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Sample records for change emc strategy

  1. Analysing Company Strategy: The Case of EMC Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Wei Lun, William

    2007-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of David's [41] Comprehensive Strategic Management Model, there exist a number of challenges in the application of the model in practical strategic management cases. The main objective of this paper is to research for an improved model that can be used in conducting an executive level strategic planning effectively and efficiently, and test the methodology using EMC Corporation case. A practical strategic planning model for the top management, called an Ex...

  2. Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  4. EMC Program Emerqency!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2009-01-01

    @@ On June 15,2009,at the 2009 China Beijing International Energy Saving and Environmental Protection High-level Forum-EMC and Energy Conservation Service Industry,there were 12 enterprises participating in the contract signing ceremony for EMC programs.All the contracted energy conservation companies are member units of Beijing Commission for Promotion of Energy Saving and Environmental Protection(Beijing CPPESEP).And the total amount of cooperation intention is up to tens of millions RMB.It seemed that the EMC mechanism oriented by the market and serving the energy conservation was thriving again.So what is the EMC?

  5. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  6. Introduction to EMC

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John

    1997-01-01

    This is the clear guide for non-specialists to electromagnetic compatability (EMC), the effects of electromagnetic radiation and the European EMC Directive which is now in force. This book helps by explaining the basic principles of EMC, how it may be controlled in practice through filtering, shielding, appropriate printed circuit board design, and other means. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and surge protection are discussed. The growing concern about the effects of electromagnetic waves and fields on health are examined in detail.This introduction provides beginners, technical and

  7. EMC Part Ⅱ Regulatory Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnWong

    2005-01-01

    As described in the Part I, the goal of electromagnetic compatibility, or EMC, is to design electronic systems that are electromagnetically compatible with their environment. EMC requirements exist so that electronic systems designers have a set of guidelines that explain the limits of what is considered electromagnetically compatible. There is not, however, one allencompassing set of EMC guidelines. Instead, EMC guidelines are created by individual product manufacturers,

  8. EMC in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tihanyi, Laszlo

    1995-01-01

    Electronics professionals will find this book invaluable when designing power equipment, because it describes in detail how to cope with the problem of electromagnetic interference. The author shows how to meet the exacting US and European EMC standards for conducted emissions.The book includes a wide range of EMI analysis techniques. An important focus is on the energy content of interference transient signals (traditional analysis concentrates on amplitude and frequency). This provides a more accurate picture of the EMI situation. For those who do not want or need detailed analysis technique

  9. Choosing strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, J P; Schlesinger, L A

    1979-01-01

    Change, though traumatic, can be good for some people, but many others, especially in their daily employment, feel threatened by any alteration in the status quo. Organizations by their very nature must change, and increasingly rapidly--and managers must implement changes and overcome resistance to them. Here are four basic reasons people resist change, various ways of dealing with that resistance, and a guide to the kinds of approaches to use with different types of opposition. PMID:10240501

  10. A Globalized Trend Towards EMC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Osamu

    The concept of electromagnetic environment and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is briefly described. A globalized trend in the 21th century EMC technology is reviewed from the following point of view : EMI (electromagnetic interference) reduction, immunity improvement, human safety evaluation of elecrtomagnetic fields and standardization of EMC measurement.

  11. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. PMID:22608867

  12. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  13. Nuclear force and the EMC effect

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Wang; Xurong Chen

    2015-01-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy contribution. This phenomenological relationship is used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron and to predict the EMC slopes $|dR_{EMC}/dx|$ of various nuclei. We further investigate the correlations be...

  14. Market Strategies for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still reflect the political, non-market components. Using empirical information from the largest multinational companies worldwide, this article examines current market responses, focusing on the drivers (threats and opportunities) and the actions being taken by companies to address climate change. It also develops a typology of climate strategies that addresses the market dimensions, covering both the aim (strategic intent) and the degree of cooperation (form of organisation). The aim turns out to be either innovation or compensation, while the organisational arrangements to reach this objective can be oriented at the company level (internal), at companies' own supply chain (vertical) or at cooperation with other companies (competitors or companies in other sectors - horizontal). The typology can assist managers in deciding about the strategic option(s) they want to choose regarding climate change, also based on the insights offered by the paper about the current state of activities of other companies worldwide.

  15. New Insights into the EMC Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2012-08-17

    Deep-inelastic scattering cross section ratios plotted as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable, xB, show an unexpected structure indicating that partonic structure in nuclei is different than in free nucleons. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the EMC effect. Recent Jefferson Lab experimental data showed that the slope of the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB > 0.7 region scales as the local nuclear density rather than the average nuclear density. This result lead to the comparison of xB>1 short-range correlation plateaus, also a local density effect, to the magnitude of the EMC effect slopes and a clear linear relation was found. In this talk, I will discuss the EMC effect and the short-range correlation plateaus and what this phenomenological relationship between the two implies.

  16. EMC effect: asymptotic freedom with nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General features of the EMC effect are discussed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics as expressed via the operator product expansion and asymptotic freedom. These techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the target dependence. 22 references

  17. Nuclear force and the EMC effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE obtained from nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy contribution. This phenomenological relationship is used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC effect on deuteron and to predict the EMC slopes |dREMC/dx| of various nuclei. We further investigate the correlations between RSIE and other quantities which are related to the EMC effect. The observed correlations among RSIE, EMC slope and SRC ratio R2NNtotal/Nnp(S13 imply that the local nuclear environment drives the modification of quark distributions.

  18. Nuclear force and the EMC effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Xurong

    2015-04-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy contribution. This phenomenological relationship is used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron and to predict the EMC slopes | dREMC / dx | of various nuclei. We further investigate the correlations between RSIE and other quantities which are related to the EMC effect. The observed correlations among RSIE, EMC slope and SRC ratio R2NNtotal /Nnp(S31) imply that the local nuclear environment drives the modification of quark distributions.

  19. Nuclear Scaling and the EMC Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Higinbotham, D.W.; J. Gomez; Piasetzky, E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of recent EMC effect measurements and nuclear scaling measurements have both been attributed to local nuclear density effects and not properties of the bulk nuclear system. This lead us to the phenomenological observation that the ratio of the slopes in the 0.3 1 nuclear scaling plateaus. Using this correlation, we developed a phenomenological relation which reproduces the general trends and features of the EMC effect for nuclei fro...

  20. Inductive Coupling of Power Converter’s – EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kováčová

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a computer analysis of inductive coupling of theelectromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem. Its focus is on power electronics andelectrical drives and tests performed by a numerical computer simulation that can disclosesuite surprising findings about EMC.

  1. Strategies for Change: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Hugh C.

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on notion of change as integrated into personal and library settings, this essay discusses routines versus change, redistribution of resources, effects of economic recession, technological changes in information transfer media (papyrus and clay tablets, video disks, fiber optics, microcomputers, databases), and changes in library patrons'…

  2. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  3. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  4. STRATEGY OF KM-ORIENTED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Pryimak

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the problems of formation and realization of KM-oriented strategy organizational changes in modern business. It gives the practical recommendations concerning engineering technique of communication and technological space of knowledge management and adaptation of company's strategy to KM-oriented organizational changes.

  5. Fitting EMC structure functions with intrinsic charm

    CERN Document Server

    Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the impact of the data collected by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the parton distribution function (PDF) of the charm quark is presented. The analysis is performed in the NNPDF framework, and the charm PDF is freely parametrized on equal footing as light quark and gluon distributions. We find that variations in the treatment of EMC data do not modify the charm PDF and do not affect our previous conclusion on the presence of an intrinsic component in the charm PDF.

  6. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  7. Dual origin of E=mc2

    OpenAIRE

    Auffray, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The mass-energy relation E=mc2 has a dual origin, one grounded in the postulate of the existence of an aether made of "ultramondane particules" moving in space at the speed of light, c; the other, a consequence, first deduced by Henri Poincare, of John Poynting's electromagnetic Theorem.

  8. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  9. Model based optimization of EMC input filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggl, K; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Levitronix GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Input filters of power converters for compliance with regulatory electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards are often over-dimensioned in practice due to a non-optimal selection of number of filter stages and/or the lack of solid volumetric models of the inductor cores. This paper presents a systematic filter design approach based on a specific filter attenuation requirement and volumetric component parameters. It is shown that a minimal volume can be found for a certain optimal number of filter stages for both the differential mode (DM) and common mode (CM) filter. The considerations are carried out exemplarily for an EMC input filter of a single phase power converter for the power levels of 100 W, 300 W, and 500 W. (author)

  10. Review of Bio-EMC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Soichi; Wake, Kanako; Fukunaga, Kaori; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2001-12-01

    Biological aspects of electromagnetic compatibility (Bio-EMC) have been studied by EMC Research Group of CRL. There are two main subjects in the field. One is related to rules and regulations of electromagnetic-wave hazards, especially development of standard estimation methods of electromagnetic power deposited in human bodies exposed to microwaves from cellular telephones or VHF-band radio waves. Another is development of exposure setups for laboratory animals used in biological studies on health effects of electromagnetic waves and their dosimetry. Novel phantoms are also being developed in order to perform highly accurate dosimetry in above studies. It is expected that these studies contribute development of compliance tests for radiofrequency protection guidelines and improvement of rationale of those guidelines, which consequently provides safety environment including appropriate radio wave applications.

  11. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  12. Three levels of the electromagnetic compatibility (emc) in automotive engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, D.; Körber, B.; Müller, N.

    2004-01-01

    An important quality factor for vehicles is the compliance of the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). This compliance is given both through legal requirements and by voluntary defaults of the automotive manufacturers and suppliers. In this paper, some selected EMC measuring methods will be presented, whereas two of these were recently developed at the EMC research laboratory at the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau in close cooperation with Volkswagen and Audi.

  13. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  14. The Changing Career Strategies of Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tony; Davies, Goronwy

    1999-01-01

    Faced with reduced employment security, managers are redefining careers to include work/personal life balance. Changes in any area can cause revision of career strategies. Depending on how they define careers, managers recognize career development as an individual, not an organizational, responsibility. (SK)

  15. Strategies for Implementing Change: An Experiential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    An attitude survey and a role-playing case were used to identify the typical approaches people use to implement important changes in organizations. This typical strategy, suggested or used by over 90% of the subjects, was not successful in producing change in any of the fourteen role-playing trials. However, with ten minutes of instruction in the ”Delta Technique,” 86% of the subjects were successful in introducing change in another fourteen role-playing trials. The ”Delta Technique” consists...

  16. 浅析De-flash溶液pH值变化对EMC和导线架间分层的影响%A Study on De-flash Solution pH Change Affect De-lamination between IC EMC and Lead Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲斌源; 程秀兰

    2011-01-01

    During the investigation on root cause of high failure rate of de-lamination between EMC and lead frame,EMC N was observed as the major contributor.Process mapping analysis shows the de-flash process trigger this de-lamination.The behavior of EMC N with alkaline electrochemical process was observed considering basic polymer characteristic as EMC properties.The polymers in which contains functional groups in their chains,such as,COOH,-SH,-CO,-NH2.These functional groups can acquire charge at different pH levels.This may cause the polymers to swell or collapse.Conduct experiments run confirmed that the EMC N's dimension will change of 1 to 4 mils and which lead to de-lamination after being immersed in pH 14 solution of the de-flash process.To eliminate the de-lamination,the solution should in a range of pH 6~12.%在分析芯片内部分层不良的过程中发现使用N型EMC所生产的产品占据了所有分层不良的绝大多数。对使用N型EMC生产制程中从注胶模压到弯脚成形的每一个步骤完成后均对产品进行超声波探测(SAM),发现去残胶制程(De-flash)最有可能导致芯片内部分层,而其他制程不会导致分层。EMC是由许多高分子树脂材料及各种添加剂组成,这些高分子材料的分子链中包含了许多活性功能键,如-COOH、-SH、-CO、-OH、-NH2等。这些活性功能键是可电离化的,并可以在不同的pH值时吸收或释放电子。这种功能键吸收释放电子的现象会导致高分子材料膨胀或塌缩。通过实验证实了用N型EMC生产的芯片在浸入pH值为14的溶液中超过30min后会引起芯片内部分层并且芯片外形尺寸有2~4个mils的变化。为了控制这种变形及分层,针对由N型EMC封装的芯片采用电化学法去残胶制程的溶液pH值应保持在6到12之间。

  17. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  18. EMC effect: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomin, Nadia [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of the EMC effect over 30 years ago, it has been of great theoretical interest and studied in several experimental measurements. No unified picture arose to explain the underlying cause of per nucleon structure function modification in nuclei. Precise measurements on light nuclei from JLab’s 6 GeV era revitalized this research by showing that traditional A or density dependent models of this nuclear modification do not work. The measurements will be reviewed, discussed and preliminary data on heavy targets from JLab’s E03-103 will be presented.

  19. Gauge symmetry and the EMC spin effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S D

    1993-01-01

    We emphasise the EMC spin effect as a problem of symmetry and discuss the renormalisation of the $C=+1$ axial tensor operators. This involves the generalisation of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly to each of these operators. We find that the contribution of the axial anomaly to the spin dependent structure function $g_1 (x, Q^2)$ scales at $O(\\alpha_s)$. This means that the anomaly can be a large $x$ effect in $g_1$. Finally we discuss the jet signature of the anomaly.

  20. Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the national implementation strategy which is a part of the coordinated national response to climate change. The approach was developed from the National Climate Change process, established by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for energy and the environment, based on an examination of the impacts, costs and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. The Strategy involves (1) taking action to reduce risks and to improve our understanding of risks associated with climate change, (2) institution of a national framework that includes individual and joint action, while recognizing jurisdictional flexibility in responding to unique circumstances, (3) adopting a phased approach, (4) progressive action in response to changing domestic and international circumstances, (5) clear understanding of the necessary relationship between international and national strategies, (6) developing an understanding of the implications of emission reduction targets and major options, including cross-cutting policy approaches such as emissions trading and allocation of responsibility for reducing emissions. The Strategy uses a risk-management approach that attempts to limit the risks of climate change while maximizing opportunities for Canada to contribute to global and national solutions. This approach incorporates improving scientific and analytical understanding and co-ordinating national and international action and a phased approach to implementation. This policy document focuses on Phase One actions which consist of five connected themes, i. e. enhancing awareness and understanding, promoting technology development and innovation, governments leading by example, investing in knowledge and building the foundation, and encouraging action. Future phases will be linked to greater international certainty based on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of our trading partners

  1. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s....... Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature...

  2. EU energy and climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will summarise the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. In current international negotiations Europe has proposed a 20% reduction in GHG (greenhouse gases) in the developed countries by 2020 or 30% should there be an international agreement in the domain. However it is important to define measures to achieve the targets. One of the principal tools is to improve energy efficiency under the energy efficiency action plan, which will help to achieve a 20% energy saving by 2020. On the other hand, the amount of energy from renewable sources consumed in Europe will have to rise from its current level of 8.5%–20% by 2020. These are ambitious but achievable targets. Nonetheless, these can only be achieved through strong investment in areas of the knowledge triangle which strengthens research and innovation in the energy sector in Europe. The paper covers European Energy and Climate Change Policy, the European Strategic Energy Technology plan, the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, European and national Road maps to a low carbon economy, the Energy Efficiency Plan for 2011 and finishes with a brief consideration of the EU’s energy infrastructure priorities. -- Highlights: ► This paper summarises the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. ► Reduction of GHG emissions by 30%-international agreement or −20% without agreement. ► Use of 20% of renewable energies by 2020. ► Increase of energy efficiency of 20% by 2020. ► Consolidating of the internal energy market.

  3. 7th european metallurgical conference EMC 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From June 23 – 26, 2013, the GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized 7th European Metallurgical Conference (EMC 2013 in Weimar, Germany. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by  the GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009, and Duesseldorf (2011. The GDMB is a non-profit organization from Clausthal, Germany,,focused on combining science with practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and  manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most well-known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by decision makers from industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 130 presentations. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation., The € 500 worth “Poster Award EMC 2011 was awarded to Christoph Pichler from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria. Not only the most important European countries were represented here, but also more than one third of the lecturers were from countries outside Europe (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, Precious Metals, Waste effluents Treatment/ Biohydrometallurgical applications; Process Metallurgy, Bridging Non-Ferrous and Ferrous Metallurgy; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Light metals, Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, Process Control

  4. An overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is becoming increasingly dependent upon the use of electrical and electronic equipment. In the recent years, introduction of semiconductor based devices, microprocessor and micro computer have brought about a technological revolution that has had far reaching effects in the home, in industry, in commerce and in defense. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the discipline which attempts to over come or, at least, minimize the effects of mismatch between equipment and the operating environment in accordance with agreed specifications, standards and regulations. Increased electromagnetic pollution in the environment has caused tremendous concern in the electronic industry and among users. Designers of the electronic products and systems want to be sure that their products do not emit excessive, unintentional radiation to interfere with the operation of the other systems, nor should these products be susceptible to electromagnetic interference which may degrade their performance. (author)

  5. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  6. In Medium Nucleon Structure Functions, SRC, and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Gilad, S; Wood, S A

    2014-01-01

    A proposal approved by the Jefferson Lab PAC to study semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the deuteron, tagged with high momentum recoiling protons or neutrons emitted at large angle relative to the momentum transfer. This experiment aims at studying the virtuality dependence of the bound nucleon structure function as a possible cause to the EMC effect and the EMC-SRC correlations. The experiment was approved in 2011 for a total run time of 40 days.

  7. Nuclear and partonic dynamics in the EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, Carlos A.; Tarutina, Tatiana [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, Vicente [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Burjassot (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    It has been recently confirmed that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in the electron deep inelastic scattering is linearly related to the short-range correlation scaling factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering. By using a x -rescaling approach we are able to understand the interplay between the quark-gluon and hadronic degrees of freedom in the discussion of the EMC effect. (orig.)

  8. A new integrated architectures of hybrid EMC filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Marwan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the design and implementation of a hybrid integrated EMC filter for aerospace application. The work performed in this thesis is carried out in the framework of FRAE project (Research Foundation for Aviation and Space) titled FEMINA (Electromagnetic Filtering and Materials for the INtegration in Aerospace). To protect the network board from both conducted and radiated electromagnetic interferences and to meet the standards for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and e...

  9. Analysis on the EMC Test of Inverter%变频器的 EMC 测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志勇; 张金苟; 刘勤波

    2015-01-01

    介绍了电磁干扰(EMI)的来源、分类及干扰抑制措施,对变频器 EMC 测试过程进行了分析。通过变频器是否外置 EMC 滤波器情况下的试验测试以及对测试特性曲线的对比,可以看出,外置 EMC 滤波器、屏蔽体及接地措施对变频器干扰有较好的抑制作用。%Introduces the sources,classification of electromagnetic interference(EMI)and interference suppres-sion measures,analyses the testing process of frequency converter EMC.Whether external EMC filter cases by the fre-quency of test,compares the characteristic curve of the test,it can be seen that the external EMC filter,shielding and grounding measures to interfere with the inverter has good inhibition.

  10. Analysis on the EMC Test of Inverter%变频器的 EMC 测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志勇; 张金苟; 刘勤波

    2015-01-01

    Introduces the sources,classification of electromagnetic interference(EMI)and interference suppres-sion measures,analyses the testing process of frequency converter EMC.Whether external EMC filter cases by the fre-quency of test,compares the characteristic curve of the test,it can be seen that the external EMC filter,shielding and grounding measures to interfere with the inverter has good inhibition.%介绍了电磁干扰(EMI)的来源、分类及干扰抑制措施,对变频器 EMC 测试过程进行了分析。通过变频器是否外置 EMC 滤波器情况下的试验测试以及对测试特性曲线的对比,可以看出,外置 EMC 滤波器、屏蔽体及接地措施对变频器干扰有较好的抑制作用。

  11. Statistical EMC: A new dimension electromagnetic compatibility of digital electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaliovich, Anatoly

    Electromagnetic compatibility compliance test results are used as a database for addressing three classes of electromagnetic-compatibility (EMC) related problems: statistical EMC profiles of digital electronic systems, the effect of equipment-under-test (EUT) parameters on the electromagnetic emission characteristics, and EMC measurement specifics. Open area test site (OATS) and absorber line shielded room (AR) results are compared for equipment-under-test highest radiated emissions. The suggested statistical evaluation methodology can be utilized to correlate the results of different EMC test techniques, characterize the EMC performance of electronic systems and components, and develop recommendations for electronic product optimal EMC design.

  12. Using Networks For Changing Innovation Strategy: The Case of IBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dittrich (Koen); G.M. Duysters (Geert); A-P. de Man (Ard-Pieter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLarge-scale strategic change projects in companies may be supported by using alliance networks. This paper shows that IBM’s change from an exploitation strategy towards an exploration strategy required a radically different network strategy as well. By entering into more non-equity allia

  13. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  14. Choosing change strategy for ISO/IEC 33014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Johansen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    of how to select change strategy. The framework contains 10 different change strategies to choose from. But which ones are chosen in practice? To answer that, we have analyzed data from 134 assessments in 129 organizations that have used the framework. We give a ranking of strategies chosen, and we......The ISO/IEC 33014.2013 [1] standard on process improvement includes a core activity called ‘identify the overall change strategy’, which includes selecting a change strategy among the many available. This selection can be carried out using the ImprovAbility model [2] in which there is a framework...... analyze how they adapt the change strategy to their specific conditions. We conclude that the most often recommended organizational change strategy is optionality followed by three other strategies: specialist-driven, production-organized, and learning-driven....

  15. Temperature simulation of EMC aluminum ingot with induced heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The numerical simulation of temperature field of electromagnetic casting (EMC) aluminum ingots is an effective and also necessary approach to study the temperature field and forecast the quality of EMC ingot, or optimize the technological parameters. In EMC, the alternating electromagnetic field can produce induced current and heat within the surface layer. To calculate the temperature field precisely, the induced heat should be taken into account. The induced heat has been coupled into the calculation formula of temperature field of unit volume per unit time, which provides a convenient and also precise method to calculate the temperature field. Besides, the effect of induced heat on the temperature field of ingot has been simulated and discussed. The results show that the induced heat has large influences on the height of liquid column and the surface temperature of ingot.

  16. EMC Specific Problems of Frequency Converters Used at Interlocking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of frequency control drive of electromotive switch actuator of railway switch. The frequency converter with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM and the output sinus filter are used for feeding of the asynchronous motor of the switch actuator. This drive is operated in an insulated system of feeding voltages. The drive is fed by a frequency converter with an unshielded cable with length up to 1.2 km. The EMC problems occurring at development and operating of the drive are analyzed in this paper. The used solution of these problems and experience with EMC of the given system from real operation are described in this paper as well.

  17. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  18. New measurements of the EMC effect in very light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, J; Gaskell, D; Arrington, J; Fomin, N; Solvignon, P; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M.H.S.; Christy, M E; Clasie, B; Connell, S; Dalton, M; Day, D; Dunne, J; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Gao, H; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Hungerford, E; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, K; Lee, C; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Meekins, D G; Mertens, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Nomura, H; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Villano, A

    2009-11-01

    New Jefferson Lab data are presented on the nuclear dependence of the inclusive cross section from 2H, 3He, 4He, 9Be and 12C for 0.3EMC effect for 3He at large x and a significant improvement for 4He. The data do not support previous A-dependent or density-dependent fits to the EMC effect and suggest that the nuclear dependence of the quark distributions may depend on the local nuclear environment.

  19. Vintages for Changing Tastes: Experiential Strategies in Interpersonal Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    The interpersonal communication courses at the University of Washington have adopted the use of experiential learning strategies in response to the changing student population and changing attitudes. A major goal of the program is to provide a solid, explicit academic foundation for the use of experiential strategies by (1) outlining the…

  20. Multinational enterprises and climate change strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is often perceived as the most pressing environmental problem of our time, as reflected in the large public, policy, and corporate attention it has received, and the concerns expressed about the (potential) consequences. Particularly due to temperature increases, climate change affects physical and biological systems by changing ecosystems and causing extinction of species, and is expected to have a negative social impact and adversely affect human health (IPCC, 2007). Moreover...

  1. The Future of EMC Education: Keeping Faculty Up to Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1998-01-01

    An account of the activities of the Engineering Educations EMC Network during the project period 1995 - 1998. The network was initiateded by the National Advisory Educational Board for Technology with the objective to initiate a professional development in order to strengthen and renew the educat...

  2. The Magnetic Fields of Electric Motors and their EMC

    OpenAIRE

    Dobroslav Kovac; Irena Kovacova

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the computer analysis of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems focused on the area of electrical machines, which can also disclose the concerning startling facts. A problem of interference between electric motor and surrounding space caused by the electromagnetic field radiation is discussed too.

  3. Recent Developments in Using Measured Sources in Computational EMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent developments in using near-field scanning for proactive EMC work. The aim is to use measured near fields as a source for simulations in order to predict radiated emission from printed circuit boards placed in a product. Far fields were predicted based on...

  4. Teaching E=mc2: An Exploration of Some Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierlein, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of what E=mc2 means and other issues associated with the equation are presented. The differences between matter, mass, and energy, a derivation of the equation, the history of the word mass and examples of how it is used, misconceptions surrounding the equation, and a discussion of uranium fission are included. (KR)

  5. Insights into the process of changing sourcing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    FAES, Wouter; Matthyssens, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Structured abstract Purpose: To identify the motivations driving the process of changing sourcing strategy from single sourcing to multiple sourcing or vice versa. Methodology/approach: Ten cases of sourcing strategy change were investigated. A qualitative research method is used to uncover the richness of these change processes. Findings: Most of the advantages and disadvantages stated in the literature were confirmed. Identical objectives (cost cutting and quality improvement) we...

  6. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Gregg; Jacobs, Katharine; Buizer, James

    2008-06-01

    Climate Change Adaptation for Water Managers; Oracle, Arizona, 4-5 February 2008; The most visible manifestation of climate change in the American Southwest is its effects on water resources. Since 1999, the region's water supplies and major rivers have been tested by burgeoning population growth and drought. Model projections suggest increasing drought severity and duration due to rising temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and enhanced atmospheric circulation from the tropics (Hadley circulation).

  7. Change blindness: eradication of gestalt strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Steve; Goddard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of eight, texture-defined rectangles were used as stimuli in a one-shot change blindness (CB) task where there was a 50% chance that one rectangle would change orientation between two successive presentations separated by an interval. CB was eliminated by cueing the target rectangle in the first stimulus, reduced by cueing in the interval and unaffected by cueing in the second presentation. This supports the idea that a representation was formed that persisted through the interval befo...

