WorldWideScience

Sample records for change emc strategy

  1. Randomized controlled study of early medication change for non-improvers to antidepressant therapy in major depression--The EMC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, André; Wachtlin, Daniel; Berger, Mathias; Braus, Dieter F; van Calker, Dietrich; Dahmen, Norbert; Dreimüller, Nadine; Engel, Alice; Gorbulev, Stanislav; Helmreich, Isabella; Kaiser, Anne-Katrin; Kronfeld, Kai; Schlicht, Konrad F; Tüscher, Oliver; Wagner, Stefanie; Hiemke, Christoph; Lieb, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and no improvement after two weeks of antidepressant pharmacotherapy have a high risk of treatment failure. The aim of the study was to determine whether an early medication change (EMC) strategy is superior to a guideline-based treatment in MDD patients without improvement after two weeks of antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Eight-hundred-and-eighty-nine patients with MDD were enrolled, 879 patients received the SSRI escitalopram. Of those, 192 patients had no improvement, defined as a reduction of EMC strategy (n = 97; venlafaxine XR for study days 15-56; in case of sustained non-improvement on day 28, lithium augmentation for days 29-56) or TAU (n = 95; escitalopram continuation; non-responders on day 28 were switched to venlafaxine XR for four weeks, i.e. days 29-56). The primary outcome was remission (HAMD-17 ≤ 7) after 8 weeks of treatment as assessed by blinded raters. Remission rates were 24% for EMC and 16% for TAU, which was not significantly different (p = 0.2056). Sensitivity analyses for the primary and secondary effectiveness endpoints consistently showed favorable results for patients randomized to EMC. The results confirm data from post-hoc analyses of clinical trials showing that early non-improvement identifies patients who likely need alternate interventions. However, the herein used two-step switch/augmentation strategy for this risk group was not more effective than the control intervention. Alternate strategies and other design aspects are discussed in order to support researchers addressing the same research question.

  2. EMC Program Emerqency!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2009-01-01

    @@ On June 15,2009,at the 2009 China Beijing International Energy Saving and Environmental Protection High-level Forum-EMC and Energy Conservation Service Industry,there were 12 enterprises participating in the contract signing ceremony for EMC programs.All the contracted energy conservation companies are member units of Beijing Commission for Promotion of Energy Saving and Environmental Protection(Beijing CPPESEP).And the total amount of cooperation intention is up to tens of millions RMB.It seemed that the EMC mechanism oriented by the market and serving the energy conservation was thriving again.So what is the EMC?

  3. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  4. Introduction to EMC

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John

    1997-01-01

    This is the clear guide for non-specialists to electromagnetic compatability (EMC), the effects of electromagnetic radiation and the European EMC Directive which is now in force. This book helps by explaining the basic principles of EMC, how it may be controlled in practice through filtering, shielding, appropriate printed circuit board design, and other means. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and surge protection are discussed. The growing concern about the effects of electromagnetic waves and fields on health are examined in detail.This introduction provides beginners, technical and

  5. EMC Part Ⅱ Regulatory Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnWong

    2005-01-01

    As described in the Part I, the goal of electromagnetic compatibility, or EMC, is to design electronic systems that are electromagnetically compatible with their environment. EMC requirements exist so that electronic systems designers have a set of guidelines that explain the limits of what is considered electromagnetically compatible. There is not, however, one allencompassing set of EMC guidelines. Instead, EMC guidelines are created by individual product manufacturers,

  6. EMC in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tihanyi, Laszlo

    1995-01-01

    Electronics professionals will find this book invaluable when designing power equipment, because it describes in detail how to cope with the problem of electromagnetic interference. The author shows how to meet the exacting US and European EMC standards for conducted emissions.The book includes a wide range of EMI analysis techniques. An important focus is on the energy content of interference transient signals (traditional analysis concentrates on amplitude and frequency). This provides a more accurate picture of the EMI situation. For those who do not want or need detailed analysis technique

  7. Launch Services Program EMC Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    trout, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Presentation covers these issues: (1) Vehicles of the Launch Services Program, (2) RF Environment, (3) Common EMC Launch Vehicle Payload Integration Issues, (4) RF Sensitive Missions and (5) Lightning Monitoring,

  8. Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus-induced sialodacryoadenitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguchi, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yumi; Doi, Chiyo; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2005-02-01

    The mode of occurrence of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis (EMC-D) virus-induced acute sialodacryoadenitis was investigated using three strains of mice differing in their sensitivity to EMC-D virus-induced diabetes (C57BL/6: resistant; BALB/c: moderately sensitive; DBA/2: highly sensitive). Mice were intranasally inoculated with high (10(5) PFU/mouse) or low dose (10(2) PFU/mouse) of EMC-D virus. Although there were individual differences, the blood virus titer generally reached the peak earlier in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group. Signals of viral RNA and histopathological changes were seen in parotid glands and intraorbital and extraorbital lachrymal glands. In these glands, signals of viral RNA and histopathological changes were detected only in acinar cells and initial lesions were characterized by pyknosis of acinar cells. Coagulative necrosis with interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration developed later in parotid glands of BALB/c mice of the high-dose group and in intraorbital and extraorbital lachrymal glands of all groups except for C57BL/6 mice of the low-dose group. Such changes were not observed in epithelial cells of the ductal system. The present results indicate that EMC-D virus shows clear tissue and cell tropism within the salivary and lachrymal glands, probably due to the distribution of receptors for EMC virus.

  9. Organizational change strategies within healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Claudia; Dastmalchian, Ali; Blyton, Paul; Hasselback, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study explores ways in which healthcare organizations can improve their organizational fitness for change using Beer and Nohria's framework of Theory E (concentrating on the economic value of change) and Theory O (concentrating on the organization's long-term capabilities for change). Data were collected from senior leaders/medical directors from health regions in Alberta. The results show that even though there is a tendency for reliance on Theory E change strategies, the respondents demonstrated other preferred approaches to change.

  10. Universality of the EMC Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J W; Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Detmold, William

    2005-01-01

    Using effective field theory we investigate nuclear modification of nucleon parton distributions (for example, the EMC effect). We show that the universality of the shape distortion in nuclear parton distributions (the factorisation of the Bjorken x and atomic number (A) dependence) is model independent and emerges naturally in effective field theory. The empirical A dependence of the distortion is also reproduced. We then extend our analysis to study the analogous nuclear modifications in isospin and spin dependent parton distributions and generalised parton distributions.

  11. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, V Stalin; Mou, Huihui; Smits, Saskia L; Dekkers, Dick H W; Müller, Marcel A; Dijkman, Ronald; Muth, Doreen; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Zaki, Ali; Fouchier, Ron A M; Thiel, Volker; Drosten, Christian; Rottier, Peter J M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Bosch, Berend Jan; Haagmans, Bart L

    2013-03-14

    Most human coronaviruses cause mild upper respiratory tract disease but may be associated with more severe pulmonary disease in immunocompromised individuals. However, SARS coronavirus caused severe lower respiratory disease with nearly 10% mortality and evidence of systemic spread. Recently, another coronavirus (human coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center (hCoV-EMC)) was identified in patients with severe and sometimes lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Viral genome analysis revealed close relatedness to coronaviruses found in bats. Here we identify dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4; also known as CD26) as a functional receptor for hCoV-EMC. DPP4 specifically co-purified with the receptor-binding S1 domain of the hCoV-EMC spike protein from lysates of susceptible Huh-7 cells. Antibodies directed against DPP4 inhibited hCoV-EMC infection of primary human bronchial epithelial cells and Huh-7 cells. Expression of human and bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) DPP4 in non-susceptible COS-7 cells enabled infection by hCoV-EMC. The use of the evolutionarily conserved DPP4 protein from different species as a functional receptor provides clues about the host range potential of hCoV-EMC. In addition, it will contribute critically to our understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this emerging human coronavirus, and may facilitate the development of intervention strategies.

  13. 电磁兼容性(EMC)设计需要考虑的问题%EMC Design Considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atmel Inc.

    2002-01-01

    阐述了电磁兼容(EMC)设计的原则,指出了产品EMC现象的若干主要原因,提出了相应的方法和措施%The paper expounds the principle of EMC design, main cause of EMC phenomenaand proposes a few of solution for EMC

  14. New Insights into the EMC Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2012-08-17

    Deep-inelastic scattering cross section ratios plotted as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable, xB, show an unexpected structure indicating that partonic structure in nuclei is different than in free nucleons. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the EMC effect. Recent Jefferson Lab experimental data showed that the slope of the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB > 0.7 region scales as the local nuclear density rather than the average nuclear density. This result lead to the comparison of xB>1 short-range correlation plateaus, also a local density effect, to the magnitude of the EMC effect slopes and a clear linear relation was found. In this talk, I will discuss the EMC effect and the short-range correlation plateaus and what this phenomenological relationship between the two implies.

  15. Grundlæggende EMC II - standarder og testmetoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Keld; Lysgaard, Per; Mandrup, Lars;

    Intentionen med dette kompendium er at supplere ompendiet "Grundlæggende EMC I". "Grundlæggende EMC I" beskriver EMC- fænomenerne og teoretiske/praktiske hensyn ved konstruktion af elektronisk udstyr. "Grundlæggende EMC II" supplerer med en oversigt over legale EMC-krav, præsentation af standarder...... og gennemgang af målemetoder. Der er specielt fokuseret på de standarder og målemetoder, der knytter sig til det europæiske EMC-direktiv....

  16. Nuclear EMC effect in non-extensive statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    In the present work, we attempt to describe the nuclear EMC effect by using the proton structure functions obtained from the non-extensive statistical quark model. We record that such model has three fundamental variables, the temperature T, the radius, and the Tsallis parameter q. By combining different small changes, a good agreement with the experimental data may be obtained. Another interesting point of the model is to allow phenomenological interpretation, for instance, with q constant and changing the radius and the temperature or changing the radius and q and keeping the temperature.

  17. Inductive Coupling of Power Converter’s – EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kováčová

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a computer analysis of inductive coupling of theelectromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem. Its focus is on power electronics andelectrical drives and tests performed by a numerical computer simulation that can disclosesuite surprising findings about EMC.

  18. Fitting EMC structure functions with intrinsic charm

    CERN Document Server

    Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the impact of the data collected by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the parton distribution function (PDF) of the charm quark is presented. The analysis is performed in the NNPDF framework, and the charm PDF is freely parametrized on equal footing as light quark and gluon distributions. We find that variations in the treatment of EMC data do not modify the charm PDF and do not affect our previous conclusion on the presence of an intrinsic component in the charm PDF.

  19. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...

  20. Monte Carlo dose calculation improvements for low energy electron beams using eMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2010-08-21

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and is able to predict dose distributions for high energy electron beams with high accuracy. However, there are limitations for low energy electron beams. This work aims to improve the accuracy of the dose calculation using eMC for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams of Varian linear accelerators. Improvements implemented into the eMC include (1) improved determination of the initial electron energy spectrum by increased resolution of mono-energetic depth dose curves used during beam configuration; (2) inclusion of all the scrapers of the applicator in the beam model; (3) reduction of the maximum size of the sphere to be selected within the macro MC transport when the energy of the incident electron is below certain thresholds. The impact of these changes in eMC is investigated by comparing calculated dose distributions for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams at source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 and 110 cm with applicators ranging from 6 x 6 to 25 x 25 cm(2) of a Varian Clinac 2300C/D with the corresponding measurements. Dose differences between calculated and measured absolute depth dose curves are reduced from 6% to less than 1.5% for both energies and all applicators considered at SSD of 100 cm. Using the original eMC implementation, absolute dose profiles at depths of 1 cm, d(max) and R50 in water lead to dose differences of up to 8% for applicators larger than 15 x 15 cm(2) at SSD 100 cm. Those differences are now reduced to less than 2% for all dose profiles investigated when the improved version of eMC is used. At SSD of 110 cm the dose difference for the original eMC version is even more pronounced and can be larger than 10%. Those differences are reduced to within 2% or 2 mm with the improved version of eMC. In this work several enhancements were made in the eMC algorithm leading to significant improvements in the accuracy of the dose

  1. Cultural Change and the Operational Energy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    CULTURAL CHANGE AND THE OPERATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY by Colonel Steven L. Allen United States Army Dr. Richard Meinhart ...Cultural Change and the Operational Energy Strategy by Colonel Steven L. Allen United States Army United States... Army War College Class of 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited This manuscript is submitted

  2. EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) Standards Handbook. Revision 4,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Regulations arc prepared EMC November 1982 3-2 STANDARDS HANDBOOK REVISION DATE SECTION-PAGE by VDE Standards Committees (VDE Normen Ausschuss). Individual...regulation has a well- % publicized review that is coordinated with the German Standards Institute (Deutches Institute fuer Normen , DIN) and the German

  3. EMC of Frequency Controlled Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dolecek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with solution possibilities of EMC for voltage inverters, which uses PWM (Pulse Width Modulation. The paper offers solution of interference suppression which is raised by operation of frequency controlled drives. Possible interferences caused by inverters and their solutions are described at the first part of paper and real solution examples at the end of paper.

  4. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  5. Review of Bio-EMC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Soichi; Wake, Kanako; Fukunaga, Kaori; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2001-12-01

    Biological aspects of electromagnetic compatibility (Bio-EMC) have been studied by EMC Research Group of CRL. There are two main subjects in the field. One is related to rules and regulations of electromagnetic-wave hazards, especially development of standard estimation methods of electromagnetic power deposited in human bodies exposed to microwaves from cellular telephones or VHF-band radio waves. Another is development of exposure setups for laboratory animals used in biological studies on health effects of electromagnetic waves and their dosimetry. Novel phantoms are also being developed in order to perform highly accurate dosimetry in above studies. It is expected that these studies contribute development of compliance tests for radiofrequency protection guidelines and improvement of rationale of those guidelines, which consequently provides safety environment including appropriate radio wave applications.

  6. Model based optimization of EMC input filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggl, K; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Levitronix GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Input filters of power converters for compliance with regulatory electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards are often over-dimensioned in practice due to a non-optimal selection of number of filter stages and/or the lack of solid volumetric models of the inductor cores. This paper presents a systematic filter design approach based on a specific filter attenuation requirement and volumetric component parameters. It is shown that a minimal volume can be found for a certain optimal number of filter stages for both the differential mode (DM) and common mode (CM) filter. The considerations are carried out exemplarily for an EMC input filter of a single phase power converter for the power levels of 100 W, 300 W, and 500 W. (author)

  7. Short range correlations and the EMC effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Higinbotham, D W; Gomez, J; Hen, O; Shneor, R

    2011-02-04

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate x(B), 0.35≤x(B)≤0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at x(B)≥1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F(2)(n)/F(2)(p), the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  8. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  9. The EMC effect of Nuclear Matter with Coulomb Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujie; Solvignon, Patricia; Arrington, John; Gaskell, Dave

    2016-09-01

    Extraction of the EMC effect for nuclear matter is of great interest since it allows comparison to theoretical calculations in a regime where ``exact'' nuclear wave functions can be used. Earlier extractions from (e,e') cross sections ignored the contribution of the Coulomb distortion, which can be approximated as an electron energy shift on the order of MeV. Though small, this shift can cause a noticeable change in cross sections in certain kinematic regimes. In this study, we applied Coulomb corrections on the per-nucleon ratios from the published SLAC E139 data and preliminary JLAB E03-103 data. I will show preliminary results for an extrapolation of the EMC ratios from finite nuclei to symmetric nuclear matter, including Coulomb Corrections and examining the sensitivity to different approximations for the nuclear density. The data from two experiments will also be combined to study the nuclear dependence of R =σL /σT . Supported in part by DOE Grant No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, No. DE-AC02-06CH11357, and No. DE-SC0014168.

  10. Development of high level trigger for PANDA EMC using an FPGA-based compute node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); EPC, IHEP, Beijing (China); Jin, Dapeng; Liu, Zhen-an; Xu, Hao [EPC, IHEP, Beijing (China); Kopp, Andreas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Liang, Yutie; Liu, Ming; Muechow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR has a rich physics program. The EMC detector provides almost 4{pi} coverage, good granularity and good energy resolution. Its data acquisition(DAQ) system features a novel self-trigger data pushed architecture. Data from EMC readout electronics are processed on the fly to reconstruct electromagnetic showers. The extracted features are combined with information from other detectors in order to discriminate photons from electrons and hadrons. The EMC detector, readout electronics and offline reconstruction algorithms are studied and an adaptive EMC DAQ scheme is proposed employing an FPGA based Compute Node(CN). The CN provides flexible connections with high bandwidth between processing modules, up to 10 GByte DDR2 memory per board for data buffering and five high-end FPGAs for sophisticated algorithm applications. The algorithm partition strategy is designed based on the readout electronics layout and the CN's processing architecture. The functional verification and performance evaluation methods for the algorithms are also covered.

  11. Influence of Stochastic Modelling in Aerospace in EMC Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patier, Laurent; Lallechere, Sebastien; Bonnet, Pierre; Paladian, Francoise

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the ability of stochastic collocation method (SCM) for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) space applications. The increasing number of antennas embedded on spacecraft implies growth of potential EMC issues. Harsh constraints on antennas could spoil ideal radiating performances. Project management for spacecraft development requires deeper analyses (e.g., modifying locations of several radiators) between qualification and flight models. We propose here to quantify behaviour modifications using SCM in antennas and EMC frameworks.

  12. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  13. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  14. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, Mable B

    2005-01-01

    To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes.

  15. EMC effect: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomin, Nadia [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of the EMC effect over 30 years ago, it has been of great theoretical interest and studied in several experimental measurements. No unified picture arose to explain the underlying cause of per nucleon structure function modification in nuclei. Precise measurements on light nuclei from JLab’s 6 GeV era revitalized this research by showing that traditional A or density dependent models of this nuclear modification do not work. The measurements will be reviewed, discussed and preliminary data on heavy targets from JLab’s E03-103 will be presented.

  16. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  17. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark. B...

  18. EMC Aspects of Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, J.; Ahlen, L.; Bale, S.; Bonnell, J.; Boudin, N.; Brienza, D.; Carr, C.; Cipriani, F.; Escoubet, C. P.; Fazakerley, A.; Gehler, M.; Genot, V.; Hilgers, A.; Hanock, B.; Jannet, G.; Junge, A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; De Keyser, J.; Kucharek, H.; Lan, R.; Lavraud, B.; Leblanc, F.; Magnes, W.; Mansour, M.; Marcucci, M. F.; Nakamura, R.; Nemecek, Z.; Owen, C.; Phal, Y.; Retino, A.; Rodgers, D.; Safrankova, J.; Sahraoui, F.; Vainio, R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Steinhagen, J.; Vaivads, A.; Wielders, A.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2016-05-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is a spacecraft mission dedicated to the study of plasma turbulence in near-Earth space. The mission is currently under study for implementation as a part of ESA Cosmic Vision program. THOR will involve a single spinning spacecraft equipped with state of the art instruments capable of sensitive measurements of electromagnetic fields and plasma particles. The sensitive electric and magnetic field measurements require that the spacecraft- generated emissions are restricted and strictly controlled; therefore a comprehensive EMC program has been put in place already during the study phase. The THOR study team and a dedicated EMC working group are formulating the mission EMC requirements already in the earliest phase of the project to avoid later delays and cost increases related to EMC. This article introduces the THOR mission and reviews the current state of its EMC requirements.

  19. The EMC Effect at SeaQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherity, Michael; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Fermilab E906/SeaQuest experiment measures dimuons from 120 GeV protons from the Main Injector incident on fixed Hydrogen and Deuterium liquid targets and W, C and Fe solid targets. The yield of these dimuons from Drell-Yan (DY) process and charmonia states is extremely sensitive to the quark structure of nuclei, particularly the light antiquark sea. In 1983 the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) discovered a modification of quark momentum distributions from free nucleons to bound nuclei which has since been well explored in DIS. The DY cross-section ratios of solid to deuterium targets directly measures the nuclear effects of the sea quarks which can distinguish between various models of the nuclear parton distributions and complements DIS results. Recent results will be presented of SeaQuest's measurements of the EMC Effect in the 0 . 1

  20. 7th european metallurgical conference EMC 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From June 23 – 26, 2013, the GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized 7th European Metallurgical Conference (EMC 2013 in Weimar, Germany. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by  the GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009, and Duesseldorf (2011. The GDMB is a non-profit organization from Clausthal, Germany,,focused on combining science with practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and  manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most well-known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by decision makers from industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 130 presentations. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation., The € 500 worth “Poster Award EMC 2011 was awarded to Christoph Pichler from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria. Not only the most important European countries were represented here, but also more than one third of the lecturers were from countries outside Europe (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, Precious Metals, Waste effluents Treatment/ Biohydrometallurgical applications; Process Metallurgy, Bridging Non-Ferrous and Ferrous Metallurgy; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Light metals, Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, Process Control

  1. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans;

    2012-01-01

    An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...... parametrization with respect to the desired maximum error in measurements. This allows the engineer performing the near field scan to choose a suitable compromise between accuracy and measurement time....

  2. Measurement of the EMC Effect in the Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, K A; Christy, M E; Ent, R; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kuhn, S E; Melnitchouk, W; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Tkachenko, S; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the structure function ratio $R^d_{\\rm EMC}=F_2^d/(F_2^n+F_2^p)$ from recently published $F_2^n/F_2^d$ data taken by the BONuS experiment using CLAS at Jefferson Lab. This ratio deviates from unity, with a slope $dR_{\\rm EMC}^{d}/dx= -0.10\\pm 0.05$ in the range of Bjorken $x$ from 0.35 to 0.7, for invariant mass $W>1.4$ GeV and $Q^2>1$ GeV$^2$. The observed EMC effect for these kinematics is consistent with conventional nuclear physics models that include off-shell corrections, as well as with empirical analyses that find the EMC effect proportional to the probability of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations.

  3. Generalized eMC implementation for Monte Carlo dose calculation of electron beams from different machine types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K.; Cygler, Joanna; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J.; Manser, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm available in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and uses a beam model applicable to Varian linear accelerators. This leads to limitations in accuracy if eMC is applied to non-Varian machines. In this work eMC is generalized to also allow accurate dose calculations for electron beams from Elekta and Siemens accelerators. First, changes made in the previous study to use eMC for low electron beam energies of Varian accelerators are applied. Then, a generalized beam model is developed using a main electron source and a main photon source representing electrons and photons from the scattering foil, respectively, an edge source of electrons, a transmission source of photons and a line source of electrons and photons representing the particles from the scrapers or inserts and head scatter radiation. Regarding the macro MC dose calculation algorithm, the transport code of the secondary particles is improved. The macro MC dose calculations are validated with corresponding dose calculations using EGSnrc in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. The validation of the generalized eMC is carried out by comparing calculated and measured dose distributions in water for Varian, Elekta and Siemens machines for a variety of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs. The comparisons are performed in units of cGy per MU. Overall, a general agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions for all machine types and all combinations of parameters investigated is found to be within 2% or 2 mm. The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the generalized eMC is now suitable to calculate dose distributions for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators with sufficient accuracy in the range of the investigated combinations of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs.

  4. Generalized eMC implementation for Monte Carlo dose calculation of electron beams from different machine types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Cygler, Joanna; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2013-05-07

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm available in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and uses a beam model applicable to Varian linear accelerators. This leads to limitations in accuracy if eMC is applied to non-Varian machines. In this work eMC is generalized to also allow accurate dose calculations for electron beams from Elekta and Siemens accelerators. First, changes made in the previous study to use eMC for low electron beam energies of Varian accelerators are applied. Then, a generalized beam model is developed using a main electron source and a main photon source representing electrons and photons from the scattering foil, respectively, an edge source of electrons, a transmission source of photons and a line source of electrons and photons representing the particles from the scrapers or inserts and head scatter radiation. Regarding the macro MC dose calculation algorithm, the transport code of the secondary particles is improved. The macro MC dose calculations are validated with corresponding dose calculations using EGSnrc in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. The validation of the generalized eMC is carried out by comparing calculated and measured dose distributions in water for Varian, Elekta and Siemens machines for a variety of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs. The comparisons are performed in units of cGy per MU. Overall, a general agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions for all machine types and all combinations of parameters investigated is found to be within 2% or 2 mm. The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the generalized eMC is now suitable to calculate dose distributions for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators with sufficient accuracy in the range of the investigated combinations of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs.

  5. EMC of Electrical Systems - Electromagnetic Coupling ( Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOVACOVA, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the general analysis of one part of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem - the electromagnetic coupling applied in the field of power electrical systems. The verification simulation analyses and practical measurements of the electromagnetic coupling, which are confirming the correctness of results obtained from theoretical analyses (part I., are presented in part II. So they can be used for predictive stating of EMC quality of individual new electrotechnical products.

