neural basis underlying the emergence of functional motor control has yet to be determined. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) from 22 infants (11 six month-olds, 11 twelve month-olds) as they reached for an object, and stepped while supported over a treadmill. Based on the developmental systems framework, we hypothesized that as infants increased goal-directed experience, neural activity shifts from a diffused to focal pattern. Results showed that for reaching, younger infants showed diffuse areas of M1 activity that became focused by 12 months. For elicited stepping, younger infants produced much less M1 activity which shifted to diffuse activity by 12 months. Thus, the data suggest that as infants gain goal-directed experience, M1 activity emerges, initially showing a diffuse area of activity, becoming refined as the behavior stabilizes. Our data begin to document the cortical activity underlying early functional skill acquisition. PMID:27096281

  13. Cardiopulmonary and intracranial pressure changes related to endotracheal suctioning in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M; Sangha, B; Cabal, L A; Hoppenbrouwers, T; Hodgman, J E

    1989-06-01

    Although endotracheal (ET) suctioning is performed frequently in sick newborn infants, its effects on cardiorespiratory variables and intracranial pressure (ICP) have not been thoroughly documented in neonates greater than 24 h who were not paralyzed while receiving mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates these changes in preterm infants who required ventilatory assistance. We measured transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2 (PtcO2 and PtcCO2, respectively), intra-arterial BP, heart rate, ICP, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) before, during, and for at least 5 min after ET suctioning in 15 low birth weight infants less than 1500 g and less than or equal to 30 days of age. One infant was studied twice. A suction adaptor was used to avoid disconnecting the patient from the ventilator and to attempt to minimize hypoxemia and hypercapnia during suctioning. The patients were studied in the supine position and muscle relaxants were not used. PtcO2 decreased 12.1% while PtcCO2 increased 4.7% 1 min after suctioning; however, greater increases in mean BP (33%) and ICP (117%) were observed during suctioning. CPP also increased during the procedure. ICP returned to baseline almost immediately, whereas BP remained slightly elevated 1 min after suctioning. Our findings demonstrate that ET suctioning significantly increases BP, ICP, and CPP in preterm infants on assisted ventilation in the first month of life. These changes appear to be independent of changes observed in oxygenation and ventilation.

  14. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk production strategies focusing on longevity and limited use of concentrate are receiving increasing attention. To evaluate such strategies, knowledge of the development with age of animal characteristics, particularly digestion, is indispensable. We therefore investigated the development of feed intake, chewing activity, and digestion in 30 lactating Brown Swiss cows (876-3,648 d old) and 12 heifers (199-778 d old). We also studied whether age effects were exhibited differently in animals selected from herds subjected for 11 yr either to a forage-only or to a forage-concentrate feeding regimen. Forages consisted of grass hay (the only feed for heifers), corn silage, and grass pellets. Measurements lasted for 8 d, where amounts and composition of feeds, feces, and milk were recorded and analyzed. Ruminal pH data and eating and rumination activity were assessed by pH sensors put into the rumen and halter-mounted noseband sensors. The mean retention time of feed particles was assessed using Cr-mordanted fiber and data were used to calculate dry matter gut fill. Data were subjected to regression analyses with age and feeding regimen as explanatory variables, and body weight, milk yield, and proportion of hay in forage as covariates. This allowed separating age-related changes of body weight and milk yield from independent age effects and correcting for differences in preference for individual forages. In cows, organic matter intake increased with age (from slightly below to above 20kg/d), as did mean retention time and gut fill. Digestibility of organic matter did not show a clear age dependency, but fiber digestibility had a maximum in cows of around 4 to 6 yr of age. Ruminal pH and absolute eating and rumination times did not vary with cow age. Young and old cows chewed regurgitated boluses more intensively (60-70 times) than middle-aged cows (about 50 times). Effects of feeding regimen were small, except for fiber intake and rumination time per unit of intake

  15. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  16. Parental perception of child weight in the first two years-of-life: a potential link between infant feeding and preschoolers' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22-63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers.

  17. 喂养方式对婴儿生长发育的影响%Effects of feeding patterns on growth and development of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 李艳超; 胡传来; 关美云; 王燕; 陈亮; 李李

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解不同喂养方式对婴儿生长发育的影响.方法:以0 ~ 12月龄的婴儿为研究对象,根据前4个月的喂养方式分为母乳喂养、混合喂养、人工喂养3组.根据“421”体检模式,由专人负责并采用统一标准,分别在婴儿3、6、9、12月龄时对其进行身长、体重测量,并采用自编调查问卷询问婴儿的喂养方式及其生长发育情况.结果:6月龄时三种喂养方式的婴儿体重及身长在各组问差异有统计学意义,纯母乳喂养组与混合喂养组间差异有统计学意义;纯母乳喂养组贫血发生率最高(P=0.012).4月龄内不同喂养方式婴儿12月龄时适应性、大运动、精细动作、语言、个人-社交五大能区DQ得分采用方差分析,三组间差异无统计学意义,但三组哺喂时间对婴儿适应性、语言、个人-社交存在影响.结论:不同喂养方式与婴儿生长发育有明显的关联.%Objective; To understand the effects of different feeding patterns on growth and development of infants. Methods; 0 -12 - month - old infants were selected as study objects, then they were divided into breast feeding group, mixed feeding group, and artificial feeding group according to the feeding patterns used in the first four months. According to "421" physical examination model and uniform criteria, body height and body weight of infants were measured at 3 , 6, 9 , and 12 months; a self - designed questionnaire was used to survey the feeding patterns, growth and development of infants. Results; At six months, there was statistically significant difference in body height and body weight of infants among the three groups, in pure breast feeding group, the incidence of anemia was the highest ( P = 0. 012 ) . There was no statistically significant difference in developmental quotients (DQ) of adaptability, gross motor, fine motor, language, and personal - social domain at 12 months among the three groups, but the feeding time had impact on

  18. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  19. Progress of Infants/Toddlers with Severe Disabilities: Perceived and Measured Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Christine L.; Copeland, Christina G.

    2013-01-01

    An exploratory case study was undertaken to examine child and caregiver outcomes in a diverse sample of 21 infants/toddlers with severe disabilities who received services from an urban, Part C program where caregiver-focused intervention was emphasized. Purposive sampling and mixed methods were used to collect data on child developmental change,…

  20. Imaging hemodynamic changes in preterm infant brains with two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Yiwen; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Huijuan; Jiang, Jingying; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2008-02-01

    We present our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2-D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes of two preterm infant brains in different ventilation settings conditions. The investigations use the established two-wavelength, 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection, and the generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography may be a potent and relatively simple way of investigating the functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  1. Parent Education for Improving Feeding Difficulties in Infants%亲职教育在改善婴幼儿喂养困难中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华; 汪丽霞

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To explore the effect of parent education on feeding difficulties in in-fants.Methods A total of 115 infants with feeding difficulties confirmed in Department of Child Heath Care of Jiangxi Maternal and Children Heath Hospital between January 2013 and Septem-ber 2014 were selected in this study.The group and individual parent education was regularly per-formed to guide parents to take the right feeding behavior.Questionnaires were used to investi-gate the feeding behavior in all parents before and after intervention.In addition,general physical examination was perform in these infants to understand their nutritional status.Results The score of feeding behavior questionnaire significantly increased after intervention(P <0.05).The food preparation,nutritional knowledge,feeding method,feeding concept and feeding environment were obviously improved after parent education(P <0.01).In addition,the prevalence rates of low body weight and emaciation and the total number of infants with malnutrition significantly de-creased after parent education(P <0.05).Conclusion Regular parent education is beneficial for improving feeding capacity of parents and nutritional status of infants in feeding difficulties. Therefore,it should be popularized in child health clinics.%目的:探讨在儿童保健门诊开展父母亲职教育对婴幼儿喂养困难改善的影响。方法选取对象为2013年1月至2014年9月在江西省妇幼保健院儿童保健科营养门诊确诊为喂养困难的婴幼儿115例。对这些儿童家长进行定期的团体及个别亲职教育,帮助其采用正确的喂养行为进行婴幼儿喂养,干预前后对所有干预对象父母均进行喂养行为的问卷调查,同时进行婴幼儿一般体格检查,了解干预前后父母喂养行为及儿童营养状况的变化。结果亲职教育干预后的父母喂养行为问卷得分明显高于干预前(P <0.05),且父母喂养行为在食物制备、营养

  2. Changes in microcirculation as early markers for infection in preterm infants--an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Kathrin; Kroth, Julia; Nussbaum, Claudia; Hiedl, Stephan; Bauer, Andreas; Christ, Frank; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya

    2009-10-01

    In adults with severe sepsis, the disturbances of the sublingual microcirculation can be quantified with orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. We investigated the cutaneous microcirculation of preterm infants with proven infection (PosInf) and with suspected but unproven infection (NegInf). In 25 infants, orthogonal polarization spectral images were obtained daily, videos of the images were blinded, and analyzed off-line. Functional small vessel density (FSVD) was prospectively calculated from day 3 to day 30 of life. There were 17 episodes of proven and nine episodes of suspected but unproven nosocomial late onset infection. Four infants remained healthy. The data were analyzed for the 5 d before the start of antibiotics (day -5 until day -1). FSVD varied widely, but in the PosInf-group, we found a 10% decline from day -5 to day -1 (p = 0.013). There was no significant change over time in the NegInf-group (p = 0.58). Thus, in infants with proven infection, FSVD decreases already 1 d before changes in laboratory parameters. However, these changes in FSVD during infection are not represented by absolute values, but must be identified by daily intraindividual observation. PMID:19581833

  3. Changes in activity of lysine decarboxylase in winter triticale in response to grain aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempruch, C; Leszczyński, B; Wójcicka, Agnieszka; Makosz, M; Matok, H; Chrzanowski, G

    2010-12-01

    Changes in lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity caused by Sitobion avenae (F.) feeding on two winter triticale cultivars (cvs) were studied. The aphid fecundity and values of intrinsic rate of natural increase showed that cv Witon was less susceptible to S. avenae than cv Tornado. The grain aphid feeding on more susceptible triticale caused a decrease in the LDC activity, with exceptions of root tissues after two weeks of the feeding. In case of less susceptible cv Witon reduction of the LDC activity was observed only during initial period of S. avenae feeding. Later the aphid infestation induced activity of the LDC within tissues of cv Witon. PMID:21112841

  4. Assessing Program Coverage of Two Approaches to Distributing a Complementary Feeding Supplement to Infants and Young Children in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Strutt, Nicholas; Boateng, Nathaniel Amoh; Guevarra, Ernest; Siling, Katja; Norris, Alison; Ghosh, Shibani; Nyamikeh, Mercy; Attiogbe, Antoine; Burns, Richard; Foriwa, Esi; Toride, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Sarpong, Daniel; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house). Delivery Model 2 was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and used a market-based approach, with the product being sold through micro-retail routes (i.e., small shops and roadside stalls) in three districts supported by behavior change communications and demand creation activities led by a local social marketing company. Both delivery models were implemented sub-nationally as 1-year pilot programs, with the aim of informing the design of a scaled-up program. A series of cross-sectional coverage surveys was implemented in each program area. Results from these surveys show that Delivery Model 1 was successful in achieving and sustaining high (i.e., 86%) effective coverage (i.e., the child had been given the product at least once in the previous 7 days) during implementation. Effective coverage fell to 62% within 3 months of the behavior change communications and demand creation activities stopping. Delivery Model 2 was successful in raising awareness of the product (i.e., 90% message coverage), but effective coverage was low (i.e., 9.4%). Future programming efforts should use the health extension / microfinance / petty trader approach in rural settings and consider adapting this approach for use in urban and peri-urban settings. Ongoing behavior change communications and demand creation activities is likely to be essential to the continued success of such

  5. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and

  6. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong H Nguyen

    Full Text Available Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF, but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008 and health staff (n = 60 from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2, repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2, and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4. Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8 was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase

  7. KEBIASAAN MEMBERIKAN MAKANAN KEPADA BAYI BARU LAHIR DI PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH DAN JAWA BARAT (NEW BORN INFANT FEEDING HABIT IN CENTRAL JAVA AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekti Widodo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of breast milk should be given to the baby as soon as possible, not more than half hour after the baby was bora If initiate of breast milk is not early, it will be difficult to avoid introduced other food than breast milk to new bom be infant. The objective of research is to know how the community habit, especially in Central Java and West Java in order with infant feeding for new born infant The result of the research showed 77,0% respondent introduced other food to new born infant and 23% respondents initiated breast milk soon after the baby bora Two reason for mother introduced other food before they give breast milk First, as "baby food' for the new born infant (knowing as prelacteal food. Kind of this food are honey (64,2%, water-honey (11,73%, boiled water (13,5%, and milk formula (10,6%. They gave this food for prelacteal food, because breast milk not flows yet (64,8%, for the baby not hungry (14,8%, suggested by traditional birth attendance (dukun bayi, suggested by grandmother (4,7% and mother not ready yet to give breast milk (3,6%. Second, Not as 'baby food', but because the culture. Usually they give other food just once time, in the first minutes of the baby life. After that, they give breast milk. The kinds of this food are solution water coffee (19,4%, pepper (29,6%, "kurma" (3,7%, onion (21,3%, lime juice (5,6% and salt solution (18,8%, also white egg (1,9%. The reason to give that food are: to bring out dirty things from baby stomach (82,4% as the not cramp (13,9%, and religion (3,7%. Actually, the first reason suggested by traditional birth attendance as a "helping delivery package" . This always doing by the traditional birth attendance

  8. Apparent disapperance of hypernatraemic dehydration from infant deaths in Sheffield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, R; Emery, J L

    1979-09-01

    The death certificates and necropsy reports of the 1115 Sheffield infants who died under 2 years of age in 1969-78 were examined. This study showed the apparent disappearance of deaths with hypernatraemia and in particular deaths presenting as cot deaths. The fall in incidence may be as much the result of an intensive local campaign on child care and infant feeding as of the change in the composition of dried milk for baby feeding.

  9. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    period especially within multiparous cows. The different results obtained in response to early and late reduction of ration energy concentration suggest that transition from mobilization to deposition conditions is a reversible process only as long as cows are not fully adapted to deposition metabolism...... in response to feeding the MR2 strategies. Early reduction (MR2-E strategy) caused a significant longer duration of the total period of mobilization compared to late reduction (MR2-L) within multiparous DR and DH cows. It indicates that early reduction of ration energy concentration forced these cows...... into a second period of mobilization, whereas cows continued to gain live weight in response to late reduction of ration energy concentration. In general results from the present experiment indicate that feeding according to live weight can be used to manipulate the extent and the duration of the mobilization...

  10. 广州城郊婴儿出生及喂养情况调查%Study on birth status and feeding pattern of the infants in urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆青贵; 焦昌娅; 林丹苗; 黄婕; 欧阳静仪; 杨波; 毛丽梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the general birth status and feeding history of the infants born in urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou, and find out problems existing in infant feeding and its influencing factors. Methods: A total of 2 040 infants ranging from 42 days to 1 year and their mothers were selected as the participants by cluster sampling. The data was collected through Questionnaire interview with face to face. Results: The incidence of low birth weight, macrosomia and premature delivery was 3. 75% , 4. 20% and 6. 13% respectively, with significant higher incidences in urban area ( all P < 0. 01 ) . 41. 99% of infants were given exclusive breast feeding within 4 months after birth, with a significant difference between urban and suburban areas ( P < 0. 01) . 29. 34% were added complementary foods within 4 months, and 70. 28 % within 4—6 months. The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that breastfeeding behavior was influenced by amount of milk - secretion, delivery mode, maternal age, living areas, maternal educational background and family income level, etc. Conclusion: Some unreasonable behaviors still exist in infant feeding. For increasing the breastfeeding rate and adding complementary feed appropriately, health education should be carried out directly to improve maternal nutritional knowledge and change their parenting concept into a scientific one.%目的:了解目前广州市城、郊区婴儿出生及喂养情况,找出婴儿喂养存在的问题及影响因素.方法:采用整群随机抽样的方法,抽取广州市越秀区和白云区郊区共2 040名42天以上、1岁以内婴儿及其母亲作为调查对象,逐一进行面对面问卷调查.结果:广州市城、郊区低出生体重儿、巨大儿和早产儿发生率分别为3.75%、4.20%和6.13%,城区显著高于郊区(P<0.01).婴儿4个月内母乳喂养率为41.99%,城、郊区差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);出生后4个月内添加辅食的比例是29.34%,4

  11. Effects of Clostridium Butyricum on preterm infants feeding intolerance%酪酸梭菌对早产儿喂养不耐受的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绪亮; 杨嘉琛; 张俊; 李海珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of Clostridium Butyricum on the incidence and early nutrition condition of preterm infants feeding intolerance.Methods:Fifty-four premature infants in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2012 were randomly divided into study group (n =26) and control group (n =28).On the basis of positive treatment,the study group was given the Clostridium Butyricum meanwhile the incidence and nutrition index of preterm infants feeding intolerance were compared in each group.Results:The incidence of preterm infants feeding intolerance in the study group was lower than that in the control group (19.2 vs 46.4,P < 0.05).There were significant difference in the time of body weight gain,to regain birth weight,to start feeding,the time that daily calorie intakes reached 336 kJ · (kg · d)-1,the time to reach full enteral nutrition,persistence time of jaundice and the hospitalized days in study and control groups (P <0.05).Condusion:Clostridium Butyricum can decrease the incidence of preterm infants feeding intolerance,improve the nutrition condition of preterm infants.It was safe and effective,so is deserved to be introduced in basic hospital.%目的:探讨酪酸梭菌对早产儿喂养不耐受发生率及早期营养状况的影响.方法:选择我院2012年1月至2012年12月住院早产儿54例,随机分为研究组26例和对照组28例,研究组在早产儿常规治疗的基础上加用酪酸梭菌,比较两组早产儿喂养不耐受的发生率及营养指标.结果:早产儿喂养不耐受的发生率研究组为19.2% (5/26),对照组为46.4%(13/28),两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组体重开始增长日龄、恢复出生体重日龄、开奶日龄、经胃肠热卡达336 kJ·(kg·d)-1日龄、达全胃肠道喂养日龄、黄疸持续时间及住院天数差异均有统计学意义(均P <0.05).结论:酪酸梭菌能降低早产儿喂养不耐受的发生率,改善早产儿的营养状况,值得在基层医院推广.

  12. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette Viberg;

    2015-01-01

    , and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val...... for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16–64 ml·kg−1·day−1) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass...

  13. Caregivers’ Knowledge and Use of Fermented Foods for Infant and Young Children Feeding in a Rural Community of Odi, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K Chelule

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to-wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Results: Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutritional value of these foods. Conclusion: It is critical to promote caregivers’ knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities.

  14. Changes in Heart Rate Variability in a Premature Infant with Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Uhrikova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design - The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 days with functional shunt, the third at the age of 71 days (before discharge. Results - Before drainage operation, there was reduced heart rate variability in time and spectral domains, and sympathetic activity was dominant. After surgery, an increase in heart rate variability parameters was found, particularly with spectral analysis. The ratio of low-frequency/high-frequency band and relative power of the low-frequency band decreased, reflecting enhanced parasympathetic activity. Conclusion - Results of the heart rate variability analysis in a preterm infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure showed marked improvement in chronotropic cardiac regulation. Evaluation of heart rate variability in premature infants with hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure can be an additional method for monitoring of cardiac dysregulation and improvement of the cardiovascular control after successful drainage procedure.

  15. Using Positive Deviance to Understand the Uptake of Optimal Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices by Mothers in an Urban Slum of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, M R; Deshmukh, D; Jayaraman, A; Chanani, S; Humphries, D L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Positive deviance research seeks out well-nourished children living in disadvantaged contexts to understand local growth-promoting behaviors. This study explored the factors that influence the uptake of infant and young child feeding behaviors among mothers. Methods Children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ) > 0 (n = 10) or a HAZ Theory of qualitative research. Results Positive deviant mothers (those with children with a HAZ > 0) largely exhibited optimal infant and young child feeding practices explained by maternal information seeking behaviors; mothers acknowledging the importance of maternal health; and social support. The relationship between mother and health worker seemed to influence how well they listened to the health workers' recommendations. Across all households, the daily consumption of high-energy, processed foods was apparent. Conclusions Practical considerations include exploring how to tailor CMAM programs to include social support and counseling training for health workers to engage more closely with mothers; exploring the feasibility of a women's social group for mothers to share information on child rearing; and teaching mothers about healthy eating and the link between nutrition and health.

  16. Using Positive Deviance to Understand the Uptake of Optimal Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices by Mothers in an Urban Slum of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, M R; Deshmukh, D; Jayaraman, A; Chanani, S; Humphries, D L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Positive deviance research seeks out well-nourished children living in disadvantaged contexts to understand local growth-promoting behaviors. This study explored the factors that influence the uptake of infant and young child feeding behaviors among mothers. Methods Children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ) > 0 (n = 10) or a HAZ mothers. Eligibility was restricted to households with limited resources and more than one child. A 24-h dietary recall and anthropometric measurements were taken for the index child. An observation checklist assessed household hygiene. Data analysis was based on the Grounded Theory of qualitative research. Results Positive deviant mothers (those with children with a HAZ > 0) largely exhibited optimal infant and young child feeding practices explained by maternal information seeking behaviors; mothers acknowledging the importance of maternal health; and social support. The relationship between mother and health worker seemed to influence how well they listened to the health workers' recommendations. Across all households, the daily consumption of high-energy, processed foods was apparent. Conclusions Practical considerations include exploring how to tailor CMAM programs to include social support and counseling training for health workers to engage more closely with mothers; exploring the feasibility of a women's social group for mothers to share information on child rearing; and teaching mothers about healthy eating and the link between nutrition and health. PMID:26694045

  17. Call rates of mothers change with maternal experience and with infant characteristics in free-ranging gray-cheeked mangabeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlet, Małgorzata E; Veromann, Linda-Liisa; Mänd, Raivo; Lemasson, Alban

    2016-09-01

    Studies have shown that becoming a mother triggers important social changes within females, according to both social experience and infant characteristics, showing different maternal concerns. But how this impacts call usage has been far less studied. Based on 6 months of observations of five free-ranging groups of gray-cheeked mangabeys, we investigated variations in the production of three call types (contact, excitement, and alarm calls) in 29 females of different ages, dominance ranks, and infant rearing experiences: 15 females with infants of different ages and sexes, and 14 females without infants. We found that in females with infants-both maternal and infant characteristics influenced call production in a call type-dependent way. Females produced contact calls at a higher rate during the first month of infant age and after weaning when infants start to move away. Mothers of daughters produced more contact calls than mothers of sons. More excitement calls were recorded for first-time and young mothers and for females with young infants, while alarm call rates were not influenced by any of these factors. Increased mother-infant spatial separation enhanced only contact and excitement call rates. Finally, we found that females with infants vocalized much more than females without infants. Our results contribute to the current debate about the social factors responsible for the flexibility of call usage in nonhuman primates and open new lines for research on mothering behavior in forest-dwelling species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:983-991, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27273714

  18. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight gain, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems, and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH), and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). The objective of the present...... paper was to examine the milk yield obtained in response to three feeding strategies. The interrelationship between feed intake and live weight changes is presented in a companion paper. Cows were stalled in a loose-housing system based on automatic milking, automatic recording of feed intake...... and automatic weighing of the cows. All cows had 3 kg of individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in addition to a mixed ration (MR). Cows were either allowed a medium energy MR during whole lactation (strategy MR1) or a high energy MR during early lactation, which was reduced to a low energy MR either...