  8. GEF climate change operational strategy: Whither UNDP?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses aspects of the implementation of the program for climatic change which has been come about as part of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Initial effort has focused on providing strategic information and help to countries, on achieving offsets in greenhouse gas emissions by energy conservation or carbon sinking, and an emphasis on development of renewable energy supplies. The U.N. Development Agency has limited funding to help support startup on projects submitted. Specific examples are discussed in the areas of energy conservation and energy efficiency, adoption of renewable energy sources, and reducing the long-term costs of low greenhouse gas-emitting energy technologies.

  9. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  10. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating...... the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms...

  11. Response Strategies for Curriculum Change in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Hadgraft, Roger G.; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2016-01-01

    During the last 25 years, there have been many calls for new engineering competencies and a corresponding gradual change in both curriculum and pedagogy in engineering education. This has been a global trend, in the US, Europe, Australia and now emerging in the rest of the world. Basically, there have been two main types of societal challenges…

  12. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use Oliver and Holzinger?s (2008) conceptual framework on the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&D and commercializa...

  13. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  14. Winds of change: corporate strategy, climate change and oil multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; D.L. Levy

    2001-01-01

    Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.

  15. Adapting to Change in Andean Ecosystems: Climate and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Fernández-Baca, Edith

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the research activities conducted by SANREM CRSP LTRA4 Adapting to Change in the Andes in the Altiplano region. The objectives were to present the project, emphasizing the research activities revolving around climate, strategies and advocacy coalitions. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  16. National strategy for climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  17. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  18. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action. PMID:15635933

  19. Adaptive Capacity as antecedent to Climate Change Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hillmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decade research on climate change strategies and adaptive capacity emerged as the debate about climate change was intensified with the publishing of the Third Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001. That companies are facing risks and opportunities is not new and the awareness to address these issues is growing. However, there is still need for research in the field of corporate strategic response to climate change. Recently, research focuse...

  20. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  1. Completing Einstein's Proof of E=mc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo C. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that Einstein’s proof for E=mc2 is actually incomplete and therefore is not yet valid. A crucial step is his implicit assumption of treating the light as a bundle of massless particles. However, the energy-stress tensor of massless particles is incompatible with an electromagnetic energy-stress tensor. Thus, it is necessary to show that the total energy of a light ray includes also non-electromagnetic energy. It turns out, the existence of intrinsic difference between the photonic and the electromagnetic energy tensors is independent of the coupling of gravity. Nevertheless, their difference is the energy-stress tensor of the gravitational wave component that is accompanying the electromagnetic wave component. Concurrently, it is concluded that Einstein’s formula E=mc2 necessarily implies that the photons include non- electromagnetic energy and that the Einstein equation of 1915 must be rectified.

  2. Moving Forward with Founders: Strategies for Change in Volunteer Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Paula Rogers; Pleskac, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Founder's Syndrome can create barriers to change in Extension programs. As a result, Extension staff have experienced challenges in effecting organizational change where Founders are present. 4-H Youth Development staff in Wisconsin applied a variety of strategies to move forward with 4-H programming, despite the influence of the Founders.…

  3. Culprits, climate change and coping strategies in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, populations are predominantly rural, dependent on rain-fed agriculture for subsistence and livelihoods. Poor families are ill -equipped to respond to changing patterns and the shorter growing season caused by warmer days and nights. Key climate change scenarios in the region are presented like shifting rainfall regimes, droughts, etc with the attendant impact on agricultural output. Coping strategies have been presented which can be replicated in other parts of the world with similar challenges. Keywords: climate change, Nigeria, Africa, rainfall, coping strategies

  4. Photon parton distributions in nuclei and the EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankfurt, Leonid [Tel Aviv University; Strikman, Mark [Penn State University

    2010-12-01

    Photons as well as quarks and gluons are constituents of the infinite momentum frame (IMF) wave function of an energetic particle. They are mostly equivalent photons whose amplitude follows from the Lorentz transformation of the particle rest frame Coulomb field into the IMF and from the conservation of the electromagnetic current. We evaluate in a model independent way the dominant photon contribution \\propto \\alpha_{em}(Z^2/A^{4/3})\\ln(1/R_{A}m_{N}x) to the nuclear structure functions as well as the term \\propto \\alpha_{em}Z/A. In addition we show that the definition of x consistent with the exact kinematics of eA scattering (with exact sum rules) works in the same direction as the nucleus field of equivalent photons. Combined, these effects account for the bulk of the EMC effect for x\\le 0.5 where Fermi motion effects are small. In particular for these x the hadronic mechanism contribution to the EMC effect does not exceed \\sim 3% for all nuclei. Also the A-dependence of the hadronic mechanism of the EMC effect for x > 0.5 is significantly modified.

  5. Postural strategy changes with fatigue of the lumbar extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin L; Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. Anteriorly-directed force perturbations were applied to the upper back with a padded pendulum and attempted to challenge the postural control system without eliciting a stepping response. In three separate sessions, subjects were perturbed both before and after a fatiguing protocol that induced lumbar extensor fatigue to one of three different fatigue levels. Postural strategy was quantified using center of pressure position along with joint angles and joint torques for the ankle, knee, hip, and "low back" joints. Results showed both proactive and reactive changes in postural strategy. Proactive changes involved a slight anterior lean prior to the perturbation, and reactive changes were consistent with a shift toward more of a hip strategy with fatigue. In addition, results suggested that subjects classified as moving mostly at the hip prior to fatigue were more affected by fatigue compared to subjects classified as moving roughly equal amounts at the ankle and hip prior to fatigue. Increasing fatigue level exaggerated some, but not all, of the changes in postural strategy with fatigue. These findings illustrate that neuromuscular fatigue can influence postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. PMID:16023345

  6. Ecosystem Stewardship: Sustainability Strategies for a Rapidly Changing Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, William C.; Chapin, F Stuart; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Folke, Carl; Abel, Nick; Olsson, Per; Smith, D. Mark Stafford; Walker, Brian; Young, Oran R.; Berkes, Fikret; Biggs, Reinette; Grove, J. Morgan; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Pinkerton, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social-ecological traps. All so...

  7. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  8. Employee participation and learning, a strategy for changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, L.B.; Jensen, Lars Peter; Rosenørn, T.U.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show and discuss possibilities and problems cencerning changes using a participatory strategy and with a good working environment in focus. The processing industry is chosen as example. The case study shows that organizational changes can be rather problematic....... The beginning of the change process where all actors are assumed to use all their potentials in developing their future organization is described. The different employee groups need to learn to participate. An important point is to use the change process to establish a learning culture. Experiments based...

  9. Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubash, N.K.; Hagemann, M.; Höhne, N.; Upadhyaya, P.

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented from a survey of national legislation and strategies to mitigate climate change covering almost all United Nations member states between 2007 and 2012. This data set is distinguished from the existing literature in its breadth of coverage, its focus on national policies (ra

  10. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

  11. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  12. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, S. van den [MEDIAN, Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, M. [University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Bettignies, H.C. de [INSEAD, Fontainebleau (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  13. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  14. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur;

    2013-01-01

    of this study might be helpful for the flood affected folk communities produce vegetables for their own consumption and income. Likewise, new experiments with altered technique and vegetable species are recommended to conclusively develop climate change adaptation strategies for flood prone areas....

  15. The EMC effect: local nuclear dynamics or quark-gluon dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Canal, Carlos A García; Vento, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    It has been recently confirmed that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering is linearly related to the Short Range Correlation scaling factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering. By using an effective nucleon mass approach we are able to understand the interplay between the quark-gluon and hadronic degrees of freedom in the discussion of the EMC effect.

  16. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  17. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  18. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  19. EMC, RF, and Antenna Systems in Miniature Electronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea

    Advanced techniques for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and for the optimization of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance has been developed under the constraints typical of miniature electronic devices (MED). The electromagnetic coexistence of multiple systems...... and their mutual interaction have been the underlying theme of the work. The research results concern different aspects related to the integration of radio-frequency (RF) electronics in MEDs and hearing instruments (HI). To control internal EMI, a novel near-field parasitic resonator (NFPR) has been researched...... electronics....

  20. EMC Part V——Grounding (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnWong

    2005-01-01

    1. Introduction Grounding is always one the of most important EMC topics. A well-defined ground system is the first requirements to any electrical and electronics design. Knowing where the return current flows allows designers to estimate the electromagnetic emission and crosstalk. The ground is considered as a point of voltage reference. This is generally true except when large currents or high-frequency currents flow through nonzero impedance with the ground trace or sheet. These unexpected ground voltages will result in failure or malfunction.

  1. Mental health providers confronting organizational change: process, problems, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, S; Oster, G D

    1998-01-01

    Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered. PMID:9919625

  2. Mechanism and control of un-straightness of EMC large slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英达; 郑贤淑

    2004-01-01

    The experimental study shows that the pull-in of the broad faces (rolling faces) of the EMC large aluminum alloy slabs mainly forms during the solidification process. The thermal bending moment caused by the thermal gradient of the solidified shell along the broad faces is the main reason for the formation of pull-in. The tangential forces resulted from the change of the solidification front curvature push the liquid metal of the solidification front from the hot section to the cold end and compensate the contraction of the cold end, thus form the irreversible deformation. Based on these mechanisms, the Tm-BD software system that can design the opening of molds was programmed. As an example, the straightness of the 1 300 mm × 480 mm slab with the using mold opening was calculated. The agreement of the calculated and measured results provides the basis to optimize the mold design with or without opening.

  3. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  4. Performance of prototypes for the PANDA barrel EMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, D. A.; Eissner, T.; Drexler, P.; Moritz, M.; Novotny, R. W.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment will be part of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) and aims for the study of strong interaction within the charm sector via antiproton proton collisions up to antiproton momenta of 15 GeV/c. Reflecting the variety of the physics program the PANDA detector is designed as a multi-purpose detector able to perform tracking, calorimetry and particle identification with nearly complete coverage of the solid angle. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) contained inside its Target Spectrometer is based on cooled PbWO4 scintillator crystals. In order to ensure an excellent performance throughout the large dynamic range of photon/electron energies ranging from a few MeV up to 15 GeV an extensive prototyping phase is mandatory. This contribution describes the measured response of the EMC barrel part prototype PROTO60 at the largest design energy to secondary beams provided by the SPS at CERN. In addition to PROTO60 a tracking station was deployed, providing precise position information of the 15 GeV/c positrons. For calibration purposes a 150 GeV/c muon beam and cosmic radiation, in combination with estimations from GEANT4 simulations were used. The obtained performance concerning energy, position and time information is presented.

  5. The Need for Knowledge Management Strategy for Organisations Facing Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeianu Otilia-Mari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect the importance of a knowledge management strategy for organisations facing organisational change, as response to crisis. As resource for development, for sure knowledge becomes an inexhaustible power. It is also one of the most important forms of capital - the foundation for innovation and also the drivers that lead to growth and expansion. An organization cannot compete with others in this ever-changing environment without proper knowledge and lack of capacity for renewal. Many managers would like to have a strategic approach in preparing the organisation to avoid crisis. There is a lack of strategic information management and the effect is the degradation of information resources and failure in strengthening employee’s potential. It is vital for the companies to develop a dynamic knowledge management strategy to be integrated into the organization, enhancing the performance of the system and processes. However, organizations need to see knowledge management as a strategy, because knowledge is the key to making the right decisions in guiding the organization. One of the key benefits of approaching knowledge management strategy within organisations is its positive impact on organisational performance, ensuring not only the survival during crisis but even providing a competitive advantage.

  6. Business Responses to Climate Change. Identifying Emergent Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Companies face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the recently adopted Kyoto Protocol on global climate change and the current and future regulations that may emerge from it. Companies have considerable discretion to explore different market strategies to address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines these strategic options by reviewing the market-oriented actions that are currently being taken by 136 large companies that are part of the Global 500. There are six different market strategies that companies use to address climate change and that consist of different combinations of the market components available to managers. Managers can choose between more emphasis on improvements in their business activities through innovation or employ compensatory approaches such as emissions trading. They can either act by themselves or work with other companies, NGOs, or (local) governments.

  7. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer ...

  8. Change communication : the impact on satisfaction with alternative workplace strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Melanie; Brown, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Communication is fundamental to the Facilities Management (FM) role within organisations; especially when the FM department is implementing changes to the workplace. An evaluation of an instance is presented. A self- administered online questionnaire was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The research focused on responses to satisfaction with the communication methods rather than reviewing the merits of alternative workplace strategies. Findings included the impact of...

  9. Innovation as a strategy for academic libraries to survive change

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Ana Cosmelli

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is a strategy that has allowed organizations to survive in a context of changes, many of them disruptive. To evaluate the current most important innovations in academic libraries and aiming to understand if the organizational culture type present in academic libraries promotes innovation, a global Delphi study was undertaken. This technique allows identifying consensus based on the judgement of well-informed individuals. The results of the study were analyzed at the light of CHRIST...

  10. Merger Failures & Corporate Strategy: Change Management to Solve the Query

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Abbas; Aroosh Khalid; Ayesha Butt; Fareeha Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Business Mergers are the key for both big and small business corporations. This research paper determines the factors resulting into merger failures and considering “Strategic Change Management” as a solution to the query by doing comparison of corporate strategy and cultures of mergers between Europe and USA through statistics. Factors that lead to merger failures are misgauging strategic fit, cultural clash, communication gap, weak leadership and economic crisis by providing clear vision, p...

  11. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido; Jesus A. Pulido-Arcas; Jose M. Cabeza-Lainez

    2015-01-01

    Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built usin...

  12. Cognitive debiasing 2: impediments to and strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat; Singhal, Geeta; Mamede, Sílvia

    2013-10-01

    In a companion paper, we proposed that cognitive debiasing is a skill essential in developing sound clinical reasoning to mitigate the incidence of diagnostic failure. We reviewed the origins of cognitive biases and some proposed mechanisms for how debiasing processes might work. In this paper, we first outline a general schema of how cognitive change occurs and the constraints that may apply. We review a variety of individual factors, many of them biases themselves, which may be impediments to change. We then examine the major strategies that have been developed in the social sciences and in medicine to achieve cognitive and affective debiasing, including the important concept of forcing functions. The abundance and rich variety of approaches that exist in the literature and in individual clinical domains illustrate the difficulties inherent in achieving cognitive change, and also the need for such interventions. Ongoing cognitive debiasing is arguably the most important feature of the critical thinker and the well-calibrated mind. We outline three groups of suggested interventions going forward: educational strategies, workplace strategies and forcing functions. We stress the importance of ambient and contextual influences on the quality of individual decision making and the need to address factors known to impair calibration of the decision maker. We also emphasise the importance of introducing these concepts and corollary development of training in critical thinking in the undergraduate level in medical education. PMID:23996094

  13. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations Aligning Culture and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, Daniel; Lane, Nancy; Lief, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Filled with case studies from firms such as GT Automotive, GE Healthcare China, Vale, Dominos, Swiss Re Americas Division, and Polar Bank, among others, this book (written by Dan Denison and his co-authors) combines twenty years of research and survey results to illustrate a critical set of cultural dynamics that firms need to manage in order to remain competitive. Each chapter uses a case as a means to illustrate an important aspect of culture change focusing on seven common culture-change dilemmas including creating a strategic alignment, keeping strategy simple, and more.

  14. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  15. Legitimately seeking differences: The case of climate change strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, B.; Fowler, C. [Victoria Univ. of Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    In 2002, the New Zealand Government announced its intention to introduce a carbon tax as part of its response to climate change. Following the review of New Zealand climate change policies, the proposed carbon tax was ruled out in 2005 and other measures were investigated. In October 2007, the government announced its new climate change policy package, a fundamental part of which is the domestic cap-and-trade Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). The scheme is currently being revised by the Government, with a report due August 2009. The government's climate change policy and the ETS in particular, represent significant changes in regulatory and societal expectations of the way in which businesses will account for the impact of their carbon emissions on the natural environment. The New Zealand electricity generators are among the most heavily impacted by the Government's climate change policy due to the scale of carbon emissions from electricity generation. This study utilizes institutional theory and the concept of legitimate differentiation, using a resource-based view, to examine and explain the changes in the electricity generators' carbon-strategy related environmental management and reporting practices as a result of regulatory, societal and financial pressures arising from the Government's climate change policy as it changed between 2002 and 2008. A study of organizations' reactions to climate change regulations is timely because the phenomenon of changing regulation is worldwide and far-reaching in scale. As such, the findings from a New Zealand study of electricity companies are releavant to many countries and organizations. Two generators that are among the firms with highest levels of carbon emissions in the New Zealand electricity industry (NZEI) are selected for in-depth analysis. Each company is first analyzed longitudinally (2001-2008) to discern changes in their internal environmental structures, systems and strategies to account

  16. Strategies for organizational change: the role of the inside change agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, P L

    1982-01-01

    An awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of internal positioning becomes the foundation on which the internal change agent builds an effective action plan for change--a plan that matches the specifics of the organizational situation being confronted. Basic principles have been described here to help define the specific type of role that the integral change agent should take, and to increase the chances for a successful change. As a change agent, you also need to develop specific change strategies that fit your unique characteristics and circumstances. Then, through the ways you communicate and the ways in which you see human resources, interpersonal strategies for influencing others can increase your personal control over situations. PMID:10256972

  17. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  18. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human-animal-environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants. PMID:26333722

  19. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  20. Sustaining change: the imperative for patient access strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Peter A R

    2006-01-01

    The paper by Trypuc, MacLeod and Hudson provides a timely and important overview of methods to sustain provincial wait time strategies. The emphasis on accountability for patient access to timely care throughout the healthcare system comes through strongly--as it should. These accountabilities are made "real" through purchase service agreements. Physician-hospital relationships are a fundamental aspect of this accountability. This commentary suggests the inclusion of two additional supporting tools in addition to those cited by the authors of the lead paper--quality monitoring and the use of industrial engineering techniques for queue management and patient flow analysis. Strong and persistent leadership of patient access strategies will ensure sustainable change.

  1. PERIODIC DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION FOR FIELD ANALYSIS IN EMC CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Feiyan; Ding Jianjin; Sha Fei

    2006-01-01

    Herein a novel Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) is presented to calculate the field in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) chamber. Due to the difficulty of simulating the whole chamber environment, the analysis combines the DGF formulation and the FEM method, with the latter deals with the reflection from absorbers. With DGF formulation for infinite periodic array structures, this paper investigates electromagnetic field in chamber with truncated arrays. The reflection from the absorber serves as the virtual source contributing to the total field. Hence the whole chamber field calculation can be separated from the work of absorber model set-up. Practically the field homogeneity test and Normal Site Attenuation (NSA) test are carried out to evaluate the chamber performance. Based on the method in this paper, the simulation results agree well with the test, and predict successfully the victim frequency points of the chamber.

  2. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600–700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial. (letters)

  3. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  4. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  5. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built using both available materials and traditional and academic construction technologies. This paper thoroughly investigates the extant urban conglomerate in Cádiz and analyses, in a qualitative and quantitative manner, which bioclimatic design strategies were applied and the city’s adaptation for future climate scenarios. The results indicate that historic housing in Cádiz is creatively adapted to the local natural conditions by means of a combination of climate responsive strategies, and there is significant scope for improvement in the ongoing response to global warming.

  6. Merger Failures & Corporate Strategy: Change Management to Solve the Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Mergers are the key for both big and small business corporations. This research paper determines the factors resulting into merger failures and considering “Strategic Change Management” as a solution to the query by doing comparison of corporate strategy and cultures of mergers between Europe and USA through statistics. Factors that lead to merger failures are misgauging strategic fit, cultural clash, communication gap, weak leadership and economic crisis by providing clear vision, putting together leadership team, focused management on success and winning the people’s commitment we can solve this query. The research has proved that cross-border mergers are highly influenced by cultural differences. The strategic change management led by new CEO can help in saving a new merger from a failure.

  7. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed

  8. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...

  10. Modeling automotive FlexRay transceivers for signal integrity and EMC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, H.; Hilger, U.; Frei, S.

    2011-07-01

    Automotive bus systems like FlexRay or CAN transmit safety critical data. To ensure correct functionality under all circumstances, extensive investigations about signal integrity and EMC have to be performed. To be able to use simulation in this validation process, suitable models for the components of the bus systems have to be developed. This paper shows how a combined transceiver model for signal integrity and EMC investigations can be created. The model shows good results in comparison to measurement data.

  11. EMC/FDTD/MD simulation of carrier transport and electrodynamics in two-dimensional electron systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sule, N; Willis, K. J.; Hagness, S. C.; Knezevic, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the implementation and application of a multiphysics simulation technique to carrier dynamics under electromagnetic excitation in supported two-dimensional electronic systems. The technique combines ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) for carrier transport with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for electrodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) for short-range Coulomb interactions among particles. We demonstrate the use of this EMC/FDTD/MD technique by calculating the room-temperature dc an...

  12. What can Drell-Yan data tell us about the EMC effect and nucleon parton distributions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that knowledge of the x1 and x2 dependence of the ratio of Drell-Yan cross-sections measured on heavy nuclei and deuterium can give us information about the origin of the EMC effect. Conversely, we show that an understanding of the EMC effect, together with (non-ratio) Drell-Yan data can provide us with a way of discriminating between candidates for nucleon parton distributions. (orig.)

  13. 7th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-12)

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Young-Sik; Park, Sang; Chen, Hsing-Chung; Embedded and Multimedia Computing Technology and Service

    2012-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-12), will be held in Gwangju, Korea on September 6 - 8, 2012. EMC-12 will be the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Embedded and Multimedia (EM) Computing. EMC-12 will provide an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of EM. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in EM. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject. The EMC-12 is the next event, in a series of highly successful International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing, previously held as EMC 2011 (China, Aug. 2011), EMC 2010 (Philippines, Aug. 2010), EM-Com 2009 (Korea, Dec. 2009), UMC-08 (Australia, Oct. 2008), ESO-08(China, Dec. 2008), UMS-08 ...

  14. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10105044

  15. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Successful workforce planning : aligning recruitment strategies with changing demographics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, B. [Duke Energy Gas Transmission, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described how demographic trends are changing the energy industry. Duke Energy acquired Westcoast Energy in March 2002 and must attract and retain a skilled workforce to maintain its newly acquired and very large infrastructure. Duke Energy has committed $1.88 million over 3 years to northern opportunities through partnerships with educators, community organizations, government agencies and industry. This paper emphasizes the need for a new focus on workforce planning to ensure that staffing needs are met. It described how to use demographics to identify recruitment needs within a company, and what to look for in data. It also described how to make sure that a recruitment strategy is tailored to various demographic groups. Energy companies are attracting young workers through apprenticeship programs, training and development programs, and other incentives. figs.

  17. The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings

  18. Test plan/procedure for the checkout of the USA cable communications test configuration for the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    A series of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests were conducted in May, 1975 in the Soviet Union. The purpose of the EMC tests was to determine the effects of the operating environment of the Soviet aircraft, Soyuz, upon the electrical performance of the USA's cable communications equipment located in Soyuz. The test procedures necessary to check out the cable communications test configuration in preparation for the EMC tests are presented.

  19. China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, China has made great efforts in energy saving and carbon emission reduction by pushing forward domestic sustainable development along with global climate change mitigation. The efforts have paid off with a dramatic decrease in carbon intensity. Nevertheless, China is still confronted with tough challenges in emission control due to the fast pace of industrialization, large total historical emission and high growth rate of emissions. Therefore, China should give priority to energy saving by improving energy efficiency and sectoral structure adjustment and upgrade, and develop sustainable and renewable energy to optimize energy mix and its carbon content. China should continue to regard significant reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity as the main objective in the near future, strive to achieve peak emissions around 2030, and realize a relatively sharp emissions reduction by 2050 in order to address climate change to meet the goal of making the warming less than 2°. During the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP), China will further strengthen measures to control the amount of energy consumption, establish a statistics, accounting and evaluation system of carbon emissions, and promote a market-based carbon emissions trading mechanism to facilitate the low-carbon transformation of China's economy. - Highlights: ► This paper studies China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation. ► We suggest that China should focus on reducing the energy intensity and carbon intensity of GDP, and optimization of energy mix in the near term. ► In the long term, China should achieve the peak emission around 2030, and realize a relative sharp emission reduction by 2050. ► The paper also concludes some important measures which China should take during the 12th Five-Year-Plan (2011–2015).

  20. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  1. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  2. International experiences on the formulation and implementation of transboundary climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ly, T.; Nguyen Huong Thuy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI) aims at formulating the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Lower Mekong Basin. An important first step in developing this strategy is to review international experiences of existing strategies, to learn from

  3. Strategies for Change: A Field Guide to Social Marketing for School Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Strategies for Change outlines how to use social marketing strategies to influence change in the health programs in a building, district or community. Authors describe how to develop a strategy to influence district administrators, school board members, colleagues and parents. This step-by-step guide leads through the process for developing,…

  4. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  5. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  6. New data strengthen the connection between Short Range Correlations and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Weinstein, L B

    2012-01-01

    Recently published measurements of the two nucleon short range correlation ($NN$-SRC) scaling factors, $a_2(A/d)$, strengthen the previously observed correlation between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at $0.35\\le x_B\\le 0.7$ and the SRC scaling factor measured at $x_B \\ge 1$. The new results have improved precision and include previously unmeasured nuclei. The measurements of $a_2(A/d)$ for $^9$Be and $^{197}$Au agree with published predictions based on the EMC-SRC correlation. This paper examines the effects of the new data and of different corrections to the data on the slope and quality of the EMC-SRC correlation, the size of the extracted deuteron IMC effect, and the free neutron structure function. The results show that the linear EMC-SRC correlation is robust and that the slope of the correlation is insensitive to most combinations of corrections examined in this work. The inclusion of new nuclei shows that while neither the EMC effect nor the SRC scaling ...

  7. Edge Transport Modeling using the 3D EMC3-Eirene code on Tokamaks and Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, J. D.; Ahn, J. W.; Briesemeister, A.; Ferraro, N.; Labombard, B.; McLean, A.; Reinke, M.; Shafer, M.; Terry, J.