  6. In Medium Nucleon Structure Functions, SRC, and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Gilad, S; Wood, S A

    2014-01-01

    A proposal approved by the Jefferson Lab PAC to study semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the deuteron, tagged with high momentum recoiling protons or neutrons emitted at large angle relative to the momentum transfer. This experiment aims at studying the virtuality dependence of the bound nucleon structure function as a possible cause to the EMC effect and the EMC-SRC correlations. The experiment was approved in 2011 for a total run time of 40 days.

  7. Nuclear and partonic dynamics in the EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, Carlos A.; Tarutina, Tatiana [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, Vicente [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Burjassot (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    It has been recently confirmed that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in the electron deep inelastic scattering is linearly related to the short-range correlation scaling factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering. By using a x -rescaling approach we are able to understand the interplay between the quark-gluon and hadronic degrees of freedom in the discussion of the EMC effect. (orig.)

  8. Susceptibility of primary culture neurons from rats of different ages to encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weiping; Ikegami, Hisashi; Nakayama, Yumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Katayama, Kei-ichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2003-10-01

    The changes in susceptibility of neurons to the D variant of EMC virus (EMC-D) (10(6) PFU/well) were investigated in developing hippocampal primary cultures from postnatal days of 1, 7, and 56 Fischer 344 rats (P1, P7, and P56) for up to 12 h after infection (12 HAI). The virus titer of primary culture neurons increased at 1 HAI, decreased at 2 HAI, increased at 3 HAI, peaked at 8 HAI, and decreased at 12 HAI in all age groups. The titers at 1 and 8 HAI were lowest in P56 cultures. The virus titer of neurons was always higher than that of culture media, especially at 1 HAI, in P1 cultures, whereas the former was lower than the latter from 2 to 3 HAI in P7 cultures and from 2 to 4 HAI in P56 cultures, respectively. Signals of viral RNA detected by in situ hybridization were first observed in the peripheral cytoplasm of neurons at 1 HAI in P1 and P7 cultures and at 4 HAI in P56 cultures, respectively. The signals spread to a large or whole area of cytoplasm and also to processes thereafter. The number of viral RNA-positive neurons and the amount of signals decreased with age. The present results indicated that the susceptibility of primary culture neurons to EMC-D decreased with age but viral replication still occurred in P56 cultures.

  9. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  10. Is the discovery of the novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC) the beginning of another SARS-like pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Li, Kenneth S M; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Fouchier et al. reported the isolation and genome sequencing of a novel coronavirus tentatively named "human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC)" from a Saudi patient presenting with pneumonia and renal failure in June 2012. Genome sequencing showed that this virus belongs to the group C species of the genus betacoronavirus and phylogenetically related to the bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5 previously found in lesser bamboo bat and Japanese Pipistrelle bat of Hong Kong respectively. Another patient from Qatar with similar clinical presentation and positive RT-PCR test was reported in September 2012. We compare and contrast the clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis and management of infection due to this novel coronavirus and that of SARS coronavirus despite the paucity of published information on the former. Since 70% of all emerging infectious pathogens came from animals, the emergence of this novel virus may represent another instance of interspecies jumping of betacoronavirus from animals to human similar to the group A coronavirus OC43 possibly from a bovine source in the 1890s and the group B SARS coronavirus in 2003 from bat to civet and human. Despite the apparently low transmissibility of the virus at this stage, research preparedness against another SARS-like pandemic is an important precautionary strategy.

  11. Temperature simulation of EMC aluminum ingot with induced heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The numerical simulation of temperature field of electromagnetic casting (EMC) aluminum ingots is an effective and also necessary approach to study the temperature field and forecast the quality of EMC ingot, or optimize the technological parameters. In EMC, the alternating electromagnetic field can produce induced current and heat within the surface layer. To calculate the temperature field precisely, the induced heat should be taken into account. The induced heat has been coupled into the calculation formula of temperature field of unit volume per unit time, which provides a convenient and also precise method to calculate the temperature field. Besides, the effect of induced heat on the temperature field of ingot has been simulated and discussed. The results show that the induced heat has large influences on the height of liquid column and the surface temperature of ingot.

  12. EMC Specific Problems of Frequency Converters Used at Interlocking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of frequency control drive of electromotive switch actuator of railway switch. The frequency converter with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM and the output sinus filter are used for feeding of the asynchronous motor of the switch actuator. This drive is operated in an insulated system of feeding voltages. The drive is fed by a frequency converter with an unshielded cable with length up to 1.2 km. The EMC problems occurring at development and operating of the drive are analyzed in this paper. The used solution of these problems and experience with EMC of the given system from real operation are described in this paper as well.

  13. [Study on selection of the EMC test system of medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming

    2011-11-01

    The article introduces the EMC tests involved in YY0505-2005 (standard of Medical electrical equipment about EMC), and the requirements of test equipment meet the standard and practical tests. I hope it can be useful for select the EMC test system of Medical electrical equipment.

  14. EMI / EMC Design for Class D Payloads (Resource Prospector / NIRVSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Josh; Benton, Joshua Eric; Thompson, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    EMI/EMC techniques are applied to a Class D instrument (NIRVSS) to achieve low noise performance and reduce risk of EMI/EMC testing failures and/or issues during system integration and test. Basic techniques are not terribly expensive or complex, but do require close coordination between electrical and mechanical staff early in the design process. Low-cost methods to test subsystems on the bench without renting an EMI chamber are discussed. This method was applied to the NIRVSS instrument and achieved improvements up to 59dB on conducted emissions measurements between hardware revisions.

  15. New measurements of the EMC effect in very light nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Seely, J; Gaskell, D; Arrington, J; Fomin, N; Solvignon, P; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Bosted, P; Brüll, A; Bukhari, M H S; Christy, M E; Clasie, B; Connell, S; Dalton, M; Day, D; Dunne, J; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Gao, H; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Hungerford, E; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lee, C; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Meekins, D G; Mertens, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Nomura, H; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Yuan, L; Zheng, X

    2009-01-01

    New Jefferson Lab data are presented on the nuclear dependence of the inclusive cross section from 2H, 3He, 4He, 9Be and 12C for 0.3EMC effect for 3He at large x and a significant improvement for 4He. The data do not support previous A-dependent or density-dependent fits to the EMC effect and suggest that the nuclear dependence of the quark distributions may depend on the local nuclear environment.

  16. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  17. Recent Developments in Using Measured Sources in Computational EMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent developments in using near-field scanning for proactive EMC work. The aim is to use measured near fields as a source for simulations in order to predict radiated emission from printed circuit boards placed in a product. Far fields were predicted based...

  18. The Future of EMC Education: Keeping Faculty Up to Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1998-01-01

    An account of the activities of the Engineering Educations EMC Network during the project period 1995 - 1998. The network was initiateded by the National Advisory Educational Board for Technology with the objective to initiate a professional development in order to strengthen and renew the educat...

  19. Vintages for Changing Tastes: Experiential Strategies in Interpersonal Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    The interpersonal communication courses at the University of Washington have adopted the use of experiential learning strategies in response to the changing student population and changing attitudes. A major goal of the program is to provide a solid, explicit academic foundation for the use of experiential strategies by (1) outlining the…

  20. Change In Strategy - The Answer To Overcome Global Downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Ghosh

    Full Text Available In terms of overcoming the global downturn, innovative business strategy has three major dimensions namely, ‘Innovative Promotional Practices’, ‘Social and Organizational welfare’, and ‘Ethical behavior’. Fortunately most strategic dimensions in business and management are measurable so as to facilitate development ratings in order to compare and highlight the different levels of overcoming the global downturn. My research paper on the role of innovativebusiness strategy in overcoming the recession and succeeding in the postrecessionary period basically focus on the different categorical elements of business strategies and its direct or indirect impact on the medium and small scale organizations. For the better understanding of the term ‘INNOVATION’ I have carried out a letter by letter scrutinization of this golden term. It goes like this:I-IdeasN-New Plan or DesignN-Noticeable changesO-Optimum change valuationV-VarietyA-Adaptation to the New Environment/New BusinessT-Thought Process for Planned ChangesI-Ideological Developments in BusinessO-Optimization of the changesN-Numero Uno (How Innovation helps in Securing the topmostposition.In order to understand the impact of innovative business strategies n combating the downturn I have formulated four important and innovative strategies. Thesestrategies are:1. HBS Strategy (Holistic Business Strategy.2. PBS Strategy (Polymorphic Business Strategy.3. GBS Strategy (Green Business Strategy.4. CCBS Strategy. (Country-club Business Strategy.By following these innovative strategies an enterprise can reach the zeniths of success and successfully combat the global downturn.

  1. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Gregg; Jacobs, Katharine; Buizer, James

    2008-06-01

    Climate Change Adaptation for Water Managers; Oracle, Arizona, 4-5 February 2008; The most visible manifestation of climate change in the American Southwest is its effects on water resources. Since 1999, the region's water supplies and major rivers have been tested by burgeoning population growth and drought. Model projections suggest increasing drought severity and duration due to rising temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and enhanced atmospheric circulation from the tropics (Hadley circulation).

  2. Organizational factors and change strategies associated with medical home transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Leif I; Stuck, Logan H; Crain, A Lauren; Tillema, Juliana O; Flottemesch, Thom J; Whitebird, Robin R; Fontaine, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information about how to transform primary care practices into medical homes. The research team surveyed leaders of the first 132 primary care practices in Minnesota to achieve medical home certification. These surveys measured priority for transformation, the presence of medical home practice systems, and the presence of various organizational factors and change strategies. Survey response rates were 98% for the Change Process Capability Questionnaire survey and 92% for the Physician Practice Connections survey. They showed that 80% to 100% of these certified clinics had 15 of the 18 organizational factors important for improving care processes and that 60% to 90% had successfully used 16 improvement strategies. Higher priority for this change (P = .001) and use of more strategies (P = .05) were predictive of greater change in systems. Clinics contemplating medical home transformation should consider the factors and strategies identified here and should be sure that such a change is indeed a high priority for them.

  3. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  4. GEF climate change operational strategy: Whither UNDP?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses aspects of the implementation of the program for climatic change which has been come about as part of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Initial effort has focused on providing strategic information and help to countries, on achieving offsets in greenhouse gas emissions by energy conservation or carbon sinking, and an emphasis on development of renewable energy supplies. The U.N. Development Agency has limited funding to help support startup on projects submitted. Specific examples are discussed in the areas of energy conservation and energy efficiency, adoption of renewable energy sources, and reducing the long-term costs of low greenhouse gas-emitting energy technologies.

  5. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  6. Winds of change: corporate strategy, climate change and oil multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.

  7. How children change their minds: strategy change can be gradual or abrupt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibali, M W

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated patterns of change in children's strategies for solving mathematical equivalence problems. The strategies children expressed in speech and in gesture were assessed both before and after an instructional intervention. In the intervention, children received either no input, accuracy feedback, or feedback plus instruction about a principle, an analogy, or a procedure. From pretest to posttest, many children changed both the variability of their strategy use and the content of their strategy repertoires. Patterns of change depended on type of instruction and on children's initial level of variability. Children who received instruction were especially likely to generate new strategies, and children with high variability were especially likely to abandon prior strategies. Gradual change was most common; however, many children modified their repertoires abruptly. Abrupt strategy change was especially prevalent among children who received procedure-based instruction and among children with low initial variability.

  8. Measurement of the EMC effect in the deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, K. A.; Arrington, J.; Christy, M. E.; Ent, R.; Kalantarians, N.; Keppel, C. E.; Kuhn, S. E.; Melnitchouk, W.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Tkachenko, S.; Zhang, J.

    2015-07-01

    We determined the structure function ratio REMCd=F2d/(F2n+F2p) from recently published F2n/F2d data taken by the BONuS experiment using CLAS at Jefferson Lab. This ratio deviates from unity, with a slope d REMCd/d x =-0.10 ±0.05 in the range of Bjorken x from 0.35 to 0.7, for invariant mass W >1.4 GeV and Q2>1 GeV2 . The observed EMC effect for these kinematics is consistent with conventional nuclear physics models that include off-shell corrections, as well as with empirical analyses that find the EMC effect proportional to the probability of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations.

  9. Completing Einstein's Proof of E=mc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo C. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that Einstein’s proof for E=mc2 is actually incomplete and therefore is not yet valid. A crucial step is his implicit assumption of treating the light as a bundle of massless particles. However, the energy-stress tensor of massless particles is incompatible with an electromagnetic energy-stress tensor. Thus, it is necessary to show that the total energy of a light ray includes also non-electromagnetic energy. It turns out, the existence of intrinsic difference between the photonic and the electromagnetic energy tensors is independent of the coupling of gravity. Nevertheless, their difference is the energy-stress tensor of the gravitational wave component that is accompanying the electromagnetic wave component. Concurrently, it is concluded that Einstein’s formula E=mc2 necessarily implies that the photons include non- electromagnetic energy and that the Einstein equation of 1915 must be rectified.

  10. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  11. emc has a role in dorsal appendage fate formation in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadia, Sofia; Tzolovsky, George; Zhao, Debiao; Leaper, Kevin; Clyde, Dorothy; Taylor, Paul; Asscher, Eva; Kirk, Graeme; Bownes, Mary

    2005-09-01

    extramacrochaetae (emc) functions during many developmental processes in Drosophila, such as sensory organ formation, sex determination, wing vein differentiation, regulation of eye photoreceptor differentiation, cell proliferation and development of the Malpighian tubules, trachea and muscles in the embryo. It encodes a Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor that negatively regulates bHLH proteins. We show here that emc mRNA and protein are present throughout oogenesis in a dynamic expression pattern and that emc is involved in the regulation of chorionic appendage formation during late oogenesis. Expression of sense and antisense emc constructs as well as emc follicle cell clones leads to eggs with shorter, thicker dorsal appendages that are closer together at base than in the wild type. We demonstrate that emc lies downstream of fs(1)K10, gurken and EGFR in the Grk/EGFR signalling pathway and that it participates in controlling Broad-Complex expression at late stages of oogenesis.

  12. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  13. Academic Professional Development Strategies to Facilitate Educational Changes in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Alonso, Gloria Amparo

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative within-case study explored how planned educational change in universities can be facilitated through academic professional development strategies. Thus this study attempted to shed some light on the dynamics of educational planned change in universities and their implications for academic professional development of faculty. The…

  14. Choosing change strategy for ISO/IEC 33014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Johansen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    The ISO/IEC 33014.2013 [1] standard on process improvement includes a core activity called ‘identify the overall change strategy’, which includes selecting a change strategy among the many available. This selection can be carried out using the ImprovAbility model [2] in which there is a framework...

  15. Fire Science Strategy: Resource Conservation and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Fire Science Strategy Resource Conservation and Climate Change September 2014 Report Documentation Page Form...Fire Science Program LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LANL Los Alamos National Lab NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCAR...managers not only in the proper use of fire but also in understanding the trade-offs involved in deciding to burn or not to burn. This strategy document

  16. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  17. Efficient replication of the novel human betacoronavirus EMC on primary human epithelium highlights its zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R; Muth, Doreen; Hamming, Ole J; Hartmann, Rune; Rodriguez, Regulo; Geffers, Robert; Fouchier, Ron A M; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A; Dijkman, Ronald; Thiel, Volker

    2013-02-19

    The recent emergence of a novel human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC) in the Middle East raised considerable concerns, as it is associated with severe acute pneumonia, renal failure, and fatal outcome and thus resembles the clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) observed in 2002 and 2003. Like SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC is of zoonotic origin and closely related to bat coronaviruses. The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry point and primary target tissue for respiratory viruses and is highly relevant for assessing the zoonotic potential of emerging respiratory viruses, such as HCoV-EMC. Here, we show that pseudostratified HAE cultures derived from different donors are highly permissive to HCoV-EMC infection, and by using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and RNAseq data, we experimentally determined the identity of seven HCoV-EMC subgenomic mRNAs. Although the HAE cells were readily responsive to type I and type III interferon (IFN), we observed neither a pronounced inflammatory cytokine nor any detectable IFN responses following HCoV-EMC, SARS-CoV, or HCoV-229E infection, suggesting that innate immune evasion mechanisms and putative IFN antagonists of HCoV-EMC are operational in the new host. Importantly, however, we demonstrate that both type I and type III IFN can efficiently reduce HCoV-EMC replication in HAE cultures, providing a possible treatment option in cases of suspected HCoV-EMC infection. IMPORTANCE A novel human coronavirus, HCoV-EMC, has recently been described to be associated with severe respiratory tract infection and fatalities, similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) observed during the 2002-2003 epidemic. Closely related coronaviruses replicate in bats, suggesting that, like SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC is of zoonotic origin. Since the animal reservoir and circumstances of zoonotic transmission are yet elusive, it is critically important to assess potential species barriers of HCoV-EMC infection. An important first

  18. Employee participation and learning, a strategy for changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, L.B.; Jensen, Lars Peter; Rosenørn, T.U.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show and discuss possibilities and problems cencerning changes using a participatory strategy and with a good working environment in focus. The processing industry is chosen as example. The case study shows that organizational changes can be rather problematic....... The beginning of the change process where all actors are assumed to use all their potentials in developing their future organization is described. The different employee groups need to learn to participate. An important point is to use the change process to establish a learning culture. Experiments based...... on reflective learning in an "experimentarium" as support for the change process, and the positive results obtained are discussed....

  19. Change in MSW characteristics under recent management strategies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Liu, Chien-Chung; Hung, Chao-Yang; Hu, Allen; Chen, Shiao-Shing

    2008-12-01

    Reduction and recycling initiatives such as producer responsibility and pay-as-you-throw are being implemented in Taiwan. This paper presents a study assessing the impact of recently implemented municipal solid waste (MSW) reduction and recycling management strategies on the characteristics of waste feedstock for incineration in Taiwan. Through the periodic sampling of two typical MSW incineration plants, proximate and ultimate analyses were conducted according to standard methods to explore the influence of MSW reduction and recycling management strategies on incineration feed waste characteristics. It was observed that the annual amount of MSW generated in 2005 decreased by about 10% compared to 2003 and that the characteristics of MSW have changed significantly due to recent management strategies. The heating value of the MSW generated in Taiwan increased yearly by about 5% after program implementation. A comparison of the monthly variations in chemical concentrations indicated that the chlorine content in MSW has changed. This change results from usage reduction of PVC plastic due to the recycling fund management (RFM) program, and the food waste as well as salt content reduction due to the total recycling for kitchen garbage program. This achievement will improve the reduction of dioxin emissions from MSW incineration. In summary, management strategies must be conducted in tandem with the global trend to achieve a zero-waste-discharge country. When implementing these strategies and planning for future MSW management systems, it is important to consider the changes that may occur in the composition and characteristics of MSW over time.

  20. EMC, RF, and Antenna Systems in Miniature Electronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea

    Advanced techniques for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and for the optimization of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance has been developed under the constraints typical of miniature electronic devices (MED). The electromagnetic coexistence of multiple systems....... The structure allows for effective suppression of radiation from the MED, while taking into consideration the integration and miniaturization aspects. To increase the sensitivity of the system, a compact LNA suitable for on-body applications has been developed. The LNA allows for an increase in the overall...

  1. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  2. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  3. EMC and Product Design%EMC与产品设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓铮

    2006-01-01

    一直以来,电磁兼容(EMC)问题都是困扰业界的一个难点.文章将详细介绍EMC的概念、设计目的、效费比问题以及产生EMC后果的三大要素,并根据在产品设计上积累的一些经验,介绍进行EMC设计的基本原则和方法.

  4. EMC Test Challenges for NASAs James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  5. BepiColombo-MPO-SERENA-PICAM EMC Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, H.; Fremuth, G.; Prattes, G.; Kurbisch, Ch.; Laky, G.; Giner, F.; Neukirchner, S.; Wallner, R.; Jeszenszky, H.; Leichtfried, M.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Torkar, K.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents EMC measurements from the 'Planetary ion camera' (PICAM) instrument, a part of the SERENA instrument suite aboard BepiColombo, an ESA/JAXA two spacecraft mission to the Hermean system. After a short description of the scientific goals and PICAM characteristics, we focus on results obtained by the QM and FM. For the electronics boards and the ion optics conducted emission and susceptibility are of particular interest in order to meet the instrument requirements. Relevant are interferences on the gates or high voltage electrodes, i.e. finally disturbances of the ion trajectories, they have to be avoided and considered in the design improvement of the models.

  6. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  7. Recent Developments in Using Measured Sources in Computational EMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent developments in using near-field scanning for proactive EMC work. The aim is to use measured near fields as a source for simulations in order to predict radiated emission from printed circuit boards placed in a product. Far fields were predicted based...... on only H-fields on the top and bottom surface on a Huygens’ box surrounding the board. Simulation of a simple board with microstrips and measurements of a complicated signal board were used to evaluate the proposed method....

  8. Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2013-03-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.

  9. A conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC) facilitates phospholipid transfer from the ER to mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sujoy; Chao, Jesse T; Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K O; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P; Loewen, Christopher J R; Prinz, William A

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER-mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER-mitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER-mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth.

  10. Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubash, N.K.; Hagemann, M.; Höhne, N.; Upadhyaya, P.

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented from a survey of national legislation and strategies to mitigate climate change covering almost all United Nations member states between 2007 and 2012. This data set is distinguished from the existing literature in its breadth of coverage, its focus on national policies (ra

  11. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  12. New high order FDTD method to solve EMC problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Deymier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In electromagnetic compatibility (EMC context, we are interested in developing new ac- curate methods to solve efficiently and accurately Maxwell’s equations in the time domain. Indeed, usual methods such as FDTD or FVTD present im- portant dissipative and/or dispersive errors which prevent to obtain a good numerical approximation of the physical solution for a given industrial scene unless we use a mesh with a very small cell size. To avoid this problem, schemes like the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG method, based on higher order spa- tial approximations, have been introduced and stud- ied on unstructured meshes. However the cost of this kind of method can become prohibitive accord- ing to the mesh used. In this paper, we first present a higher order spatial approximation method on carte- sian meshes. It is based on a finite element ap- proach and recovers at the order 1 the well-known Yee’s schema. Next, to deal with EMC problem, a non-oriented thin wire formalism is proposed for this method. Finally, several examples are given to present the benefits of this new method by compar- ison with both Yee’s schema and DG approaches.

  13. Performance of prototypes for the PANDA barrel EMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, D. A.; Eissner, T.; Drexler, P.; Moritz, M.; Novotny, R. W.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment will be part of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) and aims for the study of strong interaction within the charm sector via antiproton proton collisions up to antiproton momenta of 15 GeV/c. Reflecting the variety of the physics program the PANDA detector is designed as a multi-purpose detector able to perform tracking, calorimetry and particle identification with nearly complete coverage of the solid angle. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) contained inside its Target Spectrometer is based on cooled PbWO4 scintillator crystals. In order to ensure an excellent performance throughout the large dynamic range of photon/electron energies ranging from a few MeV up to 15 GeV an extensive prototyping phase is mandatory. This contribution describes the measured response of the EMC barrel part prototype PROTO60 at the largest design energy to secondary beams provided by the SPS at CERN. In addition to PROTO60 a tracking station was deployed, providing precise position information of the 15 GeV/c positrons. For calibration purposes a 150 GeV/c muon beam and cosmic radiation, in combination with estimations from GEANT4 simulations were used. The obtained performance concerning energy, position and time information is presented.

  14. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  15. The ubiquitous and ancient ER membrane protein complex (EMC): tether or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Jeremy G

    2015-01-01

    The recently discovered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC) has been implicated in ER-associated degradation (ERAD), lipid transport and tethering between the ER and mitochondrial outer membranes, and assembly of multipass ER-membrane proteins. The EMC has been studied in both animals and fungi but its presence outside the Opisthokont clade (animals + fungi + related protists) has not been demonstrated. Here, using homology-searching algorithms, I show that the EMC is truly an ancient and conserved protein complex, present in every major eukaryotic lineage. Very few organisms have completely lost the EMC, and most, even over 2 billion years of eukaryote evolution, have retained a majority of the complex members. I identify Sop4 and YDR056C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Emc7 and Emc10, respectively, subunits previously thought to be specific to animals. This study demonstrates that the EMC was present in the last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA) and is an extremely important component of eukaryotic cells even though its primary function remains elusive.

  16. The Need for Knowledge Management Strategy for Organisations Facing Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeianu Otilia-Mari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect the importance of a knowledge management strategy for organisations facing organisational change, as response to crisis. As resource for development, for sure knowledge becomes an inexhaustible power. It is also one of the most important forms of capital - the foundation for innovation and also the drivers that lead to growth and expansion. An organization cannot compete with others in this ever-changing environment without proper knowledge and lack of capacity for renewal. Many managers would like to have a strategic approach in preparing the organisation to avoid crisis. There is a lack of strategic information management and the effect is the degradation of information resources and failure in strengthening employee’s potential. It is vital for the companies to develop a dynamic knowledge management strategy to be integrated into the organization, enhancing the performance of the system and processes. However, organizations need to see knowledge management as a strategy, because knowledge is the key to making the right decisions in guiding the organization. One of the key benefits of approaching knowledge management strategy within organisations is its positive impact on organisational performance, ensuring not only the survival during crisis but even providing a competitive advantage.