  19. Development of food-based complementary feeding recommendations for 9- to 11-month-old peri-urban Indonesian infants using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Fahmida, Umi; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2009-01-01

    Effective population-specific, food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. To facilitate their formulation, a modeling approach was recently developed. However, it has not yet been used in practice. This study therefore aimed to use this approach to develop CFR for 9- to 11-mo-old Indonesian infants and to identify nutrients that will likely remain low in their diets. The CFR were developed using a 4-phase approach based on linear and goal programming. Model parameters were defined using dietary data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 9- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 100) living in the Bogor District, West-Java, Indonesia and a market survey of 3 local markets. Results showed theoretical iron requirements could not be achieved using local food sources (highest level achievable, 63% of recommendations) and adequate levels of iron, niacin, zinc, and calcium were difficult to achieve. Fortified foods, meatballs, chicken liver, eggs, tempe-tofu, banana, and spinach were the best local food sources to improve dietary quality. The final CFR were: breast-feed on demand, provide 3 meals/d, of which 1 is a fortified infant cereal; > or = 5 servings/wk of tempe/tofu; > or = 3 servings/wk of animal-source foods, of which 2 servings/wk are chicken liver; vegetables, daily; snacks, 2 times/d, including > or = 2 servings/wk of banana; and > or = 4 servings/wk of fortified-biscuits. Results showed that the approach can be used to objectively formulate population-specific CFR and identify key problem nutrients to strengthen nutrition program planning and policy decisions. Before recommending these CFR, their long-term acceptability, affordability, and effectiveness should be assessed.

  20. Aconselhamento em alimentação infantil: um estudo de intervenção Infant and young child feeding counseling: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Bassichetto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade do Curso Integrado de Aconselhamento em Alimentação Infantil na transformação de conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de pediatras e nutricionistas da rede municipal de saúde de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo de intervenção randomizado com 29 profissionais no grupo intervenção e 27 no grupo controle. Entrevistadores previamente capacitados coletaram dados dos profissionais nas unidades de saúde antes da intervenção e 2 meses após. Utilizaram-se três instrumentos para avaliar o perfil do profissional, seus conhecimentos e um roteiro de observação clínica. Para análise, utilizaram-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis para amostras independentes e o método de Tukey. RESULTADOS: Quanto ao conhecimento, observou-se melhora no grupo intervenção (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated infant and young child feeding counseling course for transforming the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians and nutritionists working for the municipal health system of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A randomized intervention study enrolling 29 professionals in the intervention group and 27 in the control group. Interviewers were trained in advance to collect data on the professionals working at health centers, before and 2 months after the intervention. Three research instruments were used, the first was to assess the profile of each professional, the second assessed their knowledge and the third was a clinical observation protocol. Analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples and the Tukey method. RESULTS: The results for the knowledge questionnaire showed improvements in the intervention group (p < 0.001 for the whole questionnaire and for questions on breastfeeding (p = 0.004; HIV and infant and young child feeding (p = 0.049; complementary feeding (p = 0.012; and counseling in infant and young child feeding (p = 0.004. In terms of performance, it was observed

  1. Effect of perinatal factors on infant feeding disorders%围生期因素对婴幼儿喂养困难的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鸿; 徐海青; 戴琼

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究影响我国婴幼儿喂养困难发生的围生期因素. [方法]多阶段分层整群随机抽样法选取全国69个市(县、区)6~24月龄婴幼儿4 017名,采用中国婴幼儿喂养困难评分量表评估其喂养困难状况,并采用自制问卷对围生期情况进行调查,Logistic回归分析筛选与婴幼儿喂养困难相关的围生期因素. [结果]妊娠高血压综合症、妊娠期糖尿病、前置胎盘、早产、低出生体重、高胆红素血症及新生儿窒息是喂养困难发生的危险因素. [结论]围生期情况对喂养困难发生有重要影响.规范母亲孕期保健、预防新生儿期疾病发生是降低婴幼儿喂养困难发生率的有效方法.%[Objective] To investigate the perinatal factors influencing infant feeding disorders in China. [Methods] A systematic cluster random sampling was used to identify 4 017 children aged 6 to 2-1 months in 69 areas throughout China. The caregivers of these children were requested to complete a Chinese version of the Montreal Children Hospital Feeding Scale (MCH-FS), and the perinatal factors were investigated by self-made retrospective questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with infant feeding disorders. [Result] Several significant risk factors were identified: hypertension during pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa, premature delivery, low birth weight,hyperbilirubinerrjia and neonatal asphyxia. [Conclusion] It is important to reduce the incidence of infant feeding disorders by strengthening antenatal care and decreasing neonatal diseases.

  2. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  3. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  4. “It pains me because as a woman you have to breastfeed your baby”: decision-making about infant feeding among African women living with HIV in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Shema; Elford, Jonathan; Tookey, Pat; Anderson, Jane; de Ruiter, Annemiek; O'Connell, Rebecca; Pillen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives UK guidance advises HIV-positive women to abstain from breast feeding. Although this eliminates the risk of postnatal vertical transmission of HIV, the impact of replacement feeding on mothers is often overlooked. This qualitative study examines, for the first time in the UK, decision-making about infant feeding among African women living with HIV. Methods Between 2010 and 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with 23 HIV-positive African women who were pregnant or had recently given birth. We recruited participants from three HIV antenatal clinics in London. Results Women highlighted the cultural importance of breast feeding in African communities and the social pressure to breast feed, also describing fears that replacement feeding would signify their HIV status. Participants had significant concerns about physical and psychological effects of replacement feeding on their child and felt their identity as good mothers was compromised by not breast feeding. However, almost all chose to refrain from breast feeding, driven by the desire to minimise vertical transmission risk. Participants’ resilience was strengthened by financial assistance with replacement feeding, examples of healthy formula-fed children and support from partners, family, peers and professionals. Conclusions The decision to avoid breast feeding came at considerable emotional cost to participants. Professionals should be aware of the difficulties encountered by HIV-positive women in refraining from breast feeding, especially those from migrant African communities where breast feeding is culturally normative. Appropriate financial and emotional support increases women's capacity to adhere to their infant-feeding decisions and may reduce the emotional impact. PMID:26757986

  5. An educational intervention to promote appropriate complementary feeding practices and physical growth in infants and young children in rural Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Black, Robert E; Bhan, Maharaj K

    2004-09-01

    Complementary feeding practices are often inadequate in developing countries, resulting in a significant nutritional decline between 6 and 18 mo of age. We assessed the effectiveness of an educational intervention to promote adequate complementary feeding practices that would be feasible to sustain with existing resources. The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial in communities in the state of Haryana in India. We developed the intervention through formative research. Eight communities were pair matched on their baseline characteristics; one of each pair was randomly assigned to receive the intervention and the other to no specific feeding intervention. Health and nutrition workers in the intervention communities were trained to counsel on locally developed feeding recommendations. Newborns were enrolled in all of the communities (552 in the intervention and 473 in the control) and followed up every 3 mo to the age of 18 mo. The main outcome measures were weights and lengths at 6, 9, 12, and 18 mo and complementary feeding practices at 9 and 18 mo. All analyses were by intent to treat. In the overall analyses, there was a small but significant effect on length gain in the intervention group (difference in means 0.32 cm, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.61). The effect was greater in the subgroup of male infants (difference in mean length gain 0.51 cm, 95% CI 0.03, 0.98). Weight gain was not affected. Energy intakes from complementary foods overall were significantly higher in the intervention group children at 9 mo (mean +/- SD: 1556 +/- 1109 vs. 1025 +/- 866 kJ; P nutrition programs.

  6. Clinical significance of changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in infants with bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in infants (2-24months) with bronchiolitis. Methods: Plasma levels of CGRP and VIP were determined with RIA in 31 infants with bronchiolitis both during acute infection and convalescence as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma CGRP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly higher than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). Levels of CGRP dropped during convalescence, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The reverse was true for the plasma VIP levels. The plasma VIP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly lower than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). During convalescence, the plasma VIP levels rose but remained significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There were dynamic changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in the course of infant bronchiolitis and the two peptides played opposite roles. (authors)

  7. Anatomy of the Circle of Willis and Blood Flow in the Brain-Feeding Vasculature in Prematurely Born Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooij, B. J. M.; Hendrikse, J.; Benders, M. J. N. L.; de Vries, L. S.; Groenendaal, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown a disrupted development of cerebral blood vessels at term-equivalent age in prematurely born infants. Objective: To assess the anatomy of the circle of Willis in preterm neonates (gestational age 25-31 weeks) at term-equivalent age and to evaluate the relation

  8. Paraprofessionals' Perceptions on Delivering Infant Feeding Lessons to Disadvantaged Mothers via a Self-Directed Computer-Supported Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Lisa R.; Horodynski, Mildred A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain paraprofessionals' perceptions regarding a self-directed computer-supported nutrition educational intervention to disadvantaged mothers of infants. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Three county extension programs in a Midwestern state, which serve disadvantaged families. Method: Sixteen paraprofessional…

  9. Structural Growth Trajectories and Rates of Change in the First 3 Months of Infant Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Dominic; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Curran, Megan; Buchthal, Steven D.; Alicata, Daniel; Skranes, Jon; Johansen, Heather; Hernandez, Antonette; Yamakawa, Robyn; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Dale, Anders M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders. OBJECTIVE To assess structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the whole brain and regions of interest in infants during the first 3 months after birth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Serial structural T1-weighted and/or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 211 time points from 87 healthy term-born or term-equivalent preterm-born infants, aged 2 to 90 days, between October 5, 2007, and June 12, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We segmented whole-brain and multiple subcortical regions of interest using a novel application of Bayesian-based methods. We modeled growth and rate of growth trajectories nonparametrically and assessed left-right asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms. RESULTS Whole-brain volume at birth was approximately one-third of healthy elderly brain volume, and did not differ significantly between male and female infants (347 388 mm3 and 335 509 mm3, respectively, P = .12). The growth rate was approximately 1%/d, slowing to 0.4%/d by the end of the first 3 months, when the brain reached just more than half of elderly adult brain volume. Overall growth in the first 90 days was 64%. There was a significant age-by-sex effect leading to widening separation in brain sizes with age between male and female infants (with male infants growing faster than females by 200.4 mm3/d, SE = 67.2, P = .003). Longer gestation was associated with larger brain size (2215 mm3/d, SE = 284, P = 4×10−13). The expected brain size of an infant born one week earlier than average was 5% smaller than average; at 90 days it will not have caught up, being 2% smaller than average. The cerebellum grew at the highest rate, more than doubling in 90 days, and the hippocampus

  10. Hardwired Control Changes For NSTX DC Power Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, S.

    2013-06-28

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The original TFTR Hardwired Control System (HCS) with electromechanical relays was used for NSTX DC Power loop control and protection during NSTX operations. As part of the NSTX Upgrade, the HCS is being changed to a PLC-based system with the same control logic. This paper gives a description of the changeover to the new PLC-based system __________________________________________________

  11. Prevalência do aleitamento materno em recém-nascidos de baixo peso Prevalence of breast feeding of low birthweight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César C. Xavier

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se de forma longitudinal e prospectiva a duração do aleitamento materno no primeira ano de vida de 222 crianças nascidas com peso menor ou igual a 2.500 gramas no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (Brasil, no período de outubro de 1985 a setembro de 1986. A incidência do aleitamento materno foi de 86,5%. A prevalência encontrada para as crianças que foram amamentadas foi de 62,5% aos 3 meses, 38,5% aos 6 meses, 28,7% aos 9 meses e 25,0% aos 12 meses de vida. A mediana da duração do aleitamento materno foi de 4 meses. O peso ao nascer mostrou associação positiva com a incidência e duração do aleitamento materno, O nível de escolaridade materno associou-se positivamente com sua duração. A idade materna, situação conjugal e o número de consultas pré-natais não apresentaram associação com o aleitamento materno. Estes dados mostram índices menores em relação aos de populações de países desenvolvidos, em especial os pré-termos finlandeses nascidos com peso menor do que 1.500 gramas. Programas de ações envolvendo a comunidade e/ou instituições devem resultar em melhoria de nossos índices, se bem implementados.The present situation regarding the breast feeding of children born with a weight of 2,500 grammes or less (LWB at the Hospital das Clínicas of the Medical School of the Universidade de S. Paulo in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil was studied. The study was descriptive and the data were obtained through a longitudinal follow-up carried over the period from October 1985 to September 1986 inclusive. Of the 222 children included in the study, 30 (13.5% infants were not breastfed. Thus the incidence of breast feeding among this population was of 86.5%. At 3 months 62.5% of these infants were still being breastfed. At 6 months this figure fell to 38.5% and only 25.0% were still being breast-fed at the end of 12 months. The average duration of breast feeding for the 192 children that

  12. Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geangu

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.

  13. Maternal knowledge of infant feeding guidelines and label reading behaviours in a population of new mothers in San Francisco, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Gugig, Roberto; Kathiravan, Suganya; Holbrook, Kate; Heyman, Melvin B.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal socio-demographics including participation in the Special Supplemental Women, Infants and Children’s (WIC) Program. A cross-sectional study of new mothers at two San Francisco hospitals was conducted using some of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ guidelines in a structured questionnaire to assess maternal nutritional knowledge. Maternal nutritional attitudes towards product nutrie...

  14. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Gibertoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  15. Individual differences in infant-mother attachment at twelve and eighteen months: stability and change in families under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, B; Egeland, B; Sroufe, L A; Waters, E

    1979-12-01

    100 economically disadvantaged mothers and their infants were observed in the Ainsworth and Wittig "strange situation" at 12 and 18 months. Infants were classified as secure, anxiously attached/avoidant, or anxiously attached/resistant. In addition, mothers reported occurrence of stressful events related to the stability of the caretaking environment during the 12--18 month period by completing a 44-item checklist concerning work, finances, family, neighbors, health, etc. 62 infants were assigned to the same attachment classification at both 12 and 18 months (p less than .01). Despite this stability, significantly more infants changes classification than in a recent study of stable middle-class families. With the present sample, anxious attachment was associated with less stable caretaking environments than secure attachment; change from secure to anxious attachment was associated with higher stressful-event scores than stable secure attachment. PMID:535447

  16. Using the Medical Research Council Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in a Theory-Based Infant Feeding Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: The Baby Milk Intervention and Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi Lakshman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council framework on complex interventions to guide the development and evaluation of an intervention to prevent obesity by modifying infant feeding behaviours. Methods. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on early life risk factors for obesity and interventions to prevent obesity in this age group. The review suggested prevention of excess weight gain in bottle-fed babies and appropriate weaning as intervention targets; hence we undertook systematic reviews to further our understanding of these behaviours. We chose theory and behaviour change techniques that demonstrated evidence of effectiveness in altering dietary behaviours. We subsequently developed intervention materials and evaluation tools and conducted qualitative studies with mothers (intervention recipients and healthcare professionals (intervention deliverers to refine them. We developed a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes and feeding practices to understand the mechanism of any intervention effects. Conclusions. In addition to informing development of our specific intervention and evaluation materials, use of the Medical Research Council framework has helped to build a generalisable evidence base for early life nutritional interventions. However, the process is resource intensive and prolonged, and this should be taken into account by public health research funders. This trial is registered with ISRTCN: 20814693 Baby Milk Trial.

  17. Changing patterns of infant death over the last 100 years: autopsy experience from a specialist children's hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pryce, J. W.; Weber, M A; Ashworth, M T; Roberts, S; Malone, M.; Sebire, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Infant mortality has undergone a dramatic reduction in the UK over the past century because of improvements in public health policy and medical advances. Postmortem examinations have been performed at Great Ormond Street Hospital for over 100 years, and analysis of cases across this period has been performed to assess changing patterns of infant deaths undergoing autopsy. DESIGN: Autopsy reports from 1909 and 2009 were examined. Age, major pathology and cause of death was reviewed...

  18. 中国部分地区婴幼儿喂养状况及国际比较研究%Study of the infant and young child feeding practice in some areas of China and across-country comparison.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑶; 周虹; 王晓莉; 张敬旭; 王燕

    2012-01-01

    breastfeeding at 2 years in research areas of China, which were ranked 34,39,14 and 45 respectively in 47 countries, were lower than the average of other developing countries. The rate of introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods and minimum dietary diversity were ranked in top 20%, but the complementary feeding was generally too early. [Conclusions] Great efforts should be made to improve early initiation of breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding in these areas. Also measures should be taken to change the practice of breastfeeding with water and early complementary food intake. Providing the knowledge of IYCF and health education should play an important part in improving infant and young child feeding practice in China.

  19. Changes in the epidemiology of sudden infant death syndrome in Sweden 1973-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, B; Norvenius, S; Wennergren, G; Skjarven, R; Oyen, N; Milerad, J; Wennborg, M; Kjaerbeck, J; Helweg-Larsen, K.; Irgens, L.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—From the early 1970s to the early 1990s, there was a significant rise in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Scandinavia. Following the risk reducing campaign, the incidence has fallen to about the same level as in 1973.
AIMS—To identify the changes that have occurred in the epidemiology of SIDS.
METHODS—We compared the Swedish part of the Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study (NESS), covering the years 1992-1995, with two earlier, descriptive s...

  20. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to use text message questions to obtain prospective, real-time data on exclusive and partial breastfeeding and introduction to complementary foods in a Danish birth cohort. We also wanted to identify factors influencing breastfeeding initiation and cessation. METHODS: This study...... formed part of the Odense Child Cohort and focused on mothers who gave birth to full-term singletons between April and October 2012. They received the same three to five questions, about breastfeeding, infant formula and introduction to complementary foods, three days after birth and then at weekly...

  1. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  2. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  3. Association between complementary feeding and anemia of infants and young children.%辅食添加对婴幼儿贫血的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振宇; 赖建强; 汪之顼; 赵显峰; 荫士安

    2011-01-01

    [目的]本研究以健康婴幼儿为研究对象,研究不同时间添加辅食、添加不同种类辅食对婴幼儿贫血发生的影响. [方法]采用整群抽样的方法,选择北京顺义区3~18月龄婴幼儿143名,向其母亲询问婴儿基本状况、添加辅食时间和辅食种类等;采用氰化高铁血红蛋白方法测量其血红蛋白浓度. [结果]本研究发现该组儿童贫血发生率12个月前为30%左右,明显高于12个月后的10%左右(P<0.01).不论男童还是女童,6个月龄前或6个月龄后儿童,4个月前添加辅食均可以使贫血发生率下降(P<0.05).添加铁强化食物(如配方奶和营养素补充剂)可以使血红蛋白浓度升高(P<0.05).采用不同贫血诊断标准(97、105、110 g/L),贫血发生率差异仍存在统计学意义(P<0.01). [结论]12个月龄前儿童贫血发生率明显高于12个月龄后儿童.虽然4个月前添加铁强化辅食使得铁营养状况得到改善,但适宜的辅食添加时间有待进一步研究.%[Objectives] To investigate the association between complementary feeding and anemia of infants and young children. [Methods] By cluster sampling, 143 dyads of mothers and their infants aged 3 -18 months were selected in Shunyi district, Beijing. Complementary feeding data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Anthropometric indicators (body length, weight) and hemoglobin concentration of these infants were measured. [Results] The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher for infants younger than 12 months than for those children older than 12 months (P < 0. 01). Regardless of age and gender, the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher for those children to whom complementary foods were introduced prior to 4 months of age than between 4~6 months of age (P< 0. 05). Children to whom fortified foods (eg formula) or nutrient supplements were introduced had significantly lower prevalence of anemia than those to whom fortified food were

  4. 血浆胃动素水平与早产儿喂养不耐受的相关性研究%Relationship between plasma motilin level and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤杰; 黄润中; 徐婧; 柳国胜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe changes in plasma motilin (MOT) level among preterm infants after birth, to investigate the relationship between plasma motilin level and feeding intolerance (FI) , and to clarify the possible risk factors. Methods A total of 112 preterm infants were divided into feeding tolerance (FT) group (n = 59) and FI group (n = 53). Their plasma MOT levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on days 1,4,7 and 14 of life. The clinical data of FI group were collected and subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared with the FT group, the FI group showed significantly lower plasma MCT levels on days 1,4,7 and 14 of life ( P < 0. 05 ) , and there was a positive correlation between plasma MOT level and gestational age, age in days, and volume of enteral feeding in the FI group. The lower the gestational age, the longer the FI duration. There was a negative correlation between the plasma MOT level on day 1 of life and the FI duration (r = -0.913, P < 0. 001). Gestational age and prenatal use of glucocorticoid were protective factors for FI, while fetal distress, placental abnormality and perinatal infection were risk factors for FI. Conclusions Change in plasma MOT level may be closely related to the development of FI in preterm infants. Early monitoring of plasma MOT level may be useful for predicting the occurrence of FI.%目的 观察早产儿生后血浆胃动素(MOT)水平的变化,探讨其与早产儿喂养不耐受(FI)的相关性,阐明早产儿FI可能存在的影响因素.方法 112例早产儿中59例为喂养耐受(feeding tolerance,FT)组,53例为喂养不耐受(FI)组,应用放射免疫法检测生后第1、4、7、14日的血浆MOT水平;收集FI组早产儿的临床资料行logistic多因素回归分析.结果 (1)早产儿FI组生后第1、4、7、14日血浆MOT水平明显低于FT组(P<0.05),MOT水平随胎龄、日龄、肠内喂养量的增加而逐渐升高;(2)早产儿胎龄越小,FI持续时间越长;(3

  5. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain. The feeding behavior of chicks was recorded continuously for 6 h. The next day, brain and blood samples were collected when the chicks either attempted to have food (hungry group) or turned food down (satiated group), in order to analyze the concentrations of the free amino acids and monoamines. We confirmed that the feeding behavior of neonatal chicks was characterized by short resting periods between very brief times spent on food intake. Several free amino acids in the mesencephalon were significantly lower in the satiated group than in the hungry group, while l-histidine and l-glutamine were significantly higher. Notably, there was no change in the free amino acid concentrations in other brain regions or plasma. As for monoamines, serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly lower in the mesencephalon of the hungry group compared with the satiated group, but 5 hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) was higher. In addition, serotonin and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in the brain stem of the hungry chicks compared with the satiated group, but levels of 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid were lower. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, were significantly higher in the diencephalon and telencephalon of the chicks in the hungry group. In conclusion, the changes in the free amino acids and monoamines in the brain may have some role in the feeding behavior of

  6. Climate change is associated with male:female ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether climate change is associated with male:female ratios (sex ratios) of fetal deaths and births in Japan. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Newborn infants and fetuses spontaneously aborted after 12 weeks of gestation...... ratios of newborn infants have been decreasing since the 1970s. Two climate extremes, a very hot summer in 2010 and a very cold winter in January 2011, showed not only statistically significant declines in sex ratios of newborn infants 9 months later in June 2011 and October 2011 but also statistically...... significant increases of fetal death rates immediately, in September 2010 and January 2011. CONCLUSION(S): The recent temperature fluctuations in Japan seem to be linked to a lower male:female sex ratio of newborn infants, partly via increased male fetal deaths. Male concepti seem to be especially vulnerable...