    2015-11-01

    The fluid plasma edge transport code EMC3-Eirene has been applied to aid data interpretation and understanding the results of experiments with 3D effects on several tokamaks. These include applied and intrinsic 3D magnetic fields, 3D plasma facing components, and toroidally and poloidally localized heat and particle sources. On Alcator C-Mod, a series of experiments explored the impact of toroidally and poloidally localized impurity gas injection on core confinement and asymmetries in the divertor fluxes, with the differences between the asymmetry in L-mode and H-mode qualitatively reproduced in the simulations due to changes in the impurity ionization in the private flux region. Modeling of NSTX experiments on the effect of 3D fields on detachment matched the trend of a higher density at which the detachment occurs when 3D fields are applied. On DIII-D, different magnetic field models were used in the simulation and compared against the 2D Thomson scattering diagnostic. In simulating each device different aspects of the code model are tested pointing to areas where the model must be further developed. The application to stellarator experiments will also be discussed. Work supported by U.S. DOE: DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-99ER54512, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  8. Porter's generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance: a longitudinal study of changing strategies in the hospital industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, B T; Marlin, D; Hoffman, J J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Changes in generic strategies in response to discontinuous environments have been relatively ignored in the management literature. This study reports an examination of the relationships between Porter's (1980) generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance. DATA SOURCES. Archival data for 1984 and 1988 were collected for 172 acute care hospitals in Florida in order to test these relationships. STUDY DESIGN. To examine fully the performance impact of changes in stra...

  9. Roles of State Strategy of Adaptation to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Huang Shanfeng; Zhang Mengheng

    2007-01-01

    For the adverse impacts of climate change,China government should place the problem of adaptation to climate change on the agenda.It is time to institute and implement a State adaptive strategy to reduce the adverse impacts on economy,community and people's health and life by international cooperation and our own endeavor.A state strategyofadaptationto cfimate change should be closely linked with other current interrelated national strategies,and they should be supplemented and improved by each other.This paper discusses the roles of the state strategy of adaptation to climate change in the State climate change integrative strategy,the environmental protection strategy,and the sustainable development strategy in China.Furthermore,it proposes the main aims of the State adaptive strategy of China.

  10. Human Cell Tropism and Innate Immune System Interactions of Human Respiratory Coronavirus EMC Compared to Those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Zielecki, F.; Weber, M.; Eickmann, M.; Spiegelberg, L.; Zaki, A. M.; Matrosovich, M.; Becker, S.; Weber, F.

    2013-01-01

    Infections with human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) are associated with severe pneumonia. We demonstrate that HCoV-EMC resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in productively infecting primary and continuous cells of the human airways and in preventing the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) responses. However, HCoV-EMC was markedly more sensitive to the antiviral state established by ectopic IFN. Thus,...

  11. Connections among residual strong interaction, the EMC effect and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from the nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy part. The observed correlation supports the recent speculation that the nuclear dependence of quark distributions depend on the local nuclear density. This phenomenological relationship can be used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron. Most importantly, the EMC slopes $dR_{EMC}/dx$ of nuclei can be predicted with the nuclear binding energy data. The relationship between nucleon-nucleon (N-N) short range correlation (SRC) and RSIE is also presented.

  12. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Müller (Marcel); V.S. Raj (V. Stalin); D. Muth; B. Meyer (Bernhard); S. Kallies (Stephan); S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Wollny (Robert); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); S. Specht (Sabine); T. Suliman (Tasnim); K. Zimmermann (Kathrin); T. Binger (Tabea); I. Eckerle; M. Tschapka (Marco); A.M. Zaki (Ali); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); C. Drosten (Christian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC i

  13. 77 FR 76034 - National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... mission, the National Water Program will need to adapt to already observed and projected climatic changes... AGENCY National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection... publishing the final ``National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change'' (2012...

  14. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  15. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W., E-mail: wei.zhang@ipp.mpg.de [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lunt, T.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Brida, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Jacquet, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 10{sup 22} electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  16. Results from FNAL E745 on neutrino-nucleus interactions (EMC effect and hadron formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dark tracks (stubs) in high energy neutrino-nucleus interactions in the Tohoku High Resolution Freon Bubble Chamber are investigated. Classifying events into groups by using the dark tracks, correlations between the dark track production and neutrino interactions are studied. Events without dark tracks comprise a reasonable sample of events which occurred on quasi-free nucleons inside nucleus. By comparing the groups using the no dark track group as a comparison sample instead of neutrino-deuterium events, the EMC effect and hadron formation are investigated. This method provides new results which differ somewhat from the conventional data for the EMC effect and formation-rescattering. 10 refs., 17 figs

  17. GPS Synchronization and EMC of Harmonic and Transient Measurement Equipment in Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Arana, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    measurements. The paper clearly presents possible electromagnetic interference in wind turbines that can affect measurements. Also the application of appropriate mitigation techniques such as data acquisition board configuration, coaxial cable leading, as well as usage of EMC-proof boxes for high frequency...... synchronization, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) challenges during the development, construction, testing and installation of a measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term data logging is described in this paper. The presented measurement system was tested in a rough...

  18. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  19. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade' (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-606, 104 Stat. 3096-3104)-'Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of Earth to sustain life'-with a focus on climate and land-use change. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystem, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy (2007). When science strategies that cover these other components are developed, coordinated implementation will be necessary to achieve Bureau-level synergies and optimize capabilities and expertise. In October 2010, USGS realigned its management and budget structure to implement its 2007 Science Strategy. The new organizational structure, in which 'Global Change' is one of seven key mission areas, lends itself to the advancement of the established six strategic goals. USGS global change science is formally represented by the 'Climate and Land-Use Change' Mission Area in the FY 2012 budge (USGS, 2011). This plan was developed by the USGS Global Change Science Strategy Planning Team (SSPT) appointed by the USGS Director on March 4, 2010 and charged with developing a Global Change Science Strategy for the coming decade (McNutt, 2010). USGS managers and science staff are the main audience for this science strategy. This document is also intended to serve as the foundation for consistent USGS collaboration and ccations with partners and stakeholders.

  20. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  1. Instructional change in academic departments: An analysis from the persepctive of two environment-focused change strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Kathleen M.

    Numerous reports demand changes in college and university teaching practices. This is especially true for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. STEM stakeholders are concerned about student retention within STEM majors, as well as the lack of sufficient graduates with the knowledge to advance these fields. A common conclusion of these reports is that teaching practices must change. Although these calls for change have occurred for decades, STEM fields have yet to experience widespread change. Thus, there is a need for more effective change strategies. Recently, researchers have suggested that effective change strategies should focus on changing the environments of academic departments. This is in contrast to most commonly-used change strategies that focus on individual instructors. Environmentfocused change strategies have two main varieties: those that have a goal of implementing prescribed outcomes, and those that expect the outcomes to emerge from the change process. Yet, little is known about how to enact environment-focused change strategies. The goal of this research is to provide guidance for change agents and researchers by analyzing a large-scale change initiative from the perspective of two environment-focused change strategies: Kotter's eight-stage leadership process (prescribed) and complexity leadership theory (emergent). This analysis was guided by two research questions. 1. Within the context of a higher education change initiative, how is the change process described from the perspectives of two distinct leadership theories? 2. How do these descriptions frame problems and solutions associated with change? Each change strategy identified different activities as contributing to change as well as different missed opportunities. For example, when the change vision was not communicated effectively, the eight-stage leadership process indicated that the involvement of the department chair was needed, while complexity

  2. A change in strategy: Static emotion recognition in Malaysian Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystalle B.Y. Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that while East Asians focused on the center of the face to recognize identities, participants adapted their strategy by focusing more on the eyes to identify emotions, suggesting that the eyes may contain salient information pertaining to emotional state in Eastern cultures. However, Western Caucasians employ the same strategy by moving between the eyes and mouth to identify both identities and emotions. Malaysian Chinese have been shown to focus on the eyes and nose more than the mouth during face recognition task, which represents an intermediate between Eastern and Western looking strategies. The current study examined whether Malaysian Chinese continue to employ an intermediate strategy or shift towards an Eastern or Western pattern (by fixating more on the eyes or mouth respectively during an emotion recognition task. Participants focused more on the eyes, followed by the nose then mouth. Directing attention towards the eye region resulted in better recognition of certain own- than other-race emotions. Although the fixation patterns appear similar for both tasks, further analyses showed that fixations on the eyes were reduced whereas fixations on the nose and mouth were increased during emotion recognition, indicating that participants adapt looking strategies based on their aims.

  3. The Scanfin Merger: Technology, Strategy and Change (Case D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    -operation. Aiming to give a strong message on the changing nature of the CIO job, the Scanfin 'UberCIO' fired Olaf during a meeting and demanded quick and relevant changes from the remaining CIOs. The Finnish IT team, headed by Markku, carries out the technical changes in collaboration with the IT functions from...

  4. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  5. Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students: Promoting Change through Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Green, Alan; Hanna, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Teachers in middle level schools face overwhelming demands and challenges in their classrooms. They are expected to know content and pedagogy, develop engaging lessons that meet the needs of diverse learners, and use a variety of instructional strategies that will boost student achievement while they simultaneously develop positive relationships…

  6. Efficient replication of the novel human betacoronavirus EMC on primary human epithelium highlights its zoonotic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kindler (Eveline); H.R. Jónsdóttir (Hulda); D. Muth; O.J. Hamming (Ole); R. Hartmann (Rune); R. Rodriguez (Regulo); R. Geffers (Robert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); C. Drosten (Christian); M.A. Müller (Marcel); R. Dijkman (Ronald); V. Thiela (Volker)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe recent emergence of a novel human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC) in the Middle East raised considerable concerns, as it is associated with severe acute pneumonia, renal failure, and fatal outcome and thus resembles the clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) observe

  7. Elektromagnetiline ühildatavus - probleemide jada aastast 1930 : EMC = EMI + EMS / Peeter Lamster

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamster, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Elektrisüsteemist lähtuvast seadmete tööd häirivast elektromagnetilisest inferentsist (EMI), elektromagnetilise haavatavuse (EMS) vähendamisest ja elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse (EMC) tagamisest. Elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse tähtsusest sõjanduses

  8. Parton distribution of nucleon and nuclear EMC effect in a statistical model

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xian-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    We study the parton distribution of nucleon and nuclear EMC effect in a statistical model. We find when we choose the parameters appropriately, the predictions given by pure statistical laws can fit the experimental data well in most range of $x$, this reveal statistical law play an important role in the parton distribution of nucleon.

  9. Effective Strategies for Talking about Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about climate science presents some unique challenges. Unlike many other science topics, mitigation and adaptation to climate change will require students to take action. This article outlines five major challenges to communicating about climate change in the classroom, drawing on research in environmental psychology: scepticism,…

  10. Climate Change and Poverty : An Integrated Strategy for Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Cord, Louise; Hull, Catherine; Hennet, Christel; Van der Vink, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries are most exposed to the impact of climate change and within these countries, the poor face the brunt of the burden. Climate change is not a discrete problem that can be dealt with through isolated reforms: impacting economic growth, health, and institutional capacity, it represents a full-frontal challenge to development. This note traces the multi-dimensional impacts ...

  11. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  12. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In this paper specific hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational culture and certain change strategies are formulated. Types of organizational culture are differentiated according to Handy’s and Trompenaars’ classifications. Organizational change strategies have been differentiated according to previous work of Chin & Benne but one more strategy has been added. Classifications of both the organizational cultures and of the organizational change strategies are based on the same criteria of differentiation: distribution of power in an organization and orientation toward relationships or tasks. For this reason it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational cultures and certain types of organizational change strategies. Thus, eight hypotheses are formulated in this paper, relating particular change strategies with particular types of organizational culture.

  13. Universal precautions: employee resistance and strategies for planned organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K P; Hogg, M

    1988-01-01

    Health care organizations have been strongly encouraged to design and implement procedures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. The procedures will have a dramatic impact on the work habits of health care workers and may even challenge some dominant health care values. Therefore, precautionary procedures are likely to meet with mixed reactions and, perhaps, outright resistance from health care workers. This article identifies some plausible causes for employee resistance to precautionary procedures. After describing the dilemma in terms of competing values and conflicting objectives, some practical managerial strategies for reconciling differences and securing broad-based commitment to preventive policies and procedures are proposed. PMID:10290102

  14. Incorporating climate change into corporate business strategies. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the papers presented at the International Climate Change Conference and Technologies Exhibition June 12-13, 1997. Topics include energy supply and electricity generation; forestry and agriculture; and the chemical, energy, and manufacturing industries.

  15. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  16. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of c...

  17. [Animals' clever adaptation strategy for seasonal changes in environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Here we review the current understanding of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. We Aso describe the involvement of tissue-specific post-translational modification in functional diversification of a hormone.

  18. Physic Nut: A Proactive Climate Change Risk Management Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, M. A.; Orire, I. O.

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the regional variability in the causes and effects of Climate Change, it poses a major threat to both global human and ecological survival. Therefore, adapting and mitigating its consequences require an integrated approach which is not mutually exclusive of any specialization as enshrined in the Kyoto protocol. This paper reviews the concept, cause, impacts of climate change vis-a-vis the cultivation and viability of Jatropha curcas plant as a pro-active adaptation and mitigatio...

  19. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  20. Conceptual change strategies and cooperative group work in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Patricia A.; Sanford, Julie P.

    This study conducted at a suburban community college tested a method of conceptual change in which treatment students worked in small cooperative groups on tasks aimed at eliciting their misconceptions so that they could then be discussed in contrast to the scientific conceptions that had been taught in direct instruction. Categorizations of student understanding of the target concepts of the laws of conservation of matter and energy and aspects of the particulate nature of gases, liquids, and solids were ascertained by pre- and posttesting. Audiotapes of student verbal interaction in the small groups provided quantitative and qualitative data concerning student engagement in behaviors suggestive of the conditions posited to be part of the conceptual change process (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982). Chi-square analysis of posttests indicated that students in treatment groups had significantly lower (p < 0.05) proportion of misconceptions than control students on four of the five target concepts. Students who exhibited no change in concept state had a higher frequency of verbal behaviors suggestive of impeding conceptual change when compared to students who did change. Three factors emerged from qualitative analysis of group interaction that appeared to influence learning: (a) many students had flawed understanding of concepts that supported the target concepts; (b) student views towards learning science affected their engagement in assigned tasks, (c) good and poor group leaders had a strong influence on group success.

  1. Developing consensus in response to regulatory change: a survival strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years now, the nuclear industry has implemented basic regulatory guides and pursued evolving incremental changes by de facto execution of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission codes or in anticipation of them. The purpose of this paper is to describe a consensus-building process recently employed by industry representatives to respond to changes to 10CFR55, Operator's Licenses and Conforming Amendment. This process resulted from the necessity for industry stakeholders to evaluate the impact of pending regulatory change. It also highlighted the need for more dialogue in the industry and the potential of expanding links with academic representatives. In addition, the paper reports participants; documentation of unnecessary regulatory constraint and vagueness of new terminology and requirements

  2. Date and Acquaintance Rape: Perceptions and Attitude Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patrick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the dimensions of university students' (n=96) attitudes toward date and acquaintance rape. Examined the effects of a program designed to change those attitudes. Found college men had substantially greater tendencies to blame the victim for date and acquaintance rape than did women. (Author/ABL)

  3. Business responses to climate change : identifying emergent strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; J. Pinkse

    2005-01-01

    In the absence of sufficient support for the Kyoto Protocol, the international policy arena on climate change is far removed from being a 'level playing field'. Companies thus face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the Protocol and (upcoming) regulatory measures. This means that the

  4. Adjustment Strategies Revisited: Agricultural Change in the Welsh Marches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, much attention was paid by British agricultural geographers to the restructuring of the farm sector under pressures of national, European and global change. The need to adopt a perspective capable of looking beyond the farm gate inspired the introduction of modified political economy approaches into agricultural…

  5. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  6. Implementing Change: Insights and Strategies for the Supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that organizational changes depend heavily on the supervisor for successful implementation. Points out that a supervisory climate of trust should be nurtured, and tact should be employed if uncertainty and resistance within the organization's staff are to be kept at tolerable levels. (Author/LLL)

  7. Thermal stability of LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingsong; SUN Jinhua; CHEN Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of lithium-ion battery electrolyte could substantially affect the safety of lithium-ion battery. In order to disclose the thermal stability of 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)+dimethyl carbonate (DMC)+ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) electrolyte, a micro calorimeter C80 micro calorimeter was used in this paper. The electrolyte samples were heated in argon atmosphere, and the heat flow and pressure performances were detected. It is found that LiPF6 influences the thermal behavior remarkably, with more heat generation and lower onset temperature. LiPF6/EC shows an exothermic peak at 212 ℃ with a heat of reaction -355.4J·g-1.DMC based LiPF6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 68.5 and 187 ℃ in argon filled vessel at elevated temperature. EMC based LiPF 6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 191 and 258 ℃ in argon filled vessel.1.0mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+ EMC electrolyte shows an endothermic and exothermic process one after the other at elevated temperature. By comparing with the thermal behavior of single solvent based LiPF6 solution, it can be speculated that LiPF6 may react with EC, DMC and EMC separately in 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte, but the exothermic peak is lower than that of 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC solution. Furthermore, The 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6 /EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte decomposition reaction order was calculated based on the pressure data, its value is n =1.83, and the pressure rate constants kp=6.49×10-2k Pa·-0.83·min-1 .

  8. Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Organic Agriculture (OA) as an adaptation strategy (AS) to Climate Change (CC) is a concrete and promising option for adaptation in rural communities. OA has additional potential as a mitigation strategy (MS). This text is a short review note on this topic. Adaptation and mitigation based on OA can build on well-established practice as OA is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of experience in several climate zones and under a wide range of specific local conditions. Given the larg...

  9. Dynamics of three-dimensional radiative structures during RMP assisted detached plasmas on the large helical device and its comparison with EMC3-EIRENE modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shwetang N.; Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ida, Katsumi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Sano, Ryuichi; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Hirohiko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Motojima, Gen; Ohno, Noriyasu; LHD Experiment Group

    2016-04-01

    The resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) island introduced in the stochastic edge of the large helical device (LHD) plasma plays an important role in the stabilization of the plasma detachment (Kobayashi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 093032). The plasma enters in the sustained detachment phase in the presence of an RMP once the line averaged density exceeds a critical value with a given input power. During detachment the enhanced radiation from the stochastic edge of the LHD undergoes several spatiotemporal changes which are studied quantitatively by an infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic. The experimental results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the radiation predicted by the 3D transport simulation with fluid model, EMC3-EIRENE. A fair amount of qualitative agreement, before and after the detachment, is reported. The issue of overestimated radiation from the model is addressed by changing the free parameters in the EMC3-EIRENE code till the total radiation and the radiation profiles match closely, within a factor of two with the experimental observations. A better quantitative match between the model and the experiment is achieved at higher cross-field impurity diffusion coefficient and lower sputtering coefficient after the detachment. In this article a comparison, the first of its kind, is established between the quantified radiation from the experiments and the synthetic image obtained from the simulation code. This exercise is aimed towards validating the model assumptions against the experimentally measured radiation.

  10. EMC Testing on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) - A Summary of the EMC Test Campaign for the Science Payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft/observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  11. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  12. 77 FR 19661 - Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental... Protection Agency is publishing for public comment a draft long-range strategy that describes how the agency...-2011-0943 in the subject line of the message. Mail: Send your comments to: Water Docket,...

  13. Climate change, markets and livelihood strategies for adaptation in vulnerable Altiplano Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Seth, Anji

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a framework of scales and interactions, Altiplano climate trends and change, markets, livelihood strategies and perceptions of risks across the Altiplano ecosystem, uncertainty, and participatory research in adaptive capacities. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  14. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosisof peritoneal metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases(PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was linkwith "terminal status/despair". The current multimodaltreatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery(CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, butseems to be the best treatment option for PM patients.As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasizesome milestones and also, controversies in the historyof proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outlinethe philosophy of this approach, which seems to be anunusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear,but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of humanand material resources (multi-center and -institutionalresearch), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPECfound their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodaltreatment, by launching research pathways. In selectedpatients, with requires training, it demonstrated asignificant survival results (similar to the HepaticMetastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs.The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatmentwere based on the oncologists' perspective and the smallnumber of randomized clinical trials. It is important tostatement the PM patient has the right to be informedof the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatmentresource, the decision being made by multidisciplinaryteams.

  15. Public health strategies for dietary change: schools and workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2005-04-01

    Environmental intervention represents an effective strategy to promote the purchase and consumption of healthful foods in community-based settings. Three such studies promoted the consumption of healthier snacks and lower-fat foods at worksites and at schools. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower-fat snacks in vending machines in 12 worksites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower-fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, as compared to usual-price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on the consumption of fresh fruit and baby carrots in 2 secondary school cafeterias. In the third study, 20 secondary schools were randomly assigned to either an environmental intervention or a control group for a 2-y period. The intervention increased the availability of lower-fat foods and implemented student-based promotions. School-based environmental interventions to increase availability and promotion of lower-fat foods and healthier snacks can increase purchase of these foods among adolescents. PMID:15795458

  16. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosis of peritoneal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungoci, Corneliu; Mironiuc, Aurel Ion; Muntean, Valentin; Oniu, Traian; Leebmann, Hubert; Mayr, Max; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-15

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was link with "terminal status/despair". The current multimodal treatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, but seems to be the best treatment option for PM patients. As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasize some milestones and also, controversies in the history of proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outline the philosophy of this approach, which seems to be an unusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear, but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of human and material resources (multi-center and -institutional research), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPEC found their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4 years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodal treatment, by launching research pathways. In selected patients, with requires training, it demonstrated a significant survival results (similar to the Hepatic Metastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs. The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatment were based on the oncologists' perspective and the small number of randomized clinical trials. It is important to statement the PM patient has the right to be informed of the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatment resource, the decision being made by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26798438

  17. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  18. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  19. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  20. One Strategy for Reducing Uncertainty in Climate Change Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, J.

    2011-12-01

    Future impacts of climate change are invariably presented with a very wide range of impacts reflecting two different sets of uncertainties. The first concerns our uncertainty about precisely how much greenhouse gas emissions humanity will emit into the atmosphere. The second concerns our uncertainty about precisely what impact those emissions will have on the climate. By failing to distinguish between these two types of uncertainties, climate scientists have not clearly explained to the public and policymakers what the scientific literature suggests is likely to happen if we don't substantially alter our current emissions path. Indeed, much of climate communications has been built around describing the range of impacts from emissions paths that are increasingly implausible given political and technological constraints, such as a stabilization at 450 or 550 parts per million atmospheric of carbon dioxide. For the past decade, human emissions of greenhouse gases have trended near the worst-case scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, emissions paths that reach 800 ppm or even 1000 ppm. The current policies of the two biggest emitters, the United States and China, coupled with the ongoing failure of international negotiations to come to an agreement on restricting emissions, suggests that recent trends will continue for the foreseeable future. This in turn suggests that greater clarity in climate change communications could be achieved by more clearly explaining to the public what the scientific literature suggests the range of impacts are for our current high emissions path. This also suggests that more focus should be given in the scientific literature to better constraining the range of impacts from the high emissions scenarios.

  1. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management.

  2. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management

  3. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  4. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Phillipo; Magreth Bushesha; Zebedayo S. K. Mvena

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of...

  5. The Chang Management Strategies and Processes for Successful ERP Implementation-A Case Study of MADAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hala M Al-Shamlan; Abdullah S Al-Mudimigh

    2011-01-01

    Top management usually faces an unexpected attitude from potential users during implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. For one reason or another, they resist the implementation process and may cause the failure of ERP system. Therefore, top management should be deal with this problem using effective change management strategies and processes. In this paper, we discuss the successful change management strategies and processes in literature. A case study of MADAR has been pr...

  6. Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China%Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yansui; Liu Yu; Guo Liying

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies indicate that global climate warming has been increasing, especially in recent decades. Climate warming greatly affects global agro-production and food security-- becoming a hotspot of global environmental change. This paper proposes a structural and orientational framework for scientifically addressing climatic change impact on agroroduction. Through literature reviews and comparative studies, the paper systematically summarizes influencing mechanisms and impact of climate warming on such agro-production factors as light, temperature, soil quality and water environment. The impact of climate warm- ing on cultivation regions, cropping systems, crop pests, agro- production capacity, agro-economy and farm management is analyzed. Then, suitable climate-adapting agro-development strategies are put forward for different regions in China. The strategies are carefully selected from a repository of international tested climatic change countermeasures in agriculture at national or district level.

  7. Changes of action strategies in metallurgical enterprises in time of economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Gajdzik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is the change in action strategy of metallurgical enterprises in time of economic slowdown. The first part of article presents results of literature analyses, opinions of scientists concerning changes in behaviours of enterprises in time of bad conjuncture. In next part of the article the author concentrates on verification of argument concerning the changes in action strategies of enterprises in Polish metallurgical sector. Shown examples of changes are confronted with literature studies presented in the first part of the article.

  8. Correlating the EMC analysis and testing methods for space systems in MIL-STD-1541A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to improve the correlation between the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis models stated in MIL-STD-1541A and the suggested testing methods used for space systems. The test and analysis methods outlined in MIL-STD-1541A are described, and a comparative assessment of testing and analysis techniques as they relate to several EMC areas is presented. Suggestions on present analysis and test methods are introduced to harmonize and bring the analysis and testing tools in MIL-STD-1541A into closer agreement. It is suggested that test procedures in MIL-STD-1541A must be improved by providing alternatives to the present use of shielded enclosures as the primary site for such tests. In addition, the alternate use of anechoic chambers and open field test sites must be considered.

  9. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted notion that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at a given relative humidity (RH) is highest during initial desorption of green wood due to an irreversible loss of hygroscopicity during the 1st desorption. The basis for this notion is investigated by assessing...... a boundary desorption isotherm. Instead, it becomes an intermediate desorption isotherm starting at the adsorption boundary curve and crossing over to eventually meet the desorption boundary curve. The results also show that vacuum drying at room temperature only gives a modest loss of hygroscopicity...... compared to the green state. Conversely, oven-drying at 103°C results in a more significant loss of hygroscopicity, except for RH above 96% where an increase in EMC surprisingly is seen....

  10. The Chang Management Strategies and Processes for Successful ERP Implementation-A Case Study of MADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M Al-Shamlan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Top management usually faces an unexpected attitude from potential users during implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP system. For one reason or another, they resist the implementation process and may cause the failure of ERP system. Therefore, top management should be deal with this problem using effective change management strategies and processes. In this paper, we discuss the successful change management strategies and processes in literature. A case study of MADAR has been presented to discover the strategies and processes used for the successful enterprise system.

  11. High Frequency Model of Electrified Railway Propulsion System for EMC Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Kelin

    2012-01-01

    A model of the electrified railway propulsion system working in a wide frequency range is studied in this thesis. The high frequency modeling is the first stage to study and predict the Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems in the electrified railway propulsion system, which are safety and reliability issues of high concern. Modeling methods and models for the line converter, motor power supply module, and the traction motor are developed. These models can work individually or be combi...

  12. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, P; M. Kuban; P. Horsky

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME) of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC). The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC) and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three te...