  17. Change communication : the impact on satisfaction with alternative workplace strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Melanie; Brown, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Communication is fundamental to the Facilities Management (FM) role within organisations; especially when the FM department is implementing changes to the workplace. An evaluation of an instance is presented. A self- administered online questionnaire was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The research focused on responses to satisfaction with the communication methods rather than reviewing the merits of alternative workplace strategies. Findings included the impact of...

  18. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations Aligning Culture and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, Daniel; Lane, Nancy; Lief, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Filled with case studies from firms such as GT Automotive, GE Healthcare China, Vale, Dominos, Swiss Re Americas Division, and Polar Bank, among others, this book (written by Dan Denison and his co-authors) combines twenty years of research and survey results to illustrate a critical set of cultural dynamics that firms need to manage in order to remain competitive. Each chapter uses a case as a means to illustrate an important aspect of culture change focusing on seven common culture-change dilemmas including creating a strategic alignment, keeping strategy simple, and more.

  19. Emc, a negative HLH regulator with multiple functions in Drosophila development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, S

    2001-12-20

    Expression and functional analyses of Emc have demonstrated that it is a prototype for a protein required for multiple processes in development. Initially characterized as a negative regulator of sensory organ development, it was later found to regulate many other developmental processes and cell proliferation. Its ability to block the function of bHLH proteins by forming heterodimers, which are ineffective in DNA binding, accounts for the role of Emc in preventing the acquisition of several cell fates which are under the control of bHLH proteins. However, while maintaining this repressive molecular mechanism, emc also appears to act as a positive regulator of differentiation.

  20. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  1. Climate Change Education Roundtable: A Coherent National Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksdieck, M.; Feder, M.; Climate Change Education Roundtable

    2010-12-01

    The Climate Change Education (CCE) Roundtable fosters ongoing discussion of the challenges to and strategies for improving public understanding of climate science and climate change among federal agencies, the business community, non-profit, and academic sectors. The CCE Roundtable is provides a critical mechanism for developing a coherent, national strategy to advance climate change education guided by the best available research evidence. Through its meetings and workshops, the roundtable brings together 30 federal and state policymakers, educators, communications and media experts, and members from the business and scientific community. The roundtable includes a number of ex officio members from federal agencies with dedicated interests in climate change education, including officials from the National Science Foundation’s EHR Directorate and its collaborating partner divisions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Interior, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Education. The issues that are addressed by the roundtable include: - ways to incorporate knowledge about learning and understanding in developing informative programs and materials for decision-makers who must cope with climate change - the design of educational programs for professionals such as local planners, water managers, and the like, to enable them to better understand the implications of climate change for their decisions - development of training programs for scientists to help them become better communicators to decision-makers about implications of, and solutions to climate change - coordinated and collaborative efforts at the national level between federal agencies and other stakeholders This presenation will describe how the roundtable is fostering a coherent direction for climate change education.

  2. PERIODIC DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION FOR FIELD ANALYSIS IN EMC CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Feiyan; Ding Jianjin; Sha Fei

    2006-01-01

    Herein a novel Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) is presented to calculate the field in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) chamber. Due to the difficulty of simulating the whole chamber environment, the analysis combines the DGF formulation and the FEM method, with the latter deals with the reflection from absorbers. With DGF formulation for infinite periodic array structures, this paper investigates electromagnetic field in chamber with truncated arrays. The reflection from the absorber serves as the virtual source contributing to the total field. Hence the whole chamber field calculation can be separated from the work of absorber model set-up. Practically the field homogeneity test and Normal Site Attenuation (NSA) test are carried out to evaluate the chamber performance. Based on the method in this paper, the simulation results agree well with the test, and predict successfully the victim frequency points of the chamber.

  3. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  4. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human-animal-environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants.

  5. Global climate change is confounding species conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopowitz, Harold; Hawkins, Bradford A

    2012-06-01

    Most organisms face similar problems with respect to their conservation in the face of global climate change. Here, we examine probable effects of climate change on the hyperdiverse plant family Orchidaceae. In the 20th century, the major concerns for orchid conservation revolved around unsustainable harvest for the orchid trade and, more importantly, land conversion from natural ecosystems to those unable to support wild orchid populations. Land conversion included logging, fire regimes and forest conversions to agricultural systems. Although those forms of degradation continue, an additional suite of threats has emerged, fueled by global climate change. Global climate change involves more than responses of orchid populations to increases in ambient temperature. Increasing temperature induces secondary effects that can be more significant than simple changes in temperature. Among these new threats are extended and prolonged fire seasons, rising sea levels, increases in cyclonic storms, seasonal climate shifts, changes in orthographic wind dew point and increased drought. The long-term outlook for orchid biodiversity in the wild is dismal, as it is for many animal groups, and we need to start rethinking strategies for conservation in a rapidly changing world.

  6. Sustaining change: the imperative for patient access strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Peter A R

    2006-01-01

    The paper by Trypuc, MacLeod and Hudson provides a timely and important overview of methods to sustain provincial wait time strategies. The emphasis on accountability for patient access to timely care throughout the healthcare system comes through strongly--as it should. These accountabilities are made "real" through purchase service agreements. Physician-hospital relationships are a fundamental aspect of this accountability. This commentary suggests the inclusion of two additional supporting tools in addition to those cited by the authors of the lead paper--quality monitoring and the use of industrial engineering techniques for queue management and patient flow analysis. Strong and persistent leadership of patient access strategies will ensure sustainable change.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...

  8. [Introduction of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming

    2013-07-01

    The article introduces the requirements of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment (YY 0505-2012), hope it can be useful for the manufacturers of medical electrical equipment.

  9. Achieving EMC Emissions Compliance for an Aeronautics Power Line Communications System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, S.; Vos, G.; ter Meer, T.; Widmer, H.

    2012-05-01

    Transmitting data over the power distribution network - Power Line Communications (PLC) -provides an interesting solution to reducing the weight and complexity of wiring networks in commercial aircraft. One of the potential roadblocks for the introduction of this technology is achieving EMC emissions compliance. In this article an overview of the EMC conducted and radiated emissions testing for PLC- enabled aeronautics equipment is presented. Anomalies resulting from chamber resonances leading to discrepancies between the conducted emissions tests and the measured radiated emissions are identified and described. Measurements made according to the current version of the civil aeronautical EMC standard, EUROCAE ED-14F (RTCA DO-160F), show that PLC equipment can achieve full EMC emissions compliance.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...

  11. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  12. EMC of harmonic and transient measurement equipment in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) challenges during the development, construction, testing and installation of a measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term data logging is described in this paper. The presented measurement system was tested in a rough...... leading, as well as usage of EMC-proof boxes for high frequency measurements is described. Some measurement results focused on dealing with EMI are also presented and explained....

  13. Modeling automotive FlexRay transceivers for signal integrity and EMC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, H.; Hilger, U.; Frei, S.

    2011-07-01

    Automotive bus systems like FlexRay or CAN transmit safety critical data. To ensure correct functionality under all circumstances, extensive investigations about signal integrity and EMC have to be performed. To be able to use simulation in this validation process, suitable models for the components of the bus systems have to be developed. This paper shows how a combined transceiver model for signal integrity and EMC investigations can be created. The model shows good results in comparison to measurement data.

  14. An EMC Evaluation of the Use of Unshielded Motor Cables in AC Adjustable Speed Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanigovszki, Norbert; Poulsen, J.; Spiazzi, G.;

    2004-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses. As a result, for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) reasons, in most applications shielded cables are used between the inverter and the motor, implying high installation costs. The present paper discusses the use...... filter with DC link connection. It is concluded that, from an EMC point of view, unshielded cables can give very good performance provided that a common-mode (CM) output filter is used....

  15. Validation of EMC near-field scanning amplitude and phase measurement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Anders P.; Sørensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    A frequency selection and data validation procedure is presented. It shows that using data from the reference channel it makes possible to estimate the validity of the measured data from an EMC near-field scan with phase on active circuits.......A frequency selection and data validation procedure is presented. It shows that using data from the reference channel it makes possible to estimate the validity of the measured data from an EMC near-field scan with phase on active circuits....

  16. EMC and the printed circuit board design theory and layout made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Montrose, Mark I

    1999-01-01

    "This reference text shows how and why RF energy is created within a printed circuit board, and the manner in which propagation occurs. With thorough explanations, this book enables engineers to grasp both the fundamentals of EMC theory and signal integrity, along with the mitigation process needed to prevent an EMC event while maintaining optimal functionality for low- and high-technology products. Mr. Montrose also shows the relationship between time and frequency domains, helping one meet mandatory compliance requirements."--Jacket.

  17. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  18. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Owners and ESCo in the Existing Residential Building Energy Saving:Based on EMC%既有居住建筑节能改造中业主与ESCo进化博弈分析 ——基于合同能源管理模式(EMC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓君; 张晨曦

    2015-01-01

    In EMC,based on the evolutionary game theory,the paper establishes the dynamic evolutionary game model of owners and ESCo with replicator dynamics and evolutionary stable strategy according to their characteristics and the bounded rational hypothesis,explores strategy to promote owners performing energy saving and ESCo providing qualified service,provides reference for EMC application in residential building energy saving.%在合同能源管理模式(EMC)下,以进化博弈理论为基础,根据业主与节能服务公司ESCo的特征分析和有限理性假设,采用复制动态和进化稳定策略建立业主与ESCo的动态进化博弈模型,并探究能促进业主节能改造、ESCo提供合格服务的博弈策略,为EMC在既有居住建筑节能改造的应用提供参考.

  19. 7th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-12)

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Young-Sik; Park, Sang; Chen, Hsing-Chung; Embedded and Multimedia Computing Technology and Service

    2012-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-12), will be held in Gwangju, Korea on September 6 - 8, 2012. EMC-12 will be the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Embedded and Multimedia (EM) Computing. EMC-12 will provide an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of EM. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in EM. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject. The EMC-12 is the next event, in a series of highly successful International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing, previously held as EMC 2011 (China, Aug. 2011), EMC 2010 (Philippines, Aug. 2010), EM-Com 2009 (Korea, Dec. 2009), UMC-08 (Australia, Oct. 2008), ESO-08(China, Dec. 2008), UMS-08 ...

  20. Radiated EMC& EMI Management During Design Qualification and Test Phases on LEO Satellites Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeaux, H.; Terral, M.; Gutierrez-Galvan, R.; Baud, C.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the proposed paper is to present the global radiated EMC/EMI approach applied by Thales Alenia Space in the frame of a telecommunication Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites constellation program. The paper will present this approach in term of analyses, of specific characterisation and of sub-system and satellite tests since first design reviews up-to satellite qualification tests on Prototype Flight Model (PFM) and to production tests on reduced FMs. The global aim is : 1 - to reduce risk and cost (units EMC delta qualification, EMC tests at satellite level for the 81 Space Vehicles (SV) through appropriated EMC analyses (in term of methodologies and contours) provided in the frame of design reviews.2 - to early anticipate potential critical case to reduce the impact in term of engineering/qualification/test extra cost and of schedule.3 - to secure/assure the payload and SV design/layout.4 - to define and optimize the EMC/EMI test campaigns to be performed on Prototype Flight Model (PFM) for complete qualification and on some FMs for industrial qualification/validation.The last part of the paper is dedicated to system Bite Error Rate (BER) functional test performed on PFM SV to demonstrate the final compatibility between the three on-board payloads and to the Internal EMC tests performed on PFM and some FMs to demonstrate the SV panel RF shielding efficiency before and after environmental tests and the Thales Alenia Space (TAS) and Orbital AKT (OATK) workmanships reproducibility.

  1. Human coronavirus EMC is not the same as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun

    2013-01-15

    A newly identified betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has been isolated from several patients with respiratory and renal disease in the Middle East. While only a few infected patients have been identified, the mortality of the infection is greater than 50%. Like its better-known cousin severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), HCoV-EMC appears to have originated from bats. In a recent article in mBio, Müller et al. described several important differences between the two viruses [M. A. Müller et al., mBio 3(6):e00515-12, 2012, doi:10.1128/mBio.00515-12]. Unlike SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC can directly infect bat cells. As important, HCoV-EMC does not enter cells using the SARS-CoV receptor, human angiotensin-converting receptor-2 (hACE2). These results provide a strong incentive for identifying the host cell receptor used by HCoV-EMC. Identification of the receptor will provide insight into the pathogenesis of pulmonary and renal disease and may also suggest novel therapeutic interventions.

  2. Merger Failures & Corporate Strategy: Change Management to Solve the Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Mergers are the key for both big and small business corporations. This research paper determines the factors resulting into merger failures and considering “Strategic Change Management” as a solution to the query by doing comparison of corporate strategy and cultures of mergers between Europe and USA through statistics. Factors that lead to merger failures are misgauging strategic fit, cultural clash, communication gap, weak leadership and economic crisis by providing clear vision, putting together leadership team, focused management on success and winning the people’s commitment we can solve this query. The research has proved that cross-border mergers are highly influenced by cultural differences. The strategic change management led by new CEO can help in saving a new merger from a failure.

  3. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  4. The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings

  5. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  6. Test plan/procedure for the checkout of the USA cable communications test configuration for the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    A series of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests were conducted in May, 1975 in the Soviet Union. The purpose of the EMC tests was to determine the effects of the operating environment of the Soviet aircraft, Soyuz, upon the electrical performance of the USA's cable communications equipment located in Soyuz. The test procedures necessary to check out the cable communications test configuration in preparation for the EMC tests are presented.

  7. THE USE OF THE EMCS BUSINESS WEB APPLICATION FOR MONITORING THE MOVEMENT OF EXCISE GOODS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORA VĂTUIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available EMCS-RO is a tool developed in accordance with EU requirements, which on April 1, 2010 provided electronic transmission of the accompanying administrative document in the states which are members of the communitarian bloc. Access to the EMCS-RO application is given by the National Customs Authority. The EMCS provides the use of ECS (Export Control System to monitor the output of excise goods within the EU.

  8. dPob/EMC is essential for biosynthesis of rhodopsin and other multi-pass membrane proteins in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takunori; Ohba, Aya; Liu, Ziguang; Inagaki, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Akiko K

    2015-02-26

    In eukaryotes, most integral membrane proteins are synthesized, integrated into the membrane, and folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We screened the mutants affecting rhabdomeric expression of rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) in the Drosophila photoreceptors and found that dPob/EMC3, EMC1, and EMC8/9, Drosophila homologs of subunits of ER membrane protein complex (EMC), are essential for stabilization of immature Rh1 in an earlier step than that at which another Rh1-specific chaperone (NinaA) acts. dPob/EMC3 localizes to the ER and associates with EMC1 and calnexin. Moreover, EMC is required for the stable expression of other multi-pass transmembrane proteins such as minor rhodopsins Rh3 and Rh4, transient receptor potential, and Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, but not for a secreted protein or type I single-pass transmembrane proteins. Furthermore, we found that dPob/EMC3 deficiency induces rhabdomere degeneration in a light-independent manner. These results collectively indicate that EMC is a key factor in the biogenesis of multi-pass transmembrane proteins, including Rh1, and its loss causes retinal degeneration.

  9. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. 77 FR 76034 - National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... AGENCY National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection... publishing the final ``National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change'' (2012 Strategy... light of climate change and charts key strategic actions to be taken to achieve the goals in 2012...

  11. Phototropism experiments in microgravity-the Seedling Growth project in the EMCS on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, John; Edelmann, Richard; Herranz, Raul; Medina, Francisco Javier; Millar, Katherine

    The microgravity environment aboard orbiting spacecraft has provided a unique laboratory to explore important topics in basic plant biology. Our group has utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to study plant growth, development, tropisms, and gene expression in a series of spaceflight experiments. The most current project performed on the ISS was termed Seeding Growth-1 (SG-1) which builds on the previous TROPI (for tropisms) experiments. TROPI-1 was the first EMCS experiment, and we discovered a novel red-light-based phototropism in hypocotyls of seedlings grown in microgravity (Millar et al. 2010). In TROPI-2, our experiments were extended to reduced gravity levels and found that 0.1-0.3 g can attenuate the red-light response (Kiss et al. 2012). In addition, we performed gene profiling studies and noted that approximately 280 genes that were differentially regulated at least two-fold in the space samples compared to the ground controls (Correll et al. 2013). Major technical and operational changes in SG-1 (launched in March 2013) compared to the TROPI experiments include: improvements in lighting conditions within the EMCS to optimize the environment for phototropism studies and the use of infrared illumination to provide high-quality images of the seedlings. In SG-1, the red-light-based phototropism in roots and hypocotyls of seedlings that was noted in TROPI-2 was confirmed and now can be more precisely characterized based on the improvements in procedures. As we move forward, the SG-2 experiments (to be launched in 2014), in addition to a continued focus on phototropism, will consider the cell cycle as well as the growth and proliferation of plant cells in microgravity (Matía et al. 2010). Furthermore, the lessons learned from sequential experiments from TROPI-1 to TROPI-2 to SG-1 can provide insights to other researchers developing space experiments in plant biology. References: Correll M.J., T

  12. EMC1-dependent stabilization drives membrane penetration of a partially destabilized non-enveloped virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Parikshit; Inoue, Takamasa; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Destabilization of a non-enveloped virus generates a membrane transport-competent viral particle. Here we probe polyomavirus SV40 endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-cytosol membrane transport, a decisive infection step where destabilization initiates this non-enveloped virus for membrane penetration. We find that a member of the ER membrane protein complex (EMC) called EMC1 promotes SV40 ER membrane transport and infection. Surprisingly, EMC1 does so by using its predicted transmembrane residue D961 to bind to and stabilize the membrane-embedded partially destabilized SV40, thereby preventing premature viral disassembly. EMC1-dependent stabilization enables SV40 to engage a cytosolic extraction complex that ejects the virus into the cytosol. Thus EMC1 acts as a molecular chaperone, bracing the destabilized SV40 in a transport-competent state. Our findings reveal the novel principle that coordinated destabilization-stabilization drives membrane transport of a non-enveloped virus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21470.001 PMID:28012275

  13. New data strengthen the connection between Short Range Correlations and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Weinstein, L B

    2012-01-01

    Recently published measurements of the two nucleon short range correlation ($NN$-SRC) scaling factors, $a_2(A/d)$, strengthen the previously observed correlation between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at $0.35\\le x_B\\le 0.7$ and the SRC scaling factor measured at $x_B \\ge 1$. The new results have improved precision and include previously unmeasured nuclei. The measurements of $a_2(A/d)$ for $^9$Be and $^{197}$Au agree with published predictions based on the EMC-SRC correlation. This paper examines the effects of the new data and of different corrections to the data on the slope and quality of the EMC-SRC correlation, the size of the extracted deuteron IMC effect, and the free neutron structure function. The results show that the linear EMC-SRC correlation is robust and that the slope of the correlation is insensitive to most combinations of corrections examined in this work. The inclusion of new nuclei shows that while neither the EMC effect nor the SRC scaling ...

  14. Edge Transport Modeling using the 3D EMC3-Eirene code on Tokamaks and Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, J. D.; Ahn, J. W.; Briesemeister, A.; Ferraro, N.; Labombard, B.; McLean, A.; Reinke, M.; Shafer, M.; Terry, J.

    2015-11-01

    The fluid plasma edge transport code EMC3-Eirene has been applied to aid data interpretation and understanding the results of experiments with 3D effects on several tokamaks. These include applied and intrinsic 3D magnetic fields, 3D plasma facing components, and toroidally and poloidally localized heat and particle sources. On Alcator C-Mod, a series of experiments explored the impact of toroidally and poloidally localized impurity gas injection on core confinement and asymmetries in the divertor fluxes, with the differences between the asymmetry in L-mode and H-mode qualitatively reproduced in the simulations due to changes in the impurity ionization in the private flux region. Modeling of NSTX experiments on the effect of 3D fields on detachment matched the trend of a higher density at which the detachment occurs when 3D fields are applied. On DIII-D, different magnetic field models were used in the simulation and compared against the 2D Thomson scattering diagnostic. In simulating each device different aspects of the code model are tested pointing to areas where the model must be further developed. The application to stellarator experiments will also be discussed. Work supported by U.S. DOE: DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-99ER54512, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  15. Maintaining Stability During a Conducted-Ripple EMC Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorperian, Vatche

    2007-01-01

    An improved technique, and electronic circuitry to implement the technique, have been developed for a military-standard electromagnetic-compatibility (EMC) test in which one analyzes susceptibility to low-frequency ripple conducted into the equipment under test via a DC power line. In the traditional technique for performing the particular test, the ripple is coupled onto the DC power line via a transformer. Depending upon some design details of the equipment under test, the inductance of the transformer can contribute a degree of instability that results in an oscillation of amplitude large enough to destroy the equipment. It is usually possible to suppress the oscillation by connecting a damping resistor to the primary terminals of the ripple-injection transformer. However, it is important to emphasize the usually in the preceding sentence: sometimes, the resistive damping becomes insufficient to suppress destructive oscillation. In addition, undesirably, the resistor contributes to power dissipation and power demand, and thereby also necessitates the use of a larger ripple voltage amplifier. Yet another disadvantage of the transformer-coupling technique is that the transformer introduces low-frequency distortion of the injected ripple voltage. The improved technique makes it possible to inject ripple with very low distortion at low frequency, without inducing oscillation. In this technique, a transformer is not used: Instead, power is fed to the equipment under test via series power field-effect transistors (FETs) controlled by a summing operational amplifier. One of the inputs to the amplifier controls the DC component of the power-line voltage; the other input, generated by an external oscillator, controls the ripple component. The circuitry for implementing this technique includes panel displays, an internal power supply for the operational amplifier and panel displays, and amplitude controls for the DC and ripple powerline voltage components.

  16. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  17. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  18. Be a CHANGEMASTER: 12 Coaching Strategies for Leading Professional and Personal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Karla

    2012-01-01

    "Be a CHANGEMASTER" is a practical guide for school and district leaders that provides 12 strategies for overcoming resistance to change. Unlike more theoretical books, this text shows how to adopt a coaching style of leadership as a systemic change strategy. Numerous examples demonstrate how the strategies used in this book have led to…

  19. International experiences on the formulation and implementation of transboundary climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ly, T.; Nguyen Huong Thuy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI) aims at formulating the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Lower Mekong Basin. An important first step in developing this strategy is to review international experiences of existing strategies, to learn from

  20. Strategies for Change: A Field Guide to Social Marketing for School Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Strategies for Change outlines how to use social marketing strategies to influence change in the health programs in a building, district or community. Authors describe how to develop a strategy to influence district administrators, school board members, colleagues and parents. This step-by-step guide leads through the process for developing,…

  1. The spike protein of the emerging betacoronavirus EMC uses a novel coronavirus receptor for entry, can be activated by TMPRSS2, and is targeted by neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierer, Stefanie; Bertram, Stephanie; Kaup, Franziska; Wrensch, Florian; Heurich, Adeline; Krämer-Kühl, Annika; Welsch, Kathrin; Winkler, Michael; Meyer, Benjamin; Drosten, Christian; Dittmer, Ulf; von Hahn, Thomas; Simmons, Graham; Hofmann, Heike; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    The novel human coronavirus EMC (hCoV-EMC), which recently emerged in Saudi Arabia, is highly pathogenic and could pose a significant threat to public health. The elucidation of hCoV-EMC interactions with host cells is critical to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this virus and to the identification of targets for antiviral intervention. Here we investigated the viral and cellular determinants governing hCoV-EMC entry into host cells. We found that the spike protein of hCoV-EMC (EMC-S) is incorporated into lentiviral particles and mediates transduction of human cell lines derived from different organs, including the lungs, kidneys, and colon, as well as primary human macrophages. Expression of the known coronavirus receptors ACE2, CD13, and CEACAM1 did not facilitate EMC-S-driven transduction, suggesting that hCoV-EMC uses a novel receptor for entry. Directed protease expression and inhibition analyses revealed that TMPRSS2 and endosomal cathepsins activate EMC-S for virus-cell fusion and constitute potential targets for antiviral intervention. Finally, EMC-S-driven transduction was abrogated by serum from an hCoV-EMC-infected patient, indicating that EMC-S-specific neutralizing antibodies can be generated in patients. Collectively, our results indicate that hCoV-EMC uses a novel receptor for protease-activated entry into human cells and might be capable of extrapulmonary spread. In addition, they define TMPRSS2 and cathepsins B and L as potential targets for intervention and suggest that neutralizing antibodies contribute to the control of hCoV-EMC infection.

  2. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  3. Connections among residual strong interaction, the EMC effect and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from the nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy part. The observed correlation supports the recent speculation that the nuclear dependence of quark distributions depend on the local nuclear density. This phenomenological relationship can be used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron. Most importantly, the EMC slopes $dR_{EMC}/dx$ of nuclei can be predicted with the nuclear binding energy data. The relationship between nucleon-nucleon (N-N) short range correlation (SRC) and RSIE is also presented.