  7. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  8. 早产儿早期微量肠内喂养疗效观察%Curative effect of early minimal enteral feeding on premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈建强; 周艳; 张晓慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察早期微量肠内喂养在早产儿营养支持治疗中的疗效.方法 将52例早产儿随机分为两组,观察组26例,给予早期微量肠内喂养联合肠道外营养,对照组26例给予肠道外营养.对比观察两组达足量肠内营养时间、体重增长情况、住院时间,以及喂养不耐受、胆汁淤积、血糖与血脂异常等合并症发生情况.结果 观察组患儿达全肠道喂养时间(12.81±4.62d)、住院时间(18.6±5.7d)比对照组全肠道喂养时间(17.67±6.30d)、住院时间(26.9±4.2d)明显缩短,观察组的低血糖(15.4%)、高血脂(7.7%)、胆汁淤积(19.2%)的发生率显著低于对照组低血糖(42.3%)、高血脂(30.8%)、胆汁淤积(61.5%).结论 早期胃肠道微量喂养可以缩短住院天数,减少并发症发生,而且能使早产儿更快的过渡至全肠道喂养,从而促进疾病的康复及生长发育.%Objective To examine the curative effect of the minimal enteral feeding on nutrition support therapy in preterm infants. Methods Fifty-two preterm infants were randomly divided into observation group ( 26 cases ) receiving early minimal internal feeding as well as intravenous nutrition, and control group ( 26 cases ) receiving only parenteral nutrition. The time for sufficient amount of enteral nutrition was reached, weight gaining, length of hospital stay, feeding intolerance and complications of cholestasis, blood glucose and dyslipidemia of two groups were observed and compared. Results The time to reach full enteral feeding ( 12. 81 ± 4. 62d ) and length of hospital stay ( 18. 6 ±5. 7d ) in observation group were significantly shorter than those in control group ( 17. 67 ±6. 30 and 26. 9 ±4. 2d, respectively ). The incidence rates of hypoglycemia ( 15. 4% ), hyperlipemia ( 7. 7% ) and cholestasis ( 19. 2% ) in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group ( 42. 3% , 30. 8% and 61. 5% , respectively ). Conclusion Early minimal gastrointestinal

  9. Metabolic changes and tissue responses to selection on residual feed intake in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Le Naou, Thierry; Le Floc'H, Nathalie; Louveau, Isabelle; Gilbert, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Previous selection experiments using residual feed intake (RFI) to select pigs with a high feed efficiency have reported that a low RFI was associated with a reduced body fat content and a greater muscle glycogen content. In the current study, growing Large White female piglets from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were used to determine the changes in energy and protein metabolisms in key tissues and their cross talks in response to selection. Pigs of low RFI (RFI(-); n = 26) or high RFI...

  10. Responses to abrupt changes in feeding and illumination in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, ichi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the responses to abrupt changes in feeding and illumination during the egg-laying period. Six hens were housed individually in cages under constant environmental conditions, with a photoperiod of 15 h (0400-1900) and ad libitum access to food for 10 days. Then the same hens were subjected to a feed withdrawal trial (between 1200 and 0830), followed by a 5-h reduction in the photoperiod (0400-1400). The heart rate (HR), body temperature (BT), and locomotor activ...

  11. Influence of different delivery ways on infant feeding%不同分娩方式对婴儿喂养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红霞

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析顺产和剖宫产两种不同分娩方式对婴儿喂养的影响.[方法]选择2010年4月—2011年10月广州市3所教学医院的360例顺产产妇和300例剖宫产产妇,应用中文版母乳喂养自信心量表、婴儿喂养态度量表、母乳喂养技能评估表(LATCHES)在产后3d进行测评,比较两组婴儿喂养情况.[结果]剖宫产组产后1d催乳素水平低于顺产组、ACTH水平高于顺产组;泌乳始动时间迟于顺产组、第1次哺乳开始时间迟于顺产组、LATCHES总分低于顺产组、产后1d的纯母乳喂养率和混合喂养率都低于顺产组、产后1d无乳汁的比例高于顺产组;剖宫产组的母乳喂养自信心评分高于顺产组(均P<0.05).[结论]剖宫产影响产后早期母乳喂养,与顺产比较,虽然母乳喂养自信心较高,但是剖宫产后妇女催乳素水平低、ACTH水平高、泌乳始动时间延迟、第1次哺乳开始时间延迟、母乳喂养技能水平低、产后1d纯母乳喂养率低、无乳汁比例高.%Objective: To analyze the influence of natural labor and cesarean delivery on infant feeding. Methods: A total of 360 cases of natural labor of maternal and 300 cases of cesarean section of maternal in three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou from April in 2010 to October in 2011 were selected. The Chinese version of Breastfeeding Self - efficacy Scale, Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale, breastfeeding skills assessment scale (LATCHES) were used for measurement in postpartum three days,then to compare the infant feeding between two groups. Results: The prolactin level of cesarean section group was lower than that of natural labor group on postpartum 1st day, ACTH level was higher than that of natural labor group;the lactation initiating time was later than that of natural labor group, 1st lactation start time was later than that of natural labor group; the LATCHES score was lower than that of natural labor group; the exclusive breastfeeding rate and

  12. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Objective to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. Design development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. Setting maternity hospital in South West England. Participants 218 breast feeds (160 mother–infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. Findings the tool has mo...

  13. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  14. Survey and research on feeding behavior of infants and toddlers aged between 2 months and 36 months in Shanghai%上海地区2~36个月婴幼儿进食行为调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琼; 徐秀; 刘静; 鲁萍; 燕东雍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To obtain a systematic insight into feeding behavior of infants and toddlers in Shanghai. Main indicators included feeding behaviors, feeding activities by feeders and development of feeding skills of infants and toddlers.[Methods] The research adopted a cluster sampling method to conduct the questionnaire survey on 960 healthy infants and toddlers aged between 2 months and 36 months at several neighborhoods in six districts. The study recouped 873 com-pletely-filled-in and effective questionnaires and used the SPSS 11. 5 software for analysis. [Results] 42. 7% of responding parents believed that their children had feeding problems. The main feeding problems of infants included eating too little (38.0%), picky eating and finicky eating (21. 4%) as well as nausea and vomiting (19. 8%). The main feeding problems of children included picky eating and finicky eating (39. 5%), eating too little (34. 3%) and eating too slowly (32. 8%). The main feeding problems included longer mealtimes, high frequency of meals, inappropriate feeding position as well as feeders' poor feeding techniques. Meanwhile, the research also found out that infants and toddlers of all ages lagged in acquiring feeding skills than those listed on the textbook. In terms of skills such as finger feeding, feeding self with help, drinking from cup with help, drinking from cup without assistance, infants and toddlers admitted in this study apparently lagged their counterparts listed on the textbook. The differences featured statistical significance (P<0. 05). [Conclusion]Changing the unreasonable frequency of meals, duration of meals and feeding behaviors while promoting development of feeding skills of infants and toddlers in a proper manner will help reduce the occurrence of feeding problems and boost normal development of feeding behavior of infants and toddlers.%[目的]了解目前上海地区婴幼儿的进食行为状况:主要进食行为问题,喂养人的喂养行为,婴幼儿

  15. The Changes of Pattern Reversal Visual Evoked Potentials in Normal Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanFenLiu; JianGe

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To study pattern reversal visual evoked potential(PVEPs)and deter-mine the developmental character and mature time of visual function in normal in-fants t different months of age.Methods:PVEPs were recorded from115normal infants at3,6,9,12moths age.P1latency for different checks(1°40′,25′,6′)was analyzed and compared to those of normal adults,Changes of N1,N2latency of PVEPs were also exam-ioned.Results:P1 latency for all checks(1°40′,25′,6′)was significantly longer at 3months than at 6months of age(P0.05).P1latency for larger checks(1°40′)reached adult level after 3months of age,but not for the intermediate check(25′),while P1latency for small check(6′)presented the character of fluctuation.Conclusion:The visual system continued to develop after birth and appeared a certain regularity,Our results showed thatP1latency for larger check(1°40′)reached adult levels after 3months of age.ButP1latency for intermediate check still has not reached adult levels after 3months of age.To deterine the age at which adult levels are finally reached,infants of 12months and older must be tested.The reason why P1latency for smaller check(6′)presented the character of fluctuation should be the temporal tuning function developing much more slowly.Eye Science1995;11:161-164.

  16. Temperament Measures of African-American Infants: Change and Convergence with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Islas-Lopez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Studies of infant temperament are inconsistent with regard to convergence across measurement sources. In addition, little published work is available that describes temperament in minority infants. In this study, measures of temperament at three and six months were made for 24 African-American infants. Although maternal ratings of activity and…

  17. Patterns of Developmental Change in Infants' Nighttime Sleep Awakenings from 6 through 36 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; Bender, Randall H.; Friedman, Sarah L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Knoke, Bonnie; Bradley, Robert; Houts, Renate; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Nighttime sleep awakenings and infant and family characteristics were measured longitudinally in more than 1,200 infants when the infants were 6, 15, 24, and 36 months old. By 6 months of age, the majority of children slept through the night, awakening their mothers only about once or twice per week. However, not all children followed this…

  18. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  19. Change your diet or die: predator-induced shifts in insectivorous lizard feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlena, Dror; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2009-08-01

    Animal feeding ecology and diet are influenced by the fear of predation. While the mechanistic bases for such changes are well understood, technical difficulties often prevent testing how these mechanisms interact to affect a mesopredator's diet in natural environments. Here, we compared the insectivorous lizard Acanthodactylus beershebensis' feeding ecology and diet between high- and low-risk environments, using focal observations, intensive trapping effort and fecal pellet analysis. To create spatial variation in predation risk, we planted "artificial trees" in a scrubland habitat that lacks natural perches, allowing avian predators to hunt for lizards in patches that were previously unavailable to them. Lizards in elevated-risk environments became less mobile but did not change their microhabitat use or temporal activity. These lizards changed their diet, consuming smaller prey and less plant material. We suggest that diet shifts were mainly because lizards from risky environments consumed prey items that required shorter handling time. PMID:19466458

  20. Influence of breast feeding on blood level of gastrointestinal hormone in preterm infants%母乳喂养对早产新生儿血胃肠激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莹; 孙建华; 李菁; 步军; 谢恩萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the influence of breast feeding on the blood level of gastrointestinal hormone in preterm infants. Methods Radio-immunoassay was used to detect the blood levels of gastrin and bombesin of 27 cases ( experimental group ) with breast feeding at 3rd, 7th and 14th day of enteral feeding. Another 33 preterm infants fed with formula milk were taken as control group. Meanwhile the blood levels of gastrin and bombesin at 3rd and 7th day after delivery were detected. Results The levels of gastrin and bombesin of infants with breast feeding were higher on the 3rd day than those on the 7th day after delivery ( t = 6. 526, P = 0. 000; t = 2. 222,P =0. 042 ). Within 2 weeks of enteral feeding, the blood level of gastrin in experimental group had no significant change( F =0. 335,P =0. 722 ), but that of bombesin was descending( F = 5.060,P =0. 021 )and it descended significantly on the 14th day ( F =7. 932,P =0. 009 ). However, in the control group the blood level of gastrin was increasing( F = 5. 147,P =0. 015 ), and that on the 7th day was obviously higher than that on the 3rd day ( F = 5. 126, P < 0. 05 ). The blood level of bombesin had no significant change( F = 1. 147,P =0. 334 ). Conclusion The blood levels of gastrin and bombesin in preterm infants with breast feeding are relatively high, and they are descending within 1 week after delivery. The change tendency of the blood levels of gastrin and bombesin is different between the experimental group and the control group, and it needs further study.%目的 探讨母乳喂养对早产新生儿血胃肠激素水平的影响.方法 采用放射免疫法测定27例母乳喂养早产儿(实验组)肠内喂养第3天、7天及14天时餐前血清胃泌素、血浆蛙皮素浓度,并以33例早产配方奶粉喂养早产儿作为对照组;同时测定分娩后第3天、7天早产母乳胃泌素、蛙皮素浓度.结果 分娩后第3天早产母乳胃泌素、蛙皮素浓度均高于分娩后第7天(t=6

  1. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  2. Food and Nutrition Surveillance System/SISVAN: getting to know the feeding habits of infants under 24 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciola de Castro Coelho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN is to monitor the food intake of individuals attended by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. The objective of this research was to identify the feeding practices of children under 24 months of age who were attended at Primary Healthcare Units (UBS, using SISVAN, and to assess the relationship with maternal sociodemographic profiles. A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to evaluate 350 children using the Food Consumption Marker Form of SISVAN, and maternal demographic data to identify sociodemographic profiles by exploratory factor analysis. Of the children assessed, 41.1% were under 6 months of age and 98.7% of those between 6 and 23 months had an inadequate intake. Two sociodemographic profiles were found: Profile 1 (mothers with lower income, less education, and recipients of the 'Bolsa Família' conditional family grant program associated with the consumption of water/tea, cow's milk and salty baby food; and Profile 2 (older mothers with many children and with a larger number of residents in the household associated with breast milk consumption (p = 0.048. The use of SISVAN made it possible to identify that children had inadequate feeding practices, and Profile 1 appears to be a risk profile for weaning.

  3. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  4. Ultrastructural and histological changes induced by ivermectin in the ovary of Argas persicus after feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdy, H.Swelim; Aleya, S.Marzouk;Ashraf,A.M.Montasser

    2003-01-01

    The ovarian wall of A.persicus consists of primary oocytes of three developmental stages namely , young , previtellogenic and vitellogenic in addition to interstitial cells . After feeding and mating , the three stages and interstitial cells , particularly funicle cells that carry oocytes , markedly increased in size and their cytoplasmic organelles exhibit notable changes correlated with yolk and egg shell formation . The present study examined the hitological and ultrastructural aspects dur...

  5. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  6. Parenting Your Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Parenting Your Infant ...

  7. 极低出生体重儿不同喂养方式的临床分析%A clinical analysis of different feeding patterns for very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金会; 张红爱; 王文静

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate feeding tolerances and effects of different feeding patterns for very low birth weight infants. Methods 45 very low birth weight infants were randomly divided into two groups: group A and group B. 23 infants in group A were given intermittent per os tube feeding+non-nutrition sucking (NNS) and 22 infants in group B were given per os feeding. At beginning, milk intake started from 10~20 mL/Kg per day and once per 3 hours for all infants. The feeding persisting time was 10~15 min. Thereafter, the milk intake increased by 20mL. All the infants were also given partly parenteral nutrition to meet the caloric needs till complete enteral nutrition. The incidence rates of feeding intolerance, gastroesophageal reflux, milk aspiratory pneumonia and time to reach full enteral nutrition in the two groups were compared. Results The incidence rates of gastroesophageal reflux (χ2=3.74,P=0.04), milk aspiratory pneumonia (χ2=5.14,P=0.02) of infants in group A were lower than those in group B, the differences were statistically significant. And the time to reach complete enteral nutrition in group A was shorter than that in group B (t=6.41,P=0.00). There was no statistically difference in incidence rate of feeding intolerance between the two groups (χ2=0.25,P=0.40). Conclusion Intermittent per os tube feeding+NNS is contributive to growth and development of the very low birth weight infants and perfect of their gastrointestinal functions.%目的 探讨不同喂养方式对极低出生体重儿的喂养耐受性及喂养效果的优劣性.方法 将45例极低出生体重儿随机分为两组,A组:23例,间歇经口管饲+非营养性吸吮,B组:22例,经口喂养;两组起始奶量均从10~20mL·kg-1·d-1、从每3小时喂1次开始,每次持续时间为10~15分钟,每天增加20mL/kg.所有的极低出生体重儿均同时进行部分静脉营养,直至达到完全肠道内营养.比较两组极低出生体重儿的喂养耐受、胃食道返流、

  8. The Faces in Infant-Perspective Scenes Change over the First Year of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnaa Jayaraman

    Full Text Available Mature face perception has its origins in the face experiences of infants. However, little is known about the basic statistics of faces in early visual environments. We used head cameras to capture and analyze over 72,000 infant-perspective scenes from 22 infants aged 1-11 months as they engaged in daily activities. The frequency of faces in these scenes declined markedly with age: for the youngest infants, faces were present 15 minutes in every waking hour but only 5 minutes for the oldest infants. In general, the available faces were well characterized by three properties: (1 they belonged to relatively few individuals; (2 they were close and visually large; and (3 they presented views showing both eyes. These three properties most strongly characterized the face corpora of our youngest infants and constitute environmental constraints on the early development of the visual system.

  9. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  10. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  11. Head position change is not associated with acute changes in bilateral cerebral oxygenation in stable preterm infants during the first three days of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Steve Ming-Che; Rao, Rakesh; Mathur, Amit M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several recent intraventricular hemorrhage prevention bundles include midline head positioning to prevent potential disturbances in cerebral hemodynamics. We aimed to study the impact of head position change on regional cerebral saturations (SctO2) in preterm infants (< 30 weeks GA) during the first three days of life. Study Design Bilateral SctO2 was measured by near infrared spectroscopy. The infant's head was turned sequentially to each side from midline (baseline) in thirty-minute intervals while keeping the body supine. Bilateral SctO2 before and after each position change were compared using paired t-test. Results In relatively stable preterm infants (gestational age 26.5±1.7 weeks, birth weight 930±220g; n=20), bilateral SctO2 remained within normal range (71.1% - 75.3%) when the head was turned from midline position to either side. Conclusion Stable preterm infants tolerated brief changes in head position from midline without significant alternation in bilateral SctO2; the impact on critically ill infants needs further evaluation. PMID:25282608

  12. Development of Self-Produced Locomotion in the First Year: Changes in Parent Perceptions and Infant Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Rebecca R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Self-produced locomotion is regarded as a setting event for other developmental transitions in infancy with important implications for socioemotional development and parent-child interaction. Using an age-held-constant design, this study examined changes in reported infant behaviour and maternal proactive/reactive control and compared them with…

  13. The influencing factors of infant feeding attitude among hospitalized postpartum women in Macao%澳门住院产妇婴儿喂养态度影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红霞; 刘樱

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the infant feeding attitude among hospitalized postpartum women in Macao and to identify its influencing factors. Methods: From December 2009 to December 2011, a cross section study was delivered and 468 postpartum women were recruited by convenience sampling from a public hospital in Macao. They were investigated on the third postnatal day and by Chinese version of Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS). Results: The mean score of IIFAS was 58.94±6.21. Linear regression analysis found that four factors entered the regression equation. It showed that the artificial feeding intentions, artificial feeding method on the third postnatal day and insufficient breastfeeding knowledge had negative relationship with infant feeding attitude. Their standardized coefficients were -0.267, -0.101 and -0.087 (P0.05). Conclusions: The infant feeding attitude was in middle-high level in Macao postpartum women. The higher scores IIFAS are, the more tendencies the maternal women take breastfeeding action. The main influencing factors of infant feeding attitude were maternal infant-feeding intention, breastfeeding education during pregnancy, postnatal infant feeding patterns and breastfeeding knowledge.%目的:探讨澳门住院产妇婴儿喂养态度的现状及其影响因素.方法:2009年12月至2011年12月,在澳门一间公立医院住院部,采用方便抽样法对468名华裔产妇在产后3天应用中文版婴儿喂养态度量表(ⅡFAS)进行横断面调查.结果:产后3天IIFAS总分为(58.94±6.21)分;多元线性回归分析发现有4个因素进入回归方程,其中产妇持有奶粉喂养意图、产后3天采取奶粉喂养方法、产妇的母乳喂养知识不充足与母乳喂养态度呈负相关(β=0.267、0.101、0.087,P<0.05).孕期接受过母乳喂养卫教与母乳喂养态度呈正相关(β=0.103,P<0.05).产后3天IIFAS总分在产妇的教育程度、年龄、分娩方式、婚姻、家庭月收入、有无产假、

  14. Developmental Changes in Infant Spatial Categorization: When More Is Best and When Less Is Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasola, Marianella; Park, Youjeong

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined infants' ability to form a spatial category when habituated to few (only 2) or many (6) exemplars of a spatial relation. Sixty-four infants of 10 months and 64 infants of 14 months were habituated to dynamic events in which a toy was placed in a consistent spatial relation ("in" or "on") to a referent object. At 10 months,…

  15. Feeding-induced changes in temporal patterning of muscle activity in the lobster stomatogastric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, S; Meyrand, P; Simmers, J

    1998-09-25

    In the lobster Homarus gammarus, rhythmic masticatory movements of the foregut gastric mill are generated by a small neural network in the stomatogastric ganglion. We have used EMG recordings from intact animals to analyse gastric network output in relation to cycle period before and after feeding. In pre-prandial conditions, muscles controlling lateral teeth closure and medial tooth protraction (driven by MG and GM motor neurons, respectively) express relatively constant, return stroke-like burst durations, but change to a variable-duration power stroke-like phenotype after feeding. In contrast, the LPG neuron-innervated lateral teeth opener muscle switches from power stroke to return stroke-like behavior. Thus alternate phases within a single motor program may invert their temporal properties according to the behavioral situation. PMID:9779921

  16. Evidence-based basis and suggestion on the feeding of very low birth weight infants%极低出生体重儿喂养的循证依据和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范娟; 李茂军; 吴青; 陈昌辉

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is essential for the growth and health of very low birth weight infants ( VLBWI ) .The primary goal of feeding VLBWI is to reach the full enteral feeding in the shortest time ,and at the same time ,to maintain the optimal growth and nutrition and to avoid the adverse reactions of rapid feeding .Attaining this goal is very difficult ,and it is also full of controversy .A work-ing group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants in McMaster University ,Canada listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBWI ,and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines that can be used for reference by domestic pediatricians in clinical practice .%充足的营养对于极低出生体重儿( very low birth weight infants ,VLBWI)的健康生长至关重要。 VLBWI喂养的首要目标是在最短的时间内达到全肠内喂养,同时使患儿获得最佳的营养和生长,并避免喂养过快导致的不良反应。 VLBWI的喂养存在很大难度,也充满许多争议。加拿大麦克马斯特大学儿童医院VLBWI喂养指南工作组列举了VLBWI喂养的一些重要问题,并制定了一套全面的指南,可供国内临床医师参考。

  17. Developmental changes in visual scanning of dynamic faces and abstract stimuli in infants : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of scanning patterns between the ages of 6 and 26 weeks were investigated through repeated assessments of 10 infants. Eye movements were recorded using a corneal-reflection system while the infants looked at 2 dynamic stimuli: the naturally moving face of their mother and an abst