  13. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  14. EMC-SLAC effect from quark clustering and constituent quark Fermi motion and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A-dependence of the EMC-effect, as recently measured at SLAC, has been calculated from the probability of forming > 3q clusters, by using the space-time wavefunction of valence quarks, and assuming nuclei to be in hexagonal or cubic dense packing. A fair fit to the x-distributions of sigmasub(A)/sigmasub(d) is obtained, investing the valence quark's average Fermi momentum and mass from our previous determinations. (orig.)

  15. Two exact derivations of the mass/energy relationship, E=mc^2

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The E=mc^2 relationship is not unique to special relativity. Einstein published one exact derivation from special relativity and two approximate derivations that used general extensions to Newtonian mechanics, and an exact derivation is also possible if we use a "first-order" Doppler equation instead of special relativity's "relativistic Doppler" formula. We present two sample derivations based on different non-transverse Doppler relationships, and briefly look at the two diverging systems of...

  16. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability...... and work with a number of barriers for resilience. The objective of the article is first to address the position of institutional barriers in the studies and strategies. Second the article analyses the role human agency is ascribed in proposed strategies and projects in Nunavut and Greenland. With a focus...... on institutions and human agency the question is not only ‘how do people manage to adapt?' but moreover ‘what constrains people in pursuing a given adaptation strategy?' The article introduces the concept of double agency which stresses two different aspects of human agency that can be used to understand...

  17. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  18. Transport Properties of Graphene and Suspended Graphene with EMC: The Role of Various Scattering Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, M. D.; Atasever, Ö. S.; Özdemir, B.; Yarar, Z.; Özdemir, M.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic transport properties of graphene and suspended (intrinsic) graphene sheets are studied using an ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) technique. The combined scattering mechanisms that are taken into account for both cases are nonpolar optic and acoustic phonons, ionized impurity, interface roughness, and surface polar phonon scatterings. The effect of screening is also considered in the ionized impurity and surface polar phonon scatterings of electrons. A rejection technique is used in EMC simulations to account for the occupancy of the final states. Velocity-field characteristics of graphene and suspended graphene sheets are obtained using various values of acoustic deformation potential constants. The variation of electron mobility of graphene is studied as a function of electron concentration and its variation as a function of temperature are investigated for the case of suspended graphene. For the former case, the mobility increases with electron concentration first and after a certain value of electron concentration it begins to decrease, while for the latter case the mobility decreases almost linearly with temperature. The mobility results from EMC simulations are compatible with the existing experimental studies for the unsuspended graphene case.

  19. How does a change in the control room design affect diagnostic strategies in nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, main control rooms have been considerably changed by modern computer techniques. Some of the features that distinguish digital control rooms from conventional, analog rooms in nuclear power plants include advanced alarm systems, graphic information display systems, computerized procedure systems, and soft control. These features can bring changes in operator tasks, changing the characteristics of tasks or creating new tasks for operators. It is especially expected that these features may bring out changes in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in a digital control room as compared with an analog control room. This study investigates the differences in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in analog and digital control rooms. This study also attempts to evaluate how new systems in a digital control room affect diagnostic strategies. Three different approaches, which are complementary, are used to identify diagnostic strategies in the digital control room and in the analog control room: (1) observation in the simulator, (2) interview with operators, and (3) a literature review. The results show that the digital control room introduces new diagnosis strategies compared with the analog control room while also changing the characteristics of the strategies, mostly by gaining more support from the computerized system. (author)

  20. Influence Strategies of Principals: Ordinary Times Compared with Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether principals utilized flexible influence strategies under changing circumstances, based on perceptions of 450 Israeli elementary teachers. Principals acted mainly through an informal, less directive orientation of influence both in ordinary times and in times of change. Principals' leaned toward participatory influence approaches.…

  1. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  2. Strategies for Developing Positive Behaviour Management. Teacher Behaviour Outcomes and Attitudes to the Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Hindle, Sarah; Withington, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extended action research project run in a large secondary school over an 18-month period. The work was part of a wider strategy for change within the school. The data presented here describes some of the features of the change process and reflections on its impact. A key aim was to challenge and enable teachers to modify…

  3. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  4. Changes in competitive strategies due to deregulation and privatization in the petroleum industry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is part of a series of four dedicated to the study of the global oil competition game through the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. By means of a questionnaire answered by top executives in ten oil companies, the authors investigate the changes in the competitive strategy of these companies in the downstream side of the oil business due to deregulation and privatization. The paper starts by establishing the relationship between Porter's generic competitive strategies and specific competitive methods. Then, it describes how companies have changes their competitive methods after privatization and major deregulation. Changes in the industry structure are also analyzed. (authors)

  5. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa;

    2007-01-01

    The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior of the struct...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....... of the structure. On the other hand, the aforementioned objectives are difficult to achieve for all modes simultaneously. Thus, a study of the number, magnitude and location of the masses must be performed previously to the modal tests. In this paper, the mass change method was applied to estimate the scaling...

  6. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptive Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-li; Shu Geng

    2013-01-01

    China is the world’s most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, China’s role in climate change has received a great deal of attention, whereas the impact of climate change on China has been largely ignored. Studies on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming major areas of scientific concern. However, the clear warming that has been sounded in China in recent decades has not been matched with a clear assessment of the impact of climate change on China’s water resources and agriculture. In the present study, we review observations on climate change, hydrology, and agriculture in China and relate these observations to likely future changes. We also analyse the adaptive strategies in China’s agriculture.

  7. Economic analysis of climate change adaptation strategies in selected coastal areas in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, M.L.; Sajise, A.J.U.; Ramirez, P.J.B.; Arias, J.K.B.; Purnomo, A.H.; Dipasupil, S.R.; Regoniel, P.A.; Nguyen, K.A.T.; Zamora, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards. Their situation is further compli...

  8. Implications of land ecosystem-atmosphere interactions for strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to predicting climate change, assessing its impacts and planning mitigation strategies tends to be compartmentalized, leading to inadequate or incomplete advice for climate policy. Climate models used for future global warming predictions and attribution of past changes generally consider only global climate drivers, ignoring local drivers, such as land use change and urban effects. Impacts studies are generally carried out in isolation from each other and hence ignore i...

  9. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In ...

  10. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  11. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie M

    2016-05-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and (c) playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis (see Freedman 2015, in this issue, for a thorough description of these strategies). This article outlines three additional strategies that the author believes will position behavior analysis as a "contemporary science of what works in behavior change." These new strategies are (a) creating a cohesive, easily understandable framework; (b) personally communicating a more contemporary, sophisticated message; and PMID:27606183

  12. Visualizing Changes in Strategy Use across Attempts via State Diagrams: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Game log data have great potential to provide actionable information about the in-game behavior of players. However, these low-level behavioral data are notoriously difficult to analyze due to the challenges associated with extracting meaning from sparse data stored at such a small grain size. This paper describes a three-step solution that uses cluster analysis to determine which strategies players use to solve levels in the game, sequence mining to identify changes in strategy across multiple attempts at the same level, and state transition diagrams to visualize the strategy sequences identified by the sequence mining. In the educational video game used in this case study, cluster analysis successfully identified 15 different in-game strategies. The sequence mining found an average of 40 different sequences of strategy use per level, which the state transition diagrams successfully displayed in an interpretable way.

  13. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, Rhona; Benfield, Greg; Francis, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curri...

  14. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Musa Hasen

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effec...

  15. The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindakshan, Sreejith; Sherief, Aliyaru Kunju

    2010-01-01

    Conventional input intensive agriculture practised over the last century has been a major contributor to climate change, second only to energy sector. The communities engaged in pesticide and synthetic input rich agriculture is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Many emerging economies including India have had the opportunity to develop National Adaptation Plans of Action in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change but implementation of those pro...

  16. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management.

  17. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. PMID:27241441

  18. Taking a climate chance: a procedural critique of Vietnam's climate change strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, François

    2010-01-01

    This article asks through what processes and for which interests the emerging Vietnamese climate change strategy is being designed, and if, ultimately, it is likely or not to be effective in the face of the looming threat. Through a review of an emerging body of literature and field observations, the paper finds the strategy partial and problematic in several ways. Its technocratic process prevents a pluralist representation of interests, obfuscating and perpetuating sectorial ones, at the expense of a more transparent and democratic resource allocation. The strategy therefore reflects and reinforces existing power relations in both politics and production. It feeds into a business-as-usual complacency, protecting national and international interests vested in unchallenged continuity, even when considering post-carbon technological fixes, which largely serve to expand capital accumulation opportunities. The article concludes that the national climate change strategy provides an illusion of intervention and security, but largely fails to identify and mitigate the underlying causes of climate change, or to lay the ground for a robust mid- and long-term adaptation strategy that can cope with yet unknown levels of climatic and other structural changes. PMID:21132943

  19. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in this paper…

  20. Performance of a prototype for stimulated recovery of radiation damage for the PANDA EMC forward endcap and barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuske, Till; Dormenev, Valera; Novotny, Rainer; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig Universitaet (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The future Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) of the PANDA detector at FAIR will be based on a new generation of lead tungstate crystals (PWO-II). It is optimized to measure particle energies from 10 GeV down to 10-20 MeV. The operating temperature of the EMC will be -25 C. Due to the operation in a strong radiation environment one of the most critical parameter of PWO-II is radiation hardness. The radiation damage of PWO-II can be compensated by spontaneous relaxation of the color centers via thermo-activation. The process is strongly suppressed at -25 C, which is limiting the energy resolution of the EMC. The recovery process can be accelerated by illumination of the crystal with light even in the infrared region. A prototype implementation of the stimulated recovery for the PANDA EMC forward endcap is shown. Detailed studies concerning flux and intensity for different recovery modes at -25 C are presented. Additionally a concept for the recovery of radiation damage in the barrel part of the EMC is discussed.

  1. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Hunter, Jill V.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Saleh, Mohammed A.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  2. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  3. Strategy implementation and organizational change in healthcare organizations - a distributed change leadership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    This paper examines some theoretical underpinnings of distributed leadership and its ability to serve as change leadership during the process of major organizational changes in healthcare organizations. The study was initiated as part of a larger research project on distributed leadership (DL......) in the healthcare sector, financed by a research grant addressing both empirical and theoretical questions. The paper clarifies the relationship between distributed leadership and change leadership, and more specifically, the characteristics of distributed leadership in the change leadership process. We also...... propose a distributed change leadership (DCL) model that permits further development of research design and empirical studies of DCL. On a more general side, with this paper we shed more light on some aspects of leadership patterns in healthcare, where there is a distinct gap....

  4. DC-DC switching converter based power distribution vs serial power distribution EMC strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Iglesias, M; Rivetta, C; Arcega, F G; Vila, I

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed and comparative analysis from the electromagnetic compatibility point of view of the proposed power distributions for the SLHC tracker up-grade. The main idea is to identify and quantify the noise sources, noise distribution at the system level and the sensitive areas in the front-end electronics corresponding to both proposed topologies: The DC-DC converter based power distribution and the serial power distribution. These studies will be used to define critical points on both systems to be studied and prototyped to ensure the correct integration of the system taking critically into account the electromagnetic compatibility. This analysis at the system level is crucial to ensure the final performance of the detector using non conventional power distributions, avoiding interference problems and excessive losses that can lead to catastrophic failures or expensive and un-practical solutions.

  5. Applying change management metaphors to a national e-Health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Chad; Scott, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Recent attempts at a collective understanding of how to develop an e-Health strategy have addressed the individual organisation, collection of organisations, and national levels. At the national level the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit serves as an exemplar that consolidates knowledge in this area, guides practical implementations, and identifies areas for future research. A key implication of this toolkit is the considerable number of organisational changes required to successfully apply their ideas in practice. This study looks critically at the confluence of change management and e-Health strategy using metaphors that underpin established models of change management. Several of Morgan's organisational metaphors are presented (highlighting varied beliefs and assumptions regarding how change is enacted, who is responsible for the change, and guiding principles for that change), and used to provide a framework. Attention is then directed to several prominent models of change management that exemplify one or more of these metaphors, and these theoretical insights are applied to evaluate the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit. The paper presents areas for consideration when using the WHO/ITU toolkit, and suggestions on how to improve its use in practice. The goal is to seek insight regarding the optimal sequence of steps needed to ensure successful implementation and integration of e-health into health systems using change management models. No single model, toolkit, or guideline will offer all the needed answers, but clarity around the underlying metaphors informing the change management models being used provides valuable insight so potentially challenging areas can be avoided or mitigated.

  6. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  7. SU-E-T-344: Validation and Clinical Experience of Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm (EMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo (Algorithm for routine clinical uses. Methods: The PTW inhomogeneity phantom (T40037) with different combination of heterogeneous slabs has been CT-scanned with Philips Brilliance 16 slice scanner. The phantom contains blocks of Rando Alderson materials mimicking lung, Polystyrene (Tissue), PTFE (Bone) and PMAA. The phantom has 30×30×2.5 cm base plate with 2cm recesses to insert inhomogeneity. The detector systems used in this study are diode, tlds and Gafchromic EBT2 films. The diode and tlds were included in CT scans. The CT sets are transferred to Eclipse treatment planning system. Several plans have been created with Eclipse Monte Carlo (EMC) algorithm 11.0.21. Measurements have been carried out in Varian TrueBeam machine for energy from 6–22mev. Results: The measured and calculated doses agreed very well for tissue like media. The agreement was reasonably okay for the presence of lung inhomogeneity. The point dose agreement was within 3.5% and Gamma passing rate at 3%/3mm was greater than 93% except for 6Mev(85%). The disagreement can reach as high as 10% in the presence of bone inhomogeneity. This is due to eclipse reporting dose to the medium as opposed to the dose to the water as in conventional calculation engines. Conclusion: Care must be taken when using Varian Eclipse EMC algorithm for dose calculation for routine clinical uses. The algorithm dose not report dose to water in which most of the clinical experiences are based on rather it just reports dose to medium directly. In the presence of inhomogeneity such as bone, the dose discrepancy can be as high as 10% or even more depending on the location of normalization point or volume. As Radiation oncology as an empirical science, care must be taken before using EMC reported monitor units for clinical uses

  8. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  9. Formation of Marketing Strategies and Programs in the Context of Global Change

    OpenAIRE

    Vedernikova Olga A.; Babenko Nataliya V.; Rybas Yana N.

    2012-01-01

    This article gived an analysis of modern trends in globalization processes and their connection with the formation of a global business strategy. It was substantiated the topicality of forming a new conceptual approach to strategy development in a «stable instability». It was proposed a model of development strategy, which involves the formation of interconnected network of alternative strategies, and allows flexible to adapt to changing conditions.В статье выполнен анализ современных тенденц...

  10. Maintenance strategies and safety on a deregulated market. Mapping of changes in maintenance strategies and their possible consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of the project was to make a survey of the changes in the Swedish nuclear power plants over the last five years. There is a risk that nuclear power companies after a deregulation will focus especially on reducing operation and maintenance costs and that the changes could have a negative effect on the reactor safety. The task has involved summarising the actual changes, describing the present situation, the need for future development and the differences between the plants as well as identifying possible reactor safety related risks. The survey has been carried out in a broad perspective, studying the changes in equipment, maintenance strategies and the work situation of the staff. Three case studies were carried out at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Documentation from the companies has been analysed and a selection of in total 27 'informed' employees in different positions have been interviewed in total. The project also included a fourth case study concerning railway traffic. This branch of business is interesting because of its longer experience on a deregulated and competitive market. Conclusions concerning the companies individually as well as similarities and differences between them are presented in this report. Results: There have been more changes both in strategy and organisation in the last five years than during the preceding 5-10-year-period and the pace has been relatively rapid. The deregulation of the electricity market was implemented January 1997 and became the main motive force for the changes. The staffing has been reduced or unchanged and the work demands have increased. The maintenance skills have been redistributed within the organisation. New methods and equipment, i.e. RCM, and programmable systems make increased demands for analytical and theoretical competence. In the short term, job satisfaction and motivation have in some cases been negatively influenced by the new organisation forms, according to several of the

  11. Construction and first characterisation of a prototype for the PANDA barrel EMC in a close to final design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Christoph; Bremer, Daniel; Diehl, Stefan; Drexler, Peter; Dormenev, Valery; Eissner, Tobias; Kuske, Till; Novotny, Rainer W.; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [2. Physics Institute, University Giessen (Germany); Le Galliard, Christine; Imre, Miktat; Marchand, Dominique; Rosier, Phillippe [IPN Orsay (France); Kavatsyuk, Myroslav [KVI Groningen (Netherlands); Ryantzev, Andrej [IHEP Protvino (Russian Federation); Wieczorek, Peter; Wilms, Andrea [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The EMC of the PANDA target spectrometer is one of the central detector components to achieve the physical goals. The barrel part will consist of lead tungstate (PWO) crystals operated at -25 C to achieve the required performance over a wide energy range. To achieve a good energy, position and time resolution, it is necessary to perform detailed tests of prototypes. The most recent one, PROTO120, represents a subsection of the barrel EMC. The design is close to the final concept of the EMC with respect to the detector assembly, cooling circuit and front-end electronics. The conversion of the scintillation light will be performed with two rectangular LAAPD, which are read-out separately via the APFEL-ASIC providing a large dynamic range, low power consumption and the optimized shaping. The talk describes the details of the construction and a first test on the performance based on cosmic muons.

  12. International Strategy For Climate Change And The Countries Commitment For Developing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovska-Stefanova, Aneta; Vckova, Nadica

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is not only a modern term that is constantly used in international politics to show awareness about this significant issue in the world media, or as a subject that states have to consider as important in the future when the world will be politically and economically more stabile. Climate change has become a global political and environmental challenge for humanity over the last decades. Therefore, coordinate approach of the countries and international strategy for disaster risk...

  13. Adapting to change in the Andes: Practices and strategies for vulnerable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings of the SANREM CRSP research project "Practices and strategies for vulnerable agro-ecosystems", with specific regard to the impact of climate change. Research highlights focus on the importance of developing multiple types of capital to make farmers and farming systems more resilient in the face of climate change. The presentation also discusses the significance of pest and disease forecasting technologies in assisting producers. LTRA-4 (Practices a...

  14. Identity work during strategic change: Coping strategies, dynamics and complexities. Case Aalto Univeristy School of Business

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of the study was to contribute to a better understanding of the intra-organizational identity work during strategic change. Based on earlier research strategic change is known to cause disruption to the members ongoing identity work in an organization. The aim of this study was to find out how the new strategy and organizational identity were interpreted among the members of the organization, and what kind of disruptions did the new identity-challenging...

  15. Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes and the flavor-dependent EMC effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, D.; Peng, J. -C.; Cloet, I. C.; Gaskell, D.

    2010-01-01

    Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes are proposed as a potential tool to measure the flavor dependence of the EMC effect, that is, the flavor-dependent modification of quark distributions in the nuclear medium. Existing pionic Drell-Yan data are compared with calculations using a recent model for nuclear quark distributions that incorporates flavor-dependent nuclear effects. While no firm conclusions can yet be drawn, we demonstrate that existing Drell-Yan data seem to imply a flavor dependence o...

  16. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    A new session of the course Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction will be held on May 22 (am), in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme. This session, bilingual English-French, is free of charge, and will be given by F. Szoncso of TIS-GS division. The course is designed for physicists, engineers and technicians facing electromagnetic interference problems, and will describe the underlying phenomena and mechanisms of electromagnetic interference and their remedies. More information and online registration by EDH are available from the Technical Training "Electronics Design" pages, under the chapter "Miscellaneous". Please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch should you need any other information.

  17. EMC of harmonic and transient measurement equipment in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    offshore environment at Avedøre Holme and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms. The paper clearly presents possible electromagnetic interference in wind turbines that can affect measurements. Also the application of appropriate mitigation techniques such as data acquisition board configuration, coaxial cable......The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) challenges during the development, construction, testing and installation of a measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term data logging is described in this paper. The presented measurement system was tested in a rough...

  18. An EMC Evaluation of the Use of Unshielded Motor Cables in AC Adjustable Speed Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanigovszki, Norbert; Poulsen, J.; Spiazzi, G.;

    2004-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses. As a result, for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) reasons, in most applications shielded cables are used between the inverter and the motor, implying high installation costs. The present paper discusses the use...... of cheaper, unshielded cables. A new method for measuring electromagnetic interference (EMI) from unshielded cables is proposed and measurement results are presented. The level of EMI is evaluated in different situations: without an output filter, with a classical LC output filter and with an advanced output...

  19. The Use of Original Structure-Directing Agents for the Synthesis of EMC-1 Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daou T.J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available By using a steric approach, it is possible to design templates matching closely with an inorganic framework. Herein, the design, synthesis and successful application of several di(azacrown ether templates to direct the formation of EMC-1 zeolite (FAU-type are reported. Following a high throughput experiment design, the synthesis gel composition was optimized to obtain well-crystallized materials. Taking into account their respective crystallization rates, their textural and morphological properties were comparable to their counterparts, typically structured by 15-crown-5 ether.

  20. Multipath Propagation of UWB Through-Wall Radar and EMC Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fiser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The UWB (ultra wide band radar output signals can be substantially affected due to electromagnetic wave propagation through obstacles (such as walls and multipath effects, too. Multipath effects are analyzed and simulated numerically for various cases with several antenna heights and distances. Delays (due to propagation through walls and various paths of direct and reflected rays and the ringing (similar to UWB propagation through wall can be clearly observed and analyzed. Moreover, frequency spectra analyses can demonstrate both UWB interferences and susceptibility from electromagnetic compatibility (EMC viewpoint.

  1. The challenge of the EMC effect: Existing data and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malace, Simona P. [JLAB; Gaskell, David J. [JLAB; Higinbotham, Douglas W. [JLAB; Cloet, Ian C. [ANL

    2014-08-01

    Since the discovery that the ratio of inclusive charged lepton (per-nucleon) cross sections from a nucleus A to the deuteron is not unity - even in deep inelastic scattering kinematics - a great deal of experimental and theoretical effort has gone into understanding the phenomenon. The EMC effect, as it is now known, shows that even in the most extreme kinematic conditions the effects of the nucleon being bound in a nucleus can not be ignored. In this paper we collect the most precise data available for various nuclear to deuteron ratios, as well as provide a commentary on the current status of the theoretical understanding of this thirty year old effect.

  2. Modeling of HVDC IGBT in Pspice : Serving an ultimate goal for converter station EMC studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    An IGBT/diode model with more accurate characteristics than simple switchis required to serve for EMC issues from converter valve. The purpose of thismaster thesis is to develop an IGBT and diode model to achieve both accuratetransient behavior and fast simulation time during single pulse switchingtest circuit for the 4:5 kV and 2:0 kA StakPakTM IGBT module. A gate unitwhich resembles the ABB gate unit is implemented to obtain a good agreementbetween simulation and measurement. For demonstrat...

  3. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette;

    2009-01-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver...... of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind...... in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain...

  4. The impacts of influence strategies on organizational subgroup members' evaluations of management accounting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten

    2014-01-01

    This research project investigates how different influence strategies affect business unit managers’ and controllers’ evaluations of the success of a management accounting change (MAC). Using survey data on paired observations from managers and controllers in 68 business units, I find that influence

  5. Implementing an Open Source Learning Management System: A Critical Analysis of Change Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the change and innovation strategies that Charles Sturt University (CSU) used from 2007 to 2009 during the implementation and mainstreaming of an open source learning management system (LMS), Sakai, named locally as "CSU Interact". CSU was in January 2008 the first Australian University to implement an open source learning…

  6. A Bridge between Worlds: Understanding Network Structure to Understand Change Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Finnigan, Kara S.

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars are exploring district and site relations in organizational change efforts in the larger policy context of No Child Left Behind. These studies suggest the importance of the central office as a support to the work of reform and offer strategies for building relations between district offices and sites in order to implement and…

  7. Organizational Strategies for Promoting Instructional Change: Implementation Dynamics in Schools Working with Comprehensive School Reform Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Brian; Miller, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for studying how three comprehensive school reform (CSR) programs organized schools for instructional change and how the distinctive strategies they pursued affected implementation outcomes. The conceptual model views the Accelerated Schools Project as using a system of cultural control to produce…

  8. Economic Legal and Political Framework of the EU Strategy on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODEA Al.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study are presented essential legislative asepects of the strategy regarding the European Uniongrowing problem of climate change There are briefly outlined the most important documents adopted at European levelin the last decade in order to reduce the extent that this phenomenon reached, from Kyoto Protocol, to the most recentEU legislation in this area.

  9. Evaluating Ranking Strategies in Assessing Change when the Measures Differ across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Kim, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a ranking strategy was evaluated for comparing subgroups' change using identical, equated, and nonidentical measures. Four empirical data sets were evaluated, each of which contained examinees' scores on two occasions, where the two occasions' scores were obtained on a single identical measure, on two equated tests, and on two…

  10. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  11. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions.

  12. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  13. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  14. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  15. Climate Change Predictions and Adaption Strategies for Coastal NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change could significantly impact the personal and operations of federal coastal laboratories. The Goddard Institute for Space Studies has made downscaled climate projections for Hampton Roads, Virginia a coastal region which includes NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). These projections are being used to formulate adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce climate change impacts at the center. Sea level rise and hurricanes will have significant impacts on LaRC and strategies such as surge modeling and tide gauge measurements and now underway. A proposed windbreak will reduce the impact of hurricane winds on center infrastructure. Disease vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks are being monitored and studied for their response to climate change. LaRC has significant forest and ecosystems which will be impacted by climate change and these impacts are being quantified. Mitigation strategies are being proposed such as the design of a 3 MW solar photovoltaic array to protect the center from brownouts and loss of power to critical missions. These and other programs will be discussed to reduce climate change impacts and allow LaRC to accomplish its mission into the next century.

  16. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Phillipo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of information. The collected information were analysed by using content analysis. This paper found that smallholder farmers use a variety of practices to adapt to climate variability and change. These practices include: crop management, livestock management, diversification of livelihood strategies and land use management. Availability of extension services, climate change information and membership to social networks were among the factors identified dictating smallholder farmers adaptation to climate variability and change. The paper recommends to the Government of sub-Saharan Africa and development partners to come up with adaptation framework that takes into consideration differences in geographical location. They are needed also to provide enabling conditions to smallholder farmers through strengthening farmers’ supportive services to enhance their adaptive capacities.

  17. The Impact of changed organizational structures- on middle managers' perception of strategy and people management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    people. An important condition for this is, however, that middle managers also perceive such responsibilities as important. This paper is based on a survey of Managers in Danish organizations. Findings with different but related angels are highlighted here. First, only a small percentage of participating...... changes in their perception of people management. Implications for research and practice are addressed in the discussion.......Much research on organizational change and middle management has emphasized the idea of flatter more performance- and customer focused organizations, in which middle managers’ main responsibilities concern elements of organizational change and development such as strategy involvement, and managing...