  4. EMC Investigation of a Very High Frequency Self-oscillating Resonant Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance of a Very High Frequency (VHF) converter and how to lower the emissions. To test the EMC performance a VHF converter is implemented with a Class-E inverter and a Class-DE rectifier. The converter is designed to deliver 3 W...... to a 60 V LED, it has a switching frequency of 37 MHz and achieves an efficiency of 80%. For an LED driver to be used on the consumer market it has to fulfil the standard regarding EMC emissions. The conducted emission is often used as a reason to increase the switching frequency to the VHF range to avoid...... the regulations. This converter shows to be well below the levels for conducted emission even without filtering. For the radiated emissions the converter is above the limits without input and output filters. Several designs with different ways to lower the emissions are implemented and the different layouts...

  5. Developing Canada`s climate change strategy : electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Canada`s climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent).

  6. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W., E-mail: wei.zhang@ipp.mpg.de [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lunt, T.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Brida, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Jacquet, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 10{sup 22} electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  7. Near Field Measurement for EMC Validation of Electronics Board in IMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Today the electronic embedded architecture in aircraft is based on traditional approaches on the independent aircraft systems with modules called LRU, Line Replaceable Unit. Needs to reduce cost and weight of the embedded electronic units pass by the implementation of a more modular electronics in the architectures AC with elementary module.Such EMC avionic tests description at electronics modules levels are not defined today. The objectives of those studies are to give technical data to defined EMC test setup and associated limits at modules levels to respect environment requirements.

  8. EMC studies for the vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, R.; Iglesias, M.; Arteche, F.; Echeverria, I.; Friedl, M.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cervenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnicka, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Moser, H. G.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaia, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Rummel, S.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the Belle II experiment plans to use a vertex detector based on two different technologies, DEPFET pixel (PXD) technology and double side silicon microstrip (SVD) technology. The vertex electronics are characterized by the topology of SVD bias that forces to design a sophisticated grounding because of the floating power scheme. The complex topology of the PXD power cable bundle may introduce some noise inside the vertex area. This paper presents a general overview of the EMC issues present in the vertex system, based on EMC tests on an SVD prototype and a study of noise propagation in the PXD cable bundle based on Multi-conductor transmission line theory.

  9. System EMC Qualification: The Incremental Approach- The BepiColombo Power Subsystem with Ion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempkens, K.

    2016-05-01

    System EMC testing generally verifies the entire spacecraft performance, operating the complete satellite in most emissive mode and measuring the power bus quality.On BepiColombo spacecraft, system tests are split into two parts, first operating the power subsystem of the transfer module together with the electric propulsion running in a special vacuum chamber, and then, running the entire spacecraft with suitable thruster simulators. The paper describes the Split System EMC test approach in detail, and presents the results of the first step, confirming the validity of the approach.

  10. Roles of State Strategy of Adaptation to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Huang Shanfeng; Zhang Mengheng

    2007-01-01

    For the adverse impacts of climate change,China government should place the problem of adaptation to climate change on the agenda.It is time to institute and implement a State adaptive strategy to reduce the adverse impacts on economy,community and people's health and life by international cooperation and our own endeavor.A state strategyofadaptationto cfimate change should be closely linked with other current interrelated national strategies,and they should be supplemented and improved by each other.This paper discusses the roles of the state strategy of adaptation to climate change in the State climate change integrative strategy,the environmental protection strategy,and the sustainable development strategy in China.Furthermore,it proposes the main aims of the State adaptive strategy of China.

  11. [Lead compound optimization strategy (1)--changing metabolic pathways and optimizing metabolism stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Liu, Hong

    2013-10-01

    Lead compound optimization plays an important role in new drug discovery and development. The strategies for changing metabolic pathways can modulate pharmacokinetic properties, prolong the half life, improve metabolism stability and bioavailability of lead compounds. The strategies for changing metabolic pathways and improving metabolism stability are reviewed. These methods include blocking metabolic site, reduing lipophilicity, changing ring size, bioisosterism, and prodrug.

  12. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  13. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  14. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade' (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-606, 104 Stat. 3096-3104)-'Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of Earth to sustain life'-with a focus on climate and land-use change. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystem, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy (2007). When science strategies that cover these other components are developed, coordinated implementation will be necessary to achieve Bureau-level synergies and optimize capabilities and expertise. In October 2010, USGS realigned its management and budget structure to implement its 2007 Science Strategy. The new organizational structure, in which 'Global Change' is one of seven key mission areas, lends itself to the advancement of the established six strategic goals. USGS global change science is formally represented by the 'Climate and Land-Use Change' Mission Area in the FY 2012 budge (USGS, 2011). This plan was developed by the USGS Global Change Science Strategy Planning Team (SSPT) appointed by the USGS Director on March 4, 2010 and charged with developing a Global Change Science Strategy for the coming decade (McNutt, 2010). USGS managers and science staff are the main audience for this science strategy. This document is also intended to serve as the foundation for consistent USGS collaboration and ccations with partners and stakeholders.

  15. 适用于EMC企业和统一存储系统的Emulex下一代OneConnect技术借EMC Select计划上市

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    全球聚合网络解决方案领导者Emulex公司近日宣布:基于BladeEnglne3fBE3)技术、支持10Gb iSCSI和光纤通道以太网(FCoE)连接的双端口OneConnect通用聚合网络适配器(UCNA),目前通过EMC Select计划上市销售,并得到EMC VNX、EMC VYXe、EMC Symmetrix和EMC Connectrix的支持。

  16. Human cell tropism and innate immune system interactions of human respiratory coronavirus EMC compared to those of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielecki, Florian; Weber, Michaela; Eickmann, Markus; Spiegelberg, Larissa; Zaki, Ali Moh; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Becker, Stephan; Weber, Friedemann

    2013-05-01

    Infections with human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) are associated with severe pneumonia. We demonstrate that HCoV-EMC resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in productively infecting primary and continuous cells of the human airways and in preventing the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) responses. However, HCoV-EMC was markedly more sensitive to the antiviral state established by ectopic IFN. Thus, HCoV-EMC can utilize a broad range of human cell substrates and suppress IFN induction, but it does not reach the IFN resistance of SARS-CoV.

  17. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  18. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Noise Background Testing for Double Chooz PMT System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepero, J. R.; Encabo Fernandez, F. J.; Pepe, I.; Verdugo, A.

    2009-05-21

    The Double Chooz PMT system is a HV/signal splitter. In this report is presented an electromagnetic compatibility and background noise testing for the Double Chooz PMT system. It was possible to proceed the EMC testing on different grounding configurations of PMT splitter due to its special PCB design, endowed of jumping points and a metal box ground electrode. (Author)

  19. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    .9%. The state of the water is not affected by oven-drying and rewetting as demonstrated by time domain low field NMR relaxometry. The results challenge the conclusions of earlier studies and indicate that in these studies the 2nd desorption was initiated at much too low EMC and therefore fails to describe...

  20. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young, E-mail: juyounglee@snu.ac.kr [Natural Products Center, KIST(Korea Institute of Science and Technology)-Gangneung Institute, Gangnueng 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungjun, E-mail: kimhj9415@hanmail.net [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngjin, E-mail: mukta73@korea.kr [Department of Agricultural Engineering, National Institute of Agricultural Science, Gwonseon-Gu, Suwon 442-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moo Young, E-mail: myhan@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD{sub cr}, TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO{sub 3}, TP, PO{sub 4} and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. - Research highlights: > Field test on urban highway were performed to 50 of 100 storm events for 3 years. > The peak pollutant concentrations occurs 20 min after the first runoff. > The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and rainfall intensity. > Relationship between runoff and event mean concentration for SS and COD. > A crest of the EMC by 70-80 m{sup 3}/event and decreasing EMC after 70-80 m{sup 3}/event. - This study investigate the characterization of the EMC of runoff during rainfall event on highway.

  1. Elektromagnetiline ühildatavus - probleemide jada aastast 1930 : EMC = EMI + EMS / Peeter Lamster

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamster, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Elektrisüsteemist lähtuvast seadmete tööd häirivast elektromagnetilisest inferentsist (EMI), elektromagnetilise haavatavuse (EMS) vähendamisest ja elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse (EMC) tagamisest. Elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse tähtsusest sõjanduses

  2. Parton distribution of nucleon and nuclear EMC effect in a statistical model

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xian-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    We study the parton distribution of nucleon and nuclear EMC effect in a statistical model. We find when we choose the parameters appropriately, the predictions given by pure statistical laws can fit the experimental data well in most range of $x$, this reveal statistical law play an important role in the parton distribution of nucleon.

  3. [Meet the challenge of the implementation of the EMC standard for medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Lin, Weizeng; Liu, Jingling

    2011-03-01

    This paper reveals the EMC quality situation of China's medical electrical equipment and the existing security risks in order to arouse the concerns of the government supervision departments, technical inspection units, the production enterprises and the users. It also serves as a reference when formulating related policies and measures.

  4. Rb deficiency during Drosophila eye development deregulates EMC, causing defects in the development of photoreceptors and cone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Milena K; He, Wei; Korenjak, Michael; Dyson, Nicholas J; Moon, Nam-Sung

    2011-12-15

    Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates various biological processes during development and tumorigenesis. Although the molecular mechanism by which pRb controls cell cycle progression is well characterized, how pRb promotes cell-type specification and differentiation is less understood. Here, we report that Extra Macrochaetae (EMC), the Drosophila homolog of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (ID), is an important protein contributing to the developmental defects caused by Rb deficiency. An emc allele was identified from a genetic screen designed to identify factors that, when overexpressed, cooperate with mutations in rbf1, which encodes one of the two Rb proteins found in Drosophila. EMC overexpression in an rbf1 hypomorphic mutant background induces cone cell and photoreceptor defects but has negligible effects in the wild-type background. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the rbf1-null ommatidia normally exhibit similar cone cell and photoreceptor defects in the absence of ectopic EMC expression. Detailed EMC expression analyses revealed that RBF1 suppresses expression of both endogenous and ectopic EMC protein in photoreceptors, thus explaining the synergistic effect between EMC overexpression and rbf1 mutations, and the developmental defect observed in rbf1-null ommatidia. Our findings demonstrate that ID family proteins are an evolutionarily conserved determinant of Rb-deficient cells, and play an important role during development.

  5. A change in strategy: Static emotion recognition in Malaysian Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystalle B.Y. Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that while East Asians focused on the center of the face to recognize identities, participants adapted their strategy by focusing more on the eyes to identify emotions, suggesting that the eyes may contain salient information pertaining to emotional state in Eastern cultures. However, Western Caucasians employ the same strategy by moving between the eyes and mouth to identify both identities and emotions. Malaysian Chinese have been shown to focus on the eyes and nose more than the mouth during face recognition task, which represents an intermediate between Eastern and Western looking strategies. The current study examined whether Malaysian Chinese continue to employ an intermediate strategy or shift towards an Eastern or Western pattern (by fixating more on the eyes or mouth respectively during an emotion recognition task. Participants focused more on the eyes, followed by the nose then mouth. Directing attention towards the eye region resulted in better recognition of certain own- than other-race emotions. Although the fixation patterns appear similar for both tasks, further analyses showed that fixations on the eyes were reduced whereas fixations on the nose and mouth were increased during emotion recognition, indicating that participants adapt looking strategies based on their aims.

  6. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary Alan; DeSimone, Julia Carol; Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. We performed ground testing to determine whether ARC EMCS seed cassettes could be adapted for use with tardigrades for future spaceflight experiments. Tardigrades (water bears) are small invertebrates that enter the tun state in response to desiccation or other environmental stresses. Tardigrade tuns have suspended metabolism and have been shown to be survive exposure to space vacuum, high pressure, temperature and other stresses. For spaceflight experiments using the EMCS, the organisms ideally must be able to survive desiccation and storage in the cassette at ambient temperature for several weeks prior to the initiation of the experiment by the infusion of water to the cassette during spaceflight. The ability of tardigrades to survive extremes by entering the tun state make them ideal candidates for growth experiments in the EMCS cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membrane contains dried growth medium. The goals of our study were to (1) determine whether tardigrades survive and reproduce on PES membranes, (2) develop a consistent method for dehydration of the tardigrades with high recovery rates upon rehydration, (3) to determine an appropriate food source for the tardigrades that can also be dehydrated/rehydrated and (4) successful mock rehydration experiment in cassettes with appropriate food source. We present results that show successful multigenerational growth of tardigrades on PES membranes with a variety of wet food sources. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration with tardigrades and at least one candidate food, protonema of the moss Polytrichum, that supports multigenerational growth and whose spores germinate quickly enough to match tardigrade feeding patterns post rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini

  7. The Scanfin Merger: Technology, Strategy and Change (Case D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    -operation. Aiming to give a strong message on the changing nature of the CIO job, the Scanfin 'UberCIO' fired Olaf during a meeting and demanded quick and relevant changes from the remaining CIOs. The Finnish IT team, headed by Markku, carries out the technical changes in collaboration with the IT functions from...

  8. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  9. Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students: Promoting Change through Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Green, Alan; Hanna, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Teachers in middle level schools face overwhelming demands and challenges in their classrooms. They are expected to know content and pedagogy, develop engaging lessons that meet the needs of diverse learners, and use a variety of instructional strategies that will boost student achievement while they simultaneously develop positive relationships…

  10. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even...

  11. Effective Strategies for Talking about Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about climate science presents some unique challenges. Unlike many other science topics, mitigation and adaptation to climate change will require students to take action. This article outlines five major challenges to communicating about climate change in the classroom, drawing on research in environmental psychology: scepticism,…

  12. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  13. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In this paper specific hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational culture and certain change strategies are formulated. Types of organizational culture are differentiated according to Handy’s and Trompenaars’ classifications. Organizational change strategies have been differentiated according to previous work of Chin & Benne but one more strategy has been added. Classifications of both the organizational cultures and of the organizational change strategies are based on the same criteria of differentiation: distribution of power in an organization and orientation toward relationships or tasks. For this reason it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational cultures and certain types of organizational change strategies. Thus, eight hypotheses are formulated in this paper, relating particular change strategies with particular types of organizational culture.

  14. Thermal stability of LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingsong; SUN Jinhua; CHEN Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of lithium-ion battery electrolyte could substantially affect the safety of lithium-ion battery. In order to disclose the thermal stability of 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)+dimethyl carbonate (DMC)+ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) electrolyte, a micro calorimeter C80 micro calorimeter was used in this paper. The electrolyte samples were heated in argon atmosphere, and the heat flow and pressure performances were detected. It is found that LiPF6 influences the thermal behavior remarkably, with more heat generation and lower onset temperature. LiPF6/EC shows an exothermic peak at 212 ℃ with a heat of reaction -355.4J·g-1.DMC based LiPF6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 68.5 and 187 ℃ in argon filled vessel at elevated temperature. EMC based LiPF 6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 191 and 258 ℃ in argon filled vessel.1.0mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+ EMC electrolyte shows an endothermic and exothermic process one after the other at elevated temperature. By comparing with the thermal behavior of single solvent based LiPF6 solution, it can be speculated that LiPF6 may react with EC, DMC and EMC separately in 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte, but the exothermic peak is lower than that of 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC solution. Furthermore, The 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6 /EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte decomposition reaction order was calculated based on the pressure data, its value is n =1.83, and the pressure rate constants kp=6.49×10-2k Pa·-0.83·min-1 .

  15. Dynamics of three-dimensional radiative structures during RMP assisted detached plasmas on the large helical device and its comparison with EMC3-EIRENE modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shwetang N.; Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ida, Katsumi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Sano, Ryuichi; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Hirohiko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Motojima, Gen; Ohno, Noriyasu; LHD Experiment Group

    2016-04-01

    The resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) island introduced in the stochastic edge of the large helical device (LHD) plasma plays an important role in the stabilization of the plasma detachment (Kobayashi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 093032). The plasma enters in the sustained detachment phase in the presence of an RMP once the line averaged density exceeds a critical value with a given input power. During detachment the enhanced radiation from the stochastic edge of the LHD undergoes several spatiotemporal changes which are studied quantitatively by an infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic. The experimental results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the radiation predicted by the 3D transport simulation with fluid model, EMC3-EIRENE. A fair amount of qualitative agreement, before and after the detachment, is reported. The issue of overestimated radiation from the model is addressed by changing the free parameters in the EMC3-EIRENE code till the total radiation and the radiation profiles match closely, within a factor of two with the experimental observations. A better quantitative match between the model and the experiment is achieved at higher cross-field impurity diffusion coefficient and lower sputtering coefficient after the detachment. In this article a comparison, the first of its kind, is established between the quantified radiation from the experiments and the synthetic image obtained from the simulation code. This exercise is aimed towards validating the model assumptions against the experimentally measured radiation.

  16. EMC Testing on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) - A Summary of the EMC Test Campaign for the Science Payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft/observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  17. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, impacts on agriculture from extreme climate are increasingly vulnerable. On the other hand, folk communities are intensely depending on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change has already negatively affected the vegetable production by annual recurrent flood in Bangladesh...

  18. Incorporating climate change into corporate business strategies. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the papers presented at the International Climate Change Conference and Technologies Exhibition June 12-13, 1997. Topics include energy supply and electricity generation; forestry and agriculture; and the chemical, energy, and manufacturing industries.

  19. Degrees of change: Steps towards an Ontario global warming strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, M.; Jessup, P.; Lourie, B.; Macdonald, M.; Makuch, Z.; Valiante, M.; Warner, B.

    1991-06-01

    The measures and policy strategies that would be required to achieve a 20% reduction in Ontario carbon dioxide emissions by 2005 are explored. Estimates of primary and secondary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for 1988 and 2005 are presented, and three strategies are examined in each end-use sector: energy efficiency, fuel switching, and renewable energy measures. For the residential, commercial, transport, industrial, and iron/steel industry sectors, a profile of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy intensity trends is offered, opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction and measures to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are described, and the economic and social implications are discussed. Natural gas cogeneration is examined as a technological option for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and creating important opportunities for the Ontario economy. The role of energy utility reform in CO{sub 2} emissions reduction is assessed in an examination of the key factors needed for the design and implementation of demand side management programs that achieve high participation rates and significant reductions in energy demand. 102 refs., 6 figs., 53 tabs.

  20. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  1. Conceptual change strategies and cooperative group work in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Patricia A.; Sanford, Julie P.

    This study conducted at a suburban community college tested a method of conceptual change in which treatment students worked in small cooperative groups on tasks aimed at eliciting their misconceptions so that they could then be discussed in contrast to the scientific conceptions that had been taught in direct instruction. Categorizations of student understanding of the target concepts of the laws of conservation of matter and energy and aspects of the particulate nature of gases, liquids, and solids were ascertained by pre- and posttesting. Audiotapes of student verbal interaction in the small groups provided quantitative and qualitative data concerning student engagement in behaviors suggestive of the conditions posited to be part of the conceptual change process (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982). Chi-square analysis of posttests indicated that students in treatment groups had significantly lower (p < 0.05) proportion of misconceptions than control students on four of the five target concepts. Students who exhibited no change in concept state had a higher frequency of verbal behaviors suggestive of impeding conceptual change when compared to students who did change. Three factors emerged from qualitative analysis of group interaction that appeared to influence learning: (a) many students had flawed understanding of concepts that supported the target concepts; (b) student views towards learning science affected their engagement in assigned tasks, (c) good and poor group leaders had a strong influence on group success.

  2. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) for Integration and Use of Near Field Communication (NFC) in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Cemal; Kiehl, Thorsten; God, Ralf; Stadtler, Thiemo; Kebel, Robert; Bienert, Renke

    2016-05-01

    For portable electronic devices (PEDs), e.g. smartphones or tablets, near field communication (NFC) enables easy and convenient man-machine interaction by simply tapping a PED to a tangible NFC user interface. Usage of NFC technology in the air transport system is supposed to facilitate travel processes and self-services for passengers and to support digital interaction with other participating stakeholders. One of the potential obstacles to benefit from NFC technology in the aircraft cabin is the lack of an explicit qualification guideline for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing. In this paper, we propose a methodology for EMC testing and for characterizing NFC devices and their emissions according to aircraft industry standards (RTCA DO-160, DO-294, DO-307 and EUROCAE ED- 130). A potential back-door coupling scenario of radiated NFC emissions and possible effects to nearby aircraft wiring are discussed. A potential front-door- coupling effect on NAV/COM equipment is not investigated in this paper.

  3. Correlating the EMC analysis and testing methods for space systems in MIL-STD-1541A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to improve the correlation between the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis models stated in MIL-STD-1541A and the suggested testing methods used for space systems. The test and analysis methods outlined in MIL-STD-1541A are described, and a comparative assessment of testing and analysis techniques as they relate to several EMC areas is presented. Suggestions on present analysis and test methods are introduced to harmonize and bring the analysis and testing tools in MIL-STD-1541A into closer agreement. It is suggested that test procedures in MIL-STD-1541A must be improved by providing alternatives to the present use of shielded enclosures as the primary site for such tests. In addition, the alternate use of anechoic chambers and open field test sites must be considered.

  4. The EMC of satellite power systems and DoD C-E systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Aasen, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) technical parameters that are needed to accurately assess the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) between SPS systems and DoD communications-electronics (C-E) systems are identified and assessed. The type of electromagnetic interactions that could degrade the performance of C-E systems are described and the major military installations in the southwestern portions of CONUS where specially sensitive C-E systems are being used for combat training and evaluation are identified. Classes of C-E systems that are generally in the vicinity of these military installations are considered. The Technical parameters that govern the degree of compatibility of the SPS with these C-E systems, and some technical requirements that are necessary to ensure short-term and long-term EMC are identified.

  5. System Guidelines for EMC Safety-Critical Circuits: Design, Selection, and Margin Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstration of required safety margins on critical electrical/electronic circuits in large complex systems has become an implementation and cost problem. These margins are the difference between the activation level of the circuit and the electrical noise on the circuit in the actual operating environment. This document discusses the origin of the requirement and gives a detailed process flow for the identification of the system electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) critical circuit list. The process flow discusses the roles of engineering disciplines such as systems engineering, safety, and EMC. Design and analysis guidelines are provided to assist the designer in assuring the system design has a high probability of meeting the margin requirements. Examples of approaches used on actual programs (Skylab and Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) are provided to show how variations of the approach can be used successfully.

  6. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  7. Climate change: a call for adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected climate change is expected to substantially affect crop and livestock production, and water availability and quality. Concomitantly, the agricultural community is faced with a challenge of increasing food production by more than 70% to meet demand from global population increase by the mid...

  8. RFID Equivalent Model for Prediction of Functional and EMC Performances in Complex Aeronautic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Alexandre; Perraud, Richard; Peres, Gilles; Nguyen, Francois; Herlem, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Wireless networks are widely used in urban or office environments and are increasingly considered as an attractive solution for various aeronautic applications. Current investigations focus in particular on RFID technologies because of their widespread use, low cost and ease of installation. The objective of this publication is to propose a concept of RFID equivalent model to predict functional and EMC performances in complex aeronautic areas.

  9. High Frequency Model of Electrified Railway Propulsion System for EMC Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Kelin

    2012-01-01

    A model of the electrified railway propulsion system working in a wide frequency range is studied in this thesis. The high frequency modeling is the first stage to study and predict the Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems in the electrified railway propulsion system, which are safety and reliability issues of high concern. Modeling methods and models for the line converter, motor power supply module, and the traction motor are developed. These models can work individually or be combi...

  10. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  11. 77 FR 19661 - Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental... will address climate change challenges to its mission of protecting human health and the environment. Climate change alters the hydrological background in which EPA's programs function. Depending upon...

  12. Verification measurements of an eMC algorithm using a 2D ion chamber array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanklyn, Mark D; Kidane, Ghirmay; Crees, Liz

    2016-09-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the Im'RT MatriXX 2D ion chamber array for performing verification measurements on the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for a range of clinical energies (6, 12, and 20 MeV) on a Varian 2100iX linear accelerator. Firstly, the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring percentage depth doses (PDD) in water was assessed, including characterization of the inherent buildup found in the MatriXX. Secondly the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring dose distributions in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms was assessed using gamma analysis at 3%/3 mm. It was found that after adjusting the PDD curves for the inherent buildup, that the position of R50,D measured using the MatriXX agreed to within 1 mm to the PDDs generated using the eMC algorithm for all energies used in this study. Gamma analysis at 3%/3mm showed very good agreement (> 95%) for all cases in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. It was concluded that the Im'RT MatriXX is a suitable device for performing eMC verification and could potentially be used for routine energy checks of electron beams.