  18. Rachitic Changes, Demineralization, and Fracture Risk in Healthy Infants and Toddlers with Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Henry A.; Kleinman, Paul K.; Connolly, Susan A.; Fair, Rick A.; Myers, Regina M.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine radiographic findings in children with vitamin D deficiency in comparison with biochemical marker levels and prevalence of fractures. Materials and Methods: The parents or guardians of all participants provided written informed consent at the time of enrollment. The institutional review board approved the protocol, and HIPAA guidelines were followed. From a prospective sample of children seen for routine clinical care, 40 children with vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD] level, ≤20 ng/mL) were identified, and high-detail computed radiographs of the wrists and knees were obtained. The children ranged in age from 8 to 24 months. Radiographs were scored by three readers with use of the 10-point Thacher score for rachitic changes and a five-point scale for demineralization. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined. Fracture history was obtained for 35 of the 40 patients (88%). Results: All readers identified rachitic changes at both readings in two patients (5%) and demineralization in two patients (5%). Interrater agreement was 65% for rachitic changes (κ = 0.33) and 70% for demineralization (κ = 0.37). When the majority of the raters determined that rachitic changes were absent at both readings, alkaline phosphatase levels were lower than those with other assessments (median, 267 vs 515 U/L [4.4589 vs 8.6005 μkat/L]; P = .01). When most raters determined that demineralization was present at both readings, serum 25-OHD levels were lower than those at other assessments (median, 9.0 vs 17.5 ng/mL [22.464 vs 43.68 nmol/L]; P = .02). No fractures were reported or identified radiographically. Conclusion: In infants and toddlers with vitamin D deficiency, rachitic changes and definite demineralization are uncommon and fracture risk is low. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:22106354

  19. Analysis of Complications Occurred in Different Positions and Nursing Measures During Tube Feeding of Preterm Infants%早产儿管饲时不同体位并发症发生及护理措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舜妆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the complications occurred in different positions and analyze effective nursing measures dur-ing tube feeding of preterm infants, so as to improve the safety and effectiveness of oral gastric tube feeding of preterm infants. Methods 84 cases of preterm infants admitted into our hospital from September, 2011 to September, 2013 were selected as the subjects of study. They were all given oral gastric tube feeding. They were divided into the supine group, prone group and right lateral group according to different positions during tube feeding, with 28 cases in each group. The incidence of complications was observed after tube feeding in three groups. Results The most serious complication during tube feeding of preterm infants was ab-dominal distension. After taking targeted effective nursing measures, the incidence of abdominal distension during tube feeding in right lateral group and prone group was 10.7%, 7.1%, respectively, which was significantly lower than right supine group's 53.6%;the incidences of other complications of the former two groups were lower than that of the right supine group, the differences be-tween the groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The effects after tube feeding in right lateral and prone posi-tions are better than the supine position in preterm infants, which could significantly reduce the incidence of complications. Ap-propriate positions and proper fixation methods are necessary for preterm infants during oral gastric tube feeding. The monitoring of oral nursing and respiratory conditions should be strengthened. The complications such as nausea should be timely treated. These measures could effectively reduce the incidence of complications.%目的:探讨早产儿管饲时不同体位并发症的发生及分析有效护理的措施,以提高早产儿经口胃管喂养的安全性与有效性。方法选取2011年9月-2013年9月该院收治的84例经口胃管喂养的早产儿作为研

  20. MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR INFANT COLIC (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Coquel Suanny del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: infant colic is a frequent problem in pediatric consultation, it has a prevalence from 15 to 40% in children younger than four months old, independently of the type of breast feeding administered. It usually generates anxiety to carers and even to pediatricians. Objective: to identify which one is the best alternative for infantile colic management. Methodology: a search was realized on the web in different databases of scientific articles. Systematic reviews, clinical trials and abstracts were considered. There were analyzed the different alternatives proposed for the managing of colic. RESULTS: infantile colic is multifactorial. Treatment options include the use of milkbased extensively hydrolyzed protein, lactose-free milk or soy protein-based, behavioral therapy, breastfeeding and use of drugs as: simethicone, dicyclomine and probiotics. Milks based on extensively hydrolyzed proteins are effective in infants with atopy history. Soy milk can generate unwanted effects in the reproductive system and crossreactive with proteins in cow’s milk effects, which is not recommended. Some studies have showed the efficiency of dicyclomine, nevertheless, it has important adverse effects. Administration of Lactobacillus reuteri has shown efficacy and appears to be an important therapeutic. CONCLUSION: changes in infant formula, drugs, behavioral measures and recently probiotics (L. Reuteri are proposed and recommended for an undefined cause benign and self-limited course. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(1:100-106 KEYWORDS Colic, Infant, Infant care, Infant welfare, Infant nutrition.

  1. Functional changes with feeding in the gastro-intestinal epithelia of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, Cécile; Reix, Nathalie; T'Flachebba, Mathieu; Pope, Robert K; Secor, Stephen M; Le Maho, Yvon; Lignot, Jean-Hervé

    2009-09-01

    The morphology of the digestive system in fasting and refed Burmese pythons was determined, as well as the localization of the proton (H(+), K(+)-ATPase) and sodium (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) pumps. In fasting pythons, oxyntopeptic cells located within the fundic glands are typically non-active, with a thick apical tubulovesicular system and numerous zymogen granules. They become active Immediately after feeding but return to a non-active state 3 days after the Ingestion of the prey. The proton pump, expressed throughout the different fasting/feeding states, is either sequestered in the tubulovesicular system in non-active cells or located along the apical digitations extending within the crypt lumen in active cells. The sodium pump is rapidly upregulated in fed animals and is classically located along the baso-lateral membranes of the gastric oxyntopeptic cells. In the Intestine, it is only expressed along the lateral membranes of the enterocytes, i.e., above the lateral spaces and not along the basal side of the cells. Thus, solute transport within the Intestinal lining is mainly achieved through the apical part of the cells and across the lateral spaces while absorbed fat massively crosses the entire height of the cells and flows into the Intercellular spaces. Therefore, in the Burmese python, the gastrointestinal cellular system quickly upregulates after feeding, due to Inexpensive cellular changes, passive mechanisms, and the progressive activation and synthesis of key enzymes such as the sodium pump. This cell plasticity also allows anticipation of the next fasting and feeding periods.

  2. The effects of family feeding pattern on the physical growth of infants%家庭喂养行为对婴幼儿体格发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金婵; 罗艳; 陈亮; 王燕; 邵子瑜; 李李; 胡传来

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索婴幼儿生长发育与家庭喂养行为之间的关系。方法采用前瞻性研究方法,对所选的516例研究对象按一般人口统计学信息调查,并在18、24月龄进行身高、体质量、头围、胸围的测量和对喂养行为进行评价。采用Pearson相关分析。结果(1)喂养行为得分与婴幼儿体格发育指标呈正相关,(2)婴幼儿18月龄时体质量、头围、24月龄时身长与喂养行为评分呈显著相关(P<0.05)。(3)食物的制备与婴幼儿18月龄时体质量具有显著相关性( P<0.05);婴幼儿行为在18月龄时与婴幼儿本身的身长、体质量、头围、胸围均显著相关;24月龄时与其胸围显著相关(P<0.05);婴幼儿的喂养环境在18月龄时与其身长、体质量、头围均具有显著相关性(P<0.05)。结论良好的家庭喂养行为对婴幼儿的体格发育具有一定程度的促进作用。%Objective To explore the relationship between physical growth of infants and family feeding be -havior.Methods Demographic information was collected from 516 objects.Height,weight,head circumference,chest circumference were measured and feeding behavior was evaluated using prospective observational study method . Results (1) Feeding behavior score was positively associated with infant physical development indicators ,the be-tween groups differences of infant age ,body weight,body length were statistically significant (P<0.05).(2)The re-sults of Pearson correlation analysis showed that weight , head circumference of infants at 18 months and length at 24 months were significantly correlated with feeding behavior score (P<0.05).(3)The analysis of feeding behavior factors found that food preparation was associated with weight infants at 18 months(P<0.05);behavior of infants and height,weight,head circumference,chest circumference of children in the 18 months of age were related(P<0.05);infant feeding environment in

  3. Feed based on vegetable materials changes the muscle proteome of the carnivore rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune; Bach Mikkelsen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    for a sustainable production of fish from aquaculture. However, such a change in feed will have an effect on the fish composition and metabolism and may also affect eating quality as well as different health and nutritional properties. A proteomic approach was taken to compare the muscle protein profile of rainbow...... trout fed two different diets identical in protein and oil content, but with diet C based on fish meal and oil and diet V based on rapeseed oil and vegetable proteins. In addition to the proteomic investigation the textural properties of the fish were analysed by sensory profiling. Protein expression...

  4. Feeding investigation of the infants' parents in Sichuan province%四川省婴幼儿家长科学喂养知识普及情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴方银; 刘敬涛; 赵梓伶; 唐洁; 何琳坤; 熊庆

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解婴幼儿家长科学喂养知识普及情况,为有效指导科学喂养提供依据.[方法]采用随机抽样方法,抽取了全省14个市州所辖15个区(县)的0~5岁儿童家长,用问卷法完成本调查.[结果] 四川省婴幼儿家长科学喂养知识普及率较高为91.10%.居住在城市、年龄在40周岁以下、婴幼儿父母亲本人及文化程度在初中及以上的家长对科学喂养知识的掌握较好.医务人员是喂养知识的主要来源.[结论] 利用医院和三级妇幼保健网,从围生期到儿童保健期开展科学喂养方面的健康教育.除母乳喂养外,增加对辅食添加和基本喂养知识方面的内容,指导家长更科学的对婴幼儿进行喂养.%[Objective]To understand popularity of feeding knowledge of infants in Sichuan province.[Method]The parents of infants were selected with the random sampling from 15 counties of 14 municipalities and investigated their feeding status by questionnaire.[Results]The prevalence rate of feeding knowledge in the parents was 91.10%.The feeding knowledge of the parents lived in the cities, aged under 40, mothers and fathers themselves, educated above junior high school, were better than others.The feeding knowledge mainly came from the medical staff.[Conclusions]we can could be carried out the health education on scientific feeding from perinatal to child care period depending on the hospital and the net of material and child care.The knowledge of the complementary food and basic feeding can be improved besidesof breastfeeding.It can be more scientific to guide the feeding of the infants' parents.

  5. The role of breast-feeding in infant immune system: a systems perspective on the intestinal microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen, Paurush; Jordan, Ferenc; Priami, Corrado; Morine, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The human intestinal microbiota changes from being sparsely populated and variable to possessing a mature, adult-like stable microbiome during the first 2 years of life. This assembly process of the microbiota can lead to either negative or positive effects on health, depending on the colonization sequence and diet. An integrative study on the diet, the microbiota, and genomic activity at the transcriptomic level may give an insight into the role of diet in shaping the human/microb...

  6. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  7. Influencing factors of feeding problems in infants in poverty stricken areas of Gansu Province%甘肃省贫困地区婴幼儿喂养困难相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕾; 刘月芬; 张玲; 何莉; 朱瑛

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析甘肃省贫困地区婴幼儿喂养困难的相关因素。方法选取543名6~36月龄的婴幼儿喂养人作为调查对象,运用婴幼儿喂养困难评分量表调查喂养困难情况。结果喂养困难的发生率为31.7%,男女童发生率均为31.7%。父母躯体及心理健康状况较差,家庭饮食问题,围产期异常(如孕期患病、早产等),婴幼儿近期健康状况较差(如经常吐奶、睡眠问题等)者喂养困难发生率显著高于对照组(χ2=3.910~35.732,P均<0.05)。校正相关因素后,家庭进食问题、饮食结构不均衡、婴幼儿出生时患病及近期的健康状况较差是喂养困难的独立危险因素(OR=2.435~3.549)。结论甘肃省贫困地区婴幼儿喂养困难问题高于全国水平,家庭喂养环境及婴幼儿自身健康状况对顺利喂养有一定的影响。%Objective To investigate the factors influencing infant feeding in poverty stricken areas of Gansu Province .Methods Montreal Children Hospital Feeding Scale ( MCH-FS) was used to investigate the feeding problems by investigating the feeding people of 543 infants aged 6-36 months.Results The incidence of feeding problems both in boys and girls was 31.7%.Compared with control group , the incidence of feeding problems was significantly higher in the group with poor parents somatic and mental health status , family eating problems, perinatal abnormalities (such as illness during pregnancy , premature birth), and recent poor health status of infants (such as frequent spits, sleeping problems) (χ2 =3.910-35.732, all P <0.05).After adjusting related factors, family eating problems, unbalanced diet, illness at birth and recent poor health status were independent risk factors of feeding problems (OR=2.435-3.549). Conclusion The incidence of feeding problems in infants in poverty stricken areas of Gansu province is higher than that of nationwide . Family feeding

  8. Clinical application of early nursing intervention in feeding premature infants%早产儿实行早期护理干预在喂养中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁水芹; 谢艳红; 叶丽英

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿实行早期护理干预在喂养中的临床效果.方法 将我院2011年1月至2012年9月早产儿56例纳入本研究,随机分为对照组与观察组各28例,对照组予常规护理,观察组在对照组基础上实行早期护理干预措施,比较两组护理前后早产儿体重变化、从鼻饲胃管喂养过渡到母乳喂养的时间、出院时间,以及两组早产儿在住院期间并发症发生的情况.结果 实行早期护理干预观察组出院时体重(2.43±0.57)kg,对照组出院体重(2.03±0.38) kg,观察组出院时体重明显高于对照组;观察组达到母乳喂养的时间及出院时间分别为(10.1±7.2)d、(10.83±4.32)d,对照组为(17.2±9.31)d、(6.03±5.34)d,观察组明显较对照组缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).观察组住院期间并发症发生率明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 实行早期护理干预可促进早产儿体重的增长,促进消化系统的完善,减少并发症的发生,能够达到早期给予母乳喂养,保证早产儿健康生长发育.%Objective To explore the clinical effect of early nursing intervention in feeding premature infants.Methods 56 premature infants who were born during the period of January 2011 to September 2012 were randomly divided into a control group and a study group,28 for each group.The control group received routine nursing,whereas the study group received early nursing intervention in addition to routine nursing.Changes in body weight,duration from nasogastric tube feeding to breast feeding,length of hospital stays,and complications during hospitalization were compared between the two groups.Results The body weight on being discharged from hospital was greater in the study group than in the control group [(2.43 + 0.57) kg vs.(2.03 ± 0.38) kg].The duration from nasogastric tube feeding to breast feeding,length of hospital stays were markedly shorter in the study group than in the control group [(10

  9. 不同喂养方式婴儿肠道菌群分布特征%Preliminary study of intestinal flora distribution in infants with different feeding patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤春; 张文卿; 吕锐; 于红; 陈云庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of intestinal flora in infants with different feeding patterns.Methods Sixty-two cases of health infants(30-120 d)were divided into 4 groups according to their feeding patterns:breast feeding,imported powder milk feeding,domestic powder milk feeding and mixed feeding.Samples of their fresh feces in each group were collected and divided into sections equally:the bifidobacteria were isolated in anaerobic box and the number was counted for one section;for the other section,total DNA of intestinal flora was extracted and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) fingerprints were amplified with the method of ERIC-PCR.After that,the specific bands observed in different groups were cloned and sequenced and alignmented.Results The colonies of bifidobacteria were more in breast feeding and mixed feeding groups[(9.10 ± 1.33) cfu/g;(8.62 ± 1.35) cfu/g]than those in domestic powder milk feeding and imported powder milk feeding groups[(7.62 ± 1.22) cfu/g;(7.32 ± 0.80) cfu/g,t =3.23,P < 0.05];while there was no significant difference between breast feeding and mixed feeding groups,and between 2 powder milk feeding groups.Two specific bands were found from the ERIC fingerprints (A:1 100 bp mainly in breast feeding,domestic powder milk feeding and mixed feeding groups;B:1 000 bp mainly in imported powder milk feeding group).Sequencing and analysis of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool showed that homologous bacteria of A and B fragments were bifidobacterium longum.The encoding protein of A fragments might be related to the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism,and B fragments were related to the enzymes of protein metabolism.Conclusions The colonies of bifidobacteria in intestinal tract are more in breast feeding and mixed feeding infants than those in formula feeding groups.The distribution of intestinal flora in domestic powder milk feeding infants is more similar to that of the breast feeding infants.%目的 探讨

  10. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT, a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Erica P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 years after delivery. Evidence that lactation duration influences incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is based on one retrospective study reporting a null association. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT is a prospective cohort study of postpartum women with recent GDM within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC integrated health care system. The primary goal of SWIFT is to assess whether prolonged, intensive lactation as compared to formula feeding reduces the 2-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with GDM. The study also examines whether lactation intensity and duration have persistent favorable effects on blood glucose, insulin resistance, and adiposity during the 2-year postpartum period. This report describes the design and methods implemented for this study to obtain the clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and behavioral measurements during the recruitment and follow-up phases. Methods SWIFT is a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling and following over 1, 000 postpartum women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy within KPNC. The study enrolled women at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline who had been diagnosed by standard GDM criteria, aged 20-45 years, delivered a singleton, term (greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation live birth, were not using medications affecting glucose tolerance, and not planning another pregnancy or moving out of the area within the next 2 years. Participants who are free of type 2 diabetes and other serious medical conditions at baseline are screened for type 2 diabetes annually within the first 2 years after delivery. Recruitment began in September 2008 and ends in December 2011. Data are being collected through pregnancy and early postpartum telephone interviews, self

  11. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the

  12. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the

  13. Lactancia materna, destete y ablactación: una encuesta en comunidades rurales de México A survey of breast-feeding and other infant feeding practices in rural Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN VANDALE-TONEY

    1997-09-01

    xico.Objective. To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Material and methods. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5 409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. Results. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N 21.4%, in the center (C 7.6% and in the south (S 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N, 67.6% (C and 77.5% (S; in the second trimester, 67.2% (N, 40.9% (C and 51.6% (S had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Conclusions. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  14. Clinical Application of Systematic Management of Human Milk Feeding in Hospitalized Preterm Infants%住院早产儿母乳喂养系统化管理的临床应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯淑菊; 景亚琳; 陈杭健; 李正红; 高广佩; 王丹华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨应用母乳喂养系统化管理对住院早产儿实施母乳喂养的效果。方法收集2011年1月至12月和2013年1月至12月在北京协和医院新生儿重症监护室住院且符合一定入选条件早产儿的临床资料。2011年实施早产儿母乳喂养的常规宣教及护理,作为对照组。自2012年起实施母乳喂养系统化管理,对工作人员实行全员培训,对早产儿家属进行宣教干预,健全母乳收集、运送、保存、配置、加热、喂养等一系列制度,建立从早产儿入院到出院后母乳喂养的支持方案。2013年住院早产儿作为研究组。比较两组早产儿的母乳喂养情况、败血症发生率及住院天数。结果纳入研究的早产儿共116例,其中男54例,女62例;研究组53例,对照组63例。两组的性别、胎龄、出生体重、住院天数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。研究组首次母乳喂养日龄低于对照组[(3.98±2.45) d比(5.05±1.76) d, P=0.008],7日内母乳喂养程度(42.98%比23.14%, P=0.001)、14日内母乳喂养程度(60.27%比40.95%, P=0.001)均高于对照组,住院期间达纯母乳喂养的早产儿比例高于对照组(75.48%比34.92%, P=0.041),新生儿败血症发生率低于对照组(15.1%比23.8%, P=0.012)。结论母乳喂养系统化管理是实现住院早产儿母乳喂养的有效方法。实施母乳喂养系统化管理可提高住院早产儿的母乳喂养率,减少医院感染的发生。%Objective To analyze the effect of systematic management of human milk feeding on the feed -ing of hospitalized preterm infants .Methods Preterm infants hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January to December 2011 and from January to December 2013 who met certain enrollment criteria were included and their clinical data were collected .The preterm infants in 2011 served as

  15. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans.

  16. Infants' Attention to Patterned Stimuli: Developmental Change from 3 to 12 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Courage, Mary L.; Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the developmental course of look duration as a function of age and stimulus type, 14-to 52-week-old infants were shown static and dynamic versions of faces, Sesame Street material and achromatic patterns for 20 seconds of accumulated looking. Heart rate was recorded during looking and parsed into stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and attention termination phases of attention. Infants' peak look durations indicated that prior to 26 weeks there was a linear decrease with age f...

  17. Infant and Child Mortality in Andhra Pradesh: Analysing changes over time and between states

    OpenAIRE

    Masset, Edoardo; White, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Most countries of the world are reducing infant and child mortality too slowly to meet the Millennium Development Goal of a two-thirds reduction by 2015. Yet, some countries and regions have achieved impressive reductions, Kerala in India being one example. This paper examines the determinants of infant and child mortality in Andhra Pradesh, where the Young Lives project is taking place, and Kerala and the factors explaining their differential performance. The determinants of mortality are es...

  18. Infant feeding practices and weight gain for length of term normal birth weight infants in the first 6 months of life%喂养习惯与婴儿出生后前6个月按身长体质量增加的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽莉; 孙倩倩; 胡燕琪; 刘金荣; 刘珊珊; 张杰; 盛晓阳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between infant feeding practices and infants growth,especially the weight gain for length in the first 6 months of life. Methods Two-hundred healthy full-term singlet normal birth weight 5 - 6 months old infants and their main care givers were recruited in Kongjiang community health service center in Shanghai. The questionnaires included infants feeding pattern, feeding environment and care givers feeding behaviors, and were completed on-site by investigators. The birth weight was obtained. The weight and length of infants at 6 months were measured. Results There were 70/200 (35.0%) infants overweight (BMI for age Z score>+1) at 6 months. There were more overweight boys than girls (40.0% vs. 30.9%, x2 = 1.798, P = 0.180). Compared with normal weight infants, the overweight infants had same birth weight (3.30 ± 0.35 kg vs. 3.35 ± 0.32 kg, t =1.010, P = 0.314) and same length at 6 months (67.64 ± 2.10 cm vs. 67.91 ± 1.97 cm, t=- 0.896, P = 0.371). However, the overweight infants gained much more weight for length in the first six months of life. At 6 months, the weight and BMI of overweight infants was significantly higher than that of normal weight infants (9.16 ± 0.67 vs. 7.94 ±0.64, t = 12.324, P 0.05). The grandparents played an important role in infants feeding in Shanghai. There were 39.0% infants fed only by grandparents, and 23.0% infants fed jointly by grandparents and parents (x2 = 0.175, P > 0.05).The care givers' educational level and knowledge of feeding skill were similar in overweight and normal weight infants (x2 = 0.446, t = 0.949, P > 0.05). However, the overweight infants were fed more quickly than normal weight infants (Z = 2.753, P +1),占35%.男婴超重多于女婴(40.0%对30.9%,x2=1.798,P=0.180).超重婴儿和体质量正常婴儿的出生体质量一致(3.30±0.35 kg对3.35±0.32 kg,t=1.010,P=0.314),6月龄时两组婴儿的身长也一致(67.64±2.10 cm对67.91±1.97cm,t=0.896,P=0.371).

  19. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-10-23

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes.