  18. Changes in parenting strategies after a young person’s self-harm: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrey, AE; Hughes, ND; Simkin, S; Locock, L; Stewart, A; Kapur, N; Gunnell, D; Hawton, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background When faced with the discovery of their child’s self-harm, mothers and fathers may re-evaluate their parenting strategies. This can include changes to the amount of support they provide their child and changes to the degree to which they control and monitor their child. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with 37 parents of young people who had self-harmed in which we explored how and why their parenting changed after the discovery of self-harm. Re...

  19. "It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy.

  20. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hasen Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effects of climate change and to identify factors that affect the choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To address this objective, Multivariate Probit model was used. The results of the model indicated that the likelihood of households to adapt improved varieties of crops, adjust planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 58.73%, 57.72%, 35.61% and 41.15%, respectively. The Simulated Maximum Likelihood estimation of the Multivariate Probit model results suggested that there was positive and significant interdependence between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and using improved varieties of crops; and between adjusting planting date and using improved varieties of crops. The results also showed that there was a negative and significant relationship between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and soil conservation practices. The paper also recommended household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot characteristics that facilitate and impede the probability of choosing those adaptation strategies.

  1. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  2. EMC中的两种接地技术%Case analysis of EMC grounding technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚红

    2011-01-01

    电磁兼容接地设计有单点接地和多点接地2种基本方法,低频电路中要求用单点接地,高频电路中用多点接地,用多点接地设备如果不能通过EFT/B测试,可以尝试单点接地方法。实验证明,对某些高频电路完全可以用单点接地方法满足EMC要求。%The EMC grounding design consists of single-point grounding and multi-point grounding. Low-frequency circuits require single-point grounding, while multi-point grounding is usually used for equipments of high-frequency circuits. However, when the equipment can not pass the EFT/B test, single-point grounding can be used instead. Experiments prove that some high-frequency circuits can use single-point grounding to meet the EMC requirements.

  3. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Braden A; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus-response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation-bounded accumulation of evidence-underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy.

  4. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2006-11-01

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously. PMID:17008403

  5. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  6. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  7. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are kno...... the dynamic behavior of the structure. In this paper, a procedure to optimize the mass change strategy is proposed, which uses the modal parameters(natural frequencies and mode shapes) of the original structure as the basic information.......In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known....... The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify...

  8. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed

  9. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26956654

  11. Management strategies in anticipation of climatic change and the resulting impact on wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two significant impacts of climate change could affect waterfowl. Climate changes that induce dryness and reduce surface water would have a detrimental effect on waterfowl production capabilities. Global warming could also increase sea levels and flood critical waterfowl overwintering habitat. Strategies undertaken by Ducks Unlimited, a waterfowl conservation organization, to respond to the threat posed by global warming to waterfowl are reviewed. Ducks Unlimited will continue to assist with wetland restoration and preservation throughout the Great Plains. Strategies to enhance retention include converting marginally arable land to permanent forage, forage backflooding, and encouragement of zero and minimum tillage operations. Improved efficiency of irrigation projects is important to foster water conservation. Widespread surface water drainage should be discouraged, by combinations of legislation and economic incentives. Ducks Unlimited is refocusing its activites on parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba that are likely to have relatively wetter conditions under climatic warming

  12. Environmental change and household livelihood strategies: preliminary observations from field work in different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Preston

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework and objectives of a study of environmental change and evolving household livelihood strategies, which will include field work in Central Java, are outlined. Preliminary results of previous, related field work in Luzon (Philippines and highland Ecuador (South America are reported. Two changes that seem of importance in both areas so far studied are the increasing importance of commercial farming in central locations (near to village centres and the decreasing intensity of use of land on the periphery of rural communities. Preliminary observations in Central Java suggest that household livelihood strategies are more diversified than in either case study area in Luzon or Ecuador and that such diversification has increased through time. The relative importance of farming and the use of natural resources does not seem to have diminished.

  13. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Food Industry—Insights from Product Carbon and Water Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is recommended. However, there is a general lack of operational tools to support this. In this study, carbon and water footprints were conducted at a low-precision screening level in three case studies in Australia: Smith’s potato chips, OneHarvest Calypso™ mango and selected Treasury Wine Estates products. The approach was cost-effective when compared to high-definition studies intended to support environmental labels and declarations, yet provided useful identification of physical, financial, regulatory and reputational hotspots related to climate change. A combination of diagnostic footprinting, downscaled climate projection and semi-quantitative value chain analysis is proposed as a practical and relevant toolkit to inform climate adaptation strategies.

  14. From E=mc^2 to the Lorentz transformations via the law of addition of relativistic velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Criado, C

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show how to get the Lorentz transformations from E=mc^2, the laws of conservation of energy and momentum, and the special relativity principle. To this end we first deduce the law of addition of relativistic velocities

  15. From E=mc^2 to the Lorentz transformations via the law of addition of relativistic velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we show how to get the Lorentz transformations from E=mc^2, the laws of conservation of energy and momentum, and the special relativity principle. To this end we first deduce the law of addition of relativistic velocities

  16. Rethinking health systems strengthening: key systems thinking tools and strategies for transformational change

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, R. Chad; Cattaneo, Adriano; Bradley, Elizabeth; Chunharas, Somsak; Atun, Rifat; Abbas, Kaja M.; Katsaliaki, Korina; Mustafee, Navonil; Mason Meier, Benjamin; Best, Allan

    2012-01-01

    While reaching consensus on future plans to address current global health challenges is far from easy, there is broad agreement that reductionist approaches that suggest a limited set of targeted interventions to improve health around the world are inadequate. We argue that a comprehensive systems perspective should guide health practice, education, research and policy. We propose key ‘systems thinking’ tools and strategies that have the potential for transformational change in health systems...

  17. Indoor-Atmospheric Radon-Related Radioactivity Affected by a Change of Ventilation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2006-01-01

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8:00-21:00 with weekend halt...

  18. Indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity affected by a change of ventilation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2006-01-01

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8: 00-21 : 00 with weekend h...

  19. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we ...

  20. Coping Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya in Response to Environmental Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Francis M. Mathooko; Martin Ogutu

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in...

  1. The effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture to improve healthcare performance: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie Nick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisational culture is an anthropological metaphor used to inform research and consultancy and to explain organisational environments. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the need to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. However, the precise function of organisational culture in healthcare policy often remains underspecified and the desirability and feasibility of strategies to be adopted have been called into question. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. Methods We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Business and Management, EThOS, Index to Theses, Intute, HMIC, SIGLE, and Scopus until October 2009. The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE was searched for related reviews. We also searched the reference lists of all papers and relevant reviews identified, and we contacted experts in the field for advice on further potential studies. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs or well designed quasi-experimental studies (controlled clinical trials (CCTs, controlled before and after studies (CBAs, and interrupted time series (ITS analyses. Studies could be set in any type of healthcare organisation in which strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance were applied. Our main outcomes were objective measures of professional performance and patient outcome. Results The search strategy yielded 4,239 records. After the full text assessment, two CBA studies were included in the review. They both assessed the impact of interventions aimed at changing organisational culture, but one evaluated the impact on work-related and personal outcomes while the other

  2. Towards Comprehensive and Disciplined Change Management Strategy in Agile Transformation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Javdani Gandomani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Moving to agile through a well-defined strategy and framework is essential and this socio-technical process should be studied in deep. Advantages and earned values of agile approach in software industry motivate a lot of companies to try to use agile methods in their software product lines. Transformation process to agile methods is not easy and because of its nature, takes a long time. Since agile transformation needs organizational mutation, companies are faced with many challenges during this process. While several studies have been conducted for how to use agile methods, some other studies have focused on finding obstacles in agile adoption process. However, previous studies are valuable, but each of them has focused the change process from a particular perspective. In this study we discuss the dimensions of agile transformation process from a wider perspective. We will show that focusing on agile adoption is not the only master key for success in agile transformation process and we need to define an agile change management strategy for this organizational metamorphosis. This strategy should consider all aspects of changing approach and is underpinning of achievement in agile transformation process through substantive transformation experiences.

  3. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  4. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers’ Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirina T. Kitinya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainfall amounts and distribution had occurred over the years and were rated by 60% of farmers as the frequently experienced aspect of CCV. About 33% of farmers had heard of but not used decision support tools (DST to inform their agricultural activities. Workshops and seminars were reported by 67% of farmers as principal sources of information on CCV. Additionally, 50% of farmers relied on traditional knowledge for weather prediction. Only 20% of farmers had alternative strategies; agroforestry and growing drought tolerant crops particularly sorghum and cowpea, to minimize effects of CCV. Another 67% of farmers prioritized; terracing, ridging and water harvesting as adaptation strategies to minimize negative effects of CCV. The farmers were thus aware of CCV and through experience, backed with traditional technical knowledge, had gained prerequisite skills for addressing its negative effects. Nevertheless farmers’ agricultural practices could be improved by use of forecasted weather data and application of DST. Consequently enhancing farmers’ preparedness to tackle challenges posed by CCV.

  5. Compromise-based Robust Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.

  6. The ubiquitous and ancient ER membrane protein complex (EMC: tether or not? [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy G. Wideman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane protein complex (EMC has been implicated in ER-associated degradation (ERAD, lipid transport and tethering between the ER and mitochondrial outer membranes, and assembly of multipass ER-membrane proteins. The EMC has been studied in both animals and fungi but its presence outside the Opisthokont clade (animals + fungi + related protists has not been demonstrated. Here, using homology-searching algorithms, I show that the EMC is truly an ancient and conserved protein complex, present in every major eukaryotic lineage. Very few organisms have completely lost the EMC, and most, even over 2 billion years of eukaryote evolution, have retained a majority of the complex members. I identify Sop4 and YDR056C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Emc7 and Emc10, respectively, subunits previously thought to be specific to animals. This study demonstrates that the EMC was present in the last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA and is an extremely important component of eukaryotic cells even though its primary function remains elusive.

  7. Assessing the potential of in-field rainwater harvesting as an adaptation strategy to climate change for African agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebel, S.; Fleskens, L.; Forster, P.M.; Jackson, L.S.; Lorenz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilizing smallholder crop yields under changing climatic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa will require adaptation strategies focused on soil and water management. Impact studies of climate change on crop yields often ignore the potential of adaptation strategies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH)

  8. Relationship between Community Drug Administration Strategy and Changes in Trachoma Prevalence, 2007 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bette Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the only high income country with persisting endemic trachoma. A national control program involving mass drug administration with oral azithromycin, in place since 2006, has some characteristics which differ from programs in low income settings, particularly in regard to the use of a wider range of treatment strategies, and more regular assessments of community prevalence. We aimed to examine the association between treatment strategies and trachoma prevalence.Through the national surveillance program, annual data from 2007-2013 were collected on trachoma prevalence and treatment with oral azithromycin in children aged 5-9 years from three Australian regions with endemic trachoma. Communities were classified for each year according to one of four trachoma treatment strategies implemented (no treatment, active cases only, household and community-wide. We estimated the change in trachoma prevalence between sequential pairs of years and across multiple years according to treatment strategy using random-effects meta-analyses.Over the study period, 182 unique remote Aboriginal communities had 881 annual records of both trachoma prevalence and treatment. From the analysis of pairs of years, the greatest annual fall in trachoma prevalence was in communities implementing community-wide strategies, with yearly absolute reductions ranging from -8% (95%CI -17% to 1% to -31% (-26% to -37%; these communities also had the highest baseline trachoma prevalence (15.4%-43.9%. Restricting analyses to communities with moderate trachoma prevalence (5-19% at initial measurement, and comparing community trachoma prevalence from the first to the last year of available data for the community, both community-wide and more targeted treatment strategies were associated with similar absolute reductions (-11% [-8% to -13%] and -7% [-5% to -10%] respectively. Results were similar stratified by region.Consistent with previous research, community

  9. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts......We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  10. The new PWO crystal generation and concepts for the performance optimisation of the PANDA EMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissner, Tobias

    2013-07-01

    The finally achievable performance of the PANDA EMC, which was aiming for an extremely compact and radiation hard calorimeter, covering for the first time an energy regime from 15 GeV down to a few MeV, strongly relies on the quality parameters of the PbWO{sub 4} crystals. Therefore a very complex test procedure was elaborated, which basically consists of three stages of quality control at the locations BTCP, CERN and Giessen. The obtained data of 9,336 crystals was analysed with respect to the specification limits. Furthermore, correlations and discrepancies between the different facilities, mainly caused due to the different treatment of crystal geometries, are discussed in detail. Finally, an outlook of the still mission fraction of crystals for the PANDA EMC is given. The SICCAS company at China is a promising manufacturer of PbWO4 experienced by the production of a significant fraction of crystals for the CMS experiment. Here, the quality of 50 test samples were tested and compared, in particular with respect to the different growing technology. The obtained results are promising, but all parameters scatter over too wide distribution and a more homogeneous quality is expected from a pre-production run. A sufficient time resolution for the EMC is necessary to provide an accurate time stamp for the detected physics events synchronously with the time distribution system SODA of PANDA and for the rejection of background events. The time-walk corrected resolution under different conditions and digitisation procedures was determined at three separate beamtimes and compared to results from the CMS experiment. The achievements presented in this work represent an upper limit for the final time resolution, since the foreseen APFEL ASIC with two dynamically adjustable and independent gain branches will further improve the timing performance. As additional aspect of this thesis, a possible energy sum correction algorithm is introduced. Due to the presence of passive

  11. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  12. Farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ajao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate is changing and global mean temperatures have increased this is expected to have profound effects on food security. Long-term changes in climate will disproportionately affect tropical regions, meaning poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa will likely bear the brunt of adverse impacts. Adaptation plays an important role in reducing vulnerability to climate change and is therefore critical and of concern in developing countries, particularly in Africa where vulnerability is high because ability to adapt is low. This study examined farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo State of Nigeria. One hundred and fifty farmers were interviewed to obtain information from using a multistage sampling procedure. The results of the study showed that the types of climate change identified in the study area were delayed on-set of rainfall (38.0 percent, higher temperature (20.0 percent and less rain (17.3 percent. The outcome of climate change were food shortage (41.3percent, decline in livestock yield (30.7 percent, decline in crop yield (28.7 percent and death of livestock (16.0 percent. The identified actions taken to address climate change are growing a new crop (57.4 percent, adoption of drought tolerant/ resistance crop varieties (50.0 percent, diversification from crops to livestock production (40.7 percent and using of new land management practices. The long-term improvement investments commonly adapted in the study area were tree planting/agroforestry, mulching/surface cover, improved fallowing and fallowing.The study concluded that household size, extension visits and non-farm income significantly impact on the various strategies used in adaptation to climate change.

  13. Reliability of immunoassays for anti-HCV antibodies (ELISA and RIBA II) in patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (EMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, A; Airoldi, G; Ballarè, M; Fortina, G; Quaglia, V; Pigatto, A; Manzini, P

    1993-01-01

    The recent reports of a very high frequency of signs of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients with essential mixed cryoglobulins (EMC) suggest new hypotheses for the pathogenesis of this disease. However, most of these studies have been seriously criticized. The serologic test designed for detection of anti-HCV antibodies (ELISA, RIBA I and II) may yield a significant rate of false-positive results when performed on cryoglobulinemic sera, and the detection of the HCV genome by PCR is still heavily conditioned by practical problems. Indirect, but possibly more reliable, evidence of HCV infection in cryoglobulinemic patients might come from the demonstration of anti-HCV antibodies by a conventional technique (ELISA or RIBA) in the purified polyclonal non-rheumatoid immunoglobulinemic fraction excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration. Fifty-two patients whose serum had tested positive for HCV antibodies (by ELISA and RIBA) on multiple occasions were enrolled in this study. They were diagnosed as having either EMC or HCV chronic hepatitis without cryoglobulinemia at least one year ago. The urine samples of these patients were tested for anti-HCV antibodies by ELISA and RIBA. In patients with chronic C hepatitis the antibodies most frequently found in the serum were anti-C33c and anti-C22-3. The results of the RIBA were substantially confirmed by ELISA, with a positive test in the urine of 30 of 32 seropositive patients. Similar results were obtained in patients with EMC II. We conclude that the specificity of the RIBA and ELISA tests for HCV antibodies in patients with EMC appears to be as high as in HCV+ patients without serum cryoglobulins. EMC patients have a high incidence of HCV infection and active chronic liver disease. PMID:7507807

  14. Diverging business strategies towards climate change. A USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, K.F.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E. [Institue for Environmental Studies, Vrije Univ. IVM/VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management WIMM, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D.L. [University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in successful efforts to address climate change, due to both their role as major emitters of greenhouse gases and to their capacity to invest in mitigation technologies. However, relatively little is known about the triggers for change in corporate behaviour, which are at the basis of corporate decisions to support or oppose policy initiatives. In the title project it has been investigated what strategies - and why and how - specific industrial sectors develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The objective was to provide information of relevance to the sixth Convention of Parties (CoP6) that is to be held in The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the banking and insurance sector. Together, these sectors are the most important players in the climate policy debate. Special attention has been paid to the questions whether strategies of European Union (EU)- based corporations differ systematically from US-based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks. European corporations generally tend to have more advanced policies than their US counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. Corporate strategies appear to be highly determined by a combination of market situation in their home country and of access to alternative technologies. In the automobile industry, the USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible. 100 refs.

  15. Strategies of petroleum companies facing climate change issues; Strategies des compagnies petrolieres face a la problematique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, St.

    2005-05-01

    The oil industry is particularly concerned with the issue of climate change. The implementation of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction policies can be perceived as an additional environmental constraint for the management of the production chain. It is also represents a first step towards a possible decarbonization of the economy. In the long-term, the fight against global warming calls thus into question the activity level of petroleum companies. Confronted with this, still uncertain, new environmental deal, some petroleum multinationals adopt proactive behaviors, e.g. with voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions, or with investments in alternative technologies. First of all, we present the potential economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on oil industry. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of the 'Kyoto risk' for the five largest multinationals of this sector according to their activities and their geographical implantations. Then, for the purpose to interpreting proactive strategies of firms such as BP and Shell, we examine various explanations including 'win-win', public image and the response to broad societal needs. This leads us to formalize the proactive behavior as an anticipatory management of carbon contestability, particularly perceptible in financial markets. Lastly, we try to justify economically investments of companies in the field of alternative energy sources and technologies through the lens of real options theory and by a management of the exhaustible fossil resources. (author)

  16. The handwriting on the wall: program transformations utilizing effective change management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Anita; Johns, Colleen; Hines, Nordia; Skov, Tracey; Kloosterman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Historically, there have been indications that we need to change the way we work and think about our health care processes. Yet, with the urgency to keep abreast of the changing needs of our patients, have we seen these signs? Moreover, how do we respond to the inevitable change processes that must occur? In 2010, St. Michael's entered into a five-year partnership with Baxter Canada. The overall goal is to improve the quality of care and life for people living with chronic kidney disease. This initiative was undertaken in response to concerns identified internally related to existing health care delivery processes within the renal program. As in any work environment, the depth and breadth of inevitable changes evoke a variety of responses that are based on the individual's attitudes regarding change. As we embarked on this journey, the nursing leadership team and staff within the program were encouraged to review their usual responses toward change utilizing the book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998). It is imperative to identify the attitudes of those people involved in change processes. This awareness facilitates the use of specific strategies to enhance the effectiveness of their engagement in the process and the outcome of the initiative. Reading the writing on the wall prepares people to participate in and embrace changes that promise to benefit those for whom we provide professional care.

  17. Ethical implications of co-benefits rationale within climate change mitigation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vasconcellos Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation effort is being translated into several actions and discourses that make collateral benefits and their rationale increasingly relevant for sustainability, in such a way that they are now a constant part of the political agenda. Taking a border and consensual perspective, co-benefits are considered here to be emerging advantages of the implementation of measures regarding the lowering of greenhouse gases.Departing from the analysis of policy documents referring to two European urban transportation strategies, the emergent co-benefits are problematized and discussed to better understand their moral aspect. Further ethical reflection is conducted after an analysis of some unintended consequences of co-benefits rationale coming from the mentioned examples. The focus is primarily on the challenges of an integrative moral justification for co-benefits and also for their role in the climate change mitigation effort. We also discuss the limitations of the current normative models that frame co-benefits rationale, from a moral viewpoint and in relation to the overall climate change mitigation strategy.In this article, we propose the concepts of well-being and freedom, as portrayed by Capabilities Approach, as possible guiding notions for the moral and social evaluation of goodness of these emergent benefits and their rationale too. Additionally, some preliminary conclusions are drawn regarding the potential of the presented concepts to favour the climate change mitigation action. Finally, a scenario is drawn where Capabilities Approach is the moral guideline for co-benefits rationale showing this way its potential in terms of enhancing climate change mitigation strategy.

  18. Climate Change and Energy Sustainability. Which Innovations in European Strategies and Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effects of climate change on urban areas have pushed more and more policy-makers and urban planners to deal with the management of territorial transformations in a systemic and multi-sector perspective, due to the complexity of the issue. In order to enhance the urban governance of climate change and cope with environmental sustainability, the concept of resilience can be used. In this perspective, the present work has a double purpose: on the one hand to reflect on he need to adopt a new comprehension/interpretive approach to the study of the city, which embraces the concept of resilience, and on the other hand to perform a reading of European strategies and plans oriented to mitigate the effects of climate change and to achieve the goals of energy and environmental sustainability. This paper describes some of the results of the knowledge framework of the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. The paper is divided into three parts: the first is oriented to the definition of the new comprehension/interpretive approach; the second illustrates a series of recent innovations in planning tools of some European States due to the adoption of the concept of resilience; the third, finally, describes and compares the most innovative energy and environmental strategies aimed at contrasting and/or mitigate the effects of climate change, promoted in some European and Italian cities.

  19. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  20. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Farm-level Efficiency in Food Crop Production in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions, especially in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture predominate. The extent to which climate impacts are felt depends principally on the adaptation measures used by farmers. This study focused on the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on farm-level technical efficiency. The study used primary data collected from 360 randomly selected farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Cobb-Douglass stochastic frontier production model was used to analyse the data. Multiple cropping, land fragmentation, multiple planting dates, mulching and cover cropping were the major climate change adaptation strategies employed by the farmers. While land fragmentation and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationships, years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationships, with technical inefficiency. This may be because while land fragmentation may hinder farm mechanization, multiple planting dates may increase the monotonousness and drudgery of farming. On the other hand, social capital and climate change awareness could help ameliorate the effects of, particularly, land fragmentation through resource pooling. It is therefore recommended that the farmers be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to leverage their resource status through collective efforts.

  1. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  2. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lynn, Joel E; Schwenk, Achim

    2016-01-01

    We show that the empirical linear relation between the magnitude of the EMC effect in deep inelastic scattering on nuclei and the short range correlation scaling factor $a_2$ extracted from high-energy quasi-elastic scattering at $x\\ge 1$ is a natural consequence of scale separation and derive the relationship using effective field theory. While the scaling factor $a_2$ is a ratio of nuclear matrix elements that depend on the calculational scheme, we show that the ratio is independent of this choice. We perform Green's function Monte Carlo calculations with both chiral and Argonne-Urbana potentials to verify this and determine the scaling factors for light nuclei. The resulting values for $^3$He and $^4$He are in good agreement with experimental values. We also present results for $^9$Be and $^{12}$C extracted from variational Monte Carlo calculations.

  3. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD(cr), TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO₃, TP, PO₄ and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways.

  4. E=mc^2, \\Delta H = D(H-H)$, and the end of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, J E

    2005-01-01

    100 years ago Einstein discovered $E=mc^2$, the secret energy stored in ordinary mass. $\\Delta H = D(H-H)$ is the chemical energy released in chemical bond formation between two H atoms. The failure to recognize the enormously different energy scales in those two equations reflected in current events may start a chain reaction this very year, on the one-hundredths anniversary of Einstein's discovery, that leads to the end of civilization. Due to the confluence of a particular set of circumstances, this particular moment is more dangerous than any other in the history of nuclear weapons. Physicists have a special responsibility to do their utmost to prevent this from happening. This paper is a call to arms. A principle to underpin nuclear non-proliferation and enhance stability is advocated.

  5. Characterisation of a prototype for the backward end-cap of the PANDA EMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [HIM (Germany); Mainz Univ. (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [HIM (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [HIM (Germany); GSI (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA detector at FAIR will be used to study interactions of antiprotons in a fixed target experiment. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the target spectrometer, consisting of >15,000 PWO crystals, with its expected excellent performance and efficiency, will be one of the central components to achieve the physical goals. A first prototype for the Backward End-Capt (BWC) containing 16 crystals has been build and tested during 3 days of beamtime. The test was done with tagged photons in an energy range from about 50 MeV to 700 MeV at the Mainzer Microtron (MAMI). The prototype was designed to be as close as possible to the final desing of the BWC. This talk gives a short introduction in the design of the prototype and the latest updates, followed by a presentation of the results from the beam time. It describes the data analysis and the extraction of the energy resolution.

  6. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  7. Synthetic plasma edge diagnostics for EMC3-EIRENE, highlighted for Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, H.; Effenberg, F.; Schmitz, O.; Biedermann, C.; Feng, Y.; Jakubowski, M.; König, R.; Krychowiak, M.; Lore, J.; Niemann, H.; Pedersen, T. S.; Stephey, L.; Wurden, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    Interpretation of spectroscopic measurements in the edge region of high-temperature plasmas can be a challenge since line of sight integration effects make direct interpretation in terms of quantitative, local emission strengths often impossible. The EMC3-EIRENE code—a 3D fluid edge plasma and kinetic neutral gas transport code—is a suitable tool for full 3D reconstruction of such signals. A versatile synthetic diagnostic module has been developed recently which allows the realistic 3D setup of various plasma edge diagnostics to be captured. We highlight these capabilities with two examples for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X): a visible camera for the analysis of recycling, and a coherent-imaging system for velocity measurements.

  8. Calculation of power consumption and induced heat for EMC aluminum ingots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The electrical parameters and power consumption in electromagnetic casting of aluminum ingots were calculated and discussed in detail. Moreover, the induced heat was calculated with the eddy current within the liquid column. It is found that the calculated values agree with the measured results. Once the inductor current was given, the magnetic flux density in electromagnetic casting could be calculated and the electromagnetic pressure could be obtained. The key to the EMC is the balance between the electromagnetic pressure and the metallostatic pressure. As the liquid column, controlled by the casting speed and pouring speed through a magnetic sensor, is kept away from the inductor, a gap forms linear relationship between the inductor and ingot. The bigger the current is, the smaller the ingot size is.