  13. Transport Properties of Graphene and Suspended Graphene with EMC: The Role of Various Scattering Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, M. D.; Atasever, Ö. S.; Özdemir, B.; Yarar, Z.; Özdemir, M.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic transport properties of graphene and suspended (intrinsic) graphene sheets are studied using an ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) technique. The combined scattering mechanisms that are taken into account for both cases are nonpolar optic and acoustic phonons, ionized impurity, interface roughness, and surface polar phonon scatterings. The effect of screening is also considered in the ionized impurity and surface polar phonon scatterings of electrons. A rejection technique is used in EMC simulations to account for the occupancy of the final states. Velocity-field characteristics of graphene and suspended graphene sheets are obtained using various values of acoustic deformation potential constants. The variation of electron mobility of graphene is studied as a function of electron concentration and its variation as a function of temperature are investigated for the case of suspended graphene. For the former case, the mobility increases with electron concentration first and after a certain value of electron concentration it begins to decrease, while for the latter case the mobility decreases almost linearly with temperature. The mobility results from EMC simulations are compatible with the existing experimental studies for the unsuspended graphene case.

  14. The emergence of human coronavirus EMC: how scared should we be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Renee W Y; Poon, Leo L M

    2013-04-09

    A novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC), has recently been detected in humans with severe respiratory disease. Further characterization of HCoV-EMC suggests that this virus is different from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) because it is able to replicate in multiple mammalian cell lines and it does not use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a receptor to achieve infection. Additional research is urgently needed to better understand the pathogenicity and tissue tropism of this virus in humans. In their recent study published in mBio, Kindler et al. shed some light on these important topics (E. Kindler, H. R. Jónsdóttir, M. Muth, O. J. Hamming, R. Hartmann, R. Rodriguez, R. Geffers, R. A. Fouchier, C. Drosten, M. A. Müller, R. Dijkman, and V. Thiel, mBio 4[1]:e00611-12, 2013). These authors report the use of differentiated pseudostratified human primary airway epithelial cells, an in vitro model with high physiological relevance to the human airway epithelium, to characterize the cellular tropism of HCoV-EMC. More importantly, the authors demonstrate the potential use of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) to control viral infection.

  15. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  16. F:ACTS! : Forms for adapting to climate change through territorial strategies : the handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.M.; Ónega, J.; Crecente, R.; Holst, van F.; Abts, E.; Timmermans, W.; Stolk, M.

    2014-01-01

    The F:ACTS! project contributed to generating knowledge on how to develop territorial strategies to adapt to climate change, facilitating the interchange of experience and information among its 14 partners across 8 countries. Integrated territorial strategies incorporate local diversity since they e

  17. Conservation strategies to mitigate impacts from climate change in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Timothy J; Solórzano, Luis A

    2008-05-27

    Protected area systems and conservation corridors can help mitigate the impacts of climate change on Amazonian biodiversity. We propose conservation design criteria that will help species survive in situ or adjust range distributions in response to increased drought. The first priority is to protect the western Amazon, identified as the 'Core Amazon', due to stable rainfall regimes and macro-ecological phenomena that have led to the evolution of high levels of biodiversity. Ecotones can buffer the impact from climate change because populations are genetically adapted to climate extremes, particularly seasonality, because high levels of habitat diversity are associated with edaphic variability. Future climatic tension zones should be surveyed for geomorphological features that capture rain or conserve soil moisture to identify potential refugia for humid forest species. Conservation corridors should span environmental gradients to ensure that species can shift range distributions. Riparian corridors provide protection to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Multiple potential altitudinal corridors exist in the Andes, but natural and anthropogenic bottlenecks will constrain the ability of species to shift their ranges and adapt to climate change. Planned infrastructure investments are a serious threat to the potential to consolidate corridors over the short and medium term.

  18. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  19. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosisof peritoneal metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases(PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was linkwith "terminal status/despair". The current multimodaltreatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery(CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, butseems to be the best treatment option for PM patients.As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasizesome milestones and also, controversies in the historyof proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outlinethe philosophy of this approach, which seems to be anunusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear,but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of humanand material resources (multi-center and -institutionalresearch), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPECfound their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodaltreatment, by launching research pathways. In selectedpatients, with requires training, it demonstrated asignificant survival results (similar to the HepaticMetastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs.The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatmentwere based on the oncologists' perspective and the smallnumber of randomized clinical trials. It is important tostatement the PM patient has the right to be informedof the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatmentresource, the decision being made by multidisciplinaryteams.

  20. Open Education and quality: The need for changing strategies and learning experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Invited Speech at UNESCO IITE Open Lectures, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 6 September): "Open Education and quality: The need for changing strategies and learning experiences"

  1. Proposing mitigation strategies for reducing the impact of rice cultivation on climate change in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Hasan

    2013-10-01

    The research results revealed that farmer acceptance or participation in applying different mitigation strategies is the cornerstone of this aspect. Meanwhile farmer awareness is essential for adaptation with climate change.

  2. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  3. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  4. The Impact of changed organizational structures- on middle managers' perception of strategy and people management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    Much research on organizational change and middle management has emphasized the idea of flatter more performance- and customer focused organizations, in which middle managers’ main responsibilities concern elements of organizational change and development such as strategy involvement, and managing...... managers reported that the amount of managerial levels had actually been reduced in the last three years. Secondly, middle managers who had experienced such a reduction perceived aspects of strategy and organizational development as more important. Thirdly, such a reduction did not introduce significant...

  5. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management.

  6. Changes of action strategies in metallurgical enterprises in time of economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Gajdzik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is the change in action strategy of metallurgical enterprises in time of economic slowdown. The first part of article presents results of literature analyses, opinions of scientists concerning changes in behaviours of enterprises in time of bad conjuncture. In next part of the article the author concentrates on verification of argument concerning the changes in action strategies of enterprises in Polish metallurgical sector. Shown examples of changes are confronted with literature studies presented in the first part of the article.

  7. Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China%Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yansui; Liu Yu; Guo Liying

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies indicate that global climate warming has been increasing, especially in recent decades. Climate warming greatly affects global agro-production and food security-- becoming a hotspot of global environmental change. This paper proposes a structural and orientational framework for scientifically addressing climatic change impact on agroroduction. Through literature reviews and comparative studies, the paper systematically summarizes influencing mechanisms and impact of climate warming on such agro-production factors as light, temperature, soil quality and water environment. The impact of climate warm- ing on cultivation regions, cropping systems, crop pests, agro- production capacity, agro-economy and farm management is analyzed. Then, suitable climate-adapting agro-development strategies are put forward for different regions in China. The strategies are carefully selected from a repository of international tested climatic change countermeasures in agriculture at national or district level.

  8. The Chang Management Strategies and Processes for Successful ERP Implementation-A Case Study of MADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M Al-Shamlan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Top management usually faces an unexpected attitude from potential users during implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP system. For one reason or another, they resist the implementation process and may cause the failure of ERP system. Therefore, top management should be deal with this problem using effective change management strategies and processes. In this paper, we discuss the successful change management strategies and processes in literature. A case study of MADAR has been presented to discover the strategies and processes used for the successful enterprise system.

  9. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability...... the political processes taking place in the Arctic: one aspect emphasises stakeholder participation and integration while the other aspect emphasises rightholder possibilites and self-determination. The focus is thus on how adaptation strategies relate to political and legal processes at different scales...

  10. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–606,104 Stat. 3096–3104)—“Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”—with a focus on climate and land-use change.There are three major characteristics of this science strategy. First, it addresses the science required to broadly inform global change policy, while emphasizing the needs of natural-resource managers and reflecting the role of the USGS as the science provider for the Department of the Interior and other resource-management agencies. Second, the strategy identifies core competencies, noting 10 critical capabilities and strengths the USGS uses to overcome key problem areas. We highlight those areas in which the USGS is a science leader, recognizing the strong partnerships and effective collaboration that are essential to address complex global environmental challenges. Third, it uses a query-based approach listing key research questions that need to be addressed to create an agenda for hypothesis-driven global change science organized under six strategic goals. Overall, the strategy starts from where we are, provides a vision for where we want to go, and then describes high-priority strategic actions, including outcomes, products, and partnerships that can get us there. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystems, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy

  11. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  12. Developing tools and strategies for communicating climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, D.; Yam, E. M.; Perkins, L.

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that the public views zoos and aquariums as reliable and trusted sources for information on conservation. Additionally, visiting zoos and aquariums helps people reconsider their connections to conservation issues and solutions. The Aquarium of the Pacific, an AZA-accredited institution that serves the most ethnically diverse population of all aquariums in the nation, is using exhibit space, technology, public programming, and staff professional development to present a model for how aquariums can promote climate literacy. Our newest galleries and programs are designed to immerse our visitors in experiences that connect our live animal collection to larger themes on ocean change. The Aquarium is supporting our new programming with a multifaceted staff professional development that exposes our interpretive staff to current climate science and researchers as well as current social science on public perception of climate science. Our staff also leads workshops for scientists; these sessions allow us to examine learning theory and develop tools to communicate science and controversial subjects effectively. Through our partnerships in the science, social science, and informal science education communities, we are working to innovate and develop best practices in climate communication.

  13. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  14. Influence Strategies of Principals: Ordinary Times Compared with Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether principals utilized flexible influence strategies under changing circumstances, based on perceptions of 450 Israeli elementary teachers. Principals acted mainly through an informal, less directive orientation of influence both in ordinary times and in times of change. Principals' leaned toward participatory influence approaches.…

  15. Strategies for Developing Positive Behaviour Management. Teacher Behaviour Outcomes and Attitudes to the Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Hindle, Sarah; Withington, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extended action research project run in a large secondary school over an 18-month period. The work was part of a wider strategy for change within the school. The data presented here describes some of the features of the change process and reflections on its impact. A key aim was to challenge and enable teachers to modify…

  16. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  17. Performance of a prototype for stimulated recovery of radiation damage for the PANDA EMC forward endcap and barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuske, Till; Dormenev, Valera; Novotny, Rainer; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig Universitaet (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The future Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) of the PANDA detector at FAIR will be based on a new generation of lead tungstate crystals (PWO-II). It is optimized to measure particle energies from 10 GeV down to 10-20 MeV. The operating temperature of the EMC will be -25 C. Due to the operation in a strong radiation environment one of the most critical parameter of PWO-II is radiation hardness. The radiation damage of PWO-II can be compensated by spontaneous relaxation of the color centers via thermo-activation. The process is strongly suppressed at -25 C, which is limiting the energy resolution of the EMC. The recovery process can be accelerated by illumination of the crystal with light even in the infrared region. A prototype implementation of the stimulated recovery for the PANDA EMC forward endcap is shown. Detailed studies concerning flux and intensity for different recovery modes at -25 C are presented. Additionally a concept for the recovery of radiation damage in the barrel part of the EMC is discussed.

  18. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Hunter, Jill V; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Saleh, Mohammed A; LeDuc, Charles A; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A; Chung, Wendy K; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W; Lupski, James R

    2016-03-03

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum.

  19. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Hunter, Jill V.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Saleh, Mohammed A.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptive Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-li; Shu Geng

    2013-01-01

    China is the world’s most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, China’s role in climate change has received a great deal of attention, whereas the impact of climate change on China has been largely ignored. Studies on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming major areas of scientific concern. However, the clear warming that has been sounded in China in recent decades has not been matched with a clear assessment of the impact of climate change on China’s water resources and agriculture. In the present study, we review observations on climate change, hydrology, and agriculture in China and relate these observations to likely future changes. We also analyse the adaptive strategies in China’s agriculture.

  1. Visualizing Changes in Strategy Use across Attempts via State Diagrams: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Game log data have great potential to provide actionable information about the in-game behavior of players. However, these low-level behavioral data are notoriously difficult to analyze due to the challenges associated with extracting meaning from sparse data stored at such a small grain size. This paper describes a three-step solution that uses cluster analysis to determine which strategies players use to solve levels in the game, sequence mining to identify changes in strategy across multiple attempts at the same level, and state transition diagrams to visualize the strategy sequences identified by the sequence mining. In the educational video game used in this case study, cluster analysis successfully identified 15 different in-game strategies. The sequence mining found an average of 40 different sequences of strategy use per level, which the state transition diagrams successfully displayed in an interpretable way.

  2. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  3. DC-DC switching converter based power distribution vs serial power distribution EMC strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Iglesias, M; Rivetta, C; Arcega, F G; Vila, I

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed and comparative analysis from the electromagnetic compatibility point of view of the proposed power distributions for the SLHC tracker up-grade. The main idea is to identify and quantify the noise sources, noise distribution at the system level and the sensitive areas in the front-end electronics corresponding to both proposed topologies: The DC-DC converter based power distribution and the serial power distribution. These studies will be used to define critical points on both systems to be studied and prototyped to ensure the correct integration of the system taking critically into account the electromagnetic compatibility. This analysis at the system level is crucial to ensure the final performance of the detector using non conventional power distributions, avoiding interference problems and excessive losses that can lead to catastrophic failures or expensive and un-practical solutions.

  4. Radiated EMC immunity investigation of common recognition identification platform for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jorge; Cabral, Jorge; Ravelo, Blaise; Wagner, Stefan; Pedersen, Christian F.; Memon, Mukhtiar; Mathiesen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    An innovative e-healthcare platform named common recognition and identification platform (CRIP) was developed and tested as part of the CareStore project. CareStore and CRIP aims at delivering accurate and safe disease management by minimising human operator errors in hospitals and care facilities. To support this, the CRIP platform features fingerprint biometrics and near field communication (NFC) for user identification; and Bluetooth communication support for a range of telemedicine medical devices adhering to the IEEE 11073 standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) immunity of the CRIP platform in order to validate it for medical application use. The first prototype of CRIP was demonstrated to operate as expected by showing the user identification function feasibility, both via NFC and biometric, and by detection of Bluetooth devices via radio frequency (RF) scanning. The NFC module works in the 13.56 MHz band and the Bluetooth module work in the 2.4 GHz band, according to the IEEE 802.15.1 standard. The standard test qualification of the CRIP was performed based on the radiated EMC immunity with respect to the EN 61000-4-3 standard. The immunity tests were conducted under industrial EMC compliance with electric field aggression, with levels up to 10 V/m in both horizontal and vertical polarisations when the test antenna and the CRIP were placed at a distance of 3 m. It was found that the CRIP device complies with the European electromagnetic (EM) radiation immunity requirements.

  5. The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindakshan, Sreejith; Sherief, Aliyaru Kunju

    2010-01-01

    Conventional input intensive agriculture practised over the last century has been a major contributor to climate change, second only to energy sector. The communities engaged in pesticide and synthetic input rich agriculture is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Many emerging economies including India have had the opportunity to develop National Adaptation Plans of Action in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change but implementation of those pro...

  6. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management.

  7. EMC Dynamic Economic Benefit Analysis of Public Building Lighting Engineering%公共建筑照明工程EMC模式动态经济效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨滢

    2014-01-01

    By the Energy Management Contracting (EMC)mode analysis,taking lighting engineering in public buildings as an example,this article verifies the dynamic economic benefit of EMC.%该文通过对合同能源管理(EMC)模式的分析,以公共建筑照明工程为例,验证了 EMC 模式良好的动态经济效益。

  8. The challenge of the EMC effect: Existing data and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malace, Simona P. [JLAB; Gaskell, David J. [JLAB; Higinbotham, Douglas W. [JLAB; Cloet, Ian C. [ANL

    2014-08-01

    Since the discovery that the ratio of inclusive charged lepton (per-nucleon) cross sections from a nucleus A to the deuteron is not unity - even in deep inelastic scattering kinematics - a great deal of experimental and theoretical effort has gone into understanding the phenomenon. The EMC effect, as it is now known, shows that even in the most extreme kinematic conditions the effects of the nucleon being bound in a nucleus can not be ignored. In this paper we collect the most precise data available for various nuclear to deuteron ratios, as well as provide a commentary on the current status of the theoretical understanding of this thirty year old effect.

  9. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    A new session of the course Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction will be held on May 22 (am), in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme. This session, bilingual English-French, is free of charge, and will be given by F. Szoncso of TIS-GS division. The course is designed for physicists, engineers and technicians facing electromagnetic interference problems, and will describe the underlying phenomena and mechanisms of electromagnetic interference and their remedies. More information and online registration by EDH are available from the Technical Training "Electronics Design" pages, under the chapter "Miscellaneous". Please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch should you need any other information.

  10. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standard test chamber upgrade requirements for spacecraft design verification tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Edward F.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the serious performance deficiencies inherent in conventional modular and welded shielding EMC test enclosures, in which multipath reflections and resonant standing waves can damage flight hardware during RF susceptibility tests, NASA-Goddard has undertaken the modification of a 20 x 24 ft modular-shielded enclosure through installation of steel panels to which ferrite tiles will be mounted with epoxy. The internally reflected RF energy will thereby be absorbed, and exterior power-line noise will be reduced. Isolation of power-line filters and control of 60-Hz ground connections will also be undertaken in the course of upgrading.

  11. The Challenge of the EMC Effect: existing data and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    Malace, Simona; Higinbotham, Douglas W; Cloet, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery that the ratio of inclusive charged lepton (per-nucleon) cross sections from a nucleus A to the deuteron is not unity - even in deep inelastic scattering kinematics - a great deal of experimental and theoretical effort has gone into understanding the phenomenon. The EMC effect, as it is now known, shows that even in the most extreme kinematic conditions the effects of the nucleon being bound in a nucleus can not be ignored. In this paper we collect the most precise data available for various nuclear to deuteron ratios, as well as provide a commentary on the current status of the theoretical understanding of this thirty year old effect.

  12. Assays for laboratory confirmation of novel human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, V M; Müller, M A; Costabel, U; Timm, J; Binger, T; Meyer, B; Kreher, P; Lattwein, E; Eschbach-Bludau, M; Nitsche, A; Bleicker, T; Landt, O; Schweiger, B; Drexler, J F; Osterhaus, A D; Haagmans, B L; Dittmer, U; Bonin, F; Wolff, T; Drosten, C

    2012-12-06

    We present a rigorously validated and highly sensitive confirmatory real-time RT-PCR assay (1A assay) that can be used in combination with the previously reported upE assay. Two additional RT-PCR assays for sequencing are described, targeting the RdRp gene (RdRpSeq assay) and N gene (NSeq assay), where an insertion/deletion polymorphism might exist among different hCoV-EMC strains. Finally, a simplified and biologically safe protocol for detection of antibody response by immunofluorescence microscopy was developed using convalescent patient serum.

  13. Parity-violating deep inelastic scattering and the flavor dependence of the EMC effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloët, I C; Bentz, W; Thomas, A W

    2012-11-02

    Isospin-dependent nuclear forces play a fundamental role in nuclear structure. In relativistic models of nuclear structure constructed at the quark level these isovector nuclear forces affect the u and d quarks differently, leading to nontrivial flavor-dependent modifications of the nuclear parton distributions. We explore the effect of isospin dependent forces for parity-violating deep inelastic scattering on nuclear targets and demonstrate that the cross sections for nuclei with N ≠ Z are sensitive to the flavor dependence of the EMC effect. Indeed, for nuclei like lead and gold we find that these flavor-dependent effects are large.

  14. The Use of Original Structure-Directing Agents for the Synthesis of EMC-1 Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daou T.J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available By using a steric approach, it is possible to design templates matching closely with an inorganic framework. Herein, the design, synthesis and successful application of several di(azacrown ether templates to direct the formation of EMC-1 zeolite (FAU-type are reported. Following a high throughput experiment design, the synthesis gel composition was optimized to obtain well-crystallized materials. Taking into account their respective crystallization rates, their textural and morphological properties were comparable to their counterparts, typically structured by 15-crown-5 ether.

  15. Taking a climate chance: a procedural critique of Vietnam's climate change strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, François

    2010-01-01

    This article asks through what processes and for which interests the emerging Vietnamese climate change strategy is being designed, and if, ultimately, it is likely or not to be effective in the face of the looming threat. Through a review of an emerging body of literature and field observations, the paper finds the strategy partial and problematic in several ways. Its technocratic process prevents a pluralist representation of interests, obfuscating and perpetuating sectorial ones, at the expense of a more transparent and democratic resource allocation. The strategy therefore reflects and reinforces existing power relations in both politics and production. It feeds into a business-as-usual complacency, protecting national and international interests vested in unchallenged continuity, even when considering post-carbon technological fixes, which largely serve to expand capital accumulation opportunities. The article concludes that the national climate change strategy provides an illusion of intervention and security, but largely fails to identify and mitigate the underlying causes of climate change, or to lay the ground for a robust mid- and long-term adaptation strategy that can cope with yet unknown levels of climatic and other structural changes.

  16. Construction and first characterisation of a prototype for the PANDA barrel EMC in a close to final design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Christoph; Bremer, Daniel; Diehl, Stefan; Drexler, Peter; Dormenev, Valery; Eissner, Tobias; Kuske, Till; Novotny, Rainer W.; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [2. Physics Institute, University Giessen (Germany); Le Galliard, Christine; Imre, Miktat; Marchand, Dominique; Rosier, Phillippe [IPN Orsay (France); Kavatsyuk, Myroslav [KVI Groningen (Netherlands); Ryantzev, Andrej [IHEP Protvino (Russian Federation); Wieczorek, Peter; Wilms, Andrea [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The EMC of the PANDA target spectrometer is one of the central detector components to achieve the physical goals. The barrel part will consist of lead tungstate (PWO) crystals operated at -25 C to achieve the required performance over a wide energy range. To achieve a good energy, position and time resolution, it is necessary to perform detailed tests of prototypes. The most recent one, PROTO120, represents a subsection of the barrel EMC. The design is close to the final concept of the EMC with respect to the detector assembly, cooling circuit and front-end electronics. The conversion of the scintillation light will be performed with two rectangular LAAPD, which are read-out separately via the APFEL-ASIC providing a large dynamic range, low power consumption and the optimized shaping. The talk describes the details of the construction and a first test on the performance based on cosmic muons.

  17. Influence of the management strategy model on estimating water system performance under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Hendrickx, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The performance of water systems used worldwide for the management of water resources is expected to be influenced by future changes in regional climates and water uses. Anticipating possible performance changes of a given system requires a modeling chain simulating its management. Operational management is usually not trivial especially when several conflicting objectives have to be accounted for. Management models are therefore often a crude representation of the real system and they only approximate its performance. Estimated performance changes are expected to depend on the management model used, but this is often not assessed. This communication analyzes the influence of the management strategy representation on the performance of an Alpine reservoir (Serre-Ponçon, South-East of France) for which irrigation supply, hydropower generation and recreational activities are the main objectives. We consider three ways to construct the strategy named as clear-, short- and far-sighted management. They are based on different forecastability degrees of seasonal inflows into the reservoir. The strategies are optimized using a Dynamic Programming algorithm (deterministic for clear-sighted and implicit stochastic for short- and far-sighted). System performance is estimated for an ensemble of future hydro-meteorological projections obtained in the RIWER2030 research project (http://www.lthe.fr/RIWER2030/) from a suite of climate experiments from the EU - ENSEMBLES research project. Our results show that changes in system performance is much more influenced by changes in hydro-meteorological variables than by the choice of strategy modeling. They also show that a simple strategy representation (i.e. clear-sighted management) leads to similar estimates of performance modifications than those obtained with a representation supposedly closer to real world (i.e. the far-sighted management). The Short-Sighted management approach lead to significantly different results, especially

  18. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  19. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in this paper…

  20. Strategy implementation and organizational change in healthcare organizations - a distributed change leadership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    This paper examines some theoretical underpinnings of distributed leadership and its ability to serve as change leadership during the process of major organizational changes in healthcare organizations. The study was initiated as part of a larger research project on distributed leadership (DL......) in the healthcare sector, financed by a research grant addressing both empirical and theoretical questions. The paper clarifies the relationship between distributed leadership and change leadership, and more specifically, the characteristics of distributed leadership in the change leadership process. We also...... propose a distributed change leadership (DCL) model that permits further development of research design and empirical studies of DCL. On a more general side, with this paper we shed more light on some aspects of leadership patterns in healthcare, where there is a distinct gap....

  1. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  2. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R; O'Malley, Robin; Ojima, Dennis S

    2009-10-01

    The scientific literature contains numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on species and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change, conservation organizations and government agencies are developing "adaptation strategies" to facilitate the adjustment of human society and ecological systems to altered climate regimes. We reviewed the literature and climate-change adaptation plans that have been developed in United States, Canada, England, México, and South Africa and found 16 general adaptation strategies that relate directly to the conservation of biological diversity. These strategies can be grouped into four broad categories: land and water protection and management; direct species management; monitoring and planning; and law and policy. Tools for implementing these strategies are similar or identical to those already in use by conservationists worldwide (land and water conservation, ecological restoration, agrienvironment schemes, species translocation, captive propagation, monitoring, natural resource planning, and legislation/regulation). Although our review indicates natural resource managers already have many tools that can be used to address climate-change effects, managers will likely need to apply these tools in novel and innovative ways to meet the unprecedented challenges posed by climate change.