  20. Ocean acidification induces changes in algal palatability and herbivore feeding behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Benítez, Samanta; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The effects of global stressors on a species may be mediated by the stressors' impact on coexisting taxa. For instance, herbivore-algae interactions may change due to alterations in algal nutritional quality resulting from high CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA). We approached this issue by assessing the indirect effects of OA on the trophic interactions between the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata and the brown alga Durvillaea antarctica, two prominent species of the South-east Pacific coast. We predicted that amphipod feeding behavior and performance (growth rate) will be affected by changes in the palatability of the algae exposed to high levels (1000 ppm) of CO2. We exposed algae to current and predicted (OA) atmospheric CO2 levels and then measured their nutritive quality and amphipod preference in choice trials. We also assessed consumption rates separately in no-choice trials, and measured amphipod absorption efficiency and growth rates. Protein and organic contents of the algae decreased in acidified conditions and amphipods showed low preference for these algae. However, in the no-choice trials we recorded higher grazing rates on algae exposed to OA. Although amphipod absorption efficiency was lower on these algae, growth rates did not differ between treatments, which suggests the occurrence of compensatory feeding. Our results suggest that changes in algal nutritional value in response to OA induce changes in algal palatability and these in turn affect consumers' food preference and performance. Indirect effects of global stressors like OA can be equally or more important than the direct effects predicted in the literature.

  1. 茵栀黄口服液灌肠预防早产儿喂养不耐受临床观察%Clinical observation on enema with Yinzhihuang oral liquid to prevent feeding intolerance of premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 应海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察茵栀黄口服液灌肠预防早产儿喂养不耐受的临床效果.方法 将98例早产儿随机分为干预组和对照组,每组49例,对照组仅给予早期干预治疗,干预组在早期干预的同时给予茵栀黄口服液灌肠;比较两组治疗后胎便排净、腹胀消失、呕吐缓解、恢复至出生体重、达到全肠道喂养的时间.结果 干预组在首次排胎便、胎便排净、腹胀消失、呕吐缓解、恢复至出生体重及达到全胃肠喂养的时间明显短,与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为1.443、2.568、1.512、2.791、2.011、4.189,均P<0.05).结论 茵栀黄口服液灌肠治疗早产儿喂养不耐受效果显著,可减少早产儿喂养不耐受的发生.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of enema with Yinzhihuang oral liquid to prevent feeding intolerance of premature infants. Methods A total of 98 preterm infants were randomly divided into intervention group and control group with 49 cases in each group. Control group was given early intervention treatment only , while intervention group was given enema treatment with Yinzhihuang oral liquid based on early intervention. The time of complete exhaust of meconium , disappearing of distention , relieving of vomiting , coming to birth weight and getting full enteral feeding were compared between two groups . Results The time of first exhaust of meconium , complete exhaust of meconium , disappearing of distention , relieving of vomiting , coming to birth weight and getting full enteral feeding was obviously shortened in intervention group , and the differences were significant when compared to control group (t value was 1.443, 2.568, 1.512, 2.791, 2. 011 and 4. 189, respectively, all P < 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of enema with Yinzhihuang oral liquid on feeding intolerance of premature infants is significant , and the incidence of feeding intolerance of premature infants can be reduced .

  2. 婴幼儿喂养困难的喂养者影响因素及相应干预措施研究%Influencing factors of infant feeding disorders and the relevant intervention study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禇英; 盛志华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the feeding factors of infant feeding disorders and the corresponding intervention measures. Methods From January 2009 to December 2010, 54 infants aged 0-36 months ( excluding disease factors ) with feeding disorders visited the health nutrition out-patient department of Xuzhou maternity and child care center. They were selected as feeding disorders group, and control group was set in accordance with same sex, age and parental education. The main baby-feeders of two groups were investigated with self-designed questionnaires. The predilection period of feeding disorders, influence of the feeding knowledge and behavior of feeding persons were analyzed. Results The predilection period of feeding disorders was 6 to 24 months ( 81. 48% ). The percentage of feeding by grandparents ( 53. 70% ) was higher in feeding disorders group than that in control group ( 33. 33% ), but the percentage of correct feeders' feeding knowledge ( 31.48% ) was lower than that in control group ( 59. 30% ). The percentage of inappropriate feeding, such as inappropriate supplementary food(χ2 = 15.753 ), promoting eating and compelling eating (χ2 = 15. 621 ) was higher than that in control group, and the differences were significant ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion Educating feeding persons on feeding knowledge and practices and imroving feeding abibty can help children establish good eating behavior and reduce the inciderce of feeding disorders.%目的 分析婴幼儿喂养困难的喂养因素并探讨相应干预措施.方法 选取2009年1月至2010年12月在徐州市妇幼保健所儿童保健营养门诊就诊的喂养困难的0~36个月婴幼儿(排除疾病因素)54例,并按照同性别、年龄及家长文化程度等设立对照组,按照自行设计的问卷,分别对两组婴幼儿的主要喂养者进行问卷调查.分析婴幼儿喂养困难好发年龄段,喂养者的喂养知识、行为对婴幼儿喂养困难的影响.结果 6~24月龄的婴幼儿为

  3. Oxidative and lipolytic changes during ripening of Iberian hams as affected by feeding regime: extensive feeding and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, R; Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    1999-06-01

    The effect of pig feeding in an extensive system based on acorn and pasture or in confinement with a control diet containing 5 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) of feed and a 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) enriched diet on evolution of lipid changes throughout ripening of dry-cured hams was investigated. Feeding regime significantly affected TBA-RS, peroxide value and hexanal content of Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles. Muscles from pigs fed supplemented diet with α-tocopherol or fed extensively on acorn and grass showed significant lower (p<0.05) TBA-RS and peroxide value than ham muscles from pigs fed the basal diet at 210 days of processing. Both feedings reduced significantly (p<0.05) hexanal content at day 210 and day 700. Muscle slices from pigs fed on acorn showed significant higher scores (p<0.05) in aroma and flavour intensity, cured flavour and numerically lower rancid scores than those from control diet hams. ©

  4. Effect of Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein Formula on Feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants%深度水解蛋白配方奶对极低出生体质量儿喂养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉莲; 夏世文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether extensively hydrolyzed protein formula(HPF) ,compared with standard preterm infant formula (SPF) ,can accelerate gastric emptying, and improve early feeding tolerance, enable a more rapid establishment of full enteral feeding and promote the development of very low birth weight infants(VLBWI). Methods Thirty VLBWI who admitted in NICU of Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital from Jan. 2009 to Jun. 2009 were randomly divided into HPF group ( n = 16) and SPF group ( n = 14 ). Bolus feeding every 2 to 3 hours were started and accelerated at a speed of 20 mL · kg-1 · d-1 if tolerance. HPF group received HPF feeding for 14 days,then change to SPF feeding for the other 14 days. SPF group received SPF feeding for the entire 28 days. Gastric residuals, rate of weigh gain,full enteral feeding time and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis( NEC ) were compared. The weight, body length and head circumference at 28 day were recorded. Results Compared with SPF group, gastric emptying in HPF group was significantly improved, gastric residual was much less. The total gastric residual number of the first 7 days [ (15.5 ± 2.9 ) times vs (17.1 ± 4.5 ) times], maximum residual on the 7th day [(0.9±1.0) mL vs (1.8±1.3) mL] ,maximum residual as a percentage of total feed volume on the 7th day[ (3.1 ±4.8)% vs (8.7 ±6. 9 ) % ] were decreased. Less time was required to achieve full enteral feeding [ ( 12.7 ± 4.2 ) d vs ( 16.6 ± 4.8 ) d ] in HPF group compared with SPF group, and the rate of weight gain was increased [ ( 15.37 ± 4.08 ) g · d - 1 vs ( 11.02 ± 3.49 ) g · d - 1 ]. There was also statistically significant difference with regard to growth measured by head circumference [ ( 30.01 ± 1. 11 )cm vs ( 29.05 ± 1.20 ) cm] , and length [ (42. 85 ± 1.62 ) cm vs (41.55 ± 1.51 )cm ], weight [ ( 1. 792 ± 0.213 ) kg vs ( 1.617 ± 0.187 ) kg ] on the 28th day. There were statistically significant difference in NEC morbidity

  5. Changes in quantitative ultrasound in preterm and term infants during the first year of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansug, Nermin, E-mail: ntansug@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Yildirim, Sule Aslan, E-mail: sulesln@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Canda, Ebru, E-mail: ebruerbass@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Ozalp, Deniz, E-mail: bluexxdeniz@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ozge, E-mail: oyilmaz_76@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Taneli, Fatma, E-mail: fatma.taneli@bayar.edu.tr [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Ersoy, Betuel, E-mail: betul_e@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey)

    2011-09-15

    Since most of in utero bone mass accretion occurs during the third trimester and postnatal need for bone nutrients is increased, preterm infants have an increased risk of low bone mass. Early identification of the risk is of crucial importance. Quantitative ultrasound, which is a relatively inexpensive, portable, noninvasive, and radiation-free method, gives information about bone density, cortical thickness, elasticity and microarchitecture. The aim of this study was to obtain quantitative ultrasound measurements of tibial speed of sound of preterm and term infants and to assess clinical factors associated with these measurements during the first year of life. Seventy-eight preterm and 48 term infants were enrolled in this study. Measurements were made on the 10th day of life in both groups, and were repeated on the 2nd, 6th and 12th months for preterm infants and on the12th month for the term infants. Speed of sound on preterm infants was significantly decreased on the 2nd month but significantly increased on the 12th month (P = 0.00). Comparing speed of sound of term and preterm infants, 10th day measurements were significantly different (P = 0.00), but there was not any significant difference between the 12th month values (P = 0.26). There was not any relation between biochemical parameters and speed of sound. The technique has potential clinical value for assessment of bone status. Further studies with long term follow up are needed to evaluate the value of quantitative ultrasound with other bone markers to predict the risk of fracture.

  6. A seven-year study on head injuries in infants, Iran the changing pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Fakharian; Mahdi Mohammadzadeh; Samin Behdad; Atoosa Babamohammadi; Azadeh Sadat Mirzadeh; Javad Mohammadzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Head injury (HI) is the leading cause of mortality and life-long disability in infants.Infants have different anatomical and pathophysiological brain structures from other age groups.The aim of this study was to survey infant HI patients admitted to Shahid Behest Hospital in Kashan,Iran from 2004 to 2010,and to identify the causes of His in this age group.Methods:In this retrospective study,all HI patients under the age of two who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours between January 2004 and January 2010 were enrolled in the study.Demographic,etiologic,and injury data were collected and a descriptive analysis was performed.Results:Infants comprised 20.8% of all children (under 15 years old) with His and 65.1% of the injuries occurred in the home.Falls were the most common cause of injury (63.4%).In hospital mortality was 6.6 per 100 000 infants.A decreasing trend was seen in home events,but His caused by traffic accidents were increasing during the study period.The amount of HI infants resulting from car accidents has tripled from the years 2004 to 2010.Conclusion:Although home events and falling are the main causes of infant HIs and need attention,our study showed an increase of HIs caused by road traffic accidents,especially by car accidents,thus legislation for the implementation of protective equipment such as child safety seats and programs is urgently needed.

  7. Working toward decreasing infant mortality in developing countries through change in the medical curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Iffat F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High infant and maternal mortality rates are one of the biggest health issues in Pakistan. Although these rates are given high priority at the national level (Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, respectively, there has been no significant decrease in them so far. We hypothesize that this lack of success is because the undergraduate curriculum in Pakistan does not match local needs. Currently, the Pakistani medical curriculum deals with issues in maternal and child morbidity and mortality according to Western textbooks. Moreover, these are taught disjointedly through various departments. We undertook curriculum revision to sensitize medical students to maternal and infant mortality issues important in the Pakistani context and educate them about ways to reduce the same through an integrated teaching approach. Methods The major determinants of infant mortality in underdeveloped countries were identified through a literature review covering international research produced over the last 10 years and the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2006-07. An interdisciplinary maternal and child health module team was created by the Medical Education Department at Shifa College of Medicine. The curriculum was developed based on the role of identified determinants in infant and maternal mortality. It was delivered by an integrated team without any subject boundaries. Students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes were assessed by multiple modalities and the module itself by student feedback using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results Assessment and feedback demonstrated that the students had developed a thorough understanding of the complexity of factors that contribute to infant mortality. Students also demonstrated knowledge and skill in counseling, antenatal care, and care of newborns and infants. Conclusions A carefully designed integrated curriculum can help sensitize undergraduate medical students and equip them to

  8. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  9. 77 FR 17002 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Request-WIC Infant and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Request--WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (WIC ITFPS-2) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... in the 1990's, the WIC Infant Feeding Practices (WIC IFPS-1). The currently planned study will.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Women Infants and Children Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2...

  10. Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Hess, Sonja Y; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-04-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child holds governments responsible to ensure children's right to the highest attainable standard of health by providing breastfeeding support, and access to nutritious foods, appropriate health care, and clean drinking water. International experts have identified key child care practices and programmatic activities that are proven to be effective at reducing infant and young child undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, progress towards reducing the prevalence of undernutrition has been sporadic across countries of the Sahel sub-region of Sub-Saharan Africa. In view of this uneven progress, a working group of international agencies was convened to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel.' The first step towards this goal was to organize a situational analysis of the legislative, research, and programmatic activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) in six countries of the sub-region: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. The purposes of this introductory paper are to review current information concerning the nutritional and health status of infants and young children in the Sahel and to summarize international guidelines on optimal IYCN practices. These guidelines were used in completing the above-mentioned situational analyses and encompass specific recommendations on: (i) breastfeeding (introduction within the first hour after birth, exclusivity to 6 months, continuation to at least 24 months); (ii) complementary feeding (introduction at 6 months, use of nutrient dense foods, adequate frequency and consistency, and responsive feeding); (iii) prevention and/or treatment of micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, zinc, iron and anaemia, and iodine); (iv) prevention and/or treatment of acute malnutrition; (v) feeding practices adapted to the maternal situation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV; (vi) activities to ensure food

  11. The Impact of Changes in Health and Social Care on Enteral Feeding in the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined.

  12. The impact of changes in health and social care on enteral feeding in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined. PMID:23201842

  13. 婴幼儿期体格生长偏离与喂养困难的关系及影响因素%Relationship between Growth Deviation and Feeding Disorders and Its Influencing Factors among Infants and Toddlers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱琴; 徐海青; 戴琼; 赵职卫; 汪鸿; 罗西贝; 刘建琼; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨要幼儿期体格生长偏离与喂养困难的关系及体格生长偏离的影响因素.方法 采用定点抽样的方法,在确定调查对象后,由儿童的主要抚养人和医务人员共同填写婴幼儿喂养困难评分量表及调查问卷,并对婴幼儿体格发育情况进行测量.结果 6~24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养困难发生率为21.41%;婴幼儿有无喂养困难及喂养困难程度与是否发生生长迟缓、低体质量、消瘦相关,随着喂养困难程度的加重,三者发生率增高.经多因素非条件Logistic回归分析,“是否反复上呼吸道感染,喂养人是否为母亲,喂养时孩子对您的反应积极,孩子进餐地点固定,孩子的喂养人固定,孩子进食时间超过30 min,您允许孩子想吃就吃,同一种食物用不同做法促进食欲,您判断孩子不吃某种食物的依据,现在每天是否吃鱼肉虾类、吃蛋类、吃粮谷类、吃水果类”13个因素是婴幼儿体格生长偏离的影响因素.结论 预防婴幼儿喂养困难可有效降低婴幼儿生长迟缓、低体质量、消瘦的发生.合理的饮食结构、喂养人科学的喂养知识和恰当的喂养行为有利于预防体格生长偏离的发生.%Objective To explore the relationship between growth deviation and feeding disorders and its influencing factors among infants and toddlers. Methods With fixed - point sampling, caregivers fill in the Chinese version of The Children Feeding Scale and the ques-tionair were designed,and the physical developmental parameters of infants and toddlers were measured. Results The incidence rate of feeding disorders among 6 - to - 24 - month - old children was 21.41 % . The association between feeding disorders, the degree of feeding difficulty and growth deviation (including stunted, wasting, underweight) were related. And with the degree of feeding disorders increased,3 incidences increased. A multivariate non - conditioned Logistic regression analysis was

  14. 辅助喂养指导对新城市人口婴儿营养水平的影响%Influence of assistant feeding guidance on nutrition level of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎常红; 何素健; 陈波; 白波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore how to improve the nutrition level of infants as the new generation of peasants and migrant workers in city.Methods Totally 500 2-10 months old infants below -2SD were randomly selected from July 2010 to July 2012 ( their parents were the new generation of peasants and migrant workers ) , and their feeding was investigated .Intervention for feeding problems , regular monitoring and evaluation were conducted .The feeding status and serum indexes before and after intervention test were statistically analyzed.Results Infants’ serum prealbumin was 135.11 ±19.42mg/L, serum zinc was 3.24 ±0.59mg/L, and serum iron was 8.38 ± 4.17μmol/L, respectively, before intervention.After the intervention they were 214.22 ±38.20 mg/L, 3.97 ±0.72 mg/L and 12.20 ± 5.10μmol/L, respectively (t value was 2.23, 2.79 and 1.64, respectively, all P<0.05).The changes in serum albumin, serum zinc, serum iron indices were statistically significant .Conclusion Improvement of nutrition level of infants of new population in city should start from fostering parents ’ good feeding behavior .Different guidance for different family and gaining parents ’ cooperation will achieve good effect.%目的:探讨如何提高新城市人口中新生代农民工、外来务工人员所生婴儿的营养水平。方法随机抽取2010年7月至2012年7月年龄别体重在-2SD以下的2~10月龄的婴儿500例(其父母均为新生代农民工、外来务工人员),随访调查喂养状况,针对喂养存在的问题进行干预,定期监测及评估,并对喂养状况及干预前后血清指标检测结果做统计学分析。结果被抽样调查的500例婴儿干预前血清前白蛋白(135.11±19.42) mg/L,血锌(3.24±0.59) mg/L,血清铁(8.38±4.17)μmol/L,通过干预措施,血清前白蛋白达到(214.22±38.20)mg/L(t=2.23,P<0.05),血锌(3.97±0.72)mg/L(t=2.79,P<0.05

  15. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR. See www.americanheart.org for ...

  16. Pulmonary function changes after nebulised and intravenous frusemide in ventilated premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, V.; Keszler, M.; Dhanireddy, R.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the effects of a single dose of frusemide administered either intravenously or by nebulisation on pulmonary mechanics in premature infants with evolving chronic lung disease.
METHODS—The effect of frusemide on pulmonary mechanics was studied at a median postnatal age of 23 (range 14-52) days in 19 premature infants at 24 to 30 weeks gestational age, who had been dependent on mechanical ventilation since birth. Frusemide (1 mg/kg/body weight) was administered, in random order, ...

  17. Effect of Oral Motor Intervention on Premature Infant with Oral Feeding Difficulties%经口喂养困难早产儿行口腔运动护理干预的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓丽; 杨江兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of premature infant oral motor intervention (PIOMI) on oral feeding difficulties. Methods Sixty premature infants were divided into control group with conventional nursing and observation group with PIOMI in addition to conventional nursing. Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) was applied for the evaluation of infants oral motor function. Results There was no statistical significance of infants ’ gestational age and body mass at the very beginning of oral feeding in both groups. Gestational age when achieving full oral feeding in observation group was significantly lower than that in control group ( P<0.01) and the transition time to achieve fully oral feeding in observation group was statistically significant shorter than that in control group (P<0.05). Dysfunctional NOMAS scores and disorganized NOMAS scores in observation group were lower or significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion Premature infant oral motor intervention benefits the improvement of oral motor function and shortening the feeding process.%目的:探讨早产儿口腔运动的护理干预(prematrue infant oral motor intervention,PIOMI)用于存在经口喂养困难早产儿的干预效果。方法将60例存在经口喂养困难入住NICU的早产儿作为研究对象,采用随机数字表分为对照组和观察组各30例,对照组进行常规护理,观察组在常规喂养护理的基础上进行早产儿口腔运动的护理干预,应用新生儿口腔运动评估量表(Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale,NOMAS)对早产儿进行评估。结果两组早产儿开始经口喂养时胎龄、体质量差异均无统计学意义。观察组达到完全经口喂养时胎龄显著低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组从开始经口喂养过渡到完全经口喂养天数少于对照组(P<0.05);但对照组达到完全经口喂养时的喂养效率高于观察组(P<0.05)。达到完全经口

  18. A controlled-flow vacuum-free bottle system enhances preterm infants' nutritive sucking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Sandra; Gisel, Erika; Schanler, Richard J; Lau, Chantal

    2009-06-01

    We have shown that a controlled-flow vacuum-free bottle system (CFVFB) vs. a standard bottle (SB) facilitates overall transfer and rate of milk transfer, and shortens oral feeding duration in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. We aimed to understand the basis by which this occurs. Thirty infants (19 males; 27 +/- 1 weeks gestation) were randomized to a CFVFB or SB. Outcomes monitored at 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day when infants were around 34 and 36 weeks postmenstrual age, respectively, included: overall transfer (% volume taken/volume prescribed), rate of milk transfer (ml/min), sucking stage, frequency of suction (#S/s) and expression (#E/s), suction amplitude (mmHg), and sucking burst duration (s). At both periods we confirmed that infants using a CFVFB vs. SB demonstrated greater overall transfer and rate of milk transfer, along with more mature sucking stages. Suction and expression frequencies were decreased with CFVFB vs. SB at 1-2 oral feeding/day; only that of suction was reduced at 6-8 oral feedings/day. No group differences in suction amplitude and burst duration were observed. We speculate that oral feeding performance improves without significant change in sucking effort with a CFVFB vs. SB. In addition, we have shown that VLBW infants can tolerate faster milk flow than currently presumed. Finally, the use of a CFVFB may reduce energy expenditure as it enhances feeding performance without increasing sucking effort.

  19. Feeding period restriction alters the expression of peripheral circadian rhythm genes without changing body weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagoon Jang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the expression of light-regulated hypothalamic circadian clock genes was unaffected by either a normal chow diet (NCD or a high-fat diet (HFD. In the liver, the expression pattern of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1, Clock, and Per2, was changed by different feeding period restrictions. Moreover, the expression of lipogenic genes, gluconeogenic genes, and fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver was also altered by feeding period restriction. Given that feeding period restriction does not affect body weight gain with a NCD or HFD, it is likely that the amount of food consumed might be a crucial factor in determining body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that feeding period restriction modulates the expression of peripheral circadian clock genes, which is uncoupled from light-sensitive hypothalamic circadian clock genes.

  20. Low level of galacto-oligosaccharide in infant formula stimulates growth of intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben; Juan Li; Zong-Tai Feng; Sheng-Yun Shi; Ya-Dong Lu; Rui Chen; Xiao-Yu Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a new infant formula supplemented with a low level (0.24 g/100 mL) of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal micro-fiord (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and E. coli) and fermentation characteristics in term infants, compared with human milk and a standard infant formula without GOS. METHODS: Term infants (n = 371) were approached in this study in three hospitals of China. All infants started breast-feeding. Those who changed to formula-feeding within 4 wk after birth were randomly assigned to one of the two formula groups. Growth and stool characteristics, and side effects that occurred in recruited infants were recorded in a 3-mo follow-up period. Fecal samples were collected from a subpopulation of recruited infants for analysis of intestinal bacteria (culture technique), acetic acid (gas chromatography) and pH (indicator strip). RESULTS: After 3 mo, the intestinal Bifidobacteria, Lactobac////, acetic acid and stool frequency were significantly increased, and fecal pH was decreased in infants fed with the GOS-formula or human milk, compared with those fed with the formula without GOS. No significant differences were observed between the GOS formula and human milk groups. Supplementation with GOS did not influence the incidence of crying, regurgitation and vomiting. CONCLUSION: A low level of GOS (0.24 g/100 mL) in infant formula can improve stool frequency, decrease fecal pH, and stimulate intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli as in those fed with human milk.