  9. Efficient stochastic EMC/EMI analysis using HDMR-generated surrogate models

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2011-08-01

    Stochastic methods have been used extensively to quantify effects due to uncertainty in system parameters (e.g. material, geometrical, and electrical constants) and/or excitation on observables pertinent to electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) analysis (e.g. voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) [1]. In recent years, stochastic collocation (SC) methods, especially those leveraging generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions, have received significant attention [2, 3]. SC-gPC methods probe surrogate models (i.e. compact polynomial input-output representations) to statistically characterize observables. They are nonintrusive, that is they use existing deterministic simulators, and often cost only a fraction of direct Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Unfortunately, SC-gPC-generated surrogate models often lack accuracy (i) when the number of uncertain/random system variables is large and/or (ii) when the observables exhibit rapid variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Mass dependence of nuclear short- range correlations and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cosyn, Wim; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We sketch an approximate method to quantify the number of correlated pairs in any nucleus $A$. It is based on counting independent-particle model (IPM) nucleon-nucleon pairs in a relative $S$-state with no radial excitation. We show that IPM pairs with those quantum numbers are most prone to short-range correlations and are at the origin of the high-momentum tail of the nuclear momentum distributions. Our method allows to compute the $a_2$ ratios extracted from inclusive electron scattering. Furthermore, our results reproduce the observed linear correlation between the number of correlated pairs and the magnitude of the EMC effect. We show that the width of the pair center-of-mass distribution in exclusive two-nucleon knockout yields information on the quantum numbers of the pairs.

  11. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Ruscio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human–animal–environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants.

  12. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human–animal–environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants. PMID:26333722

  13. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  14. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  15. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Sharpe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curriculum development and evaluation of school-supported projects. It is clear that the implementation of the e-learning strategy has led to a large and increasing proportion of our students experiencing blended learning. In addition, there are initial indications that this has enhanced some learning and teaching processes. Where there has been sustainable embedding of effective e-learning, the following levers were identified as particularly important: flexibility in practices that allow schools to contextualise their plans for change, the facilitation of communities of key staff and creating opportunities for staff to voice and challenge their beliefs about e-learning.

  16. Role of competition in vegetation change: evolutionarily stable strategy analysis as a means for predicting change in vegetation distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrior, C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the clearest differences among major vegetation types is allocation to woody biomass. Whether and to what extent plants invest in this long-lived tissue has a major impact on carbon storage and can have important feedbacks to the rising CO2 in the atmosphere. Wood is a multifaceted structure. It can allow plants to escape from ground fires, the pressure of herbivores, and perhaps most importantly competition with other plants for light. Understanding the result of this final pressure requires an incorporation of individual-based interactions among plants. This can be a particularly difficult because of both high computational demands and errors in implementation and understanding of such complex models. We have made progress on both difficulties for understanding allocation to woody biomass among trees in forests. Across gradients in resource availability within forests, we find a significant influence of individual-based competition on dominant plant allocation to woody biomass. In model predictions and observed differences among forests globally major tradeoffs occur in allocation to woody biomass versus allocation to fine roots. This is driven by shifting importance of individual-based competition for light versus shared resources belowground, in particular water and nitrogen. Moving beyond forests to biome boundaries, transitions between grassland, savanna, and forest we see again that competition can play an important role. In these zones of rapid change however, population dynamics is not as simple as a steady-state closed-canopy forest. Disturbance dynamics including response to fire and drought stress are also important pressures on dominant plant strategies. Here I show progress in incorporating disturbance dynamics with individual based competition to predict and understand dominant plant strategies including allocation to woody biomass. Results indicate that the influence of competition varies with disturbance regime. With stochastic disturbance

  17. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  18. Strategy changing penalty promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner’s dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many classical studies suggest that punishment is a useful way to promote cooperation in the well-mixed public goods game, whereas relative evidence in the research of spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is absent. To address this issue, we introduce a mechanism of strategy changing penalty, combining memory and penalty during the update process, into spatial prisoner’s dilemma game. We find that increasing penalty rate or memory length is able to promote the evolution of cooperation monotonously. Compared with traditional version, recorded penalty could facilitate cooperation better. Moreover, through examining the process of evolution, we provide an interpretation for this promotion phenomenon, namely, the effect of promotion can be warranted by an evolution resonance of standard deviation of fitness coefficient. Finally, we validate our results by studying the impact of uncertainty within strategy adoptions on the evolution of cooperation. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in the society.

  19. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we hypothesized that high levels of HECS buffer the adverse effect of daily physical symptoms on increases in chronic and functional health problems. We found that daily physical symptoms were associated with declines in chronic and functional health among older adults who were not engaged in addressing their health problems, but not among their counterparts who reported high levels of HECS. These findings suggest that active control strategies play an important role in the maintenance of older adults’ physical health. PMID:18578842

  20. Energy in a changing environment: Do ``big dog`` strategies always work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.S.K.

    1997-11-01

    There have been a number of innovative retail wheeling pilot programs offered by investor-owned utilities and their local regulators. These programs are providing retail consumers with energy options heretofore unavailable. These offerings are just the beginning. The business environment in the energy business is rapidly changing with new entrants vying for their share of the new business. The question is what should be the strategies used by these new entrants and how should they be applied. The answer can be found by examining the lessons learned from recent pilot projects, applying one of three generic strategies offered by Michael Porter, and looking for the resultant opportunities. Each part of the answer is described below. In addition, advice for the energy engineer is provided and recommendations for the buyer are offered.

  1. Changing gears during succession: shifting functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Dylan; Hall, Jefferson S; Berlyn, Graeme P; Ashton, Mark S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-09-01

    Adaptations to resource availability strongly shape patterns of community composition along successional gradients in environmental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent to which variation in functional composition explains shifts in trait-based functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests during the most dynamic stage of succession (0-20 years). Functional composition of two size classes in 51 secondary forest plots was determined using community-weighted means of seven functional traits, which were intensively measured on 55 woody plant species (n = 875-1,761 individuals). Along the successional gradient in forest structure, there was a significant and consistent shift in functional strategies from resource acquisition to resource conservation. Leaf toughness and adult plant size increased significantly, while net photosynthetic capacity (A(mass)) decreased significantly during succession. Shifts in functional strategies within size classes for A(mass) and wood density also support the hypothesis that changes in functional composition are shaped by environmental conditions along successional gradients. In general, 'hard' functional traits, e.g., A(mass) and leaf toughness, linked to different facets of plant performance exhibited greater sensitivity to successional changes in forest structure than 'soft' traits, such as leaf mass area and leaf dry matter content. Our results also suggested that stochastic processes related to previous land-use history, dispersal limitation, and abiotic factors explained variation in functional composition beyond that attributed to deterministic shifts in functional strategies. Further data on seed dispersal vectors and distance and landscape configuration are needed to improve current mechanistic models of succession in tropical secondary forests.

  2. Changing gears during succession: shifting functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Dylan; Hall, Jefferson S; Berlyn, Graeme P; Ashton, Mark S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-09-01

    Adaptations to resource availability strongly shape patterns of community composition along successional gradients in environmental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent to which variation in functional composition explains shifts in trait-based functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests during the most dynamic stage of succession (0-20 years). Functional composition of two size classes in 51 secondary forest plots was determined using community-weighted means of seven functional traits, which were intensively measured on 55 woody plant species (n = 875-1,761 individuals). Along the successional gradient in forest structure, there was a significant and consistent shift in functional strategies from resource acquisition to resource conservation. Leaf toughness and adult plant size increased significantly, while net photosynthetic capacity (A(mass)) decreased significantly during succession. Shifts in functional strategies within size classes for A(mass) and wood density also support the hypothesis that changes in functional composition are shaped by environmental conditions along successional gradients. In general, 'hard' functional traits, e.g., A(mass) and leaf toughness, linked to different facets of plant performance exhibited greater sensitivity to successional changes in forest structure than 'soft' traits, such as leaf mass area and leaf dry matter content. Our results also suggested that stochastic processes related to previous land-use history, dispersal limitation, and abiotic factors explained variation in functional composition beyond that attributed to deterministic shifts in functional strategies. Further data on seed dispersal vectors and distance and landscape configuration are needed to improve current mechanistic models of succession in tropical secondary forests. PMID:25990298

  3. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  4. Climate change, adaptation strategies and mobility: evidence from four settlements in Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sall, Mohamadou [Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (Senegal); Tall, Serigne Mansour [ONU-Habitat (UN); Tandian, Aly [Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Senegal); Samb, Al Assane

    2011-11-15

    This research investigates the impact of climate change on the mobility of people in four settlements in Senegal: Ngueye Ngueye, Gandiole, the Senegal River delta and Ourossogui. A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups was used to determine how daily life in these communities is being affected by environmental change. Some migrants spend long periods as far afield as Mauritania, the Gambia or Spain, while others stay closer to home, going to places like Saint-Louis, Dakar and Mbour for short periods. Mobility is an opportunity for migrants to generate funds and send money home. It is a key factor in adaptation to climate change, as a strategy for survival and for diversifying incomes. The problems encountered in the ecological study zones are not entirely due to climate change, for migration is also triggered by factors such as the opening of the breach in Saint-Louis or lack of support for rural development. However, climate change is certainly accelerating disruptions and transformations in the study sites. Moreover, while migrants' financial transfers help improve daily life for some families, they also increase socio-economic inequalities between households that include migrants and those that do not. People are moving away from (but not necessarily abandoning) purely agricultural livelihoods and seeking to diversify their sources of income. This may come from migration, or from artisanal activities undertaken in the locality - such as metalwork, woodwork, sewing or hairdressing. Another option that many women have taken is using micro-credit facilities to start processing local produce, crushing groundnuts and preparing cereals to sell at the weekly markets. Other adaptation strategies are developed and adopted through technical innovations or awareness-raising and educational activities. These activities often require institutional support from the State or from NGOs involved in implementing projects and helping

  5. Once and for all--how people change strategy to ignore irrelevant information in visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N; Frensch, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Ignoring irrelevant visual information aids efficient interaction with task environments. We studied how people, after practice, start to ignore the irrelevant aspects of stimuli. For this we focused on how information reduction transfers to rarely practised and novel stimuli. In Experiment 1, we compared competing mathematical models on how people cease to fixate on irrelevant parts of stimuli. Information reduction occurred at the same rate for frequent, infrequent, and novel stimuli. Once acquired with some stimuli, it was applied to all. In Experiment 2, simplification of task processing also occurred in a once-for-all manner when spatial regularities were ruled out so that people could not rely on learning which screen position is irrelevant. Apparently, changes in eye movements were an effect of a once-for-all strategy change rather than a cause of it. Overall, the results suggest that participants incidentally acquired knowledge about regularities in the task material and then decided to voluntarily apply it for efficient task processing. Such decisions should be incorporated into accounts of information reduction and other theories of strategy change in skill acquisition. PMID:25203902

  6. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  7. Projected wetland densities under climate change: Habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen; Skagen, Susan; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Rashford, Benjamin S.; Reese, Gordon; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Wood, Andrew W.; Noon, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    complexes containing both small and relatively large wetland basins, which is an ongoing conservation strategy, may also act to hedge against uncertainty in the effects of climate change.

  8. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks. PMID:19042291

  9. Success through innovation and change – consultancy report on strategy for E.ON UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Maciuk, Aneta; Paramashivaiah, Roshan; Seal, Devakalpa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to formulate the future strategy for E.ON UK in the face of fast changing environment. The main objective is to identify the strategically attractive opportunities that could reinforce E.ON strategic position. This paper provides in–depth analysis of internal and external environments of E.ON in order to answer the research question about future strategic choices. Based on the models used and concepts applied we were able to get an overview of the UK Utili...

  10. A Strategy and Model of Change for SMEs in the Hong Kong Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K; F; Chu

    2002-01-01

    The re-establishment of the Hong Kong manufacturin g industry as a local pillar of economy is vital in the restructuring of the e conomy in Hong Kong. The SMEs should play a key role in such a process. It requi res major changes to take place in the operation of the enterprises in order to enhance their competitiveness and therefore the chance of success in the restruc turing process. It is suggested that the strategy of going for high value-added products and related services together with the practic...

  11. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  12. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development. Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests.

  13. Contextualising change through a common strategy: Lecturers' perceptions and key role in supporting academic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindelan, Paz; Martin, Ana

    2014-05-01

    European universities are currently going through a process of change in order to meet the common goals set for higher education by the European Commission. They are revising their educational models to adjust them to the guidelines of the "Bologna Process" and are devising an institutional strategy for its implementation. In practical terms, this means aligning former national degrees and diplomas to standard European Bachelor and Masters degrees and PhD doctorates, by creating acknowledged professional qualification benchmarks that also include adjusted course lengths and contents. This process, in the end, mostly affects academic staff members who have a fundamental role to play in carrying out the pedagogical reforms on the teaching front. Besides presenting a commentary on the institutional approach of one particular technical university in Spain, the purpose of this paper is to propose, from the authors' point of view as lecturers, a strategy which has the potential to create a favourable atmosphere for carrying out such a reform. The article's main objective is to highlight a series of action points which may serve to reinforce and advance the main institutional strategy by relying on the powerful influence of its academic staff members.

  14. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van, J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depends on local conditions. Therefore, hotspot regions are defined, where specific issues related to agriculture will be assessed. Mitigation strategies in East Africa in general and Ethiopia in partic...

  15. Children's behavioral health system transformation: one state's context and strategies for sustained change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Deborah S; Stephan, Sharon H; Kaye, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the State of Maryland as a case study of sustained change efforts in the service delivery system for children with significant behavioral health needs and their families. A punctuated equilibrium paradigm is introduced to describe Maryland's behavioral health system transformation over the course of three decades. The context and specific strategies that characterized Maryland's execution of its recent Mental Health Transformation State Incentive Grant are highlighted. There is a discussion of one of the pinnacle achievements of Maryland's transformation efforts, the recent statewide establishment of care management entities for children with behavioral health challenges, and its implications for behavioral health in the context of health care reform changes. This case study illustrates how a state can systematically and incrementally develop systems of care for children and families that are values-based, sustainable, and flexible. PMID:23657753

  16. Frequent change of procedure during coronary artery bypass surgery suggests insufficient preoperative diagnostic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Thayssen, Per;

    2007-01-01

    We sought to evaluate how often and in what way surgeons change peroperatively their preoperative coronary artery bypass grafting strategy and to what degree these changes affect postoperative graft patency. A series of 109 patients with stable angina pectoris and at least one occluded coronary...... artery participated. The surgeon filled in a questionnaire pertaining to the planned localization and number of grafts. These estimates were compared to procedures actually performed and with the angiographic outcome six months after bypass surgery. Planned and actually inserted grafts disclosed...... a discrepancy in 22% of the patients, resulting in a lower or higher number of grafts than pre-operatively estimated. The difference in shift rates between the three sites, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery, was significant (P=0.014). Patency rates were highest when only...

  17. Combating climate change : A case study of Statoil′s climate strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Josefin; Eklöf, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Level:                           Master thesis in Business administration with concentration towards Ecological economics   Title:             Combating climate change – a case study of Statoil’s climate strategy   Problem:       The world is facing an environmental situation where we no longer can ignore problems like climate change, losses of species and an overall environmental degradation. Many actors have to take their responsibility and do as much as they can for a sustainable developme...

  18. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  19. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level. PMID:27390633

  20. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  1. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F.; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depen

  2. Changing academic medicine: strategies used by academic leaders of integrative medicine-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Holmberg, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change. PMID:23093984

  3. Changing Academic Medicine: Strategies Used by Academic Leaders of Integrative Medicine—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Witt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change.

  4. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  5. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin; Wolfgang Bokelmann; Jason Scott Entsminger

    2014-01-01

    Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1) the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies) as a result of changes in climate; (2) ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3) identification the socio-ec...

  6. Reliability and Validity Test of Questionnaire on the Adaptation Strategy of Cryosphere Changes in Arid Inland River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to test the reliability and validity of questionnaire on the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin. [Method] A questionnaire on "the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin" was carried out in Urumchi River basin and Aksu River basin, and its reliability and validity were tested by means of statistical method, so as to investigate the stability and accuracy of questionnaire. [Result] Reliability analysis of questionnaire sho...

  7. Host life history strategy, species diversity, and habitat influence Trypanosoma cruzi vector infection in Changing landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Gottdenker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: R. pallescens vectors (N = 643 were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3% vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3% dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as r(max, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase, and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of r(max were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T

  8. Values under seige in Mexico: strategies for sheltering traditional values from change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, L J

    1993-01-01

    The adverse economic conditions of inflation and falling oil prices over the late 1970s and 1980s in Mexico forced many middle-class married women out of the home and into the workplace in order to help the family maintain its socioeconomic standing. Although this phenomenon ran directly against the traditional Mexican cultural construction of gender and family, many Uruapan middle-class couples had no alternative and rationalized the change by concealing, reinterpreting, or not directly challenging traditional values. Sections discuss the dilemma of middle-class families, Mexican middle-class adaptation to wives' employment, strategies for existing change in values, and the open acceptance of changed values. The author's comments and conclusions are based largely upon interviews with 16 married women of the period. It is concluded that even though the middle class resists them, changes have taken place over the past 20 years in the acceptance of married women in the workplace, the sharing of domestic work, fertility control, and equality between spouses in family decision making. It remains to be seen, however, whether these women will stop working and return to their formerly exclusive roles of wives and mothers if and when economic conditions improve in Mexico. PMID:12345240

  9. The Empowerment Strategy for The Food Crop Farmers in Anticipating The Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efriyani Sumastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, the climate change and the global warming like changes in the pattern and distribution of the rainfall give impacts on agricultural production at large, especially in the food crops. These also cause droughts, floods, landslides, forest fires, rising temperatures in urban areas, and rising sea levels. The above impacts are felt by the farmers because those can lead to a decrease in production even the crop failure. This research aims to develop an empowerment strategy of the food crop farmers in anticipating the climate change in Central Java. The data used is the primary data obtained through in-depth interviews with key-person and the Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP is conducted to determine the program priorities and strate gies. The result of research shows that anticipating the climate change should be synergistically conducted in four aspects: human resources, technology, institutional and production, by involving various groups in the society. Various groups can be grouped into academics, businessmen / private sectors, government and community of food crop farmers / society.

  10. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Holmner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  11. Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand in Rheraya Watershed (Morocco, with Potential Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yacoubi Khebiza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheraya watershed already suffers from the impacts of climate variability and will be further affected by climate change. Severe water shortages and extremely fragile ecological conditions necessitate careful attention to water resources management. The aim of this study is to analyze Rheraya’s future water situation under different scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change until 2100. The Water Evaluation and Planning System model (WEAP has been applied to estimate the current water demands and the increased water demands resulting from climate change. WEAP was calibrated using meteorological and demand observations, then, updated with present-day and future climatic conditions using the Statistical Down-scaling Model with two projections (A2, B2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Those projections show an increase in temperature of about 2–3 °C and a reduction in precipitation of 40–60% with respect to baseline. The results show that the pressure on Rheraya’s water resources will increase, leading to greater competition for surface water, and that domestic, tourist, livestock and agricultural demands will not be met by the year 2100. The Results also demonstrate that the assessments of adaptation strategies proposed by decision makers are effective but not sustainable for the watershed.

  12. Delivering step change improvements to UK low level waste strategy - 16188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Nuclear Industry continues to produce significant quantities of Low Level Waste (LLW) as decommissioning projects generating waste become more prevalent. Current infrastructure and projected increasing waste volumes will deliver a volumetric shortfall of storage capacity in the near future. Recently established as a standalone site licence company, the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) near Drigg, in West Cumbria (formerly operated and owned by British Nuclear Group) is tasked with managing the safe treatment and disposal of LLW in the UK, on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The problem is complex involving many stakeholders with potentially different priorities. Previously, most nuclear waste generators operated independently with limited integration with other similar organisations. However, the current financial, programme and technical pressures require collaborative working to facilitate a step-change improvement in LLW management. Achieving this quickly is as much of a challenge as delivering robust cost effective technical solutions. NDA is working in partnership with LLWR to develop a LLW Strategy for the Nuclear Industry and has in parallel commissioned a number of studies by the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), looking at opportunities to share best practice. A National Strategy Group has been established to develop a working partnership between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, LLW Repository Ltd, Regulators, Stakeholders and LLW Consignors, promoting innovation, value for money, and robust implementation of the waste hierarchy (avoid-reduce-re-use-recycle). Additionally the LLWR supported by the NNL have undertaken a comprehensive strategic review of the UK's LLW management activities. Initial collaborative work has provided for the first time a detailed picture of the existing strategic baseline and identified significant national benefits from improving the way LLW is forecasted, characterised, segregated, and

  13. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in Southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46, 6.11-16.79, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13-0.20, 1.82-3.01, 0.04-0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster Analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two groups (group A and group B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous pollution control strategies were still present in the lake management strategy. To solve these problems, suitable control measures are needed, especially considering the current old-age status of Dianchi Lake. The fundamental improvement of the water quality within Caohai Lake was dependent on the

  14. Loading Concentrations of Pollutant in Alur Ilmu at UKM Bangi Campus: Event Mean Concentration (EMC) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water pollutant loadings and river discharge are among the basic data used in determining the dynamicity of a river. The input of water quality and river discharge are usually available through the collection of water samples in the field or at the observatory, and are done automatically using the data logger sensor. This paper discusses the concentrations pollutant load water quality and its relationship with discharge (m3/ s) using Event Mean Concentration (EMC) in the Alur Ilmu, UKM source from the Diptrokarp forest at Hutan Simpan Bangi (2 degree 55'14.72 N 101 degree 46'57.37 E). Alur Ilmu is a 1.79 km long stretching across the main campus of National University of Malaysia before flowing into the Langat River. Water quality was measured using automatic gauging and continuous water quality stations which are installed at downstream of Alur Ilmu (2 degree 55'40.33 N 100 degree 46'47.15 E) and involves in measuring the parameters of total dissolved solid (TDS) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Laboratory analysis carried out for chemical parameters such as ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total suspended solid (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in accordance with guidelines American Public Health Association (APHA, 1995). The normal discharge rate recorded at Alur Ilmu is 0.33 m3/ s and the wet discharge is 13.04 m3/ s.The total estimated pollutant loadings according to EMC as DO (18.51±3.01 mg/ L), TDS (794.92±186.72 mg/ L), BOD (11.57±0.28 mg/ L), COD (201.29±1.55 mg/ l), TSS (470.03±27.63 mg/ L) and Ammonia Nitrogen (2.52±0.0 mg/ L). Correlation test showed a direct relationship between rainfall and flow (Q) and several pollutant loadings with R2=1 at a significance level of 0.05. The study also classified some of the pollutants concentrations in class III and IV as determined by the Water Quality Index (WQI). (author)

  15. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  16. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  17. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health and Adaptation Strategies in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; WANG Xian-Wei; YANG Xiao-Feng; MA Wen-Jun; AI Hui; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews the impacts of climate change on human health and presents corresponding adaptation strategies in South China. The daily mean surface air temperatures above or below 26.4◦C increase the death risk for the people in Guangzhou, especially the elderly are vulnerable to variations in temperature. Heat waves can cause insomnia, fatigue, clinical exacerbation, or death from heatstroke etc., while cold spells show increases in patients with fractures. During a cold spell period, the rates of both on-site emergency rescues and non-implementable rescues increase, and the risk of non-accidental deaths and respiratory disease deaths significantly rise as well. Both time series of hazy days and ozone concentrations have significant positive correlations with the number of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Both malaria and dengue fever reach higher altitudes and mountainous areas due to climate warming. Climate change is likely to bring stronger heat waves in the future, thereby increasing heat wave-related illnesses and deaths, particularly in the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta. The projected increase of continuous cold days in Guangdong province and parts of northern Guangxi province will affect residents’ health in the future. The rising temperature exaggerates ozone pollution, but it is not clear whether climate change is aggravating or mitigating haze pollution. The transmission potential of malaria in South China will increase by 39%-140% and the transmission season will extend by 1-2 months with an air temperature increase of 1-2◦C. By 2050, most areas in Hainan province are projected to convert from non-endemic dengue into endemic dengue areas. The aging population will cause more vulnerable people. To mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on human health, sound and scientific adaptation strategies must be adopted in advance, such as strengthening the surveillance of epidemic diseases in potential transmission areas

  19. Major factors for facilitating change in behavioral strategies to reduce obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle Grave R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave,1 Elena Centis,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Marwan El Ghoch,1 Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda VR, 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum University, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: It is very unlikely that our obesity-promoting environment will change in the near future. It is therefore mandatory to improve our knowledge of the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors. This may help design more powerful procedures and strategies to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles in a "toxic" environment favoring the development of a positive energy balance. The aim of this review is to describe the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors and to describe the most recent development, limits, and outcomes of lifestyle modification programs. The evidence regarding predictors of weight loss and weight loss maintenance remains largely incomplete. It is necessary to develop strategies matching treatments to patients' needs to improve successful weight loss and its maintenance. How to detect and how to address these needs is a continuous, challenging, research problem.Keywords: weight loss, physical activity, food intake, motivational interviewing, behavioral therapy

  20. Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; McCusker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    As climate change has emerged as a significant threat, there is much concern about how vulnerable agricultural communities will adapt, particularly as global population continues to rise. Much of the current lack of productivity and economic marginalization of African agriculture arises from global trade regimes that give a competitive advantage to Western farmers, from low use of agricultural inputs, and from a dearth of infrastructure and services for the agriculture sector. For centuries, African farmers have used a wide variety of risk-reducing livelihood strategies, including diversifying income sources, switching crops, and investing in marketing. However, improving their productivity to ``modern'' levels has remained a distant dream, resulting in a continual reduction in investment in the sector over the past five decades.

  1. Can investments in health systems strategies lead to changes in immunization coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzel, Logan

    2014-04-01

    National immunization programs in developing countries have made major strides to immunize the world's children, increasing full coverage to 83% of children. However, the World Health Organization estimates that 22 million children less than five years of age are left unvaccinated, and coverage levels have been plateauing for nearly a decade. This paper describes the evidence on factors contributing to low vaccination uptake, and describes the connection between these factors and the documented strategies and interventions that can lead to changes in immunization outcomes. The author suggests that investments in these areas may contribute more effectively to immunization coverage and also have positive spill-over benefits for health systems. The paper concludes that while some good quality evidence exists of what works and may contribute to immunization outcomes, the quality of evidence needs to improve and major gaps need to be addressed.