  3. Applying change management metaphors to a national e-Health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Chad; Scott, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Recent attempts at a collective understanding of how to develop an e-Health strategy have addressed the individual organisation, collection of organisations, and national levels. At the national level the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit serves as an exemplar that consolidates knowledge in this area, guides practical implementations, and identifies areas for future research. A key implication of this toolkit is the considerable number of organisational changes required to successfully apply their ideas in practice. This study looks critically at the confluence of change management and e-Health strategy using metaphors that underpin established models of change management. Several of Morgan's organisational metaphors are presented (highlighting varied beliefs and assumptions regarding how change is enacted, who is responsible for the change, and guiding principles for that change), and used to provide a framework. Attention is then directed to several prominent models of change management that exemplify one or more of these metaphors, and these theoretical insights are applied to evaluate the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit. The paper presents areas for consideration when using the WHO/ITU toolkit, and suggestions on how to improve its use in practice. The goal is to seek insight regarding the optimal sequence of steps needed to ensure successful implementation and integration of e-health into health systems using change management models. No single model, toolkit, or guideline will offer all the needed answers, but clarity around the underlying metaphors informing the change management models being used provides valuable insight so potentially challenging areas can be avoided or mitigated.

  4. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  5. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  6. Volatility measurement with directional change in Chinese stock market: Statistical property and investment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjun; Xiong, Xiong; He, Feng; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The stock price fluctuation is studied in this paper with intrinsic time perspective. The event, directional change (DC) or overshoot, are considered as time scale of price time series. With this directional change law, its corresponding statistical properties and parameter estimation is tested in Chinese stock market. Furthermore, a directional change trading strategy is proposed for invest in the market portfolio in Chinese stock market, and both in-sample and out-of-sample performance are compared among the different method of model parameter estimation. We conclude that DC method can capture important fluctuations in Chinese stock market and gain profit due to the statistical property that average upturn overshoot size is bigger than average downturn directional change size. The optimal parameter of DC method is not fixed and we obtained 1.8% annual excess return with this DC-based trading strategy.

  7. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known....... The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify...... the dynamic behavior of the structure. In this paper, a procedure to optimize the mass change strategy is proposed, which uses the modal parameters(natural frequencies and mode shapes) of the original structure as the basic information....

  8. Activation of type I interferon signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands during the acute phase of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguchi, Atsuko; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Doi, Kunio; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The present study was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of EMC virus-induced sialodacryoadenitis in mice during the acute phase infection focusing on the activation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands. In the parotid gland, a few apoptotic acinar cells were detected at 2days post inoculation (DPI). The ratio of apoptotic acinar cells increased at 3 and 4DPI. On the other hand, in the exorbital lachrymal gland, apoptosis of acinar cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly composed of mononuclear cells started at 3DPI, and prominent acinar cell damage developed at 4DPI. Viral RNA was detected at 3 and 4DPI in both glands and the expression level was higher in the exorbital lachrymal gland than in the parotid gland. The up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as Irf7, Pkr and Oas, was quickly induced at 2DPI in the parotid gland, and this probably contributed to suppress viral replication and to eliminate affected cells by apoptosis. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the expression levels of ISGs mRNAs were not elevated at 2DPI, suggesting no induction of an effective anti-viral response such as apoptosis at this time point. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the mRNA expression of IFN beta and IFN alpha (type I IFNs) was weak- to strong-positive at 1DPI, and became negative at 2DPI. The weak- to strong-positive expression of IFNs at 1DPI is likely related to the abrupt viral replication and pathological changes in the exorbital lachrymal gland through activating the negative feedback regulation that depressed the IFN signaling cascade at 2DPI. In conclusion, the present study showed the changes in factors involved in the activation of type I IFN signaling cascade in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands and their differences between the two glands during the acute phase of EMC virus infection in mice.

  9. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social–ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that eme...

  10. Impacts of climate change on Brazilian agriculture: an analysis of irrigation as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Denis Antonio da; Coelho, Alexandre Braganca; Feres, Jose; Braga, Marcelo Jose

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of climate change on Brazilian agriculture considering irrigation adoption as an adaptation strategy. Investigation on how climatic variability influences irrigation adoption was performed as well as whether this adaptation measure actually reduces producers’ vulnerability to climate change. We used matching methods to analyze the choice of irrigation in the first stage and the land values for two types of farmer (irrigators or dryland) in the second sta...

  11. Enabling the Contextualization of Legal Rules in Responsive Strategies to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen van Rijswick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of adaptive governance is paramount in policy discourses on the mitigation and adaptation strategies of climate change. Adaptability, resilience, and cooperative approaches are promoted as the appropriate vehicles to meet the contemporary conditions of uncertainty and complexity. We claim that the legitimacy and effectiveness of these responsive strategies might be augmented via the use of legal perspectives. Rather than the instrumental use of command and control type of regulation, the legal perspectives should focus on establishing principal norms that enable the search for different solutions in different contexts. From these assumptions, the concept of legal obligation is explored as embodying the meaning of legality, and at the same time conditioning and committing the probing of different ways of purposeful action in different local circumstances. We explore the innovative potential of legal norms and demonstrate how responsive strategies to climate change can be guided by the contextualization of legal norms.

  12. Climate change effects and adaptation strategies in the wine sector: a quantitative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sacchelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative literature review focusing on how scientific research analysed climate change impact on wine chain as well as potential adaptation strategies. The work is based on content analysis and text mining and takes into account researches from 1990 to 2015. A particular emphasis was given to the evaluation of suggested or implemented adaptation strategies at both global and national levels. Data were analysed using cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling and specificity evaluation. Results show that the study of climate change impacts on the wine sector is a recently emerging research topic. Adaptation strategies have not yet been explored thoroughly in the literature, and in-depth uncertainty quantification is also needed. Finally, additional research gaps and potential future issues are suggested.

  13. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: the Norwegian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-02-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addresses the Norwegian experience in introducing integrated, ecosystem-based oceans management, emphasizing how climate change, seen as a major long-term driver of change in ecosystems, is addressed in management plans. Understanding the direct effects of climate variability and change on ecosystems and indirect effects on human activities is essential for adaptive planning to be useful in the long-term management of the marine environment.

  14. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  15. Characteristics of testicular lesions in mice infected with a low dose of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi-Ueno, Aito; Nakayama, Yumi; Doi, Kunio

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the characteristics of testicular lesions induced in mice with a low dose (10 plaque forming units/mouse) of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis (EMC-D) virus. The virus titers of blood and testis peaked at 5 days post-inoculation (5 DPI) and were no longer detected at 14 DPI. The IFN-gamma and iNOS mRNAs expression in the testis and spleen detected by RT-PCR was prominently elevated at 7 DPI, although the expression level of TNF-alpha mRNA was not affected. Signals of viral RNA were clearly detected in degenerative germinal epithelia (in situ hybridization) at 7 DPI, which were surrounded by a small number of macrophages and a few CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells (immunohistochemistry). Signals were no longer detected at 21 DPI when seminiferous tubules were highly degenerative and accompanied with infiltration of many macrophages and a small numbers of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells. At 35 DPI, marked atrophy of germinal epithelia composed of Sertoli cells alone was observed, and there were almost no infiltrating cells detected. The present results suggest that macrophages may play an important role in the development of testicular lesions induced in mice with a low dose of EMC-D.

  16. EMC中的两种接地技术%Case analysis of EMC grounding technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚红

    2011-01-01

    电磁兼容接地设计有单点接地和多点接地2种基本方法,低频电路中要求用单点接地,高频电路中用多点接地,用多点接地设备如果不能通过EFT/B测试,可以尝试单点接地方法。实验证明,对某些高频电路完全可以用单点接地方法满足EMC要求。%The EMC grounding design consists of single-point grounding and multi-point grounding. Low-frequency circuits require single-point grounding, while multi-point grounding is usually used for equipments of high-frequency circuits. However, when the equipment can not pass the EFT/B test, single-point grounding can be used instead. Experiments prove that some high-frequency circuits can use single-point grounding to meet the EMC requirements.

  17. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices.

  18. Experiments with small animals in BIOLAB and EMCS on the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckmann, E.; Schiller, P.

    Two ESA facilities will be available for animal research and other biological experiments on the International Space Station: the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) in the US Lab "Destiny" and BIOLAB in the European "Columbus" Laboratory. Both facilities use standard Experiment Containers, mounted on two centrifuge rotors allowing either research in microgravity or acceleration studies with variable g-levels from 0.001 to 2.0x g. Standard interface plates provide each container with power and data lines, gas supply (controlled CO 2, O 2 concentration and relative humidity), and -for EMCS only- connectors to fresh and waste water reservoirs. The experiment hardware inside the containers will be developed by the user, but ESA conducted a feasibility study for several kinds of Experiment Support Equipment with potential use for research on small animals: design concepts for experiments with insects, with aquatic organisms like rotifers and nematodes, and with small aquatic animals (sea urchin larvae, tadpoles, fish youngsters) are described in detail in this presentation. Also ESA's initial steps to support experiments with rodents on the Space Station are presented.

  19. Organizational Strategies for Promoting Instructional Change: Implementation Dynamics in Schools Working with Comprehensive School Reform Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Brian; Miller, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for studying how three comprehensive school reform (CSR) programs organized schools for instructional change and how the distinctive strategies they pursued affected implementation outcomes. The conceptual model views the Accelerated Schools Project as using a system of cultural control to produce…

  20. The impacts of influence strategies on organizational subgroup members' evaluations of management accounting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten

    2014-01-01

    This research project investigates how different influence strategies affect business unit managers’ and controllers’ evaluations of the success of a management accounting change (MAC). Using survey data on paired observations from managers and controllers in 68 business units, I find that influence

  1. Implementing an Open Source Learning Management System: A Critical Analysis of Change Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the change and innovation strategies that Charles Sturt University (CSU) used from 2007 to 2009 during the implementation and mainstreaming of an open source learning management system (LMS), Sakai, named locally as "CSU Interact". CSU was in January 2008 the first Australian University to implement an open source…

  2. Economic Legal and Political Framework of the EU Strategy on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODEA Al.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study are presented essential legislative asepects of the strategy regarding the European Uniongrowing problem of climate change There are briefly outlined the most important documents adopted at European levelin the last decade in order to reduce the extent that this phenomenon reached, from Kyoto Protocol, to the most recentEU legislation in this area.

  3. Evaluating Ranking Strategies in Assessing Change when the Measures Differ across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Kim, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a ranking strategy was evaluated for comparing subgroups' change using identical, equated, and nonidentical measures. Four empirical data sets were evaluated, each of which contained examinees' scores on two occasions, where the two occasions' scores were obtained on a single identical measure, on two equated tests, and on two…

  4. Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

  5. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions.

  6. Slovenian case of strategic change management in the public sector: Towards the Lisbon Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Tekavčič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Slovenian case of strategic change management process with emphasis on the movement towards the implementation of Lisbon Strategy goals. The EU will be “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world”, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion. These are crucial priorities of the Lisbon strategy. These changes in public sector organizations have enormous significance for regional development in Slovenia. The aim of the paper is to consider and discuss the development of Slovenian public administration priorities in the process directed towards the implementation of Lisbon Strategy goals. Paper also highlights recent achievements of Slovenian e-administration strategy. In the paper the explanatory case study research method was used (Yin, 2002, with focus on longitudinal and pre-post methodological techniques. The research findings outline, that strategic management methods applied in the case support the implementation of Lisbon Strategy goals in Slovenia.

  7. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Phillipo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of information. The collected information were analysed by using content analysis. This paper found that smallholder farmers use a variety of practices to adapt to climate variability and change. These practices include: crop management, livestock management, diversification of livelihood strategies and land use management. Availability of extension services, climate change information and membership to social networks were among the factors identified dictating smallholder farmers adaptation to climate variability and change. The paper recommends to the Government of sub-Saharan Africa and development partners to come up with adaptation framework that takes into consideration differences in geographical location. They are needed also to provide enabling conditions to smallholder farmers through strengthening farmers’ supportive services to enhance their adaptive capacities.

  8. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  9. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  10. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  11. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  12. The Strategic Changes in a Cooperative of Agricultural Electrification: a look from the strategies formation schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oneide Sausen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is resulted of a research that objective the understanding of the process of change and strategic adaptation of an organization of the cooperative branch, specifically of agricultural electrification, observing the context and the content of the process of change throughout the description of life of this organization. Been born under égide of the entrepreneurship it had in this perspective its main strategy of growth. In terms of used methodology, one is about a case study, with characteristics the historical, longitudinal and contextualist boarding. The study, interpreted to the light of the estimated ones of the schools of formation of strategies, it shows the influences of an enterprising management in the 17 growth of the cooperative, the impacts of the conjunctural and politic factors in the changing process of the organization, as well as the presence of the governmental instances in the decisions and action of the cooperative.

  13. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa;

    2007-01-01

    of the structure. On the other hand, the aforementioned objectives are difficult to achieve for all modes simultaneously. Thus, a study of the number, magnitude and location of the masses must be performed previously to the modal tests. In this paper, the mass change method was applied to estimate the scaling...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....

  14. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hasen Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effects of climate change and to identify factors that affect the choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To address this objective, Multivariate Probit model was used. The results of the model indicated that the likelihood of households to adapt improved varieties of crops, adjust planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 58.73%, 57.72%, 35.61% and 41.15%, respectively. The Simulated Maximum Likelihood estimation of the Multivariate Probit model results suggested that there was positive and significant interdependence between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and using improved varieties of crops; and between adjusting planting date and using improved varieties of crops. The results also showed that there was a negative and significant relationship between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and soil conservation practices. The paper also recommended household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot characteristics that facilitate and impede the probability of choosing those adaptation strategies.

  15. Write strategies for multiterabit per square inch scanned-probe phase-change memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Shah, P.; Wang, Lei; Aziz, M. M.; Sebastian, A.; Pozidis, H.

    2010-10-01

    A mark-length write strategy for multiterabit per square inch scanned-probe memories is described that promises to increase the achievable user density by at least 50%, and potentially up to 100% or more, over conventional approaches. The viability of the write strategy has been demonstrated by experimental scanning probe write/read measurements on phase-change (GeSbTe) media. The advantages offered by adopting mark-length recording are likely to be equally applicable to other forms of scanned probe storage.

  16. New Measurements of the EMC Effect and Short Range Correlations at JLab Hall C at 11 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craycraft, Kayla

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear dependence of the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) cross section (known as the EMC effect) has shown conclusively that the distribution of quarks in a nucleus is modified when compared to the deuteron. On the other hand, Short Range Correlations, which arise from hard interactions between nucleons inside the nucleus give rise to high momentum tails in nucleon momentum distributions. The observation that the size of the EMC effect is correlated with the number of SRC NN pairs in a nucleus suggests a possible origin of the EMC effect. While the observed relationship is compelling, more investigation using adding additional nuclei and improving the precision on existing measurements is necessary. Jefferson Lab experiments E12-06-105 and E12-10-008 aim to do just that, making measurements of electron scattering cross section ratios in the DIS regime and at x > 1 for a large body of nuclei. These experiments will attempt to disentangle whether the EMC-SRC correlation is driven only by the size/atomic number of the nucleus, or if it also depends on the neutron to proton ratio. DE-SC0013615, JSA Graduate Fellowship.

  17. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Braden A; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-08-02

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus-response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation-bounded accumulation of evidence-underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy.

  18. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2006-11-07

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously.

  19. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  20. The new PWO crystal generation and concepts for the performance optimisation of the PANDA EMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissner, Tobias

    2013-07-01

    The finally achievable performance of the PANDA EMC, which was aiming for an extremely compact and radiation hard calorimeter, covering for the first time an energy regime from 15 GeV down to a few MeV, strongly relies on the quality parameters of the PbWO{sub 4} crystals. Therefore a very complex test procedure was elaborated, which basically consists of three stages of quality control at the locations BTCP, CERN and Giessen. The obtained data of 9,336 crystals was analysed with respect to the specification limits. Furthermore, correlations and discrepancies between the different facilities, mainly caused due to the different treatment of crystal geometries, are discussed in detail. Finally, an outlook of the still mission fraction of crystals for the PANDA EMC is given. The SICCAS company at China is a promising manufacturer of PbWO4 experienced by the production of a significant fraction of crystals for the CMS experiment. Here, the quality of 50 test samples were tested and compared, in particular with respect to the different growing technology. The obtained results are promising, but all parameters scatter over too wide distribution and a more homogeneous quality is expected from a pre-production run. A sufficient time resolution for the EMC is necessary to provide an accurate time stamp for the detected physics events synchronously with the time distribution system SODA of PANDA and for the rejection of background events. The time-walk corrected resolution under different conditions and digitisation procedures was determined at three separate beamtimes and compared to results from the CMS experiment. The achievements presented in this work represent an upper limit for the final time resolution, since the foreseen APFEL ASIC with two dynamically adjustable and independent gain branches will further improve the timing performance. As additional aspect of this thesis, a possible energy sum correction algorithm is introduced. Due to the presence of passive

  1. Evaluation of a commercial electron treatment planning system based on Monte Carlo techniques (eMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemler, Peter; Besserer, Jürgen; Schneider, Uwe; Neuenschwander, Hans

    2006-01-01

    A commercial electron beam treatment planning system on the basis of a Monte Carlo algorithm (Varian Eclipse, eMC V7.2.35) was evaluated. Measured dose distributions were used for comparison with dose distributions predicted by eMC calculations. Tests were carried out for various applicators and field sizes, irregular shaped cut outs and an inhomogeneity phantom for energies between 6 Me V and 22 MeV Monitor units were calculated for all applicator/energy combinations and field sizes down to 3 cm diameter and source-to-surface distances of 100 cm and 110 cm. A mass-density-to-Hounsfield-Units calibration was performed to compare dose distributions calculated with a default and an individual calibration. The relationship between calculation parameters of the eMC and the resulting dose distribution was studied in detail. Finally, the algorithm was also applied to a clinical case (boost treatment of the breast) to reveal possible problems in the implementation. For standard geometries there was a good agreement between measurements and calculations, except for profiles for low energies (6 MeV) and high energies (18 Me V 22 MeV), in which cases the algorithm overestimated the dose off-axis in the high-dose region. For energies of 12 MeV and higher there were oscillations in the plateau region of the corresponding depth dose curves calculated with a grid size of 1 mm. With irregular cut outs, an overestimation of the dose was observed for small slits and low energies (4% for 6 MeV), as well as for asymmetric cases and extended source-to-surface distances (12% for SSD = 120 cm). While all monitor unit calculations for SSD = 100 cm were within 3% compared to measure-ments, there were large deviations for small cut outs and source-to-surface distances larger than 100 cm (7%for a 3 cm diameter cut-out and a source-to-surface distance of 10 cm).

  2. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  3. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette;

    2009-01-01

    of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind...... and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context......, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change...

  4. The significance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages against encephalomyocarditis (EMC)-D virus-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounoue, Etsushi; Izumi, Ken-ichi; Ogawa, Shuichiro; Kondo, Shiori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Akashi, Tomoyuki; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Mine; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Kurisaki, Hironori; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the significance of protective mechanisms against encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus-induced diabetes in mice, we studied the relative importance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages in the prevention of virus-induced diabetes. Neither T cell-deficient athymic nude mice nor B cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice showed an enhanced clinical course of EMC-D virus-induced diabetes, indicating that neither T cells nor B cells played a major role in the protection against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes. Transfer of a large amount of antiserum to EMC-D-virus-infected mice protected the development of diabetes only when transferred within 36 h of infection, the timing of which was earlier than that for the production of natural neutralizing antibodied. Since pretreatment of mice with the macrophage-activating immunopotentiator Corynebacterium parvum (CP) completely prevented the development of diabetes, we studied the clinical outcome of EMC-D-virus-infected mice pretreated with CP. Mice treated with CP showed reduced proliferation of EMC-D virus in the affected organs, including the pancreas, while the levels of development of neutralizing antibody and serum interferon were not enhanced compared with the controls. Finally, we studied the macrophages derived from mice pretreated with CP and found that they inhibited the growth of EMC-D virus in vitro more than those derived from non-treated and thioglycolate-treated mice. Taken together, it can be suggested that neither T cells nor B cells, which have to do with adaptive immunity, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes, while innate immunity, which is dependent on activated macrophages, contributes to in vivo resistance against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes.

  5. Changes of Changes: Personal Life Strategy in the Context of Regional Social and Labour Policy: Purchase of Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Zemlyanukhina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of three articles in cycle that is dedicated to the regional aspect of change of Russians life strategy in solving the important personal problems like provision of housing, acquisition of income in terms of the profession and merited pension maintenance in the context of the current and prospective changes. The first article concentrates on the solution of housing problem by young Russians and young families. The methods, which are accessible for the citizens of Saratov, were analyzed in terms of the hardest ways without privileges and government support: pledge, housing rent and deposit. The authors presented the digital data on comparison between the popular pledge of OJSC Sberbank and similar ones at the start conditions of housing rent and deposits. Theyve specified the possibility of the reducing time and the amount of payment of the purchased apartment from 20 years, where is the amount of overpayment is 1 850 498, to 4.5-7 years, altogether without overpayments. The basic risks when using discussed ways of the accommodation purchase were demonstrated and specific examples of risks in Saratov were given. There are no absolute priorities when choosing the way of the accommodation purchase, there are examples in the article of a sharp increase of the efficiency within the pledge, and the rent on condition that only one factor has changed. Besides, there are examples of mixed ways including social housing and service housing. Nowadays there is a psychological aspect of the underestimate of the cost-effectively housing rent. As a result we made a conclusion that in spite of the real impossibility to plan and predict the changes, the success of individual strategy of life in solving housing and other important problems depends on the perception and understanding of the changes, on the early use for practical purposes and on the existing life stereotypes.

  6. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed

  7. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Environmental change and household livelihood strategies: preliminary observations from field work in different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Preston

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework and objectives of a study of environmental change and evolving household livelihood strategies, which will include field work in Central Java, are outlined. Preliminary results of previous, related field work in Luzon (Philippines and highland Ecuador (South America are reported. Two changes that seem of importance in both areas so far studied are the increasing importance of commercial farming in central locations (near to village centres and the decreasing intensity of use of land on the periphery of rural communities. Preliminary observations in Central Java suggest that household livelihood strategies are more diversified than in either case study area in Luzon or Ecuador and that such diversification has increased through time. The relative importance of farming and the use of natural resources does not seem to have diminished.

  9. Communicating the Urgency and Challenge of Global Climate Change: Lessons Learned and New Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Moser, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Climate change can sometimes be characterized as a "creeping environmental problem"--it is complex and long-term, involves long system lags, lacks the immediacy of everyday experience and thus is hard to perceive, and feels overwhelming to most individuals. Climate change thus does not typically attain the status of an urgent concern, taking priority over other matters for individuals, organizations or in the policy arena. We review the major reasons behind this lack of urgency, and document the observed consequences of previous communication strategies, including lack of public understanding, indifference, confusion, fear and uncertainty. We find that certain emotional motivators such as fear and guilt, while oft-employed, do not actually result in improved recognition of the urgency of the issue, nor do they typically result in action. Rather, positive and engaging approaches may be more likely to achieve this goal. We propose seven strategies to improve the communication of climate change and its urgency: 1) Abide by basic communication rules and heed the warnings of communication experts; 2) Address the emotional and the temporal components of "urgency"; 3) Increase the persuasiveness of the message; 4) Use trusted messengers-broaden the circle; 5) Use opportunities well; 6) Tap into individual and cultural strengths and values; and 7) Unite and Conquer. The multi-faceted nature of the proposed strategies reflects the unique challenges of the climate change issue as well as the need to engage all levels and sectors of societies in the solution, from individuals, to businesses, to governments. These strategies and results emerged from a multi-disciplinary, academic/practitioner workshop on the topic held at NCAR in summer 2004.

  10. Mass dependence of nuclear short- range correlations and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cosyn, Wim; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We sketch an approximate method to quantify the number of correlated pairs in any nucleus $A$. It is based on counting independent-particle model (IPM) nucleon-nucleon pairs in a relative $S$-state with no radial excitation. We show that IPM pairs with those quantum numbers are most prone to short-range correlations and are at the origin of the high-momentum tail of the nuclear momentum distributions. Our method allows to compute the $a_2$ ratios extracted from inclusive electron scattering. Furthermore, our results reproduce the observed linear correlation between the number of correlated pairs and the magnitude of the EMC effect. We show that the width of the pair center-of-mass distribution in exclusive two-nucleon knockout yields information on the quantum numbers of the pairs.

  11. E=mc^2, \\Delta H = D(H-H)$, and the end of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, J E

    2005-01-01

    100 years ago Einstein discovered $E=mc^2$, the secret energy stored in ordinary mass. $\\Delta H = D(H-H)$ is the chemical energy released in chemical bond formation between two H atoms. The failure to recognize the enormously different energy scales in those two equations reflected in current events may start a chain reaction this very year, on the one-hundredths anniversary of Einstein's discovery, that leads to the end of civilization. Due to the confluence of a particular set of circumstances, this particular moment is more dangerous than any other in the history of nuclear weapons. Physicists have a special responsibility to do their utmost to prevent this from happening. This paper is a call to arms. A principle to underpin nuclear non-proliferation and enhance stability is advocated.