  1. Evolução histórica dos utensílios empregados para alimentar lactentes não amamentados Historical evolution of utensils used to feed non breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diez Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo de revisão é descrever os utensílios empregados ao longo da história para alimentar lactentes não amamentados. O levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO, de 1966 a 2007. Para a análise documental, foram processadas buscas na Internet, em enciclopédias, livros de arte, história e museus. Utensílios manufaturados com materiais e formas variadas, dependendo da disponibilidade, poder aquisitivo e cultura, foram empregados desde os primórdios da história para alimentar bebês que, por diferentes motivos, deixaram de ser amamentados. Muitos objetos coexistiram na mesma época e local, outros em tempos e pontos geográficos distantes. A aceitação de uma nova alternativa ocorria sem evidência que comprovasse ou apontasse para os benefícios da mudança. Alguns utensílios voltaram a ser empregados embora a mortalidade infantil fosse elevada à época em que foram utilizados. No início do século XX, as mamadeiras assumiram a forma cilíndrica cônica. A tecnologia trouxe avanços no sentido de melhorar a higienização e possibilitar o controle da contaminação. O vidro deu lugar ao plástico e os bicos de borracha, aos de silicone, mas a mamadeira, como a conhecemos hoje, é a mesma de cem anos atrás.The objective of this article is to describe the utensils used throughout history to feed non breastfed infants. The method used was article review, reference search on the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases from 1966 to 2007 and documental analysis based on data from the internet, encyclopedias, art and history books, and museums. Utensils manufactured in a variety of materials and shapes, depending on availability, purchasing power and culture have been used since early history to feed babies who for different reasons were not breastfed. Many objects coexisted at the same time and place, others at distant sites and times. New alternatives have been accepted without

  2. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-04-22

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development.

  3. Decadal changes in distribution, abundance and feeding ecology of baleen whales in Icelandic and adjacent waters. A consequence of climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Víkingsson, Gísli Arnór

    2016-01-01

    Five species of baleen whales are regularly encountered at their feeding grounds in Icelandic waters during summer. Systematic monitoring of distribution and abundance of cetaceans in Icelandic and adjacent waters was initiated in 1987 as a part of the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS). In this thesis, the objecive is to summarize the results of these surveys in relation to changes in the marine environment and the feeding ecology of four baleen whale species. The results presented ...

  4. Is supplementary feeding in gardens a driver of evolutionary change in a migratory bird species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Kate E; Siriwardena, Gavin M; Conway, Greg J; Risely, Kate; Toms, Mike P

    2015-12-01

    Human activities are causing rapid environmental change at a global scale. Urbanization is responsible for some of the most extreme human-altered habitats and is a known driver of evolutionary change, but evidence and understanding of these processes is limited. Here, we investigate the potential underlying mechanisms contributing to the contemporary evolution of migration behaviour in the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Blackcaps from central Europe have been wintering in urban areas of Britain with increasing frequency over the past 60 years, rather than migrating south to the Mediterranean. It has been hypothesized that the popularization of providing supplementary foods for wild birds within Britain may have influenced this marked migratory change, but quantifying the selective forces shaping evolutionary changes remains challenging. Using a long-term national scale data set, we examine both the spatial distribution and interannual variation in blackcap wintering behaviour in Britain in relation to supplementary food availability and local climate. Over a 12-year period, we show that blackcaps are becoming increasingly associated with the provision of supplementary foods in British gardens, and that the reliability of bird food supplies is influencing their winter distribution at a national scale. In addition, local climatic temperatures and broader scale weather variation are also important determinants of blackcap wintering patterns once they arrive in Britain. Based on our findings, we conclude that a synergistic effect of increased availability of feeding resources, in the form of garden bird food, coupled with climatic amelioration, has enabled a successful new wintering population to become established in Britain. As global biodiversity is threatened by human-induced environmental change, this study presents new and timely evidence of the role human activities can play in shaping evolutionary trajectories. PMID:26400594

  5. The use of specialisation indices to predict vulnerability of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to environmental change

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.

    2011-07-14

    In the absence of detailed assessments of extinction risk, ecological specialisation is often used as a proxy of vulnerability to environmental disturbances and extinction risk. Numerous indices can be used to estimate specialisation; however, the utility of these different indices to predict vulnerability to future environmental change is unknown. Here we compare the performance of specialisation indices using coral-feeding butterflyfishes as a model group. Our aims were to 1) quantify the dietary preferences of three butterflyfish species across habitats with differing levels of resource availability; 2) investigate how estimates of dietary specialisation vary with the use of different specialisation indices; 3) determine which specialisation indices best inform predictions of vulnerability to environmental change; and 4) assess the utility of resource selection functions to inform predictions of vulnerability to environmental change. The relative level of dietary specialisation estimated for all three species varied when different specialisation indices were used, indicating that the choice of index can have a considerable impact upon estimates of specialisation. Specialisation indices that do not consider resource abundance may fail to distinguish species that primarily use common resources from species that actively target resources disproportionately more than they are available. Resource selection functions provided the greatest insights into the potential response of species to changes in resource availability. Examination of resource selection functions, in addition to specialisation indices, indicated that Chaetodon trifascialis was the most specialised feeder, with highly conserved dietary preferences across all sites, suggesting that this species is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate-induced coral loss on reefs. Our results indicate that vulnerability assessments based on some specialisation indices may be misleading and the best estimates of

  6. Effects of Gastrointestinal Comfort Care on Feed Intolerance of the Infants%胃肠道舒适护理对婴幼儿喂养不耐受的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察胃肠道舒适护理对婴幼儿喂养不耐受的影响。方法:将60例患儿随机分为干预组、对照组各30例。对照组采用常规喂养,即普通胃管间歇喂养法;干预组采用非营养性吸吮、腹部抚触、喂养后俯卧位及微量泵间断胃管喂养等4种护理干预措施。干预组患儿达到全肠道营养时间、恢复出生体质量时间、鼻胃管留置时间均比对照组短(P<0.05)。喂养出现呕吐、腹胀、胃残留、呼吸暂停例数干预组均较对照组少(P<0.05)。结论:胃肠道舒适护理可改善婴幼儿喂养不耐受的状态。%Objective:To survey the effects of gastrointestinal comfort care on feed intolerance of the infants. Methods: Sixty cases were randomly allocated to the observation group and the control group. The control group accepted routine feeding, that is, common stomach tube intermittent feeding method; the observation group were administered with non-nutritional suck, abdominal caress, prone position after feeding and intermittent feeding by stomach tube and micro pump. Results: The observation group was shorter than the control group in the time of reaching complete enteral nutrition, the time of recovering body weight at birth and nasogastric tube retention time (P<0.05). The observationg group was less than the control group in the number of the patients manifesting vomiting, abdominal distention, gastric retention and apnea when the babies were feeding (P<0.05). Conclusion:Gastrointestinal comfort care could improve feed intolerance of the infants.

  7. Influence of different feeding patterns on bone mineral density of preterm small for gestational age infants%不同喂养方式对早产小于胎龄儿骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 王广宇; 李宁; 赵冬梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of different feeding patterns on bone mineral density of preterm small for gestational age (SGA) infants.Methods Totally 215 preterm SGA infants were divided into 5 groups:group A fed with formula for preterm infants after discharge, group B fed with breast milk , group C fed with formula for full-term infants, group D fed with breast milk and formula for preterm infants after discharge , and group E fed with breast milk formula for full-term infants.The bone mineral density of different groups was compared at 6 and 12 month of age .Results The bone mineral density of SGA infants was highest in group D , followed by group B , group A, group E and group C in order .The difference was significant (6 month of age:Fmale =2.845,Ffemale =2.570;12 month of age:Fmale =2.737, Ffemale =7.461, all P<0.05).Conclusion Breastfeeding or strengthened breastfeeding can improve the bone density of preterm SGA infants .This feeding pattern is more applicable for preterm SGA infants .%目的:研究不同喂养方式对早产小于胎龄儿( SGA)骨密度的影响。方法将215例小于胎龄儿按照喂养方式分为5组:早产儿出院后配方奶喂养组、母乳喂养组、足月儿配方奶喂养组、母乳+早产儿出院后配方奶喂养组、母乳+足月儿配方奶喂养组,比较各组在生后第6月、12月骨密度值。结果5组小于胎龄儿的骨密度数值从高到低依次为:母乳+早产儿出院后配方奶喂养组、母乳喂养组、早产儿出院后配方奶喂养组、母乳+足月儿配方奶组、足月儿配方奶喂养组,差异具有统计学意义(6月龄时:F男=2.845,F女=2.570;12月龄时:F男=2.737,F女=7.461,均P<0.05)。结论对早产小于胎龄儿童进行母乳喂养或强化母乳喂养能改善其骨密度情况,适用于早产儿。

  8. Metabolic changes in the striatum after germinal matrix hemorrhage in the preterm infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Peitersen, Birgit;

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the metabolic consequences of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) we used volume-selective 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the striatal region in 12 preterm infants with predominantly small GMH. Both sides of the brain were investigated twice. Metabolite indices were calculated as...

  9. Developmental changes rather than repeated administration drive paracetamol glucuronidation in neonates and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Krekels (Elke); S. Van Ham (Saskia); K. Allegaert (Karel); J.N. de Hoon; D. Tibboel (Dick); M. Danhof (Meindert); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Based on recovered metabolite ratios in urine, it has been concluded that paracetamol glucuronidation may be up-regulated upon multiple dosing. This study investigates paracetamol clearance in neonates and infants after single and multiple dosing using a population modelling app

  10. Changes in the epidemiological pattern of sudden infant death syndrome in southeast Norway, 1984-1998: implications for future prevention and research

    OpenAIRE

    Arnestad, M; Andersen, M.; Vege, A; Rognum, T

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To look for changes in risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) after decrease and stabilisation of the SIDS rate.
METHODS—Questionnaires were distributed to parents of 174 SIDS infants, dying between 1984 and 1998, and 375 age and sex matched controls in southeast Norway.
RESULTS—The proportion of infants sleeping prone has decreased, along with the decrease in SIDS rate for the region during the periods studied, but over half of the SIDS victims are stil...

  11. Minimal enteral feeding of extensively hydrolyzed infant formula in nutritional support for very low birth weight infants%深度水解蛋白配方奶配合早期微量喂养在极低出生体重儿营养支持中的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛; 李海燕; 储寅玥; 陈影宇; 江焘; 周俊雍; 谢玮; 彭瑞山; 罗永锋

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价深度水解蛋白配方奶配合早期微量喂养在极低出生体重儿营养支持中的临床应用效果.方法 选取2013年1月至2014年11月出生12小时内人住惠东县妇幼保健院新生儿科的极低出生体重儿90例,按抽签法随机分为A、B、C组.A组:12小时内给予深度水解蛋白配方奶(eHF)微量喂养,14天后改等量的早产儿配方奶(SPF)继续喂养;B组:12小时内给予SPF微量喂养;C组:为对照组,给予常规治疗,12小时以后开始SPF喂养.比较三组患儿恢复出生体重的日龄、喂养不耐受的发生率及新生儿贫血、宫外发育迟缓和NEC的发生率.结果 恢复出生体重时间A组短于B、C组,喂养不耐受发生率A组低于B组、C组,差异均有统计学意义;三组喂养方式下,A组新生儿贫血、宫外发育迟缓和NEC发生率低于B组和C组.结论 深度水解蛋白配方奶配合早期微量喂养可促进极低出生体重儿体重的早期恢复,改善喂养不耐受的发生率.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of minimal enteral feeding of extensively hydrolyzed infant formula in nutritional support for very low birth weight infants.Methods 90 very low birth weight infants born within 12 hours and admitted into Department of Neonates,Huidong Children and Maternal Hospital from January 2013,to November,2014 were selected and were randomly divided into group A,group B,and group C according to lottery method.Group A were minimally fed with extensively hydrolyzed infant formula (eHF) within 12 hours,14 days from then with the same amount of standard preterm infant formula (SPF);group B with SPF within 12 hours;and group C (a control group) conventionally treated and with SPF 12 hours after being admitted.The time recovering to birth weight and the incidences of feeding intolerance,anemia,extra uterine growth restriction (EUGR),and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).Results The time recovering to birth weight was significantly shorter and

  12. Dietary transition difficulties in preterm infants: critical literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lucchi Pagliaro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the scientific literature on dietary changes in preterm children during the first years of life. DATA SOURCE: The PubMed database was used for article selection. The texts were analyzed according to their objectives, research design, and research group characteristics. The following were selected to comprise the criteria: (1 publications in the period from 1996 to 2014; (2 participation of infants and children from birth to 10 years of age; (3 development of oral motor skills necessary for feeding; (4 development of the feeding process; and (5 feeding difficulties during childhood. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There were 282 studies identified, of which 17 were used in the review, and five more articles were identified through the reference list of selected articles, totaling 22 references. CONCLUSION: Very low birth weight preterm newborns are more likely to have feeding problems in early postnatal stages and during childhood when compared with full-term infants. Monitoring the feeding of these infants after hospital discharge is strictly recommended in an early intervention program aiming at better development of feeding skills.

  13. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Infant Allergies ...

  14. 喂养方式与0~6月龄婴儿肥胖关系的研究%Correlation between Different Feeding Types and Obesity in 0-6 Month Old Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 叶小青; 彭雪娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究不同的喂养方式与0~6月龄婴儿的超重和肥胖之间是否有关系,从而为制定预防儿童超重和肥胖干预措施提供依据.方法 回顾调查512名婴儿,定期儿童保健系统管理,比较出生以后0~6月内不同喂养方式对婴儿的超重和肥胖的影响,探讨不同的喂养方式与超重和肥胖率之间的关系.结果 42d、3月、4月、5月、6月龄婴儿的母乳喂养组与配方奶喂养组以及混合喂养组三者之间的超重率和肥胖率的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 不同喂养方式与婴儿期的超重和肥胖无相应关系,未显示母乳喂养对0~6月龄婴儿的肥胖发生有保护作用.婴儿的性别、出生体重、分娩方式、母亲年龄、文化水平、职业、家庭经济状况以及辅食添加时间对6月龄儿童肥胖发生率影响不明显.%Objective To explore the relationship between different feeding patterns and overweight and obesity in 0 to 6-month-old infants,so as to develop the prevention measures of childhood overweight and provide the basis for obesity interventions. Methods Child care system management was carried out and the data of 512 infants were surveyed to analyze the effects of feeding patterns on the overweight and obesity in 0 to 6-monlh-old infants. Results Among the breastfeeding group .formula feeding group and the mixed feeding group,the difference in the incidence of overweight and obesity in 42 day,3-month,4-month, 5-month and 6-month-old infants was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion There is no corresponding relationship between the feeding patterns and ihe incidence of overweight and obesity in infants, the result does not reveal a protective effect of breastfeeding.The baby's sex and birth weight,mode of delivery,maternal age,educational level,occupation,family economic conditions and the time for adding complementary foods have not an obvious effect on the incidence of obesity in children aged 6

  15. Influence of Nursing Intervention on Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants with Feeding Intolerance%新型护理干预对早产低出生体重儿喂养不耐受的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少粉; 苏小燕; 钟见平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨新型护理干预对早产低出生体重儿喂养不耐受的影响。方法将78例适于胎龄的早产低体重儿分为两组各39例,对照组在常规治疗和静脉营养的基础上采用传统的护理方法,试验组在常规治疗和静脉营养基础上给予非营养性吸吮、微量泵间断胃管喂养、喂养后俯卧位及腹部抚触的措施,并贯穿在早产儿的日常护理中。观察两组喂养不耐受情况及呕吐、腹胀、胃残留发生情况,记录鼻胃管留置时间、恢复出生体质量时间及到达全肠道营养时间等。结果试验组患儿喂养不耐受发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05);试验组患儿达到全肠道营养时间、恢复出生体质量时间、鼻胃管留置时间、第1次排黄便时间均较对照组显著缩短(P<0.05);试验组喂养出现腹胀、胃残留均显著少于对照组(P<0.05)。结论早产低体重儿喂养时给予新型护理干预能促进胃肠道功能的成熟,提高经肠道喂养的耐受性,有效减少喂养不耐受的发生。%Objective To explore the effect of new nursing intervention on premature and low birth weight infants with feeding intolerance. Methods 78 premature and low birth weight infants (appropriate-for-gestational-age) were divided into two groups, with 39 cases in each group. On the basis of routine therapy and parenteral nutrition, the control group received the routine nursing, while the experimental group received the nursing intervention (non-nutritive sucking, intermittent nasogastric feeding by micro pump, prone position after feeding, and abdominal touch) during daily care. The incidences of feeding intolerance, vomiting, abdominal distention, gastric residuals were observed, and the time of nasogastric tube indwelling, the time to regain birth weight and the time to reach full enteral nutrition were recorded. Results The incidence of feeding intolerance of experimental group was significantly lower than

  16. Methodology of infant and young child feeding index for children aged 6-24 months in China%6~24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数评价方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玲; 曾果; 孙要武; 李增宁; 董文兰; 潘丽莉; 王玉英; 赖建强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a infant and young child feeding index (ICFI) in China to comprehensive evaluate the feeding of children aged 6-24 months. Methods Based on the feed index concept defined by Ruel and Menon in 2002, and according to the feeding principle by WHO and Chinese dietary guidelines for children aged 0-6 years,the feed index for infants and young children was built and the variables were scored. Then using WAZ, HAZ and WHZ, the correlation between ICFI and Z score for children in urban and rural of three provinces (Sichuan, Hebei and Heilongjiang) was evaluated. Results The ICFI was constituted by 7 parts; continued breast-eeding, bottle-feeding, dietary diversity for the past 24h, frequency of feeding solids/semisolids for the past 24h, food frequency for the past 7d, the supplementary time of the formula milk and other foods. The difference of ICFI score between urban and rural group was significant ( P < 0.05). In urban, the ICFI score of children aged 6 ~ 8months was lower than that of children aged 9-24 months. In urban, the negatively correlation between ICFI and WAZ WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) . In rural , the negatively correlation between ICFI and WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) , while the positively correlation between ICFI and HAZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion ICFI is effective to evaluate the infant feeding in China.%目的 建立6 ~ 24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数,为综合评价婴幼儿喂养提供有效的工具.方法 以2002年Ruel和Menon提出的喂养指数概念为基础,根据世界卫生组织(WHO)喂养建议和中国0~6岁儿童膳食指南,建立喂养指数确定各变量分类及分值,利用四川、河北、黑龙江三地区城乡6 ~ 24月龄共1738名婴幼儿年龄别体重( WAZ)、年龄别身长(HAZ)和身长别体重(WHZ),分析喂养指数与婴幼儿Z评分之间的相关性.结果 喂养指数由持续母乳喂养、奶瓶使用、过去24小时膳食摄入种类和膳食摄入频

  17. Changes in Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Malawian Mothers Are Associated with Those Values in their Exclusively Breastfed, HIV-Exposed Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles S.; Daza, Eric J.; Kacheche, Zebrone K.; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kourtis, Athena P.; van der Horst, Charles M.; Allen, Lindsay H.; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced by maternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [soluble transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin] were related during exclusive breastfeeding in HIV-infected women and their infants. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial in Lilongwe, Malawi, in which HIV-infected women were assigned with a 2 × 3 factorial design to a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS), or no LNS, and maternal, infant, or no antiretroviral drug, and followed for 24 wk. Longitudinal models were used to relate postpartum maternal hemoglobin (n = 1926) to concurrently measured infant hemoglobin, adjusting for initial infant hemoglobin values. In a subsample, change in infant iron status (hemoglobin, log ferritin, log TfR) between 2 (n = 352) or 6 wk (n = 167) and 24 wk (n = 519) was regressed on corresponding change in the maternal indicator, adjusting for 2 or 6 wk values. A 1 g/L higher maternal hemoglobin at 12, 18, and 24 wk was associated with a 0.06 g/L (P = 0.01), 0.10 g/L (P < 0.001), and 0.06 g/L (P = 0.01), respectively, higher infant hemoglobin. In the subsample, a reduction in maternal log TfR and an increase in hemoglobin from initial measurement to 24 wk were associated with the same pattern in infant values (log TfR β = −0.18 mg/L, P < 0.001; hemoglobin β = 0.13 g/L, P = 0.01). Given the observed influence of maternal and initial infant values, optimizing maternal iron status in pregnancy and postpartum is important to protect infant iron status. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164736. PMID:24381222

  18. The planetary water drama: Dual task of feeding humanity and curbing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, J.; Falkenmark, M.; Lannerstad, M.; Karlberg, L.

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyses the potential conflict between resilience of the Earth system and global freshwater requirements for the dual task of carbon sequestration to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere, and food production to feed humanity by 2050. It makes an attempt to assess the order of magnitude of the increased consumptive water use involved and analyses the implications as seen from two parallel perspectives; the global perspective of human development within a “safe operating space” with regard to the definition of the Planetary Boundary for freshwater; and the social-ecological implications at the regional river basin scale in terms of sharpening water shortages and threats to aquatic ecosystems. The paper shows that the consumptive water use involved in the dual task would both transgress the proposed planetary boundary range for global consumptive freshwater use and would further exacerbate already severe river depletion, causing societal problems related to water shortage and water allocation. Thus, strategies to rely on sequestration of CO2 as a mitigation strategy must recognize the high freshwater costs involved, implying that the key climate mitigation strategy must be to reduce emissions. The paper finally highlights the need to analyze both water and carbon tradeoffs from anticipated large scale biofuel production climate change mitigation strategy, to reveal gains and impact of this in contrast to carbon sequestration strategies.

  19. Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebden, Jeremy C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Gibson, Adam [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Yusof, Rozarina Md [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Everdell, Nick [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Delpy, David T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Meek, Judith H [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Wyatt, John S [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-07

    Induced haemodynamic and blood oxygenation changes occurring within the brain of a ventilated newborn infant have been imaged in three dimensions using optical tomography. Noninvasive measurements of the flight times of transmitted light were acquired during illumination of the brain by laser pulses at wavelengths of 780 nm and 815 nm. The oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were adjusted through alterations to the ventilator settings, resulting in changes to the cerebral blood volume and oxygenation. Three-dimensional images were generated using the physiologically associated differences in the measured data, obviating the need for data calibration using a separate reference measurement. The results exhibit large changes in absorption coefficient at both wavelengths. Images corresponding to differences in concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin are in qualitative agreement with known physiological data.