  2. Preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures for Jakarta slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pooroe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is a city with unpredictable yet annual water shortages, both during the dry and wet season, which disproportionately affect the urban poor. One possible solution is to redevelop the existing water supply system which is now working in one of the largest slum area in Penjaringan, North Jakarta. This system is equipped with a large meter, the Master Meter, to record the communal water consumption and individual meters to record household consumptions. The Community Based Organization uses, operates, and maintains the system based on agreement with water users. Improvement of the Master Meter is achieved by harvesting uncollected rain water during the wet season with its high rainfall intensity, modifying the water storage system and improving the influent water quality. This paper aims to provide a preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures based on a case study of community-based water supply project in Penjaringan, Jakarta.

  3. Exploring Short-Term Responses to Changes in the Control Strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Clarke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  4. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  5. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    disasters. * Strategic Science Action 2. - Enhance methods to anticipate, prepare for, and identify environmental, ecological, and related health impacts of future disasters. This strategy is one of seven USGS science strategies developed concurrently: * Climate and Land Use Change * Core Science Systems * Ecosystems * Energy and Mineral Resources * Environmental Health * Natural Hazards * Water. This strategy describes how USGS will address the highest priority environmental health issues facing the Nation. The ultimate intended outcome of this science strategy is prevention and reduction of adverse impacts to the quality of the environment, the health of our living resources, and human health. Communication with, and receiving input from, partners and stakeholders regarding their science needs is essential for successful implementation of this strategy. It is incumbent on USGS to reach out to all stakeholders to ensure that USGS efforts are focused on the highest priority environmental health issues and that products are provided in the most timely and usable form to all those who can use them. USGS must reach out to the scientific community, internally and externally, to ensure that our efforts are integrated with and take full advantage of the activities of others.

  6. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  7. An h-adaptive stochastic collocation method for stochastic EMC/EMI analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) phenomena is often fraught by randomness in a system\\'s excitation (e.g., the amplitude, phase, and location of internal noise sources) or configuration (e.g., the routing of cables, the placement of electronic systems, component specifications, etc.). To bound the probability of system malfunction, fast and accurate techniques to quantify the uncertainty in system observables (e.g., voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) are called for. Recently proposed stochastic frameworks [1-2] combine deterministic electromagnetic (EM) simulators with stochastic collocation (SC) methods that approximate system observables using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPC) [3] (viz. orthogonal polynomials spanning the entire random domain) to estimate their statistical moments and probability density functions (pdfs). When constructing gPC expansions, the EM simulator is used solely to evaluate system observables at collocation points prescribed by the SC-gPC scheme. The frameworks in [1-2] therefore are non-intrusive and straightforward to implement. That said, they become inefficient and inaccurate for system observables that vary rapidly or are discontinuous in the random variables (as their representations may require very high-order polynomials). © 2010 IEEE.

  8. Why does E=mc2 ? And why should we care?

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Professor Brian Cox and Professor Jeff Forshaw go on a journey to the frontier of 21st century science to consider the real meaning behind the iconic sequence of symbols that make up Einstein’s most famous equation, E=mc2. Breaking down the symbols themselves, they pose a series of questions: What is energy? What is mass? What has the speed of light got to do with energy and mass? In answering these questions, they take us to the site of one of the largest scientific experiments ever conducted. Lying beneath the city of Geneva, straddling the Franco-Swiss boarder, is a 27 km particle accelerator, known as the Large Hadron Collider. Using this gigantic machine-which can recreate conditions in the early Universe fractions of a second after the Big Bang-Cox and Forshaw will describe the current theory behind the origin of mass. Alongside questions of energy and mass, they will consider the third, and perhaps, most intriguing element of the equation: 'c' - or the speed of light. Why is it that the speed of ligh...

  9. World Year of Physics: A direct test of E=mc2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Simon; Thompson, James K.; Myers, Edmund G.; Brown, John M.; Dewey, Maynard S.; Kessler, Ernest G.; Deslattes, Richard D.; Börner, Hans G.; Jentschel, Michael; Mutti, Paolo; Pritchard, David E.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most striking predictions of Einstein's special theory of relativity is also perhaps the best known formula in all of science: E=mc2. If this equation were found to be even slightly incorrect, the impact would be enormous - given the degree to which special relativity is woven into the theoretical fabric of modern physics and into everyday applications such as global positioning systems. Here we test this mass-energy relationship directly by combining very accurate measurements of atomic-mass difference, Δm, and of γ-ray wavelengths to determine E, the nuclear binding energy, for isotopes of silicon and sulphur. Einstein's relationship is separately confirmed in two tests, which yield a combined result of 1-Δmc2/E=(-1.4+/-4.4)×10-7, indicating that it holds to a level of at least 0.00004%. To our knowledge, this is the most precise direct test of the famous equation yet described.

  10. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Mohammed; Bokelmann, Wolfgang; Entsminger, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1) the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies) as a result of changes in climate

  11. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  12. Simulation of goat and sheep grazing dynamics and climate change adaptation strategies in West Inner Monglia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, X.; Xiong, Z.; Kramer, K.; Jia, G.; Zhao, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focus on climate change adaptation, land use management and grazing strategies in Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China by use of social survey, statistical analysis and numerical modeling. Results suggest that the climate change adaptation must keep a balance between sustainable development

  13. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  14. Efficient local behavioral change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yilei; Mills, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic; for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her l...

  15. Videogame training strategy-induced change in brain function during a complex visuomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Boot, Walter R; Vo, Loan T K; Basak, Chandramallika; Vanpatter, Matt; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-07-01

    Although changes in brain function induced by cognitive training have been examined, functional plasticity associated with specific training strategies is still relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined changes in brain function during a complex visuomotor task following training using the Space Fortress video game. To assess brain function, participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 30 h of training with one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. Control participants received only 6 h of FET. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher performance on the game and showed less brain activation in areas related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed movement after training. Compared to the control group, HVT exhibited less brain activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), coupled with greater performance improvement. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that the reduction in brain activation was correlated with improved performance on the task. This study sheds light on the neurobiological mechanisms of improved learning from directed training (HVT) over non-directed training (FET), which is related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed motor planning, while separating the practice-based benefit, which is related to executive control and rule management. PMID:22504276

  16. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oreana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic ...

  17. A realist review of interventions and strategies to promote evidence-informed healthcare: a focus on change agency

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, Brendan; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; DeCorby, Kara; Hutchinson, Alison M; Bucknall, Tracey; Kent, Bridie; Schultz, Alyce; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Stetler, Cheyl; Titler, Marita; Wallin, Lars; Wilson, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Change agency in its various forms is one intervention aimed at improving the effectiveness of the uptake of evidence. Facilitators, knowledge brokers and opinion leaders are examples of change agency strategies used to promote knowledge utilization. This review adopts a realist approach and addresses the following question: What change agency characteristics work, for whom do they work, in what circumstances and why? Methods The literature reviewed spanned the period 1997-2007. Ch...

  18. Forest adjacent households’ voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households’ voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate chang...

  19. Ancient cellular structures and modern humans: change of survival strategies before prolonged low solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Mariya; Rudenchik, Evgeniy; Gromozova, Elena; Voychuk, Sergei; Kachur, Tatiana

    The study of biotropic effects of modern space weather carries the information about the rhythms and features of adaptation of early biological systems to the outer space influence. The influence of cosmic rays, ultraviolet waves and geomagnetic field on early life has its signs in modern biosphere processes. These phenomena could be experimentally studied on present-day biological objects. Particularly inorganic polyphosphates, so-called "fossil molecules", attracts special attention as the most ancient molecules which arose in inanimate nature and have been accompanying biological objects at all stages of evolution. Polyphosphates-containing graves of yeast's cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y-517, , from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms was studied by daily measurements during 2000-2013 years. The IZMIRAN daily data base of physiological parameters dynamics during 2000-2013 years were analyzed simultaneously (25 people). The analysis showed significant simultaneous changes of the statistical parameters of the studied biological systems in 2004 -2006. The similarity of simultaneous changes of adaptation strategies of human organism and the cell structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the 23-24 cycles of solar activity are discussed. This phenomenon could be due to a replacement of bio-effective parameters of space weather during the change from 23rd to 24th solar activity cycle and nonstandard geophysical peculiarities of the 24th solar activity cycle. It could be suggested that the observed similarity arose as the optimization of evolution selection of the living systems in expectation of probable prolonged period of low solar activity (4-6 cycles of solar activity).

  20. The Changing Patterns of Advertising Strategy by Japanese Business Firms in the U.S. Market: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiko Suzuki

    1980-01-01

    This article analyzes the changing pattern of advertisement strategy by Japanese business firms in the U.S. market. Taking the advertisement activities of four major industrial sectors that appeared in both Business Week and Newsweek during the 1965–1977 period as samples, this article has found that the Japanese advertisement strategy in the U.S. market has passed sequentially through the following four stages: (1) Nationality-Supportive, (2) Product-Attributes, (3) Challenge and Responses, ...

  1. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under the influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    are characterized by long technical lifetimes and high, unrecoverable construction costs. One of the most important barriers for the initiation and implementation of the adaptation strategies is therefore the uncertainty when predicting the magnitude of the extreme rainfall in the future. This challenge is explored...... through the application and discussion of three different theoretical decision support strategies: the precautionary principle, the minimax strategy and Bayesian decision support. The reviewed decision support strategies all proved valuable for addressing the identified uncertainties, at best applied...

  2. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  3. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  4. 靶场装(设)备间电磁兼容性(EMC)预测与分析的研究%Study on the Prediction and Analysis of EMC Among the Equipments in the Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆慈; 郑均杰

    2003-01-01

    针对靶场复杂的电磁环境,从系统工程的观点入手,通过建立电磁兼容性(EMC)预测模型,规范靶场的电磁环境要求和对系统的EMC预测与分析,在应用分析的基础上为装(设)备鉴定试验提供了科学合理的依据.

  5. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  6. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US$). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction. (letter)

  7. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  8. The scope and impact of obesity in Vermont - Strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Harry L

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a complex, multi-faceted condition amplified by a confluence of socio-economic and environmental forces. Even in Vermont, a state long ranked as one of the healthiest, 25% of adults are obese, a rate better than 44 other states, but more than double that in 1990. Obesity puts people at greater risk for a number of serious health conditions, and may soon overtake tobacco as the #1 real killer if the current trend is not reversed. Beyond the cost to an individual's health, the projected financial impacts of an increasingly obese population are great. Nationally, the estimated direct and indirect costs of obesity add up to more than $190 billion each year. In public health terms, the challenge we are facing with obesity can well be compared to our experience with tobacco. We can easily track advances in policy, counter-marketing and other changes that together have created an environment in which smoking is no longer the norm. The Vermont Department of Health is beginning to apply strategies similar to those used to successfully cut smoking rates. This commentary describes Vermont's efforts to increase physical activity, decrease caloric intake, and enlist partners to help make healthy choices easier and more accessible for everyone. PMID:25818233

  9. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  10. Transformation by design: nursing workforce innovation and reduction strategies in turbulent times of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Mary O

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of care delivery from an acute care and inpatient standard to the outpatient setting and health promotion model is generating the need for innovative workforce and infrastructure adjustments to meet the new paradigm of population health management. Successful transformation of the nursing workforce necessitates a positive style of thinking that addresses rational concerns during times of difficult transition. Nurse leaders are called to recognize and appreciate the strengths of the nursing workforce by involving them in the course of change through collaboration, planning, and discussion. One unique way to plan and develop new care delivery models is to adopt the framework used in health facility planning and design for new services, units, or hospitals. This framework is flexible and can be adjusted easily to meet the objectives of a small nursing workforce innovation project or expanded to encompass the needs of a large-scale hospital transformation. Structured questioning further helps the team to identify barriers to care and allows for the development of new concepts that are objective and in accord with evidence-based practice and data. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of implementing innovative workforce redesign and workforce reduction strategies.

  11. Moving polewards in winter: a recent change in the migratory strategy of a pelagic seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the non-breeding period, many birds migrate to milder areas, found closer to the equator than their breeding sites. Opposite movements are very rare. In the Southern Ocean, the abundance of 13C declines markedly with more southern latitude, providing a characteristic 13C isoscape. This can be used as a tracer for the movement of seabirds between breeding and inter-breeding areas, by comparing stable isotope ratios of feathers grown at different times of the year. Results We studied seasonal movements of Thin-billed prions (Aves, Procellariiformes, breeding at the Subantarctic Falkland/Malvinas Islands, compared with those of Wilson's storm-petrels breeding in the Antarctic South Shetland Islands. The two species showed opposite migratory movements. While Wilson's storm-petrels moved to warmer waters north of the Drake Passage in winter, Thin-billed prions showed a reversed movement towards more polar waters. Carbon stable isotope ratios in recent and historical feathers indicated that poleward winter movements of Thin-billed prions were less common historically (45% in 1913-1915, and have only recently become dominant (92% in 2003-2005, apparently in response to warming sea temperatures. Conclusions This study shows that pelagic seabirds can rapidly change migration strategies within populations, including migration towards more poleward waters in winter.

  12. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  13. Inclusion of climate change strategies in municipal Integrated Development Plans: A case from seven municipalities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankolo X. Lethoko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has made it clear that anthropogenic greenhouse gasses are the main cause of observed global warming that leads to climate change. Climate change is now a global reality. In the South African political set-up, local municipalities are the structures that are in direct contact with communities and they draw up Integrated Development Plans (IDPs, which are reviewed and upgraded annually. The article seeks to investigate the extent to which climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies are embedded IDPs in seven vulnerable municipalities in the Limpopo Province. The article conducted an in-depth content analysis of the IDPs of the seven municipalities and the results have revealed that these municipalities have not included adaptation and mitigation strategies adequately in their IDPs despite being the most vulnerable municipalities in the province. The article concludes that these municipalities have not as yet institutionalised climate change in their daily operations, planning and decision making. To this end, the paper recommends that local municipalities should include climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in their IDPs.Keywords: Climate change; adaptation; mitigation; Integrated Development Plan; vulnerable municipalities

  14. Application of EMC Prediction Analysis in Fly Tests%电磁兼容预测分析在试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全升

    2015-01-01

    论文分析在复杂的电磁环境下开展试验面临的电磁兼容问题。研究了发射场电磁兼容预测分析的理论方法,给出了干扰预测的数学模型,可以在试验设计、故障诊断、EM C加固方面得到应用。%The paper analyzed the EMC(Electro Magnetic Compatibility) of tests in electromagnetic environment .The theory and method to predict the EMC(Electro Magnetic Compatibility) in fly tests are studied and the models for prediction are given .It can be used in test‐design ,malfunction analysis and EMC reinforce .

  15. 某型无人机系统级电磁兼容试验方法研究%Study of Unmanned Aircraft System-level EMC Test Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳锐锋; 张广军; 梁婷

    2015-01-01

    Based on EMC associative standard and the system of unmanned aircraft ,system‐level EMC test approach of EUT is presented in this paper ,and the test approach is analyzed .Furthermore ,layout of EMC test ,operating mode and criterion are presented .At last ,the conclusion and recommendation is given .%参照电磁兼容相关国军标,结合某型无人机系统,提出了被试装备的系统级电磁兼容试验方法,并对电磁兼容试验方法进行了理论分析,提出了电磁兼容试验布局、被试装备工作状态及判决,最后给出了结论建议。

  16. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  17. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  18. Changes in biofilm structure during the colonization of chalcopyrite by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Meza, J V; Fernández, J J; Lara, R H; González, I

    2013-07-01

    Biofilms of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans were grown on the surface of massive chalcopyrite electrodes (MCE) where different secondary sulfur phases were previously formed by potentiostatic oxidation of MCE at 0.780≤Ean≤0.965 V (electrooxidized MCE, eMCE). The formation of mainly S⁰ and minor amounts of CuS and Sn²⁻ were detected on eMCEs. The eMCEs were incubated with A. thiooxidans cells for 1, 12, 24, 48, and 120 h in order to temporally monitor changes in eMCE's secondary phases, biofilm structure, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition (lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides) using microscopic, spectroscopic, electrochemical, and biochemical techniques. The results show significant cell attachments with stratified biofilm structure since the first hour of incubation and EPS composition changes, the most important being production after 48-120 h when the highest amount of lipids and proteins were registered. During 120 h, periodic oxidation/formation of S⁰/Sn²⁻ was recorded on biooxidized eMCEs, until a stable CuS composition was formed. In contrast, no evidence of CuS formation was observed on the eMCEs of the abiotic control, confirming that CuS formation results from microbial activity. The surface transformation of eMCE induces a structural transformation of the biofilm, evolving directly to a multilayered biofilm with more hydrophobic EPS and proteins after 120 h. Our results suggest that A. thiooxidans responded to the spatial and temporal distribution and chemical reactivity of the Sn²⁻/S⁰/CuS phases throughout 120 h. These results suggested a strong correlation between surface speciation, hydrophobic domains in EPS, and biofilm organization during chalcopyrite biooxidation by A. thiooxidans.

  19. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    are characterized by long technical lifetimes and high, unrecoverable construction costs. The most important barrier for the initiation and implementation of the adaptation strategies is therefore the uncertainty when predicting the magnitude of the extreme rainfall in the future. This challenge is explored through...... the application and discussion of three different theoretical decision support strategies: The precautionary principle, the minimax strategy and Bayesian decision support. The reviewed decision support strategies all proved valuable for addressing the identified uncertainties, at best applied together as they all...

  20. 基于空空导弹的电磁兼容问题仿真研究%Simulation study on EMC of air-to-air missiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧

    2015-01-01

    由于空空导弹电磁兼容问题频发及其复杂性,其电磁兼容设计尤为重要.弹体的孔缝耦合和弹体内电缆的电磁耦合效应的研究是导弹电磁兼容预测和设计需要解决的两个主要问题.针对这两个问题,进行了电磁计算仿真分析,并研究得到弹体电磁耦合的规律,可在实践中指导导弹的电磁兼容设计.最终实现在导弹的设计初期,就能够对其电磁兼容性进行预测和评估,满足其电磁兼容性的要求.%The electromagnetic compatibility(EMC)problem of air-to-air missile is complex and happens frequently,so it is particular important for the EMC design. The slot coupling on the missile body and the electromagnetic coupling effect of the cables in the missile are the two major contents for the EMC prediction and design of missiles. Aiming at these two contents, the electromagnetic simulation analysis is performed in this article. The law of the electromagnetic coupling was obtained by re-search. It is of benefit to the EMC design. The prediction and assessment of EMC can be realized in the beginning of missile de-sign,by which the EMC requirement of air-to-air missile can be satisfied.

  1. Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

    In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

  2. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  3. School Counselors' Strategies for Social Justice Change: A Grounded Theory of What Works in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Urbano, Alessandra; Haston, Meg; McMahon, Eleanor

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the strategies that 16 school counselors who self-identified as social justice agents used to advocate for systemic change within their school communities. Findings included seven overarching themes: (a) using political savvy to navigate power structures, (b) consciousness raising,…

  4. A method for evaluating climate change adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers using survey, experimental and modeled data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.; Thornton, P.K.; Herrero, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is predicted to experience considerable negative impacts of climate change. The IPCC Fourth Assessment emphasizes that adaptation strategies are essential. Addressing adaptation in thecontext of small-scale, semi-subsistence agriculture raises special challenges. High data d

  5. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  6. X射线诊断机在EMC测试中的同步控制设计%X-ray Diagnostic Machine Synchronization Control on EMC Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洪斌

    2013-01-01

      提出了在医疗X射线诊断机电磁兼容测试领域,采用EMC测试系统与X射线诊断机同步加载控制的全新方法,彻底解决了X射线诊断机EMC测试结果复现的难题。%This paper puts forward a new synchronous loading control method using EMC test system & X-ray diagnostic machine in the field of X-ray diagnostic machine on EMC test, solves it's recurrence problem.

  7. Diverging business strategies towards climate change : a USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der K.F.; Wit, de C.M.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The research project has investigated what strategies specific sectors of industry develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In an USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the bank and insu

  8. How Does Mechanical Weathering Change Rocks? Using Reading-to-Learn Strategies to Teach Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrip, Peter; Tobey, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many teachers fall into the pattern of "assumptive teaching" (Herber 1970), assuming that other instructors will teach students the important strategies they need for learning. In this case, tools and strategies may not be taught outside of reading or language arts because a science teacher can say, "It's not my job." However, a sixth-grade team…

  9. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  10. Effectiveness of a Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy to Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Uce, Musa; Saricayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

    2006-01-01

    The results of previous educational research raise some questions about the efficacy of conventional teaching strategies and point to a need for using teaching strategies that explicitly take into account misconceptions students bring to the classes or acquire during the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, this article presents efforts to…

  11. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  12. Objectives and strategies for energy revolution in the context of tackling climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change mitigation and CO2 emission reduction have promoted the revolutionary transformation in energy system. The core content of energy system revolutionary transformation is to replace the high-carbon energy system dominated by fossil energy with low-carbon energy system dominated by new and renewable energy and finally realize the near-zero emission of CO2. The new energy system transformation has also led to a reform in global economic and social development patterns. Developing low-carbon economy becomes the fundamental strategy of sustainable development under climate risk management and the only solution to getting on the road from industrial civilization to ecological civilization. China intends to achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2030 and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20% by 2030. Guided by the targets, China directs its economy development to a low-carbon pattern. Therefore, new and renewable power capacity need to reach 1300 GW, and the electricity generated should be 4 times of that in 2013 with a continuous increase rate of 6%–8% around 2030. The pace of energy substitution need to be accelerated and efficient, safe, clean, and low-carbon energy supply and consumption systems should be established besides strengthened energy conservation and improved energy efficient. Therefore, reform need be deepened, favorable policy system and market mechanism for energy revolution and low-carbon development need be established, energy pricing mechanism should be reformed, and national carbon market should be formed to provide a favorable policy and market environment for low-carbon technology innovation and industry development.

  13. Objectives and strategies for energy revolution in the context of tackling climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change mitigation and CO2 emission reduction have promoted the revolutionary transformation in energy system.The core content of energy system revolutionary transformation is to replace the high-carbon energy system dominated by fossil energy with low-carbon energy system dominated by new and renewable energy and finally realize the near-zero emission of CO2.The new energy system transformation has also led to a reform in global economic and social development patterns.Developing low-carbon economy becomes the fundamental strategy of sustainable development under climate risk management and the only solution to getting on the road from industrial civilization to ecological civilization.China intends to achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2030 and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20% by 2030.Guided by the targets,China directs its economy development to a low-carbon pattern.Therefore,new and renewable power capacity need to reach 1300 GW,and the electricity generated should be 4 times of that in 2013 with a continuous increase rate of 6%e8% around 2030.The pace of energy substitution need to be accelerated and efficient,safe,clean,and low-carbon energy supply and consumption systems should be established besides strengthened energy conservation and improved energy efficient.Therefore,reform need be deepened,favorable policy system and market mechanism for energy revolution and low-carbon development need be established,energy pricing mechanism should be reformed,and national carbon market should be formed to provide a favorable policy and market environment for low-carbon technology innovation and industry development.

  14. The radiation hardness of silica optical fiber used in the LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LED-fiber system has been used to monitor BLM and BESIII EMC. A radiation hard silica optical fiber is essential for its stability and reliability. Three types of silica optical fibers, silicone-clad silica optical fiber with high OH- content (SeCS), silica-clad silica optical fiber with low OH- content (SCSL) and silica-clad silica opical fiber with high OH- content (SCSH) were studied. In the experiment, 12 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by 60Co and 3 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by BEPCII background radiation. Radiation hardness: the radiation hardness of SCSH is best and meets the radiation hardness requirement for LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC. The transmission of SeCS and SCSH decreased to around 80% under the 60Co-irradiation of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively. The radiation hardness of SeCS is worst because of its silicone cladding. Recovery characteristics: 60Co-irradiated by the same doses, there were both more annealable and more permanent color centers formed in SeCS than SCSL, and for the same kind of fibers, as long as the irradiated doses are under a certain amount (for example, less than 5 Gy for SeCS), the higher the doses, both the more annealable and the more permanent color centers are formed.

  15. Transport simulations of linear plasma generators with the B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J., E-mail: rappj@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Owen, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Bonnin, X. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Caneses, J.F. [PRL, Research School of Physics and Engineering, ANU, Canberra (Australia); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Corr, C. [PRL, Research School of Physics and Engineering, ANU, Canberra (Australia); Lore, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Linear plasma generators are cost effective facilities to simulate divertor plasma conditions of present and future fusion reactors. The codes B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene were extensively used for design studies of the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). Effects on the target plasma of the gas fueling and pumping locations, heating power, device length, magnetic configuration and transport model were studied with B2.5-Eirene. Effects of tilted or vertical targets were calculated with EMC3-Eirene and showed that spreading the incident flux over a larger area leads to lower density, higher temperature and off-axis profile peaking in front of the target. The simulations indicate that with sufficient heating power MPEX can reach target plasma conditions that are similar to those expected in the ITER divertor. B2.5-Eirene simulations of the MAGPIE experiment have been carried out in order to establish an additional benchmark with experimental data from a linear device with helicon wave heating.

  16. 飞机天线系统EMC设计%EMC design of aircraft antenna system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亮; 李峰; 王涛涛

    2012-01-01

    飞机天线系统EMC设计的主题思想就是为了保证所有机载设备都能够相互无干扰地调和工作,即各天线在能够正常工作的同时,不会干扰其他天线的工作,还要兼顾天线的性能和工程安装要求,满足整机机载设备正常工作,任务设备也能够正常工作.采用仿真软件进行天线系统电磁兼容的仿真计算后制作了1∶1飞机壳体,进行了天线布局的缩比模型模拟测试,得出了整个飞机的天线布局方案.并提出当出现天线间隔离度太小,可能导致相互间干扰时,从系统层面上考虑分时或分频工作,而需要同时工作的不同频率的天线,应在系统链路上附加滤波器等措施,提高天线发射机对谐波和三阶交调系数的抑制.%EMC design purpose of the aircraft antenna system is to ensure that all the airborne equipments work normally without interaction interference. In addition, the design takes into account of the antenna performance and requirements of the antenna engineering installation, so as to meet the normal work of other airborne equipments. The simulation software is adopted to perform the simulation calculation of the electromagnetic compatibility of the antenna system in this paper. A 1:1 aircraft shell was produced to carry out the scale-reduced model simulation testing for the antenna layout. The scheme of the entire aircraft antenna layout was obtained. A conclusion that when the isolation degree is too small. it is supposed that the in teraction interference may occur. The time-shearing and frequency demultiplication were considered in the system level. When more antennas work simultaneously at different frequencies, an additional filter should be put into the periodic line of the system or other measures should be taken to improve the inhibition ability of antenna transmitter in the harmonic and third order intermodulation coefficient.