  12. Characterisation of a prototype for the backward end-cap of the PANDA EMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [HIM (Germany); Mainz Univ. (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [HIM (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [HIM (Germany); GSI (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA detector at FAIR will be used to study interactions of antiprotons in a fixed target experiment. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the target spectrometer, consisting of >15,000 PWO crystals, with its expected excellent performance and efficiency, will be one of the central components to achieve the physical goals. A first prototype for the Backward End-Capt (BWC) containing 16 crystals has been build and tested during 3 days of beamtime. The test was done with tagged photons in an energy range from about 50 MeV to 700 MeV at the Mainzer Microtron (MAMI). The prototype was designed to be as close as possible to the final desing of the BWC. This talk gives a short introduction in the design of the prototype and the latest updates, followed by a presentation of the results from the beam time. It describes the data analysis and the extraction of the energy resolution.

  13. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  14. Synthetic plasma edge diagnostics for EMC3-EIRENE, highlighted for Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, H.; Effenberg, F.; Schmitz, O.; Biedermann, C.; Feng, Y.; Jakubowski, M.; König, R.; Krychowiak, M.; Lore, J.; Niemann, H.; Pedersen, T. S.; Stephey, L.; Wurden, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    Interpretation of spectroscopic measurements in the edge region of high-temperature plasmas can be a challenge since line of sight integration effects make direct interpretation in terms of quantitative, local emission strengths often impossible. The EMC3-EIRENE code—a 3D fluid edge plasma and kinetic neutral gas transport code—is a suitable tool for full 3D reconstruction of such signals. A versatile synthetic diagnostic module has been developed recently which allows the realistic 3D setup of various plasma edge diagnostics to be captured. We highlight these capabilities with two examples for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X): a visible camera for the analysis of recycling, and a coherent-imaging system for velocity measurements.

  15. GPS Synchronization and EMC of Harmonic and Transient Measurement Equipment in Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Arana, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of harmonic and transient measurements in wind farms are described in this paper. It is shown that appropriate measurements of harmonic and transient phenomena in offshore wind farms are essential for data analysis and model creation/validation of components or subsystems. The GPS...... to optimise measurement systems reliability during offshore measurements will be presented. Also real-life examples of results from both offshore measurement campaigns will be described. Some limitations, improvements and results of the measurement system will be explained from both harmonic and transient...... synchronization, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) challenges during the development, construction, testing and installation of a measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term data logging is described in this paper. The presented measurement system was tested in a rough...

  16. Efficient stochastic EMC/EMI analysis using HDMR-generated surrogate models

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2011-08-01

    Stochastic methods have been used extensively to quantify effects due to uncertainty in system parameters (e.g. material, geometrical, and electrical constants) and/or excitation on observables pertinent to electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) analysis (e.g. voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) [1]. In recent years, stochastic collocation (SC) methods, especially those leveraging generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions, have received significant attention [2, 3]. SC-gPC methods probe surrogate models (i.e. compact polynomial input-output representations) to statistically characterize observables. They are nonintrusive, that is they use existing deterministic simulators, and often cost only a fraction of direct Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Unfortunately, SC-gPC-generated surrogate models often lack accuracy (i) when the number of uncertain/random system variables is large and/or (ii) when the observables exhibit rapid variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lynn, Joel E; Schwenk, Achim

    2016-01-01

    We show that the empirical linear relation between the magnitude of the EMC effect in deep inelastic scattering on nuclei and the short range correlation scaling factor $a_2$ extracted from high-energy quasi-elastic scattering at $x\\ge 1$ is a natural consequence of scale separation and derive the relationship using effective field theory. While the scaling factor $a_2$ is a ratio of nuclear matrix elements that depend on the calculational scheme, we show that the ratio is independent of this choice. We perform Green's function Monte Carlo calculations with both chiral and Argonne-Urbana potentials to verify this and determine the scaling factors for light nuclei. The resulting values for $^3$He and $^4$He are in good agreement with experimental values. We also present results for $^9$Be and $^{12}$C extracted from variational Monte Carlo calculations.

  18. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD(cr), TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO₃, TP, PO₄ and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways.

  19. Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) Control Test and Measurement Facility: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the EMI/EMC Test Facility. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  20. Spin-dependent structure functions in nuclear matter and the polarized EMC effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloët, I C; Bentz, W; Thomas, A W

    2005-07-29

    An excellent description of both spin-independent and spin-dependent quark distributions and structure functions has been obtained with a modified Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, which is free of unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks--hence incorporating an important aspect of confinement. We utilize this model to investigate nuclear medium modifications to structure functions and find that we are readily able to reproduce both nuclear matter saturation and the experimental F2N(A)/F2N ratio, that is, the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect. Applying this framework to determine g1p(A), we find that the ratio g1p(A)/g1p differs significantly from unity, with the quenching caused by the nuclear medium being about twice that of the spin-independent case. This represents an exciting result, which, if confirmed experimentally, will reveal much about the quark structure of nuclear matter.

  1. Calculation of power consumption and induced heat for EMC aluminum ingots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The electrical parameters and power consumption in electromagnetic casting of aluminum ingots were calculated and discussed in detail. Moreover, the induced heat was calculated with the eddy current within the liquid column. It is found that the calculated values agree with the measured results. Once the inductor current was given, the magnetic flux density in electromagnetic casting could be calculated and the electromagnetic pressure could be obtained. The key to the EMC is the balance between the electromagnetic pressure and the metallostatic pressure. As the liquid column, controlled by the casting speed and pouring speed through a magnetic sensor, is kept away from the inductor, a gap forms linear relationship between the inductor and ingot. The bigger the current is, the smaller the ingot size is.

  2. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  3. Towards Comprehensive and Disciplined Change Management Strategy in Agile Transformation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Javdani Gandomani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Moving to agile through a well-defined strategy and framework is essential and this socio-technical process should be studied in deep. Advantages and earned values of agile approach in software industry motivate a lot of companies to try to use agile methods in their software product lines. Transformation process to agile methods is not easy and because of its nature, takes a long time. Since agile transformation needs organizational mutation, companies are faced with many challenges during this process. While several studies have been conducted for how to use agile methods, some other studies have focused on finding obstacles in agile adoption process. However, previous studies are valuable, but each of them has focused the change process from a particular perspective. In this study we discuss the dimensions of agile transformation process from a wider perspective. We will show that focusing on agile adoption is not the only master key for success in agile transformation process and we need to define an agile change management strategy for this organizational metamorphosis. This strategy should consider all aspects of changing approach and is underpinning of achievement in agile transformation process through substantive transformation experiences.

  4. Complementing institutional with localised strategies for climate change adaptation: a South-North comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsler, Christine; Lawson, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and disasters pose a serious risk to sustainable development. In the South, local coping strategies are an important element of adaptation to climate and disaster risk. Such strategies have emerged because of the limited assistance provided by urban actors and associated social security and governance systems. In the North, in contrast, local coping strategies are comparatively poorly developed. However, the extent of the changing climatic conditions is also reducing the capacity of Northern institutions to deal with climatic extremes and variability, which emphasises the need for more local-level engagement in the North. This paper analyses the differences in local and institutional responses to climate change and disasters in a Southern and a Northern city (San Salvador, El Salvador, and Manchester, United Kingdom, respectively), and highlights how the lessons learned might be translated into an improved distributed governance system; that is, an 'integrated engagement model', where local and institutionalised responses support rather than hinder each other, as is currently the case.

  5. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers’ Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirina T. Kitinya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainfall amounts and distribution had occurred over the years and were rated by 60% of farmers as the frequently experienced aspect of CCV. About 33% of farmers had heard of but not used decision support tools (DST to inform their agricultural activities. Workshops and seminars were reported by 67% of farmers as principal sources of information on CCV. Additionally, 50% of farmers relied on traditional knowledge for weather prediction. Only 20% of farmers had alternative strategies; agroforestry and growing drought tolerant crops particularly sorghum and cowpea, to minimize effects of CCV. Another 67% of farmers prioritized; terracing, ridging and water harvesting as adaptation strategies to minimize negative effects of CCV. The farmers were thus aware of CCV and through experience, backed with traditional technical knowledge, had gained prerequisite skills for addressing its negative effects. Nevertheless farmers’ agricultural practices could be improved by use of forecasted weather data and application of DST. Consequently enhancing farmers’ preparedness to tackle challenges posed by CCV.

  6. Frequent change of procedure during coronary artery bypass surgery suggests insufficient preoperative diagnostic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Thayssen, Per

    2007-01-01

    We sought to evaluate how often and in what way surgeons change peroperatively their preoperative coronary artery bypass grafting strategy and to what degree these changes affect postoperative graft patency. A series of 109 patients with stable angina pectoris and at least one occluded coronary...... preoperatively planned grafts were inserted. When shifts occurred, no matter in which direction, it resulted in a decreased patency rate of the inserted grafts. This finding was significant for LAD (P=0.037). Our findings might indicate the necessity of future studies with the use of scintigraphy or fractional...

  7. Relationship between Community Drug Administration Strategy and Changes in Trachoma Prevalence, 2007 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bette Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the only high income country with persisting endemic trachoma. A national control program involving mass drug administration with oral azithromycin, in place since 2006, has some characteristics which differ from programs in low income settings, particularly in regard to the use of a wider range of treatment strategies, and more regular assessments of community prevalence. We aimed to examine the association between treatment strategies and trachoma prevalence.Through the national surveillance program, annual data from 2007-2013 were collected on trachoma prevalence and treatment with oral azithromycin in children aged 5-9 years from three Australian regions with endemic trachoma. Communities were classified for each year according to one of four trachoma treatment strategies implemented (no treatment, active cases only, household and community-wide. We estimated the change in trachoma prevalence between sequential pairs of years and across multiple years according to treatment strategy using random-effects meta-analyses.Over the study period, 182 unique remote Aboriginal communities had 881 annual records of both trachoma prevalence and treatment. From the analysis of pairs of years, the greatest annual fall in trachoma prevalence was in communities implementing community-wide strategies, with yearly absolute reductions ranging from -8% (95%CI -17% to 1% to -31% (-26% to -37%; these communities also had the highest baseline trachoma prevalence (15.4%-43.9%. Restricting analyses to communities with moderate trachoma prevalence (5-19% at initial measurement, and comparing community trachoma prevalence from the first to the last year of available data for the community, both community-wide and more targeted treatment strategies were associated with similar absolute reductions (-11% [-8% to -13%] and -7% [-5% to -10%] respectively. Results were similar stratified by region.Consistent with previous research, community

  8. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts......We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  9. Farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ajao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate is changing and global mean temperatures have increased this is expected to have profound effects on food security. Long-term changes in climate will disproportionately affect tropical regions, meaning poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa will likely bear the brunt of adverse impacts. Adaptation plays an important role in reducing vulnerability to climate change and is therefore critical and of concern in developing countries, particularly in Africa where vulnerability is high because ability to adapt is low. This study examined farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo State of Nigeria. One hundred and fifty farmers were interviewed to obtain information from using a multistage sampling procedure. The results of the study showed that the types of climate change identified in the study area were delayed on-set of rainfall (38.0 percent, higher temperature (20.0 percent and less rain (17.3 percent. The outcome of climate change were food shortage (41.3percent, decline in livestock yield (30.7 percent, decline in crop yield (28.7 percent and death of livestock (16.0 percent. The identified actions taken to address climate change are growing a new crop (57.4 percent, adoption of drought tolerant/ resistance crop varieties (50.0 percent, diversification from crops to livestock production (40.7 percent and using of new land management practices. The long-term improvement investments commonly adapted in the study area were tree planting/agroforestry, mulching/surface cover, improved fallowing and fallowing.The study concluded that household size, extension visits and non-farm income significantly impact on the various strategies used in adaptation to climate change.

  10. The handwriting on the wall: program transformations utilizing effective change management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Anita; Johns, Colleen; Hines, Nordia; Skov, Tracey; Kloosterman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Historically, there have been indications that we need to change the way we work and think about our health care processes. Yet, with the urgency to keep abreast of the changing needs of our patients, have we seen these signs? Moreover, how do we respond to the inevitable change processes that must occur? In 2010, St. Michael's entered into a five-year partnership with Baxter Canada. The overall goal is to improve the quality of care and life for people living with chronic kidney disease. This initiative was undertaken in response to concerns identified internally related to existing health care delivery processes within the renal program. As in any work environment, the depth and breadth of inevitable changes evoke a variety of responses that are based on the individual's attitudes regarding change. As we embarked on this journey, the nursing leadership team and staff within the program were encouraged to review their usual responses toward change utilizing the book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998). It is imperative to identify the attitudes of those people involved in change processes. This awareness facilitates the use of specific strategies to enhance the effectiveness of their engagement in the process and the outcome of the initiative. Reading the writing on the wall prepares people to participate in and embrace changes that promise to benefit those for whom we provide professional care.

  11. Strategies of petroleum companies facing climate change issues; Strategies des compagnies petrolieres face a la problematique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, St.

    2005-05-01

    The oil industry is particularly concerned with the issue of climate change. The implementation of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction policies can be perceived as an additional environmental constraint for the management of the production chain. It is also represents a first step towards a possible decarbonization of the economy. In the long-term, the fight against global warming calls thus into question the activity level of petroleum companies. Confronted with this, still uncertain, new environmental deal, some petroleum multinationals adopt proactive behaviors, e.g. with voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions, or with investments in alternative technologies. First of all, we present the potential economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on oil industry. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of the 'Kyoto risk' for the five largest multinationals of this sector according to their activities and their geographical implantations. Then, for the purpose to interpreting proactive strategies of firms such as BP and Shell, we examine various explanations including 'win-win', public image and the response to broad societal needs. This leads us to formalize the proactive behavior as an anticipatory management of carbon contestability, particularly perceptible in financial markets. Lastly, we try to justify economically investments of companies in the field of alternative energy sources and technologies through the lens of real options theory and by a management of the exhaustible fossil resources. (author)

  12. Ethical implications of co-benefits rationale within climate change mitigation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vasconcellos Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation effort is being translated into several actions and discourses that make collateral benefits and their rationale increasingly relevant for sustainability, in such a way that they are now a constant part of the political agenda. Taking a border and consensual perspective, co-benefits are considered here to be emerging advantages of the implementation of measures regarding the lowering of greenhouse gases.Departing from the analysis of policy documents referring to two European urban transportation strategies, the emergent co-benefits are problematized and discussed to better understand their moral aspect. Further ethical reflection is conducted after an analysis of some unintended consequences of co-benefits rationale coming from the mentioned examples. The focus is primarily on the challenges of an integrative moral justification for co-benefits and also for their role in the climate change mitigation effort. We also discuss the limitations of the current normative models that frame co-benefits rationale, from a moral viewpoint and in relation to the overall climate change mitigation strategy.In this article, we propose the concepts of well-being and freedom, as portrayed by Capabilities Approach, as possible guiding notions for the moral and social evaluation of goodness of these emergent benefits and their rationale too. Additionally, some preliminary conclusions are drawn regarding the potential of the presented concepts to favour the climate change mitigation action. Finally, a scenario is drawn where Capabilities Approach is the moral guideline for co-benefits rationale showing this way its potential in terms of enhancing climate change mitigation strategy.

  13. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  14. Strategies for changing temperature from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions in anaerobic CSTR reactors treating sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousková, A; Dohányos, M; Schmidt, J E; Angelidaki, I

    2005-04-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion presents an advantageous way for stabilization of sludge from wastewater treatment plants. Two different strategies for changing operational process temperature from mesophilic (37 degrees C) to thermophilic (55 degrees C) were tested using two continuous flow stirred tank reactors operated at constant organic loading rate of 1.38 g VS/l reactor/day and hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In reactor A, the temperature was increased step-wise: 37 degrees C-->42 degrees C-->47 degrees C-->51 degrees C-->55 degrees C. While in reactor B, the temperature was changed in one-step, from 37 degrees C to the desired temperature of 55 degrees C, The results showed that the overall adaptation of the process for the step-wise temperature increment took 70 days in total and a new change was applied when the process was stabilized as indicated by stable methane production and low volatile fatty acids concentrations. Although the one-step temperature increase caused a severe disturbance in all the process parameters, the system reached a new stable operation after only 30 days indicating that this strategy is the best in changing from mesophilic to thermophilic operation in anaerobic digestion plants.

  15. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Farm-level Efficiency in Food Crop Production in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions, especially in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture predominate. The extent to which climate impacts are felt depends principally on the adaptation measures used by farmers. This study focused on the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on farm-level technical efficiency. The study used primary data collected from 360 randomly selected farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Cobb-Douglass stochastic frontier production model was used to analyse the data. Multiple cropping, land fragmentation, multiple planting dates, mulching and cover cropping were the major climate change adaptation strategies employed by the farmers. While land fragmentation and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationships, years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationships, with technical inefficiency. This may be because while land fragmentation may hinder farm mechanization, multiple planting dates may increase the monotonousness and drudgery of farming. On the other hand, social capital and climate change awareness could help ameliorate the effects of, particularly, land fragmentation through resource pooling. It is therefore recommended that the farmers be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to leverage their resource status through collective efforts.

  16. Screening methods in alveolar echinococcosis: a follow-up study comparing Emc- and Emf-ELISA with Em2plus-ELISA and ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänle, M M; Banzhaf, H-M; Forsbach-Birk, V; Kirch, A; Akinli, A S; Mason, R A; Reuter, S; Kratzer, W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify Echinococcus multilocularis infection in follow-up of 95 subjects initially seropostive by Emc-ELISA or Emf-ELISA antibody assays and to compare the utility of these assays with specific Em2plus-ELISA and ultrasound screening for E. multilocularis infection. At follow-up seven subjects were seropositive with both methods, while three were seropositive only with Emc-ELISA and 11 only with Emf-ELISA. All subjects were seronegative with Em2plus-ELISA. There were no manifestations of E. multilocularis infestation by ultrasonographic screening. Seropositivity on Emc-ELISA and Emf-ELISA screening tests does not appear to correlate with manifest alveolar echinococcosis identified by ultrasound. A recommendation for further follow-up of subjects found to be seropositive with Emc-ELISA and Emf-ELISA but with no sonographic evidence of disease is not justified at this time.

  17. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  18. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  19. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Sharpe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curriculum development and evaluation of school-supported projects. It is clear that the implementation of the e-learning strategy has led to a large and increasing proportion of our students experiencing blended learning. In addition, there are initial indications that this has enhanced some learning and teaching processes. Where there has been sustainable embedding of effective e-learning, the following levers were identified as particularly important: flexibility in practices that allow schools to contextualise their plans for change, the facilitation of communities of key staff and creating opportunities for staff to voice and challenge their beliefs about e-learning.

  20. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Ruscio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human–animal–environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants.

  1. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  2. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    of different storm water management strategies. It is tested with two different adaptation strategies for the Nørrebro catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Cloudburst Management Plan (CMP), which uses a multi-functional approach and combines green infrastructure with subsurface pipes, and a Subsurface scenario...... depletion, eutrophication and acidification. The case study shows significantly lower impacts for the multi-functional, green infrastructure CMP, compared to the SSA. Among the installations, those measures which are installed to ensure no water on the surface during rain events with a return period of 10......Because of climatic changes, large investments are needed to keep flood risk at an acceptable level in urban areas. Increasing dimensions of underground sewer systems and retention basins are increasingly supplemented with multi-functional approaches, aimed at managing water locally and/or route...

  3. Changing gears during succession: shifting functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Dylan; Hall, Jefferson S; Berlyn, Graeme P; Ashton, Mark S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-09-01

    Adaptations to resource availability strongly shape patterns of community composition along successional gradients in environmental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent to which variation in functional composition explains shifts in trait-based functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests during the most dynamic stage of succession (0-20 years). Functional composition of two size classes in 51 secondary forest plots was determined using community-weighted means of seven functional traits, which were intensively measured on 55 woody plant species (n = 875-1,761 individuals). Along the successional gradient in forest structure, there was a significant and consistent shift in functional strategies from resource acquisition to resource conservation. Leaf toughness and adult plant size increased significantly, while net photosynthetic capacity (A(mass)) decreased significantly during succession. Shifts in functional strategies within size classes for A(mass) and wood density also support the hypothesis that changes in functional composition are shaped by environmental conditions along successional gradients. In general, 'hard' functional traits, e.g., A(mass) and leaf toughness, linked to different facets of plant performance exhibited greater sensitivity to successional changes in forest structure than 'soft' traits, such as leaf mass area and leaf dry matter content. Our results also suggested that stochastic processes related to previous land-use history, dispersal limitation, and abiotic factors explained variation in functional composition beyond that attributed to deterministic shifts in functional strategies. Further data on seed dispersal vectors and distance and landscape configuration are needed to improve current mechanistic models of succession in tropical secondary forests.

  4. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  5. Climate change, adaptation strategies and mobility: evidence from four settlements in Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sall, Mohamadou [Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (Senegal); Tall, Serigne Mansour [ONU-Habitat (UN); Tandian, Aly [Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Senegal); Samb, Al Assane

    2011-11-15

    This research investigates the impact of climate change on the mobility of people in four settlements in Senegal: Ngueye Ngueye, Gandiole, the Senegal River delta and Ourossogui. A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups was used to determine how daily life in these communities is being affected by environmental change. Some migrants spend long periods as far afield as Mauritania, the Gambia or Spain, while others stay closer to home, going to places like Saint-Louis, Dakar and Mbour for short periods. Mobility is an opportunity for migrants to generate funds and send money home. It is a key factor in adaptation to climate change, as a strategy for survival and for diversifying incomes. The problems encountered in the ecological study zones are not entirely due to climate change, for migration is also triggered by factors such as the opening of the breach in Saint-Louis or lack of support for rural development. However, climate change is certainly accelerating disruptions and transformations in the study sites. Moreover, while migrants' financial transfers help improve daily life for some families, they also increase socio-economic inequalities between households that include migrants and those that do not. People are moving away from (but not necessarily abandoning) purely agricultural livelihoods and seeking to diversify their sources of income. This may come from migration, or from artisanal activities undertaken in the locality - such as metalwork, woodwork, sewing or hairdressing. Another option that many women have taken is using micro-credit facilities to start processing local produce, crushing groundnuts and preparing cereals to sell at the weekly markets. Other adaptation strategies are developed and adopted through technical innovations or awareness-raising and educational activities. These activities often require institutional support from the State or from NGOs involved in implementing projects and helping

  6. Change of Patient Selection Strategy and Improved Surgical Outcome in MRI-negative Neocortical Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Chun-Kee; Shin, Jung-won; Moon, Jangsup; Kang, Bong Su; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Jung, Ki-Young; Cho, Yong Won; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose It is crucial to make selection strategy to identify surgical candidates among medically refractory MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients. In our previous study, we suggested two or more concordance between noninvasive studies (EEG, ictal scalp EEG, interictal FDG-PET, and SPECT) as a new patient selection strategy for MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes of MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients before and after the implementation of a new selection strategy. Methods From 1995 to 2011, we included 153 consecutive MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients who received focal resection and had a follow-up period of at least 2 years. These patients were divided into two groups according to their date of surgery (before and after July 2002). The old group consisted of 89 patients and the new one consisted of 53 patients. Clinical characteristics, presurgical evaluations, and pathology were reviewed. Results The new patient selection strategy led to a significant increase in the concordance between two or more modalities. The improvement in surgical outcome after 2002 was significant (seizure-free outcome, 47.2% vs. 75.5%; p = 0.001). Concordance between two or more presurgical evaluations and localizing PET were related to a seizure-free outcome in a multivariate analysis. Conclusions After a change in surgical strategy to select patients with two or more concordance between noninvasive studies, the seizure-free outcome improved up to 75.5%. MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients with two or more concordance between noninvasive studies seem to be good candidates for epilepsy surgery. PMID:28101477

  7. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  8. Projected wetland densities under climate change: Habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen; Skagen, Susan; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Rashford, Benjamin S.; Reese, Gordon C.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Wood, Andrew W.; Noon, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    complexes containing both small and relatively large wetland basins, which is an ongoing conservation strategy, may also act to hedge against uncertainty in the effects of climate change.

  9. Projected wetland densities under climate change: habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R; Skagen, Susan K; Barsugli, Joseph J; Rashford, Benjamin S; Reese, Gordon C; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Wood, Andrew W; Noon, Barry R

    2016-09-01

    complexes containing both small and relatively large wetland basins, which is an ongoing conservation strategy, may also act to hedge against uncertainty in the effects of climate change.