  20. Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced haemodynamic and blood oxygenation changes occurring within the brain of a ventilated newborn infant have been imaged in three dimensions using optical tomography. Noninvasive measurements of the flight times of transmitted light were acquired during illumination of the brain by laser pulses at wavelengths of 780 nm and 815 nm. The oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were adjusted through alterations to the ventilator settings, resulting in changes to the cerebral blood volume and oxygenation. Three-dimensional images were generated using the physiologically associated differences in the measured data, obviating the need for data calibration using a separate reference measurement. The results exhibit large changes in absorption coefficient at both wavelengths. Images corresponding to differences in concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin are in qualitative agreement with known physiological data

  1. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host feeding and oviposition on two whitefly parasitoids under varying host densities. Females of two aphelinid parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati and Encarsia sophia were exposed to nine different densities of their whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci, in single-instar tests to identify their functional response. Mixed-instar host choice tests were also conducted by exposing whiteflies at four densities to the parasitoids. We hypothesized that the parasitoid females can detect different host densities, and decide on oviposition vs. host-feeding accordingly. The results showed that both Er. hayati and En. sophia females tended to increase both oviposition and host-feeding with increased host density within a certain range. Oviposition reached a plateau at lower host density than host-feeding in Er. hayati, while En. sophia reached its oviposition plateau at higher densities. At low densities, Er. hayati parasitized most on first and second (the optimal ones, and fed most on third nymphal instars (the suboptimal one of the whitefly host as theory predicts, while at high densities, both parasitism and host-feeding occurred on first and second instars which are preferred for oviposition. En. sophia parasitized most on third and fourth (the optimal ones, while fed on first instars (the suboptimal one at low densities, and utilized third and fourth instars for both at high densities. In conclusion, oviposition vs. host-feeding strategy of parasitoid females was found to vary at different host densities. The balance between reserving optimal hosts for oviposition or using them for host-feeding depended on parasitoid life history and the availability of host resources.

  2. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L;

    2012-01-01

    Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host...... parasitized most on first and second (the optimal ones), and fed most on third nymphal instars (the suboptimal one) of the whitefly host as theory predicts, while at high densities, both parasitism and host-feeding occurred on first and second instars which are preferred for oviposition. En. sophia...

  3. Curative effect of low dosage of oral erythromycin on feeding intolerance in premature infants%口服小剂量红霉素治疗早产儿喂养不耐受疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉玲; 冯利; 唐挺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect and safety of low dosage of oral erythromycin on feeding intolerance in premature infants.Methods Sixty-eight premature infants with feeding intolerance were randomly divided into two groups .Based on fast, reducing feeding amount and intravenous nutrition , the treatment group took low dosage of oral erythromycin two times per day (5mg/kg/d).For the patients with poor curative effect , the dosage was increased with maximum dosage of 15mg/kg/d.The control group was given abdominal massage based on fast, reducing feeding amount and intravenous nutrition .The volume of milk, abdomen circumference, weight, bowel movement , regression time for symptoms , time of recovering birth weight , time to achieving full feeding and hospitalization stay were observed in two groups .The liver function damage and dysbacteriosis after treatment were monitored .Results There were significant differences in volume of milk, abdomen circumference and weight between two groups (t value was 15.75, 6.78 and 4.00, respectively, all P<0.05).The differences in regression time for symptoms, time of recovering birth weight, time to achieving full feeding and hospitalization stay were also significant between two groups (t value was 5.48, 7.70, 2.46 and 3.27, respectively, all P<0.05). Conclusion Low dosage of oral erythromycin on feeding intolerance in premature infants is safe and effective .%目的:观察小剂量红霉素防治早产儿喂养不耐受的疗效及安全性。方法随机将68例喂养不耐受早产儿分为两组,治疗组在禁食、减少喂养量及静脉营养的基础上给予小剂量红霉素,5mg· kg-1· d-1分两次口服,疗效不佳者逐渐增加剂量,最大量为15mg· kg-1· d-1;对照组在给予禁食、减少喂养量及静脉营养的基础上增加腹部抚触。观察两组患儿奶量、腹围、体重及大小便情况,同时观察两组患儿症状消退时间、恢复出生体重时

  4. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.

  5. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-27

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.

  6. Have infant gross motor abilities changed in 20 years? A re-evaluation of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale normative values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Johanna; Bartlett, Doreen; Maguire, Thomas O; Avison, William R; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the original normative data of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=2202) collected 20 years ago with a contemporary sample of Canadian infants. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study of 650 Canadian infants (338 males, 312 females; mean age 30.9wks [SD 15.5], range 2wks–18mo) assessed once on the AIMS. Assessments were stratified by age, and infants proportionally represented the ethnic diversity of Canada. Logistic regression was used to place AIMS items on an age scale representing the age at which 50% of the infants passed an item on the contemporary data set and the original data set. Forty-three items met the criterion for stable regression results in both data sets. Results The correlation coefficient between the age locations of items on the original and contemporary data sets was 0.99. The mean age difference between item locations was 0.7 weeks. Age values from the original data set when converted to the contemporary scale differed by less than 1 week. Interpretation The sequence and age at emergence of AIMS items has remained similar over 20 years and current normative values remain valid. Concern that the ‘back to sleep’ campaign has influenced the age at emergence of gross motor abilities is not supported. PMID:24684556

  7. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is aey component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants.

  8. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  9. Intraperitoneal microdialysis in the postoperative surveillance of infants undergoing surgery for congenital abdominal wall defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Jakobsen, Marianne S;

    2015-01-01

    underwent primary closure. None of the infants with omphalocele received parenteral nutrition whereas all of the infants with gastroschisis did. There was no significant difference in duration of parenteral nutrition or tube feeding, respectively, when comparing the gastroschisis children with high versus...... low intraperitoneal lactate values. Placement of the MD catheter in the intraperitoneal cavity was feasible and without any major complications. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal MD is a safe procedure and an applicable method in surveillance of inflammatory changes in the peritoneal cavity in infants after...

  10. Ultrastructural and histological changes induced by ivermectin in the ovary of Argas persicus after feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy, H.Swelim; Aleya, S.Marzouk;Ashraf,A.M.Montasser

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The ovarian wall of A.persicus consists of primary oocytes of three developmental stages namely , young , previtellogenic and vitellogenic in addition to interstitial cells . After feeding and mating , the three stages and interstitial cells , particularly funicle cells that carry oocytes , markedly increased in size and their cytoplasmic organelles exhibit notable changes correlated with yolk and egg shell formation . The present study examined the hitological and ultrastructural aspects during the formation of yolk and egg shell. The first seem to originate from small vesicles derived from Golgi bodies, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial cristae. The egg shell seems to develop from vesicles derived from Golgi bodies that fuse with the cell membrane and discharge their content into the extracellular space between basement membrane and tunica propria. Glycogen aggregates and lipid droplets are commonly observed between yolk spheres. The injection of selected dose of ivermectin (400 ug/kg prevented growth and development of oocytes. The ovary appeared studded with young and previtellogenic primary oocytes surrounding a narrow ovarian lumen or the ovarian wall, carrying oocytes, is stretched around a large fluid filled lumen. Surface microvilli of primary oocytes and coated vesicles underlying them became comparatively fewer. Mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum became fewer, fragmented and finally degenerated in primary oocytes and funicle cells. Ivermectin interfered with the formation of yolk granules and egg shell. However, in the few formed vitellogenic oocytes, Golgi bodies were not affected. The egg shell appeared thinner with low electron density. The cytoplasm of funicle cells became highly vacuolated, its organelles, hardly distinguished and nuclei became swollen without definite nuclear membrane. Ivermectin completely prevented the formation of glycogen particles. Our results suggests that ivermectin causes partial

  11. Histological Changes of Small Intestinal Mucosa of Cocks Due to Sunflower Meal Single Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to evaluate histological changes of small intestine of adult cocks due to sunflower meal single diet. Approach: Twenty adult cocks were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control; control group fed with basal diet, while Sunflower meal supplemented to basal diet of experimental group gradually with the ratio of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 during a week and 100% during the next week. At the end of the period all animals sacrificed and 6-μm transverse sections from the middle parts of duodenum, jejunum and ileum prepared and stained with HandE and PAS. Villus length, villus width, crypt depth, villus length/crypt depth ratio and goblet cell number per unit area were measured. Chemical composition of sunflower meal and basal diet determined and metabolizable energy of sunflower meal and basal diets measured. Data analyzed by student's t test. Results: Crude fiber and crude protein of sunflower meal were 81% and 44% higher than basal diet respectively, while both AME and TME were about 40% lower in sunflower meal compared to basal diet. No difference observed between AME and AMEn or TME and TMEn in both diets. In duodenum of birds in experimental group, a significant decrease in villus length and villus length/crypt depth ratio and a significant increase in number of goblet cells observed while in jejunum there was only a significant increase in goblet cell number. In ileum of these birds number of goblet cells increased while villus length, villus width and villus length/crypt depth ratio decreased significantly compared to control group. Conclusion: Single feeding with sunflower meal can adversely affect morphological parameters of small intestinal mucosa of cocks especially in ileum, which may be due to its low energy and/or high fiber content.

  12. Changes in physiological and behavioral parameters of preterm infants undergoing body hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Patrícia de; Marques, Silvia Rezende; Alves, Taisy Bezerra; Takahashi, Juliana; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko

    2014-08-01

    Objective To verify the effect of bathing on the body temperature of preterm infants (PTI). Method Systematic review conducted in the following bibliographic electronic sources: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/Lilacs (BVS), Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science, using a combination of search terms, keywords and free terms. The review question was adjusted to the PICO acronym (Patient/population, Intervention, Control/comparative intervention, Outcome). The selected publications were evaluated according to levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for efficacy/effectiveness studies, as established by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results Eight hundred and twenty four (824) publications were identified and four studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three analyzed the effect of sponge baths and the effect of immersion baths. Conclusion Sponge baths showed a statistically significant drop in body temperature, while in immersion baths the body temperature remained stable, although they studied late preterm infants.

  13. Analysis of infant feeding and its factors in Nan'an district of Chongqing%重庆市南岸区婴儿喂养及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕亚兰; 蒋小强; 王健; 王润华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To know the status of infant breastfeeding and complementary feeding in Nan'an district of Chongqing,and to explore the factors of breastfeeding and complementary feeding. [Methods] Through randomized cluster sampling, two communities were sampled. Patriarch of 0 to 12 months babies were investigated of infant feeding and factors. Non-conditional logistic regression was used to analyze factors affecting breastfeeding and complementary feeding. [Results] During 0~4 months, the ratio of baby breastfeeding was 76. 56%. The constituent ratio of total breastfeedingwas 45. 63%. The main feeding ways were partial breastfeeding (52. 8%) and artificial feeding (42. 23%) during 4 to 6 months,and it was artificial feeding during 7 to 12 months. The complementary feeding was started from 4 months. The ratio of rice/rice cakes and puree/pulp adding separately reached the zenith in 5(84%) and 6(84. 5%) month. From 7 months,ratios of porridge/noodles,broken vegetables/fruits,eggs and meat added increased gradually. Until 12 months,the ratio was about 90%. The order of complementary feeding added was rice / rice pudding, puree/pulp, chopped vegetables/fruits, egg yolk,porridge/noodles,custard and meat. [Conclusions] The status of infant breastfeeding needs to be improved. The situation of complementary feeding is considerable. Maternal and child health care and other related departments should propagandize breastfeeding and its importance and popularize ways of scientific feeding to raise people's awareness of breastfeeding, improving infant breastfeeding.%[目的]了解重庆市南岸区婴儿母乳喂养及辅食添加现状,并探索其影响因素,为加强科学喂养提供依据.[方法]通过整群随机抽样方式抽取两社区卫生服务中心,对来两中心进行儿童保健的0~12月婴儿母亲或看护人进行婴儿喂养及其影响因素调查.采用非条件Logistic回归分别分析母乳喂养和辅食添加影响因素. [结果]<4

  14. Alimentação com mamadeira de egressos da unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal: ações da Fonoaudiologia The role of Speech-Language Pathology in bottle feeding infants discharged from intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Cristina Roquette Loures

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar retrospectivamente os resultados das orientações fonoaudiológicas sobre aleitamento com mamadeira de lactentes egressos da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo referente às ações realizadas com lactentes egressos da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal que receberam acompanhamento fonoaudiológico. Dos 11 sujeitos participantes, nove eram prematuros, adequados para a idade gestacional, entre 27 e 35 semanas; dois nascidos a termo, um grande e um adequado para a idade gestacional e com diagnóstico de laringomalácia e atresia de jejuno, respectivamente. Foram analisadas as variáveis: modo de aleitamento, recipiente da mamadeira, bico da mamadeira, avaliação e condutas fonoaudiológicas nas duas primeiras consultas dos lactentes. RESULTADOS: Na primeira avaliação todos os lactentes usavam recipientes de mamadeira e bicos selecionados pelas mães. Na segunda avaliação, a maior parte dos utensílios havia sido trocada pelos modelos orientados, mas o posicionamento corporal incorreto e os sinais de desconforto persistiam. As orientações sobre modo de aleitamento foram retomadas. A análise estatística confirmou que a avaliação e as condutas fonoaudiológicas afetaram significativamente na decisão das mães pela troca dos utensílios, com posterior diminuição dos sinais de desconforto pelos lactentes. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo destaca a necessidade da observação minuciosa do fonoaudiólogo no procedimento de aleitamento com mamadeira e do detalhamento das especificidades no cuidado com a alimentação das crianças que saem da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal.PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the results of speech therapy activities that are part of the monitoring of bottle feeding infants discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study regarding the actions carried out with bottle feeding infants from a Neonatal

  15. Effectiveness of a nutrition education package in improving feeding practices, dietary adequacy and growth of infants and young children in rural Tanzania: rationale, design and methods of a cluster randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kulwa, Kissa BM; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Bouckaert, Kimberley P; Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick W; Lachat, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve infant and young child nutrition in low- and middle- income countries need to be implemented at scale. We contextualised and packaged successful strategies into a feasible intervention for implementation in rural Tanzania. Opportunities that can optimise delivery of the intervention and encourage behaviour change include mothers willingness to modifying practices; support of family members; seasonal availability and accessibility of foods; established set-up o...

  16. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. PMID:27004939

  17. Development of a nonintermediate-incision ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure using a nasogastric feeding tube for infant patients with hydrocephalus: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamauchi, Shuji; Seki, Toshitaka; Sasamori, Toru; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-05-01

    Intermediate incisions are considered necessary to pass a catheter tube from the head to the abdomen in ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunting via a frontal bur hole. However, an intermediate incision can sometimes become dehiscent, resulting in CSF leakage or infection of the shunt system in the early period after shunt implantation, particularly in infant patients. In this article, the authors describe a novel method of VP shunt insertion that does not require an intermediate incision. This nonintermediate-incision VP shunt procedure was performed in 3 infant patients with hydrocephalus and was not associated with any complications. This method can eliminate the intermediate incision, which is a disadvantage of VP shunt insertion via a frontal bur hole.

  18. Influence of global atmospheric change on the feeding behavior and growth performance of a mammalian herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Habeck

    Full Text Available Global atmospheric change is influencing the quality of plants as a resource for herbivores. We investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 and ozone (O3 on the phytochemistry of two forbs, Solidago canadensis and Taraxacum officinale, and the subsequent feeding behavior and growth performance of weanling prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster feeding on those plants. Plants for the chemical analyses and feeding trials were harvested from the understory of control (ambient air, elevated CO2 (560 µl CO2 l(-1, and elevated O3 (ambient × 1.5 rings at the Aspen FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. We assigned individual voles to receive plants from only one FACE ring and recorded plant consumption and weanling body mass for seven days. Elevated CO2 and O3 altered the foliar chemistry of both forbs, but only female weanling voles on the O3 diet showed negative responses to these changes. Elevated CO2 increased the fiber fractions of both plant species, whereas O3 fumigation elicited strong responses among many phytochemical components, most notably increasing the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio by 40% and decreasing N by 26%. Consumption did not differ between plant species or among fumigation treatments. Male voles were unaffected by the fumigation treatments, whereas female voles grew 36% less than controls when fed O3-grown plants. These results demonstrate that global atmospheric change has the potential to affect the performance of a mammalian herbivore through changes in plant chemistry.

  19. Effect Evaluation of Health Education on the Feeding Knowledge Level of Infant Caregivers%健康教育对婴儿照顾者喂养知识水平的干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To intervene in the feeding knowledge level of infant caregivers by the form of health education and evaluate the effect of intervention. Method 358 infants were selected randomly as the study objects,and randomly divided into intervention group and control group. Health education was carried out in the intervention group and no measure was used in the control group,and then caregivers’ awareness rates in the two groups before and after the intervention were compared. Results The awareness rate of the intervention group after the intervention was higher than that before the intervention, showing a statistically significant difference (P0. 05). After the intervention,the awareness rate of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05).干预后,干预组喂养知识知晓率明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论采用健康教育的形式对婴儿照顾者进行喂养知识水平的干预是有效的.

  20. Study on the feeding schedule of low lactose drinks for infants with lactose intolerance%婴儿乳糖不耐受症低乳糖饮品喂养时间研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜引妹; 张燕; 陈佳; 颜路易

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨婴儿乳糖不耐受症(lactose intolerance,LI)低乳糖饮品适宜的喂养时间.方法:实验组给予短期低乳糖饮品喂养,对照组给予长期低乳糖饮食喂养.结果:实验组3~6个月的体重增长值、身长增长值、呼吸道感染的患病率、奶粉费用等与对照组相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:给予乳糖不耐受症婴儿短期低乳糖饮品喂养有利于婴儿的生长发育,维护其免疫功能的稳定,同时又经济实惠,值得各级医疗机构推广.%To explore the optimal feeding schedule of low lactose drinks for infanls with lactose intolerance. Methods: The infants in experimental group were fed with low lactose drinks for a short time, while the infanls in control group were fed with low lactose diet for a long time. Results: There was significant difference in the value of weight increase, the value of height increase, the prevalence of respiratory infection, and milk powder fee at 3 - 6 months after birth between experimental group and control group (P < 0.05) . Conclusion: Feeding the infanta with lactose intolerance with low lactose drinks for a short time is helpful to growth and development of infants, maintaining stability of immune function, the method is economical and practical, which is worthy to be popularized in medical institutions at all levels.

  1. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T;

    2014-01-01

    ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each......Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...... fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production...

  2. Similar changes in muscle lipid metabolism are induced by chronic high-fructose feeding and high-fat feeding in C57BL/J6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Yao; Ren, Lu-Ping; Chen, Shu-Chun; Wang, Chao; Liu, Na; Wei, Li-Min; Li, Fan; Sun, Wen; Peng, Lan-Bo; Tang, Yong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high fructose and high fat feeding on muscle lipid metabolism and to illustrate the mechanisms by which the two different dietary factors induce muscle lipid accumulation. C57BL/J6 mice were fed either a standard, high-fructose (HFru) or high-fat diet. After 16 weeks feeding, mice were killed and plasma triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were detected. In addition, muscle TG and long chain acyl CoA (LCACoA) content was determined, glucose tolerance was evaluated and the protein content of fatty acid translocase CD36 (FATCD36) in muscle was measured. Mitochondrial oxidative function in the muscle was evaluated by estimating the activity of oxidative enzymes, namely cytochrome oxidase (COx), citrate synthase (CS) and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), and the muscle protein content of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1α was determined. Finally, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expression and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein content were determined in muscle tissues. After 16 weeks, plasma TG and FFA levels were significantly increased in both the HFru and HF groups. In addition, mice in both groups exhibited significant increases in muscle TG and LCACoA content. Compared with mice fed the standard diet (control group), those in the HFru and HF groups developed glucose intolerance and exhibited increased FATCD36 protein levels, enzyme activity related to fatty acid utilization in the mitochondria and protein expressions of CPT-1, COX-1 and PGC-1α in muscle tissue. Finally, mice in both the HFru and HF groups exhibited increase SREBP-1c expression and FAS protein content. In conclusion, high fructose and high fat feeding lead to similar changes in muscle lipid metabolism in C57BL/J6 mice. Lipid accumulation in the muscle may be associated with increased expression

  3. 婴儿母乳喂养与学龄前肥胖症关系的病例对照研究%Relationship between infant breast feeding and simple obesity in preschool children:A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣明纪; 孙殿凤; 周晓彬

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To explore the relation between infant breast feeding and simple obesity in preschool children,and provide theoretical evidence for preventing child simple obesity. METHODS:Eighteen hundred children aged 4- 5 from Qingdao and Binhai were chosen, their breast feeding types during infancy and BMI development were investigated.The relationship between infant breast feeding types and its duraton,and the occurrence of simple obesity in preschool children was analyzed. RESULTS:With single factor analysis,it was found that the occurrence rates of simple obesity in preschool children,whose feeding types in the first 4 months were breast feeding only,breast feeding mainly,both equally,formula feeding mainly,formula feeding only,were 12.6% ,13.0% ,17.0% ,18% and 30% respectively.The occurrence rates of simple obesity in preschool children,whose breast feeding duration were 0,9 months,were 29% ,30% ,33% ,17% ,14% and 12% respectively.The occurrence rates of simple obesity in preschool children were different because of various breast feeding types and different durations(χ 2=10.407,P< 0.05;χ 2=20.903,P< 0.001).Multiple factor logistic regression analysis showed that the more formula milk was given during the first 4 months after birth, the more occurrence of obesity in the preschool children was(OR=1.120,χ 2=8.233,P< 0.01);the longer the duration of breast feeding was, the less the occurrence of obesity in preschool children was(OR=0.782,χ 2=6.604,P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: Infants who were fed more breast milk than formula milk,or who were breasted for longer periods,have a lower risk of being simple obesity during preschool period.Breast feeding should be strongly recommended and lasted for more than 9 months.%目的:探讨婴儿期母乳喂养行为与学龄前期单纯性肥胖症发生之间的关系 ,为预防儿童单纯性肥胖症提供理论依据. 方法:对 1800名青岛市和滨州市四五岁儿童的婴儿期母乳喂养情况及其体重指数( BMI)发育

  4. Seasonal and Long-Term Changes in Relative Abundance of Bull Sharks from a Tourist Shark Feeding Site in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Juerg M. Brunnschweiler; Harald Baensch

    2011-01-01

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day r...

  5. Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate to predict metabolism in resting Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Haulena, Martin; Hindle, Allyson G; Trites, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use heart rate (fh) to predict oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text]) in Steller sea lions and other pinnipeds has been investigated in fasting animals. However, it is unknown whether established fh:[Formula: see text] relationships hold under more complex physiological situations, such as when animals are feeding or digesting. We assessed whether fh could accurately predict [Formula: see text] in trained Steller sea lions while fasting and after being fed. Using linear mixed-effects models, we derived unique equations to describe the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship for fasted sea lions resting on land and in water. Feeding did not significantly change the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship on land. However, Steller sea lions in water displayed a different fh:[Formula: see text] relationship after consuming a 4-kg meal compared with the fasting condition. Incorporating comparable published fh:[Formula: see text] data from Steller sea lions showed a distinct effect of feeding after a 6-kg meal. Ultimately, our study illustrated that both feeding and physical environment are statistically relevant when deriving [Formula: see text] from telemetered fh, but that only environment affects the practical ability to predict metabolism from fh. Updating current bioenergetic models with data gathered using these predictive fh:[Formula: see text] equations will yield more accurate estimates of metabolic rates of free-ranging Steller sea lions under a variety of physiological, behavioral, and environmental states.