  17. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, F.; De Wit, K.; Vellinga, P. [Institue for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management, Faculty of Economics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D. [Department of Management, University of Massachusetts, Boston, VA (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible.

  18. ERP evidence of cognitive strategy change in motivational conditions with varying level of difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillier, L; Whitebread, D; Szucs, D

    2015-04-01

    Recent research suggests that motivation improves cognitive functions but the particular mechanisms and precise behavioural conditions involved in such improvement still remain unknown. Particularly, it is unclear when in time and in which conditions these mechanisms are engaged. In the present study, we aimed to look at the neural markers of cognitive control strategies in different motivational conditions (motivation vs neutral) with different levels of difficulty (high vs low). Twenty-five adults completed a newly designed task in the four conditions above. Three ERP components were analysed: the CNV, LRP and P3b. We found that a motivational situation triggers the use of a proactive strategy when low cognitive control is required. A reactive strategy was used in a non-motivational situation and for difficult trials. Our study is also the first to provide evidence that the difference between proactive and reactive strategies occurs after the first stimulus (cue) is processed. PMID:25708173

  19. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible

  20. Energetic Optimisation of Foraging Honeybees: Flexible Change of Strategies in Response to Environmental Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Stabentheiner; Helmut Kovac

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, ...

  1. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  2. Climate Change Education: Goals, Audiences, and Strategies--A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Sherrie; Feder, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The global scientific and policy community now unequivocally accepts that human activities cause global climate change. Although information on climate change is readily available, the nation still seems unprepared or unwilling to respond effectively to climate change, due partly to a general lack of public understanding of climate change issues…

  3. Does the change of educational strategy for chest compression based on the change of guidelines affect on the quality of prehospital chest compression?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims. International guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) changed their strategy with respect to the rate of chest compression (CC) and ventilation from 15:2 to 30:2. The object of this study was to clarify the effect of this change on the quality of CPR. Subjects and Methods. We recorded the frequency of CC and ventilation performed by Emergency Life Support Technicians (ELSTs) during CPR in ambulances, and compared the period when ELSTs performed 15:2 CPR with th...

  4. Renewable energy to develop adaptation strategies to the climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Pieranna; Bergonzoli, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Changes in land use and combustion of fossil fuels have been largest human impact on the global carbon cycle and without a complete accounting of net greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes, developing and evaluating adaptation strategies are not possible. The major source of GHG fluxes associated with crop production are soil N2O emissions, soil CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes, and CO2 emission associated with agricultural inputs and farm equipment operation. This study points out the main principles which are at the base of solar energy use for sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Field tests were carried out in order to compare crop yield and solar pump plant performance, for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, connected to drip irrigation and sprinkler system plants during the irrigation season. The system mainly consists of the parts listed here: set of flat photovoltaic panels consisting of 150 panels for a total of 3000 W peak value once installed, connected in serial-parallel to obtain a 120 Vdc operating voltage rating. The panels utilize 36 serially connected single-crystal silicon cells providing a 12 V voltage rating. The serial connection of 10 panels generates the system's operating voltage rating (120 Vdc). The total 3000 W peak value power is obtained by connecting in parallel 15 serial-strings. When the circuit is open, the voltage at the ends of the panels can reach 210 Volts. The photovoltaic system supplies, through an inverter, a three-phase 1.6 kW canned pump located in the artesian well. The relevant hydraulic line connects this pump to the various utilities. The hydraulic capacity of the helium pump has been used during the irrigation season in order to meet the water needs of a corn crop. Therefore, along with the solar pump was used a dispersing wing type drip irrigation system with double chamber hosing (70 kPa operating pressure), with external holes spaced 0.3 m apart, 0.75 m distance between the wings, wing length 120 m and placed

  5. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  6. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    it on the surface without harming assets. When evaluating different adaptation approaches, a cost assessment is typically carried out, while environmental impacts usually are not considered. To close this gap, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based method is developed, which allows to quantify environmental impacts...... of different storm water management strategies. It is tested with two different adaptation strategies for the Nørrebro catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Cloudburst Management Plan (CMP), which uses a multi-functional approach and combines green infrastructure with subsurface pipes, and a Subsurface scenario...

  7. PREDICTING CHANGE IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS: THE EFFECTS OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Waweru

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on a survey that investigated changes in management accounting and control systems in 31 Canadian manufacturing companies. Six variables that may influence changes in management accounting and control systems are identified from contingency theory literature. The findings indicate considerable changes in the organizations’ management accounting systems during the three year period. Changes in management accounting were best predicted by organizational capacity to learn. S...

  8. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  9. Ecological restoration of tidal estuaries in North Western Europe: an adaptive strategy to multi-scale changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrotoy, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Estuaries are subject to increasing pressures due to local human activities. In addition, global change is affecting coastal habitats. Such disturbances impinge on goods and services provided by these ecosystems. The paper is devoted to efforts to restore environmental quality in some industrialised estuaries during the few past decades. It then compares strategies to recover damaged habitats and methods to restore lost ecological functionalities. Case studies are taken from the Seine in Fran...

  10. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  11. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...

  12. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  13. In Search of Excellence: Practical Strategies for Managing Change in Environmental Health Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veninga, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three methods intended to assist in assessing the attitudes of environmental health organization employees with regard to change. Focuses on ways to bring about orderly organizational change, how to evaluate whether the changes are effective, and how to diminish resistance to new ideas. (Author/TW)

  14. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1 the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies as a result of changes in climate; (2 ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3 identification the socio-economic factors associated with adoption of coping strategies, and (4 ranking potential constraints to adoption of coping strategies based on farmers’ reporting on the degree to which they face these constraints. As a preliminary matter, this paper also reports on the perceptions of farmers in the study about their experiences with climatic change. The research area is comprised of three villages in the coastal region (Sathkhira district, a geographic region which climate change literature has highlighted as prone to accelerated degradation. One-hundred (100 farmers participated in the project’s survey, from which the data was used to calculate weighted indexes for rankings and to perform logistic regression. The rankings, model results, and descriptive statistics, are reported here. Results showed that a majority of the farmers self-identified as having engaged in adaptive behavior. Out of 14 adaptation strategies, irrigation ranked first among farm adaptive measures, while crop insurance has ranked as least utilized. The logit model explained that out of eight factors surveyed, age, education, family size, farm size, family income, and involvement in cooperatives were significantly related to self-reported adaptation. Despite different support and technological interventions being available, lack of available water, shortage of cultivable land, and unpredictable weather ranked highest as the respondent group’s constraints to coping with environmental

  15. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  16. Using Technology-Based Strategies to Change Drug-Related Attitudes and First-Time Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ben; Roblyer, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that a solid pre-trial drug intervention program is a vital first step in educating first-time offenders about the seriousness of drug abuse and criminal behavior, staff at the Intervention Program for Substance Abusers in Montgomery County, Maryland's Department of Correction and Rehabilitation decided that better strategies were…

  17. A Study of Preservice Educators' Dispositions to Change Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    Student behavior problems contribute to poor academic achievement and poor teacher retention. This study investigated preservice teachers' dispositions to implement positive and proactive strategies for managing behavior in the general education elementary urban classroom. The author interviewed 19 preservice teachers in a large urban school…

  18. A Comparison of Strategies for Changing College Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eileen S.; Torgler, Cyndee C.

    1990-01-01

    Compared effects of strategies for informing college students about date rape. Assigned students to either experimental group that viewed videotape on acquaintance rape (n=33), experimental group that read brochure on acquaintance rape (n=31), or control group (n=25). Findings revealed no significant difference between effects of videotape and…

  19. The Role of Community and School Groups in School Desegregation: Strategies for Crisis and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard H.; Laue, James H.

    This manual was designed for community and school groups to aid them in clarifying their goals and selecting strategies for resolving issues related to school desegregation. After a brief review of the law, Part 1 reviews the major issues involved in the school desegregation process: quality education, white flight, middle-class minority flight,…

  20. Developmental changes in children's awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, J L; Ruble, D N

    1989-12-01

    Children at 3 age levels (5-6 1/2, 7 1/2-9, and 10-12 years) were interviewed to determine their spontaneous suggestions of coping strategies designed to manage frustration caused by waiting for a desired object (positive valence) and fear caused by waiting for an unpleasant event (negative valence) in uncontrollable situations. Subjects' responses were grouped into categories based on coping techniques discussed in the adult coping literature on a continuum from approach to avoidance techniques. The avoidance tactics, the main focus of interest, were further divided into 4 distinct forms. In contrast to investigations of children's coping in more controllable situations, approach strategies were very infrequently mentioned. An age increase was found in the proportion of cognitive distraction strategies suggested, but behavioral distraction strategies were most frequently suggested by children at all age levels and did not differ significantly across age. The developmental differences were particularly evident for the negative valence scenarios and, within the negative valence scenarios, for the story likely to be the most stressful to young children--getting a shot. The results are discussed in terms of possible reasons for age differences in cognitive but not behavioral distraction and their implications for children's ability to cope with uncontrollable stress. PMID:2612245

  1. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  2. Study on EMC of electronic control device for railway vehicles%铁路机车车辆电子控制装置的电磁兼容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严云升

    2001-01-01

    阐述了电磁兼容性的基本概念、电磁兼容性试验的项目,指出严酷等级确定的依据,介绍了目前车载电子控制装置电磁兼容性能的现状,强调了电磁兼容性的重要性。%Elementary concept and test items of EMC are expounded. Basis to determine the seperity level is put forward. Current situations of EMC characteristics of on-board electronic control devices are introduced, with the importance of EMC emphasized.

  3. Good year, bad year: changing strategies, changing networks? A two-year study on seed acquisition in northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Violon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of seed exchange networks at a single point in time may reify sporadic relations into apparently fixed and long-lasting ones. In northern Cameroon, where environment is not only strongly seasonal but also shows unpredictable interannual variation, farmers' social networks are flexible from year to year. When adjusting their strategies, Tupuri farmers do not systematically solicit the same partners to acquire the desired propagules. Seed acquisitions documented during a single cropping season may thus not accurately reflect the underlying larger social network that can be mobilized at the local level. To test this hypothesis, we documented, at the outset of two cropping seasons (2010 and 2011, the relationships through which seeds were acquired by the members of 16 households in a Tupuri community. In 2011, farmers faced sudden failure of the rains and had to solicit distant relatives, highlighting their ability to quickly trigger specific social relations to acquire necessary seeding material. Observing the same set of individuals during two successive years and the seed sources they solicited in each year enabled us to discriminate repeated relations from sporadic ones. Although farmers did not acquire seeds from the same individuals from one year to the next, they relied on quite similar relational categories of people. However, the worse weather conditions during the second year led to (1 a shift from red sorghum seeds to pearl millet seeds, (2 a geographical extension of the network, and (3 an increased participation of women in seed acquisitions. In critical situations, women mobilized their own kin almost exclusively. We suggest that studying the seed acquisition network over a single year provides a misrepresentation of the underlying social network. Depending on the difficulties farmers face, they may occasionally call on relationships that transcend the local relationships used each year.

  4. Influence of hydrological modelling strategies on the diagnosis of the impact of climate change on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, Grégory; Roy, René; Anctil, François

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties related to the assessment of the impacts of climate change on water resources are large, from multiple sources, and lead to diagnoses sometimes difficult to interpret. Therefore, the quantification of these uncertainties is a key element to yield confidence in the analyses and to provide water managers with valuable information. This research specifically evaluates the sensitivity of future water resources projections to the choice of hydrological modelling strategies, on thirty-seven watersheds in the Province of Québec, Canada. These modelling strategies mainly focus on calibration and hydrological model choices, as well as individual versus ensemble approaches. Twenty lumped hydrological models, representing a wide range of operational options, are calibrated with three objective functions on six historical calibration periods. The hydrological models are forced with 122 climate simulations corresponding to four RCP and twenty-nine GCM from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5), provided by the Canadian consortium Ouranos. Two bias correction techniques are also evaluated and lead to future projections in the 2041-2070 period. Results show that the diagnosis of the impacts of climate change on water resources are quite sensitive to the hydrological models selection and calibration strategies. This statement is particularly true when evaluating changes in an absolute way. Multimodel approaches offer the best options in terms of calibration performance and robustness on contrasted climate conditions. Hydrological indicators, dedicated to water management, are sensitive to the calibration objective functions and period selection. Overall, these results illustrate the need to provide water managers with detailed information on relative changes analysis, but also absolute changes values, especially for hydrological indicators acting as security policy thresholds.

  5. 电梯电磁兼容问题研究%Study on the EMC of Elevator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万健如; 张彦朝; 杨岳枫; 李树超

    2009-01-01

    在介绍电磁兼容(EMC)基本概念和电磁干扰EMI产生机理的基础上,借助传输线理论,对电磁干扰途径和抑制方法进行了介绍,对电能质量及相关指标进行了讨论分析,并且给出了4种解决建议方案.结合电梯对与EMC相关的标准进行了讨论,对欧盟和美国电能质量标准进行了介绍.最后给出了一些试验波形和结果,以期能达到抛砖引玉的效果.

  6. EMC3-EIRENE modeling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lore, J.D., E-mail: lorejd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Reinke, M.L. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); LaBombard, B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Churchill, R.M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Feng, Y. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ∼50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modeling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.

  7. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis. PMID:24601668

  8. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  9. Assessing natural disaster preparedness and climate change mitigation strategies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur

    2013-01-01

    Global climate is changing continuously as a result of industrial revolution and rapid urbanisation in many countries of the world which has significant impacts on environment, socio-economic condition, physical and biological issues. Increase of global temperature, rainfall changes, sea level rise, occurrences of extreme weather events such as floods, cyclones, typhoons, droughts etc. are the major and direct consequences of climate change in the world (Pulhin et al., 2010, & Shaw et al., 20...

  10. Learning and assessment credibility: The design of examination strategies in a changing learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Diprose

    2013-01-01

    Learning environments for higher education have changed considerably in the last 20 years, especially since the advent of the internet. In addition to the change in learning technologies has come an increasing politicisation of higher education and in the UK a change from being virtually free in the 1980s to one where annual costs (Sheffield Press Release, 2012) can now be in excess of £9000 p.a. Since there are various routes to attaining higher education and commercialisation and competitio...

  11. Stuck in the tar sands : how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The credibility of any federal climate change strategy must be measured against its ability to reduce emissions from the tar sands. However, the federal government has proposed a climate change strategy that would allow tar sands producers to double their total emissions over the next decade. This report discussed how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook. The report discussed the problems and harmful effects associated with tar sands development, including greenhouse gas emissions; water depletion and pollution; toxic air emissions; destruction of the boreal forest; violation of native rights; threat to energy security; and negative socio-economic spin-off from an overheated economy. The federal government's proposed strategy was also assessed in terms of its weak greenhouse gas targets; ignoring the recent growth in tar sands emissions; adopting intensity-based targets instead of hard caps on greenhouse gas pollution, allowing total emissions from the tar sands to keep climbing; putting off critical measures until 2018; awarding oil companies hundreds of millions of dollars in credits for meeting targets they have already adopted voluntarily; lowballing the price of oil and downplaying future growth in tar sands emissions; ignoring huge portions of the oil industry's greenhouse gas pollution; letting oil companies buy their way out at rockbottom prices instead of forcing them to reduce their own emissions; and subsidizing increased tar sands production. It was concluded that the federal government's proposed plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was inadequate, because it failed to crack down on rising greenhouse gas emissions from the tar sands, one of Canada's most carbon intensive and fastest growing industries. 29 refs., 1 appendix

  12. Do organic foodservice intervention strategies lead to changes in the availability of healthy options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children and young people is increasing in most countries in Europe and as a result schools are increasingly taking a role in both food provision, in promoting healthy eating, and nutrition education of young people by implementing healthy policies. At the same time...... schools are implementing environmental friendly polices i.e. organic procurement strategies (Mu, 2008). It is therefore relevant to investigate the relationship between the different components of such interventions. This study carried out a survey in primary schools in Denmark and Norway through a Web...... Based Questionnaire. The results indicate that there is an association between organic food strategies and the availability of healthy meal options. But further studies are needed in order to understand the nature of this association....

  13. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  14. Changing Value Chain Strategies of Danish Clothing and Fashion Companies, 1970-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Taudal Poulsen, René

    2013-01-01

    Over the last four decades, the clothing industry has seen one of the most radical, global transformations of any industry, and Western European clothing companies have been put under strain. To the surprise of industry observers and academics, however, Denmark continues to hold expansive and pro...... of new companies entering the sector rather than the transformation of old ones. The article demonstrates that value chain strategies are constantly in the making and successful ones rarely remain competitive for long....

  15. Changing Academic Medicine: Strategies Used by Academic Leaders of Integrative Medicine—A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia M Witt; Christine Holmberg

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academ...

  16. Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

  17. Renovation strategies: use and changes to Lisbon’s domestic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Amoêda, Rogério; Lira, Sérgio; Pinheiro, Cristina; Wall Gago, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    This contribution proposes a comparative analysis of the original and transformed domestic layout in recent renovations of late 18th and early 19th century housing in Lisbon’s Baixa Pombalina. We specifically look at modifications of room function and connections between spaces according to three main strategies: re-using alcoves for new bathrooms or storage; addressing the kitchen’s present role in domestic sociability; creating additional housing units through flat division. The aim is to i...

  18. Towards Comprehensive and Disciplined Change Management Strategy in Agile Transformation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Taghi Javdani Gandomani; Hazura Zulzalil; Abdul Azim Abd. Ghani; Abu Bakar Md Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Moving to agile through a well-defined strategy and framework is essential and this socio-technical process should be studied in deep. Advantages and earned values of agile approach in software industry motivate a lot of companies to try to use agile methods in their software product lines. Transformation process to agile methods is not easy and because of its nature, takes a long time. Since agile transformation needs organizational mutation, companies are faced with many challenges during t...

  19. Competition vs. Cooperation: Analyzing Strategy Dilemma in Business Growth under Changing Social Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2006-01-01

    There are many factors that determine the structure of competition in the environment of growing globalization. Of these, the factors which predominates the nature of competition include not only rivals, but also the economics of particular industries, new entrants, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers, and the threat of substitute services or products. Hence, competition seems to be inevitable. However, collaboration in the business strategy may be considered analogous with the co...

  20. Enrollment Management with Academic Portfolio Strategies: Preparing for Environment-Induced Changes in Student Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Michael B.

    1990-01-01

    A marketing model of enrollment management focusing on relationships between changes in the macroenvironment, target market student preferences, college marketing mix, and enrollment is presented. Application of the model illustrates how institutions can offset, enhance, or neutralize potential enrollment effects of job market changes through…

  1. ICES and PICES strategies for coordinating research on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel;

    2014-01-01

    on Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecosystems (SICCME) to synthesize and to promote innovative, credible, and objective science-based advice on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere. SICCME takes advantage of the unique and complementary strengths of the two...

  2. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in Northern India: Impact and adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Singh, T.; Siderius, C.; Balakrishnan, S.; Mishra, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of clim

  3. Conservation strategies to adapt to projected climate change impacts in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is potential for climate change to have negative effects on agricultural production via extreme events (Pruski and Nearing, 2002b; Zhang et al., 2012; Walthall 2012), and there is a need to implement conservation practices for climate change adaptation (Delgado et al. 2011; 2013). Recent repo...

  4. The Relationship of Future Agricultural Extension Educators' Cognitive Styles and Change Strategies for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Robert; Irani, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The study expands reported here Extension education's knowledge regarding characteristics of potential change agents. Graduate students learning to become agricultural Extension educators were studied to determine their definition of a change agent. Participants' cognitive styles were assessed using Kirton's Adaptation-Innovation Inventory to…

  5. Program on ecosystem change and society: An international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, S.R.; Folke, C.; Norström, A.V.; Olsson, O.; Schultz, L.; Agarwal, B.; Balvanera, P.; Campbell, B.; Castilla, J.C.; Cramer, W.; DeFries, R.; Eyzaguirre, P.; Hughes, T.P.; Polasky, S.; Sanusi, Z.A.; Scholes, R.J.; Spierenburg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality a

  6. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    strong upslope shifting of open grassland, chaparral and hardwood types, which may be initiated by increased fire frequencies, particularly where fires have not recently burned within normal fire recurrence interval departures (FRID). An evaluation of four fire management strategies (business as usual; resist change; foster orderly change; protect vital resources) across four combinations of future climate and fire frequency found that no single management strategy was uniformly successful in protecting critical resources across the range of future conditions examined. This limitation is somewhat driven by current management constraints on the amount of management available to resource managers, which suggests management will need to use a triage approach to application of proactive fire management strategies, wherein MOC landscape projections can be used in decision support.

  7. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  8. Pricing strategy for aesthetic surgery: economic analysis of a resident clinic's change in fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-02-01

    The laws of microeconomics explain how prices affect consumer purchasing decisions and thus overall revenues and profits. These principles can easily be applied to the behavior aesthetic plastic surgery patients. The UCLA Division of Plastic Surgery resident aesthetics clinic recently offered a radical price change for its services. The effects of this change on demand for services and revenue were tracked. Economic analysis was applied to see if this price change resulted in the maximization of total revenues, or if additional price changes could further optimize them. Economic analysis of pricing involves several steps. The first step is to assess demand. The number of procedures performed by a given practice at different price levels can be plotted to create a demand curve. From this curve, price sensitivities of consumers can be calculated (price elasticity of demand). This information can then be used to determine the pricing level that creates demand for the exact number of procedures that yield optimal revenues. In economic parlance, revenues are maximized by pricing services such that elasticity is equal to 1 (the point of unit elasticity). At the UCLA resident clinic, average total fees per procedure were reduced by 40 percent. This resulted in a 250-percent increase in procedures performed for representative 4-month periods before and after the price change. Net revenues increased by 52 percent. Economic analysis showed that the price elasticity of demand before the price change was 6.2. After the price change it was 1. We conclude that the magnitude of the price change resulted in a fee schedule that yielded the highest possible revenues from the resident clinic. These results show that changes in price do affect total revenue and that the nature of these effects can be understood, predicted, and maximized using the tools of microeconomics. PMID:9950562

  9. The fight against international terrorism and changes in the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marrero Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the the fight against international terrorism, as a new organising principle in U.S. foreign policy and security policy, has conditioned and modified the American conception of and strategy for combatting nuclear arms proliferation. On the one hand, it analyses the concepts of “axis of evil” or “rogue states” as instruments of automatic and forced connection between international terrorism and nuclear armsproliferating states. On the other hand, it also deals with the changes in American nonproliferation and disarmament strategy, characterised by a distrust towards international cooperation and a clear preference for using means of a unilateral nature, which challenge, and even scorn, international institutions and the rules of international law in this area.

  10. The changing epidemiology of Asian digestive cancers: From etiologies and incidences to preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Ying; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2015-12-01

    Digestive cancers are a major health burden in Asia. Due to the presence of similar "infection-inflammation-cancer" pathways in the carcinogenesis process, eradicating infective pathogens or attenuating relevant inflammatory signaling pathways may reduce digestive cancer incidences and improve patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to review the recent evidence regarding the epidemiology of three major digestive cancers in Asia: stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer. We focused on the incidence trends, the major etiologies, and especially the potential preventive strategies.

  11. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Michael Brubaker; Joshua Glasser; Will Hueston; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of c...

  12. Introduction to the symposium theme : climate change in fragmented landscapes: can we develop spatial adaptation strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Verboom, J.; Vos, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that by increasing the concentration of greenhouse gasses, man has a discernible influence on climate, and this is expected to be a long-term phenomenon affecting the environment in the forthcoming decades or even centuries. Since climate is a key driving force for ecological processes, climate change is likely to exert considerable impact on ecosystems. Since nature policy worldwide is often based upon policy plans which do not ...

  13. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    I. Weindl; Lotze-Campen, H.; Popp, A; C. Müller; Havlik, P.; Herrero, M.; Schmitz, C; S. Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farming is the world's largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions a...

  14. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Holmner, Åsa; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today’s most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health inf...

  15. Robust Organizational Fitness for Reinventing Strategy in Rapidly Changing Industry Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Michael; Voelpel, Sven C.; Leibold, Marius

    2003-01-01

    In fast-changing industry landscapes, companies are often engaged in both adaptive (reactive) and inventive (proactive, newly-shaping) change processes, and these require different types of organizational fitness capabilities. Our research of more than a decade conducted in a wide range of industries (See "About our Research") reveal that many companies are predominantly focused on past successes and internal difficulties, and do not possess the necessary robust capabilities to also inventive...

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand in Rheraya Watershed (Morocco), with Potential Adaptation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rochdane, Saloua; Reichert, Barbara; Messouli, Mohammed; Babqiqi, Abdelaziz; Khebiza, Mohammed Yacoubi

    2012-01-01

    Rheraya watershed already suffers from the impacts of climate variability and will be further affected by climate change. Severe water shortages and extremely fragile ecological conditions necessitate careful attention to water resources management. The aim of this study is to analyze Rheraya’s future water situation under different scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change until 2100. The Water Evaluation and Planning System model (WEAP) has been applied to estimate the curr...

  17. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration.

  18. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration. PMID:16146687

  19. Introduction of the General Situation and Test Method of Domestic and Oversea EMC standards%国内外电磁兼容标准概况与测试手段简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄申; 周志玉

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), the general development of domestic and Oversea EMC standards, the environmental requirement for EMC measurement,and disturbance and anti-interfersnce measuring equipment, with the purpose of providing engineers and technicians with preliminary knowledge of EMC.%本文介绍了电磁兼容性的定义,国内外电磁兼容标准的发展概况和电磁兼容测量所需的环境要求以及骚扰、抗干扰测量设备的有关情况.目的是使广大工程技术人员对电磁兼容有个初步了解.

  20. Promoting women's health: redefining the knowledge base and strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, S; Hill, J

    1986-01-01

    Promoting women's health involves undertaking a critical gender-based analysis of women's health status and health needs and the knowledge bases which underlie health promotion action. The authors argue that professional and lay definitions of health problems often differ and that these differences stem from a differential emphasis on existing knowledge bases. Here the authors explore the focus of epidemiological, clinical, and experiential knowledge and suggest ways in which each does or does not address many key health issues which women themselves identify as important. Attention is also directed towards women's own suppressed and devalued knowledge as embodied in traditional folk practices and alternative care forms. Recommendations are made to improve existing knowledge bases by transforming some of the value orientations, priorities, methods and the social organization of research. The authors suggest that positive health promotion strategies must be based on an improved knowledge base and must incorporate three key concepts which women emphasize as central--self determination, women-centred values, and a gender-based political analysis. Strategies and methods to achieve these ends are suggested for health educators and policy-makers who wish to develop more positive approaches to promoting women's health. PMID:10286863