  6. Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves feed efficiency and changes body composition in nonimplanted Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Rodriguez, F D; Goulart, R S; Frasseto, M O; Ferrari, V B; Silva, L F P

    2015-10-01

    % with ZH supplementation. There was no change on EBW composition after 30 d of ZH supplementation ( = 0.17). Regarding carcass gain composition, ZH increased EBW gain ( = 0.02) by 842 g/d from d 0 to d 30, EB protein gain by 221 g/d ( = 0.05) from d 0 to d 20, and by 180 g/d ( = 0.01) from d 0 to d 33. In conclusion, ZH supplementation in nonimplanted Nellore heifers altered the composition of body weight gain, promoting greater lean tissue deposition and improving feed efficiency. PMID:26523587

  7. 早期积极经口喂养对早产儿宫外发育迟缓的影响%Effect of very early feeding on extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠芳; 章玉丹; 张红爱; 赵玉娟; 李晖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of initiating very early feeding on time-to-reach full feeding and extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in preterm infants.Methods There were two groups of preterm infants randomly allocated to very early feeding group (within 24 hours of birth, group A, n=35) and delayed feeding group (after 24 hours of birth, group B, n=32).Time-to-reach full feeding, growth rate and EUGR incidence were compared between two groups.Infants unable to start early feeding were excluded.Results Group A needed shorter time to reach full feeding (z=-6.34,P<0.001), to regain birth weight (t=-2.30,P<0.5) and to hospitalize (z=-3.29,P<0.5) than group B, and the decline degree of physiological weight in group A was less than in group B (t=-6.28,P<0.001).Group A had faster increasing in body weight, head circumference and body length ( z value was -2.53, -3.76 and -4.65, respectively, all P<0.05), and the incidence of EUGR was lower in group A than in group B (χ2 value was 4.07, 4.28 and 7.84, respectively, all P<0.05).No necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was documented in both groups.Conclusion Preterm infants with very early feeding regimen achieve full enteral feeding and are discharged home significantly earlier than those with delayed regimen, and nutritional status of them during hospitalization is improved effectively.The incidence of EUGR is reduced without increasing of complications in hospital.%目的:探讨生后实施早期积极经口喂养对早产儿达到稳定全肠内营养及宫外发育迟缓( EUGR)的影响。方法比较生后24小时内给予经口喂养(A组,n=35)与24小时后给予经口喂养(B组,n=32)的早产儿住院期间达到稳定全肠内营养所用时间、生长速率及出院时EUGR发生率的差异。排除不能早期经口喂养的早产儿。结果 A组早产儿达全肠内营养时间( z=-6.34,P<0.001)、恢复出生体重所需时间(t=-2.30,P<0.5

  8. Changing the treatment of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus from insulin to glibenclamide in a 4-month-old infant with kcnj11 activating mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Ilkhanipoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM is a rare type of diabetes and KCNJ11 gene activating mutation is one of its prevalent causes. We introduced a 4-month-old male infant with poor feeding, restlessness, tachypnea, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and ketonemia. He was discharged with insulin and after 2 months, KCNJ11 gene mutation was found and treatment was switched from subcutaneous insulin to oral glibenclamide. Now, he is 1 year old with desirable glycemic control; therefore, genetic study is recommended for KCNJ11 gene mutation in such patients because if the mutation is found, treatment can be switched from insulin to sulfonylurea.

  9. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The profitabi

  10. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  11. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  12. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice to...

  13. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze how enteral food introduction affects intestinal gene regulation and chromatin structure in preterm pigs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition plus/minus slowly increasing volumes of enteral nutrition. Intestinal gene-expression and chromatin structure...... were analyzed 5 days after birth. RESULTS: Enteral feeding led to differential upregulation of inflammatory and pattern recognition receptor genes, including IL8 (median: 5.8, 95% CI: 3.9-7.8 for formula; median: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 for colostrum) and TLR4 (median: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.6-4.8 for formula...... stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (median: 7.0; interquartile range: 5.63-8.85) compared with naive cells (median 4.2; interquartile range: 2.45-6.33; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Enteral feeding, particular with formula, induces subclinical inflammation in the premature intestine and more open chromatin...

  14. Potential changes in feeding behavior of Antarctic fish, Pseudotrematomus bernacchii (Boulenger, 1902) on the East Ongul Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Nomura, Daiki; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    The feeding habits of the Antarctic fish Pseudotrematomus bernacchii (Previous name: Trematomus bernacchii) under the fast ice around Japanese Syowa Station were investigated in the summers of 2004/2005 and 2009/2010. The results showed that amphipods and krill were the major prey. However, there was a significant difference in the proportions of larger invertebrates such as squids, octopus and other crustaceans found in the fish stomachs between 2009/2010 and the previous years. Moreover, the percentage of amphipods and krill in fish stomachs declined over the 5-year period in all fish size classes. Several factors including sea ice melting, habitat and environmental changes might have influenced the pattern of feeding behavior.

  15. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; J. Baeyens; Degrève, J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy in Europe and in several other countries, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, with higher transformation efficiencies of solar power to electricity and cheaper costs of PV modules, the European contribution of solar power increases exponentially: from over 100GW in 2...

  16. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  17. Feeding high fibre diets changes luminal environment and morphology in the intestine of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    Sows were fed three diets varying in type and level of dietary fibre (DF). The low fibre diet (LF; 17% DF) was based on wheat and barley. In the two high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF;  44% DF), the cereal part of the diet was substituted with different co....... The carbohydrate load to the large intestine was 538-539 g/d when feeding the high DF diets and 190 g/d when feeding diet LF. Feeding sows the high DF diet containing large proportion of soluble DF resulted in a lower dry matter content of digesta (23 contra 28%), a higher tissue weight (2.9 contra 2.0 kg......), and a higher crypt depth (492 contra 330 μm) and area (23,201 contra 15,751 μm2) in the colon compared with the low DF diet. In conclusion, increasing the amount of DF in the diet for sows resulted in an increased amount of digesta entering the large intestine which influences the functional properties...

  18. Factors Associated with Infant Feeding Methods after the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Fukushima: Data from the Pregnancy and Birth Survey for the Fiscal Year 2011 Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kayoko; Goto, Aya; Ota, Misao; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi; Fujimori, Keiya

    2016-08-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of and factors associated with infant feeding methods after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using data from the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods We conducted an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey of 16,001 women who gave birth around the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake and registered their pregnancies at Fukushima Prefecture municipal offices between August 1, 2010 and July 31, 2011. The responses of 8366 women were analyzed. Chi square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare various factors between women who had formula-fed their children because of concern regarding radioactive contamination or other reasons and those who had breastfed exclusively. Results The percentage of women who had breastfed exclusively was 30.9 %. The percentage of women who had both breastfed and formula-fed or formula-fed exclusively was 69.1 %, of which 20.3 % formula-fed because of concern regarding radioactive contamination of breast milk. The use of formula feeding because of concern about radioactive contamination was significantly higher in women who had resided within the evacuation area and those whose regular antenatal care had been interrupted. The use of formula feeding for other reasons was significantly higher in women who had resided within the evacuation area and lower for those who had willingly switched to another medical institution. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest the importance of providing breastfeeding support to women who are forced to evacuate or whose antenatal care is interrupted after a disaster.

  19. Factors Associated with Infant Feeding Methods after the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Fukushima: Data from the Pregnancy and Birth Survey for the Fiscal Year 2011 Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kayoko; Goto, Aya; Ota, Misao; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi; Fujimori, Keiya

    2016-08-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of and factors associated with infant feeding methods after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using data from the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods We conducted an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey of 16,001 women who gave birth around the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake and registered their pregnancies at Fukushima Prefecture municipal offices between August 1, 2010 and July 31, 2011. The responses of 8366 women were analyzed. Chi square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare various factors between women who had formula-fed their children because of concern regarding radioactive contamination or other reasons and those who had breastfed exclusively. Results The percentage of women who had breastfed exclusively was 30.9 %. The percentage of women who had both breastfed and formula-fed or formula-fed exclusively was 69.1 %, of which 20.3 % formula-fed because of concern regarding radioactive contamination of breast milk. The use of formula feeding because of concern about radioactive contamination was significantly higher in women who had resided within the evacuation area and those whose regular antenatal care had been interrupted. The use of formula feeding for other reasons was significantly higher in women who had resided within the evacuation area and lower for those who had willingly switched to another medical institution. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest the importance of providing breastfeeding support to women who are forced to evacuate or whose antenatal care is interrupted after a disaster. PMID:27028325

  20. Caregivers’ Knowledge and Use of Fermented Foods for Infant and Young Children Feeding in a Rural Community of Odi, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chelule, Paul K.; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I.; Armelia Chaponda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to-wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented ...

  1. Oral erythromycin for treatment of feeding intolerance in very low birth weight preterm infants%口服红霉素在极低出生体重早产儿喂养不耐受的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伊琳; 庄思齐; 刘晓红; 王斌; 朱小瑜; 崔其亮; 杨杰; 何少茹

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] A prospective,multi-center,controlled study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and possible side effects of oral erythromycin (EM) in treating preterm infants, especially VLBW(very low birth-weight ) preterm infants with feeding intolerance(FI). [Methods] 46 preterm infants with FI from 16 hospitals were enrolled,study period from January,2008 to March,2010. The patients were divided into 3 random groups:EM-HD group,oral erythromycin 12. 5 mg/kg,q8h for 7~10 days; EM-LD group,oral erythromycin 5 mg/kg, therapy as above; and control group, not treated by any gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. Several critical time points of feeding condition were compared,the incidence of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) and the potential adverse effects of erythromycin were also evaluated. [Results] 11 patients had be classed as EM-HD group,22 as EM-LD group, 13 as control. After enrollment,the time reaching 50 kCal/(kg o d) from enteral feeding were significantly shorter and the proportions of calorie ingested by the enteral route when the infants regained to their birth weight were significantly higher in two trial groups than the control group. The incidence of EUGR was significantly lower in EM-HD group. All enrolled infants were followed up from discharge to 6 months ' age,no obvious side effect was found in the trial groups. [Conclusions] In this research, both doses of oral erythromycin are effective for treating VLBW preterm infants with FI and the high dose is more effective. There are not obvious side effects of oral erythromycin observed.%[目的]评价口服不同剂量红霉素对早产儿喂养不耐受(feeding intolerance,FI)的治疗效果及可能存在的副作用,尤其对极低出生体重早产儿FI的治疗作用. [方法]选取2008年1月1日-2010年3月31日在16家三甲医院新生儿科住院并诊断为FI的早产儿,随机分为3组:红霉素大剂量组(第8~10日龄起口服红霉素12.5mg/kg,q8 h,疗程7~10 d)、红

  2. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  3. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  4. 'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Saito

    Full Text Available Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan.This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants' SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants' SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices.The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89 to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56 based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26 to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17 based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6 to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5 based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2 to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0 based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants' SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010.The socioeconomic inequalities in infants' second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers.

  5. 婴幼儿期不同喂养方式与口腔变异链球菌定植的相关关系%The Relationship between feeding patterns and colonization of Streptococcus mutans in infants and early childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭曼丽; 包广洁; 张卫平

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between colonization of Streptococcus mutans (5. Mutans) andthe feeding patterns and to investigate the transmission of S. Mutans from mother to child in different feeding patterns. METHODS: Ninety pairs of 6-36 month old babies and their mothers were randomly chosen and information concerning feeding was obtained by questionnaire. Whole saliva was collected and Dentocult S. Mutans chorionicgonadotropin kit was used to detect S. Mutans in saliva samples. RESULTS: 5. Mutans colonization in breast-feeding infants was significantly lower than that in mixed-feeding and bottle-feeding infants (P 0.05). Among breast-feeding infants, there was positive correlation between the mothers and infants in S. Mutans colonization, whereas no positive correlation existed in mixed-feeding and bottle-feeding mothers and infants. CONCLUSION; Breast-feeding can delay the colonization of S. Mutans in infants'oral cavity compared with bottle-feeding and mixed-feeding. Transmission of MS in infants exists in different ways.%目的:分析变异链球菌的定植与喂养方式之间的关系,判断母子间变异链球菌垂直传播的相关关系,为预防变异链球菌早期定植提供参考.方法:按3种不同喂养方式随机选取兰州地区6~36个月的婴幼儿及其母亲共90对,采用Dentocult AM试剂盒检测母子口腔唾液中变异链球菌水平,问卷获得婴幼儿喂养信息.结果:在变异链球菌定植方面,母乳喂养方式对婴幼儿变异链球菌定植率较其他喂养方式低,且母子之间的传播存在统计学上相关性(P=0.017);人工喂养与混合喂养对婴幼儿变异链球菌定植无影响,母子之间的传播无统计学差异(P>0.05);性别差异对婴幼儿变异链球菌定植无差异(P>0.05).结论:母乳较人工、混合喂养能够延缓变异链球菌在婴幼儿口腔内定植;变异链球菌在婴幼儿中存在多种传播途径.

  6. Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G

    1993-06-01

    Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first

  7. Suction patterns in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, M; Martínez, G; González, M; Díaz Rosselló, J L

    1993-01-01

    The suction pattern for breast and bottle feeding in two groups of preterm infants is described. The time elapsed between birth and the moment of suction was longer in preterm neonates born at lower gestational ages for both groups studied, breast and bottle fed (figure 1). The evolution of suckling in breastfeeding was analyzed in a composite study (longitudinal and transverse) in a group of 16 neonates starting from 32 weeks of gestation. The velocity of milk extraction during suckling varied with gestational age. It was uniform at lower gestational ages, then it became faster in the first minutes and at the 36th week, it was very similar to that of mature neonates (figure 2 and table I). The evaluation of bottle feeding was performed in a transverse study in 46 preterm neonates which had been exclusively bottle fed during 1 or 2 weeks. All of them had previously been fed using an orogastric tube. Nourishing time was shorter than in breastfeeding; the average duration was 3.7 minutes (table II). The greatest volume was ingested in the first minute, 40% (range between 44 and 25%) (figure 3). The frequency of suction did not change the duration of feeding, but it was found that the efficiency of suction (number of suctions to ingest 1 cc) was significantly lower in the first minute (Anova, p < 0.05) (figure 4).

  8. Diel changes in food and feeding activity of sciaenid fishes from the South-western Atlantic, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, L S; Vazzoler, A E

    2001-05-01

    Food habits and daily feeding activity of fish populations are important ecological variables for understanding their role in the ecosystem. Diel changes in feeding activity and dietary composition of juvenile whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri, shortfin corvina Isopisthus parvipinnis, shorthead drum Larimus breviceps and of juvenile and adult banded croaker Paralonchurus brasiliensis were investigated from samples taken over a 24 hours period from 4 to 5 September 1987 on the continental shelf off South-eastern Brazil. Whitemouth croaker and banded croaker had a benthic diet based on polychaetes and some caridean shrimps and showed no diel feeding pattern. Shortfin corvina and shorthead drum fed on crustaceans and teleostean fish, the former species primarily on pelagic sergestid shrimps and benthic caridean shrimps, and the latter mainly on pelagic sergestid shrimps, mysidacean and benthic caridean shrimps. Shortfin corvina is primarily a diurnal feeder, but preyed on some items only at night. Shorthead drum is a night feeder, with minimum stomach fullness values between dawn and daytime, and maximum values between dusk and night time.

  9. Characteristics of rumen in Naemi lamb: Morphological changes in response to altered feeding regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim; Abdelrahman, Mutassim M; Alyemni, Abdullah H; Khan, Rifat U; Al-Mubarak, Aarif H; Albaadani, Hani H

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to chart the ontogenesis of rumen in Naemi lambs through histomorphometeric evaluation subjected to alfalfa hay in total mixed rations (TMR). A total of 40 growing healthy Naemi male lambs (28.85±1.09kg), at weaning (90±3days) was randomly distributed into four groups. One group was fed on TMR (control) only, while others were supplemented with restricted amount of alfalfa hay at the rate of 100g per day (T1), 200g once per two days (T2) and 300g once per three days (T3) in addition to ad libitum TMR. The results indicated that body weight and dry matter intake increased significantly in treated groups. Significantly higher (P<0.05) pH was recorded in all the treated groups after 8h of feeding. Similarly, the brightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness ((b*) of rumen was significantly higher (P<0.05) in treated groups. The papillary length, width and surface area of rumen were significantly (P<0.05) high in alfalfa supplemented groups. Iron (Fe) concentration in rumen tissue decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treated groups. We concluded that a dietary plan based on ad libitum TMR with the addition of alfalfa at the rate of aforementioned protocol not only enhanced feed intake and growth rate of the growing Naemi lambs but also improved the structural characteristics of the rumen. PMID:26996754

  10. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  11. Meal-feeding and physical effort. 1. Metabolic changes induced by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R; Hell, N S; Timo-Iaria, C

    1990-05-01

    To evaluate the consequences of the combination of meal-feeding (which causes in the long term several adaptations that lead to saving stored energetic substrates), rats subjected to a 2-hr feeding/22-hr fasting schedule were forced to swim 30 min everyday at a fixed hour during four weeks. The results indicate that meal-fed exercised rats: 1) increase food intake above that found in the nonexercising and the corresponding (nonfood-restricted) controls; 2) did not lose weight (in contrast to the controls); 3) initially had a high glycogen mobilization but at the end of the fourth week started to save hepatic glycogen again, despite the intense energy demanding exercise; 4) maintained a slight hyperglycemia; 5) mobilized less free fatty acids than the nonexercising meal-fed rats, probably due to higher insulinemia; 6) had a lower content of ascorbic acid in the adrenal glands in comparison to the control exercising rats; this suggests that the exercise was less stressful in the latter group. PMID:2201982

  12. Intestinal structural changes in African green monkeys after long term psyllium or cellulose feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulini, I; Mehta, T; Hargis, A

    1987-02-01

    Intestinal structure of male adult African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops ssp vervets) was studied after 3 1/2 yr of consuming diets containing 10% psyllium husk or cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified mild damage (cellular swelling and disarray, and microvillar denudation and disarray) at villous tips throughout the small intestine in the psyllium-fed monkeys. The cellulose group had similar duodenal damage. Differences were not found in colons by SEM. By light microscopy, jejunum had shorter villi with psyllium feeding, based upon villous height (P less than 0.05), and length around a sectioned villus (P less than 0.1), but not based upon the number of enterocytes per villus. Jejunal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in psyllium-fed monkeys. Colonic mucosal height was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced and muscle layer thickness was mildly reduced in the psyllium-fed monkeys. Group differences were not found in intestinal weight or length or in the weight of small intestinal mucosal scrapings. Psyllium husk may cause epithelial cell loss and muscle layer hypertrophy in the jejunum and ileum and thinning of the colonic wall after prolonged feeding. PMID:3031252

  13. Relationship between children's obesity and mothers'weight gain during pregnancy, infants's feeding mode.%儿童肥胖与母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张暹; 朱美红; 花静; 张巧妹; 潘建盈; 吴擢春

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the association of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy and infants' early feeding mode on children' obesity so as to provide the clues for preventing the children's obesity. [Methods] A total of 949 children from four second-level kindergartens were selected randomly from two communities in Hongkou district in Shanghai. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the children's weight, height, family conditions, the mothers'weight gain during pregnancy and infants' feeding mode,and so on. The relationship between the mothers' weihgt during the pregnancy, infants's feeding mode and children's obesity were analyzed with x2 test and binary logistic regression. (Results] Resulst of the study showed that the rates of obesity and over-weight was 10. 1% and 13. 2% respectively. Pregnancy weight gain ≥15 kg, children exclusively breastfed within 6 months were associated with obesity when age, gender, the characteristic of registered residence,family structure and family income were considered. [Conclusions] Mother's weight gain more than 15 kg during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood obesity; And exclusive breastfeeding within 6 months may be a protective factor on children's obesity which may reduce the incidence of obesity in children.%[目的]研究母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式对儿童肥胖的影响,为制定预防儿童肥胖措施提供依据.[方法]利用整群抽样的方法,随机抽取上海市虹口区2个社区的4所二级幼儿园共计儿童949名.自行设计问卷调查儿童的身高、体重、家庭基本状况、母亲孕期、喂养早期状况等.使用x2检验及多因素Logistic回归模型分析母亲孕期及喂养早期状况与儿童肥胖的关系. [结果]研究结果显示,调查到的949名儿童中,超重及肥胖检出率分别为13.2%和10.1%;在控制儿童年龄、性别、户口属性、家庭结构、家庭收入后,孕期增重≥15 kg、6月龄内纯母乳喂养2

  14. 口腔运动干预对早产儿经口喂养护理效果的影响研究%Study on impact of nursing care of preterm infants oral feeding effect of oral motor intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明晓

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of oral motor intervention nursing on premature infants with early oral feeding.Methods:from 2013 January to 2013 year in December in 120 cases of premature infants hospitalized in our hospital as the research object, and were randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group 60 cases.The observation group with oral motor intervention take care and early oral feeding, the control group were only employed for early oral feeding, were compared between the two groups of children with oral feeding effect with the efficacy of nursing evaluation of oral motor intervention.Results:The observation group with complete oral feeding time for an average of 24.71 +5.35d, significantly shorter than the control group children 28.57 +6.41d, the difference was statistically significant ( t=3.58, P<0.01);the observation group with feed efficiency was 10.07 +0.68mL/min, significantly better than the control group of 8.90 +1.01mL/min, the difference was statistically significant ( t=7.44, P <0.01);the observation group with feeding effect (97.38 +4.21)%, significantly better than the control group (92.48 +5.87)%, the difference was statistically significant (t=7.44, P<0.01).Conclusion:Oral motor intervention nursing could shorten the children fully oral feeding time required, improve the feeding efficiency and feeding effect, should have a good clinical effect.%目的:研究口腔运动干预护理对早产儿早期经口喂养的影响。方法:选取2013年1月~2013年12月间在我院住院治疗的120例早产儿作为研究对象,并随机分入观察组和对照组,每组各60例患儿。观察组患儿采取口腔运动干预护理和早期经口喂养,对照组患儿仅采用早期经口喂养,观察比较2组患儿的经口喂养效果以评价口腔运动干预护理的疗效。结果:观察组患儿完全经口喂养平均时间为24.71±5.35天,明显短于对照组患儿的28.57±6.41天,

  15. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  16. Personalizing nutrient intakes of formula-fed infants: breast milk as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2008-01-01

    The growth pattern of formula-fed infants is quite different from that of breastfed infants. There may be several reasons for this difference, ranging from different endocrine responses to feeding and the presence of growth factors in breast milk to different control of food intake, but it is highly likely that differences in nutrient composition of the food (breast milk or formula) have major effects on growth. In most countries infant formula is used more or less exclusively up to 6 months of age and as part of the diet up to 12 months of age and during this period its composition remains the same. In striking contrast, the nutrient composition of breast milk changes during lactation, most dramatically during early lactation, but with pronounced differences throughout lactation for many nutrient