  10. Evaluation of the Eclipse eMC algorithm for bolus electron conformal therapy using a standard verification dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Robert L; Sprunger, Conrad P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Popple, Richard A; Antolak, John A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and calculation speed of electron dose distributions calculated by the Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). The recent commercial availability of bolus ECT technology requires further validation of the eMC dose calculation algorithm. eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to previously measured TLD-dose points throughout patient-based cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV (planning treatment volume) CT anatomy. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system, and electron dose distributions calculated using 1% and <0.2% statistical uncertainties. The accuracy of the dose calculations using moderate smoothing and no smoothing were evaluated. Dose differences (eMC-calculated less measured dose) were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference, where 100% equals the given dose, as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Dose calculations were also evaluated for calculation speed. Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing showed calculated dose at 89% (41/46) of the measured TLD-dose points was within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA of the measured value. The average dose difference was -0.21%, and the net standard deviation was 2.32%. Differences as large as 3.7% occurred immediately distal to the mandible bone. Results for the nose phantom, using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing, showed calculated dose at 93% (53/57) of the measured TLD-dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. The average dose difference was 1.08%, and the net standard deviation was 3.17%. Differences as large as 10% occurred lateral to the nasal air cavities. Including smoothing had

  11. Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations and the Quarks Within - Relating the EMC Effect and Short-Range Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Piasetzky, E; Weinstein, L B

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews our current understanding of how the internal quark structure of a nucleon bound in nuclei differs from that of a free nucleon. We focus on the interpre- tation of measurements of the EMC effect for valence quarks, a reduction in the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) cross-section ratios for nuclei relative to deuterium, and its possible connection to nucleon-nucleon Short-Range Correlations (SRC) in nuclei. Our review of the available experimental and theoretical evidence shows that there is a phe- nomenological relation between between the EMC effect and the effects of SRC that is not an accident. There is an underlying cause of both effects: the influence of strongly correlated neutron-proton pairs is largely responsible. This conclusion needs to be so- lidified by the future experiments and improved theoretical analyses that are discussed herein.

  12. Evaluation of the Eclipse eMC algorithm for bolus electron conformal therapy using a standard verification dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Robert L; Sprunger, Conrad P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Popple, Richard A; Antolak, John A

    2016-05-08

     The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and calculation speed of electron dose distributions calculated by the Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). The recent com-mercial availability of bolus ECT technology requires further validation of the eMC dose calculation algorithm. eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to previously measured TLD-dose points throughout patient-based cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV (planning treatment volume) CT anatomy. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system, and electron dose distributions calculated using 1% and eMC-calculated less measured dose) were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference, where 100% equals the given dose, as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Dose calculations were also evaluated for calculation speed. Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing showed calculated dose at 89% (41/46) of the measured TLD-dose points was within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA of the measured value. The average dose difference was -0.21%, and the net standard deviation was 2.32%. Differences as large as 3.7% occurred immediately distal to the mandible bone. Results for the nose phantom, using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing, showed calculated dose at 93% (53/57) of the measured TLD-dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. The average dose difference was 1.08%, and the net standard deviation was 3.17%. Differences as large as 10% occurred lateral to the nasal air cavities. Including smoothing had insignificant effects on the accuracy of the retromolar trigone phantom calculations, but reduced the accuracy of the nose phantom calculations in the

  13. Medical library downsizing administrative, professional, and personal strategies for coping with change

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Learn how to stay ahead of the game when budgets and staff are cut Medical Library Downsizing: Administrative, Professional, and Personal Strategies for Coping with Change explores corporate downsizing and other company-wide events as they relate to medical librarians in their organization. This training manual is designed to help librarians prepare for a new era where shrinking budgets, inflated journal costs, and the increasing demand for new and expensive services now put salaries and jobs at risk. While focused on health care issues, this book will appeal to a general library audience and

  14. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks.

  15. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  16. EMC:转型途中——专访EMC中国区副总裁陈毅威

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王左利

    2009-01-01

    @@ "10年前,我到EMC.我觉得EMC是一个特别有计划的公司,确定了一个目标,就稳当地走下去.10年前我们确定的目标,到现在基本实现了."EMC中国区副总裁陈毅威在接受采访时表示.

  17. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development. Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests.

  18. Strategy changes in subsequent fights as consequences of winning and losing in fruit fly fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-11-11

    In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests. In a recent report, we examined these loser and winner effects in greater detail and demonstrated that both winners and losers show short-term memory of the results of previous bouts while only losers demonstrate a longer-term memory that requires protein synthesis. The recent findings also suggested that an individual recognition mechanism likely exists that can serve important roles in evaluating the fighting ability of opponents and influencing future fighting strategy. In this article, we follow up on these results by asking how previous defeated and victorious flies change their fighting strategies in the presence of 2(nd) losing and winning flies, by searching for evidence of territory marking, and discussing the existing literature in light of our findings.

  19. Contextualising change through a common strategy: Lecturers' perceptions and key role in supporting academic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindelan, Paz; Martin, Ana

    2014-05-01

    European universities are currently going through a process of change in order to meet the common goals set for higher education by the European Commission. They are revising their educational models to adjust them to the guidelines of the "Bologna Process" and are devising an institutional strategy for its implementation. In practical terms, this means aligning former national degrees and diplomas to standard European Bachelor and Masters degrees and PhD doctorates, by creating acknowledged professional qualification benchmarks that also include adjusted course lengths and contents. This process, in the end, mostly affects academic staff members who have a fundamental role to play in carrying out the pedagogical reforms on the teaching front. Besides presenting a commentary on the institutional approach of one particular technical university in Spain, the purpose of this paper is to propose, from the authors' point of view as lecturers, a strategy which has the potential to create a favourable atmosphere for carrying out such a reform. The article's main objective is to highlight a series of action points which may serve to reinforce and advance the main institutional strategy by relying on the powerful influence of its academic staff members.

  20. [Climate change and Kyoto Protocol. Science and strategies. Obligations for Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro González, Federico Velázquez

    2005-01-01

    This article presents climate change as the major environmental problem of our time. A result of the so-called "greenhouse effect", climate change is caused by certain gases, the concentrations in the atmosphere of which are growing exponentially. The consequences of these gases are going to be felt throughout the entire biosphere, from weather phenomenon to humans, creating a uncertain panorama which is going to be requiring some fast-paced adaptation on the part of all species. This is not, however, an irreversible process, taking action thus being possible and necessary, by combining education and lawmaking measures brought into being within the timeframes and to the extents set forth under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Spain will be one of the most highly-affected countries, and its strategy may therefore mean a highly-valuable tool for correcting the deviations caused and contributing to the urgent control of global emissions.

  1. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  2. Teaching strategies and conceptual change in a professional development program for science teachers of K--8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji

    This case study investigates two consecutive science courses for teachers of K-8 in a professional development program at Washington University. It aims (1) to trace the processes of the teachers' conceptual change; (2) to analyze the teaching strategies by course instructors; and (3) to try to establish possible links between the two. To achieve this goal, I build a modeling theory to account for the observations. The main body of the study consists of four sub-cases. The first two cases instantiate the elements of the modeling theory. The opening case of balance shows that learning tools and task structures shape the learning outcome, and discusses cycles of modeling. The case also delineates the strategy that the instructors employed---moving from concrete experience to abstract explanation. The second case of buoyancy demonstrates that the modeling theory is able to explain the origins and forming mechanism of the alternative conceptions held by the teachers. It also shows that the teaching strategies of using alternative conceptions, applying analogies and following a logical sequence helped the teachers build new models. The last two cases demonstrate the ways of improving the competence of modelers. The third case of physical models emphasizes the metacognition of the learner who builds models. It illustrates that teachers' level of self-awareness in learning is increased when the models are physical. It shows that the creativity of modeling is rooted in agency, curiosity, communicability, and confidence, and that a chain of transformation among models is the key of systematizing and forming knowledge. The last case of frames of reference tries to answer the question "what is the justification of models if there are alternatives?" The teachers employed different forms of justification which relied heavily on common sense, authority, relativism, and pragmatism, all of which are not rational. While discussing both the positive and negative traits of these

  3. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  4. Changing Academic Medicine: Strategies Used by Academic Leaders of Integrative Medicine—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Witt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change.

  5. Changing academic medicine: strategies used by academic leaders of integrative medicine-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Holmberg, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change.

  6. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  7. Reliability and Validity Test of Questionnaire on the Adaptation Strategy of Cryosphere Changes in Arid Inland River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to test the reliability and validity of questionnaire on the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin. [Method] A questionnaire on "the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin" was carried out in Urumchi River basin and Aksu River basin, and its reliability and validity were tested by means of statistical method, so as to investigate the stability and accuracy of questionnaire. [Result] Reliability analysis of questionnaire sho...

  8. Host life history strategy, species diversity, and habitat influence Trypanosoma cruzi vector infection in Changing landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Gottdenker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: R. pallescens vectors (N = 643 were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3% vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3% dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as r(max, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase, and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of r(max were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T

  9. Leadership change: A case study analysis of strategy and control systems development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaudin Ahmadasri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on how a change of leadership at the CEO-level influences strategic practices and control systems development. The case study describes how the new chief executive developed and communicated his vision and strategy through control systems and structural change. The findings indicate that senior employees’ involvement in strategic plan development (through SLT mechanism in this case brought clarity and assurance to them. Meetings are important control mechanisms to structure the sharing of information and to enhance employee commitment and help decision making. It is argued leadership manifests through the interactions of leader with employees in many control practices. The findings have implications for family-owned businesses that are facing imminent change in leadership. They benefit founders/top managers that are about to change leadership of entrepreneurial firm to the next level by highlighting the importance of preparing leader’s capacity for an effective leadership role. The study also highlights some important factors which are seldom discussed in control theories.

  10. The Empowerment Strategy for The Food Crop Farmers in Anticipating The Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efriyani Sumastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, the climate change and the global warming like changes in the pattern and distribution of the rainfall give impacts on agricultural production at large, especially in the food crops. These also cause droughts, floods, landslides, forest fires, rising temperatures in urban areas, and rising sea levels. The above impacts are felt by the farmers because those can lead to a decrease in production even the crop failure. This research aims to develop an empowerment strategy of the food crop farmers in anticipating the climate change in Central Java. The data used is the primary data obtained through in-depth interviews with key-person and the Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP is conducted to determine the program priorities and strate gies. The result of research shows that anticipating the climate change should be synergistically conducted in four aspects: human resources, technology, institutional and production, by involving various groups in the society. Various groups can be grouped into academics, businessmen / private sectors, government and community of food crop farmers / society.

  11. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  12. World Year of Physics: a direct test of E=mc2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Simon; Thompson, James K; Myers, Edmund G; Brown, John M; Dewey, Maynard S; Kessler, Ernest G; Deslattes, Richard D; Börner, Hans G; Jentschel, Michael; Mutti, Paolo; Pritchard, David E

    2005-12-22

    One of the most striking predictions of Einstein's special theory of relativity is also perhaps the best known formula in all of science: E=mc(2). If this equation were found to be even slightly incorrect, the impact would be enormous--given the degree to which special relativity is woven into the theoretical fabric of modern physics and into everyday applications such as global positioning systems. Here we test this mass-energy relationship directly by combining very accurate measurements of atomic-mass difference, Delta(m), and of gamma-ray wavelengths to determine E, the nuclear binding energy, for isotopes of silicon and sulphur. Einstein's relationship is separately confirmed in two tests, which yield a combined result of 1-Delta(mc2)/E=(-1.4+/-4.4)x10(-7), indicating that it holds to a level of at least 0.00004%. To our knowledge, this is the most precise direct test of the famous equation yet described.

  13. An h-adaptive stochastic collocation method for stochastic EMC/EMI analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) phenomena is often fraught by randomness in a system\\'s excitation (e.g., the amplitude, phase, and location of internal noise sources) or configuration (e.g., the routing of cables, the placement of electronic systems, component specifications, etc.). To bound the probability of system malfunction, fast and accurate techniques to quantify the uncertainty in system observables (e.g., voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) are called for. Recently proposed stochastic frameworks [1-2] combine deterministic electromagnetic (EM) simulators with stochastic collocation (SC) methods that approximate system observables using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPC) [3] (viz. orthogonal polynomials spanning the entire random domain) to estimate their statistical moments and probability density functions (pdfs). When constructing gPC expansions, the EM simulator is used solely to evaluate system observables at collocation points prescribed by the SC-gPC scheme. The frameworks in [1-2] therefore are non-intrusive and straightforward to implement. That said, they become inefficient and inaccurate for system observables that vary rapidly or are discontinuous in the random variables (as their representations may require very high-order polynomials). © 2010 IEEE.

  14. EMC3-EIRENE modelling of edge impurity transport in the stochastic layer of the large helical device compared with extreme ultraviolet emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuyu; Kobayashi, M.; Kawamura, G.; Morita, S.; Zhang, H. M.; Oishi, T.; Feng, Y.; Wang, D. Z.; Suzuki, Y.; the LHD Experimental Group

    2016-06-01

    The transport properties and line emissions of carbon impurity in the stochastic layer of the Large Helical Device have been investigated with the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE. A parameter study has been performed to examine the sensitivity of the simulation results on each transport term in the impurity transport model and the impurity source characteristics, i.e. the source amount and the location. The modelling has revealed that in order to reproduce the experimental results of the emission distribution, the impurity perpendicular transport coefficient (D imp) and the first wall source play important roles, while changes to the ion thermal and the friction forces are rather irrelevant. The detailed study of flux tube tracing and magnetic field structure in the edge stochastic layer, in relation to impurity transport, has shown that the deeper penetration of impurity into the higher plasma density region due to the enhanced D imp and the first wall source is responsible for the change of emission pattern as well as the intensity. The analysis indicates that D imp might be larger than that of background plasma by a few factors and also that there probably exists a substantial amount of first wall impurity source.

  15. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Raj, V Stalin; Muth, Doreen; Meyer, Benjamin; Kallies, Stephan; Smits, Saskia L; Wollny, Robert; Bestebroer, Theo M; Specht, Sabine; Suliman, Tasnim; Zimmermann, Katrin; Binger, Tabea; Eckerle, Isabella; Tschapka, Marco; Zaki, Ali M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Haagmans, Bart L; Drosten, Christian

    2012-12-11

    A new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC is a member of the same virus genus as SARS-CoV but constitutes a sister species. Here we investigated whether it might utilize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV receptor. Knowledge of the receptor is highly critical because the restriction of the SARS receptor to deep compartments of the human respiratory tract limited the spread of SARS. In baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, lentiviral transduction of human ACE2 (hACE2) conferred permissiveness and replication for SARS-CoV but not for hCoV-EMC. Monkey and human kidney cells (LLC-MK2, Vero, and 769-P) and swine kidney cells were permissive for both viruses, but only SARS-CoV infection could be blocked by anti-hACE2 antibody and could be neutralized by preincubation of virus with soluble ACE2. Our data show that ACE2 is neither necessary nor sufficient for hCoV-EMC replication. Moreover, hCoV-EMC, but not SARS-CoV, replicated in cell lines from Rousettus, Rhinolophus, Pipistrellus, Myotis, and Carollia bats, representing four major chiropteran families from both suborders. As human CoV normally cannot replicate in bat cells from different families, this suggests that hCoV-EMC might use a receptor molecule that is conserved in bats, pigs, and humans, implicating a low barrier against cross-host transmission. IMPORTANCE A new human coronavirus (hCoV) emerged recently in the Middle East. The disease resembled SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), causing a fatal epidemic in 2002/2003. Coronaviruses have a reservoir in bats and because this novel virus is related to SARS-CoV, we investigated whether it might replicate in bat cells and use the same receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]). This knowledge is

  16. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  17. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  18. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  19. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health and Adaptation Strategies in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; WANG Xian-Wei; YANG Xiao-Feng; MA Wen-Jun; AI Hui; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews the impacts of climate change on human health and presents corresponding adaptation strategies in South China. The daily mean surface air temperatures above or below 26.4◦C increase the death risk for the people in Guangzhou, especially the elderly are vulnerable to variations in temperature. Heat waves can cause insomnia, fatigue, clinical exacerbation, or death from heatstroke etc., while cold spells show increases in patients with fractures. During a cold spell period, the rates of both on-site emergency rescues and non-implementable rescues increase, and the risk of non-accidental deaths and respiratory disease deaths significantly rise as well. Both time series of hazy days and ozone concentrations have significant positive correlations with the number of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Both malaria and dengue fever reach higher altitudes and mountainous areas due to climate warming. Climate change is likely to bring stronger heat waves in the future, thereby increasing heat wave-related illnesses and deaths, particularly in the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta. The projected increase of continuous cold days in Guangdong province and parts of northern Guangxi province will affect residents’ health in the future. The rising temperature exaggerates ozone pollution, but it is not clear whether climate change is aggravating or mitigating haze pollution. The transmission potential of malaria in South China will increase by 39%-140% and the transmission season will extend by 1-2 months with an air temperature increase of 1-2◦C. By 2050, most areas in Hainan province are projected to convert from non-endemic dengue into endemic dengue areas. The aging population will cause more vulnerable people. To mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on human health, sound and scientific adaptation strategies must be adopted in advance, such as strengthening the surveillance of epidemic diseases in potential transmission areas

  20. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

  1. The diversity of gendered adaptation strategies to climate change of Indian farmers: A feminist intersectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Federica; Martín-López, Berta; Pascual, Unai; Drucker, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines climate change adaptation and gender issues through an application of a feminist intersectional approach. This approach permits the identification of diverse adaptation responses arising from the existence of multiple and fragmented dimensions of identity (including gender) that intersect with power relations to shape situation-specific interactions between farmers and ecosystems. Based on results from contrasting research cases in Bihar and Uttarakhand, India, this paper demonstrates, inter alia, that there are geographically determined gendered preferences and adoption strategies regarding adaptation options and that these are influenced by the socio-ecological context and institutional dynamics. Intersecting identities, such as caste, wealth, age and gender, influence decisions and reveal power dynamics and negotiation within the household and the community, as well as barriers to adaptation among groups. Overall, the findings suggest that a feminist intersectional approach does appear to be useful and worth further exploration in the context of climate change adaptation. In particular, future research could benefit from more emphasis on a nuanced analysis of the intra-gender differences that shape adaptive capacity to climate change.

  2. Major factors for facilitating change in behavioral strategies to reduce obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle Grave R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave,1 Elena Centis,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Marwan El Ghoch,1 Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda VR, 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum University, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: It is very unlikely that our obesity-promoting environment will change in the near future. It is therefore mandatory to improve our knowledge of the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors. This may help design more powerful procedures and strategies to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles in a "toxic" environment favoring the development of a positive energy balance. The aim of this review is to describe the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors and to describe the most recent development, limits, and outcomes of lifestyle modification programs. The evidence regarding predictors of weight loss and weight loss maintenance remains largely incomplete. It is necessary to develop strategies matching treatments to patients' needs to improve successful weight loss and its maintenance. How to detect and how to address these needs is a continuous, challenging, research problem.Keywords: weight loss, physical activity, food intake, motivational interviewing, behavioral therapy

  3. Exploring Short-Term Responses to Changes in the Control Strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Clarke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  4. Preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures for Jakarta slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pooroe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is a city with unpredictable yet annual water shortages, both during the dry and wet season, which disproportionately affect the urban poor. One possible solution is to redevelop the existing water supply system which is now working in one of the largest slum area in Penjaringan, North Jakarta. This system is equipped with a large meter, the Master Meter, to record the communal water consumption and individual meters to record household consumptions. The Community Based Organization uses, operates, and maintains the system based on agreement with water users. Improvement of the Master Meter is achieved by harvesting uncollected rain water during the wet season with its high rainfall intensity, modifying the water storage system and improving the influent water quality. This paper aims to provide a preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures based on a case study of community-based water supply project in Penjaringan, Jakarta.

  5. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  6. Can investments in health systems strategies lead to changes in immunization coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzel, Logan

    2014-04-01

    National immunization programs in developing countries have made major strides to immunize the world's children, increasing full coverage to 83% of children. However, the World Health Organization estimates that 22 million children less than five years of age are left unvaccinated, and coverage levels have been plateauing for nearly a decade. This paper describes the evidence on factors contributing to low vaccination uptake, and describes the connection between these factors and the documented strategies and interventions that can lead to changes in immunization outcomes. The author suggests that investments in these areas may contribute more effectively to immunization coverage and also have positive spill-over benefits for health systems. The paper concludes that while some good quality evidence exists of what works and may contribute to immunization outcomes, the quality of evidence needs to improve and major gaps need to be addressed.

  7. Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; McCusker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    As climate change has emerged as a significant threat, there is much concern about how vulnerable agricultural communities will adapt, particularly as global population continues to rise. Much of the current lack of productivity and economic marginalization of African agriculture arises from global trade regimes that give a competitive advantage to Western farmers, from low use of agricultural inputs, and from a dearth of infrastructure and services for the agriculture sector. For centuries, African farmers have used a wide variety of risk-reducing livelihood strategies, including diversifying income sources, switching crops, and investing in marketing. However, improving their productivity to ``modern'' levels has remained a distant dream, resulting in a continual reduction in investment in the sector over the past five decades.

  8. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  9. Experimentally induced host-shift changes life-history strategy in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savković, Uroš; ĐorĐević, Mirko; Šešlija Jovanović, Darka; Lazarević, Jelica; Tucić, Nikola; Stojković, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Expansion of the host range in phytophagous insects depends on their ability to form an association with a novel plant through changes in host-related traits. Phenotypic plasticity has important effects on initial survival of individuals faced with a new plant, as well as on the courses of evolutionary change during long-term adaptation to novel conditions. Using experimental populations of the seed beetle that evolved on ancestral (common bean) or novel (chickpea) host and applying reciprocal transplant at both larval and adult stage on the alternative host plant, we studied the relationship between the initial (plastic) phases of host-shift and the subsequent stages of evolutionary divergence in life-history strategies between populations exposed to the host-shift process. After 48 generations, populations became well adapted to chickpea by evolving the life-history strategy with prolonged larval development, increased body mass, earlier reproduction, shorter lifespan and decreased plasticity of all traits compared with ancestral conditions. In chickpea-adapted beetles, negative fitness consequences of low plasticity of pre-adult development (revealed as severe decrease in egg-to-adult viability on beans) exhibited mismatch with positive effects of low plasticity (i.e. low host sensitivity) in oviposition and fecundity. In contrast, beetles adapted to the ancestral host showed high plasticity of developmental process, which enabled high larval survival on chickpea, whereas elevated plasticity in adult behaviour (i.e. high host sensitivity) resulted in delayed reproduction and decreased fecundity on chickpea. The analysis of population growth parameters revealed significant fluctuation during successive phases of the host-shift process in A. obtectus.

  10. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    disasters. * Strategic Science Action 2. - Enhance methods to anticipate, prepare for, and identify environmental, ecological, and related health impacts of future disasters. This strategy is one of seven USGS science strategies developed concurrently: * Climate and Land Use Change * Core Science Systems * Ecosystems * Energy and Mineral Resources * Environmental Health * Natural Hazards * Water. This strategy describes how USGS will address the highest priority environmental health issues facing the Nation. The ultimate intended outcome of this science strategy is prevention and reduction of adverse impacts to the quality of the environment, the health of our living resources, and human health. Communication with, and receiving input from, partners and stakeholders regarding their science needs is essential for successful implementation of this strategy. It is incumbent on USGS to reach out to all stakeholders to ensure that USGS efforts are focused on the highest priority environmental health issues and that products are provided in the most timely and usable form to all those who can use them. USGS must reach out to the scientific community, internally and externally, to ensure that our efforts are integrated with and take full advantage of the activities of others.

  11. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  12. Object-Based Change Detection in Urban Areas: The Effects of Segmentation Strategy, Scale, and Feature Space on Unsupervised Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-based change detection (OBCD has recently been receiving increasing attention as a result of rapid improvements in the resolution of remote sensing data. However, some OBCD issues relating to the segmentation of high-resolution images remain to be explored. For example, segmentation units derived using different segmentation strategies, segmentation scales, feature space, and change detection methods have rarely been assessed. In this study, we have tested four common unsupervised change detection methods using different segmentation strategies and a series of segmentation scale parameters on two WorldView-2 images of urban areas. We have also evaluated the effect of adding extra textural and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI information instead of using only spectral information. Our results indicated that change detection methods performed better at a medium scale than at a fine scale where close to the pixel size. Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD always outperformed the other methods tested, at the same confidence level. The overall accuracy appeared to benefit from using a two-date segmentation strategy rather than single-date segmentation. Adding textural and NDVI information appeared to reduce detection accuracy, but the magnitude of this reduction was not consistent across the different unsupervised methods and segmentation strategies. We conclude that a two-date segmentation strategy is useful for change detection in high-resolution imagery, but that the optimization of thresholds is critical for unsupervised change detection methods. Advanced methods need be explored that can take advantage of additional textural or other parameters.

  13. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  14. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2014-04-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Dianchi Lake is divided into two parts, Caohai Lake and Waihai Lake, by a man-made dike. Caohai Lake lies at the north of Dianchi Lake, while Waihai Lake is the main water body of Dianchi Lake and accounts for 96.7% of the whole area of the lake. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46 mg L-1, 6.11-16.79 mg L-1, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13 and 0.20 mg L-1, 1.82 and 3.01 mg L-1, and 0.04 and 0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two clusters (cluster A and cluster B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous

  15. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  16. Efficient local behavioral change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yilei; Mills, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic; for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her l...

  17. Videogame training strategy-induced change in brain function during a complex visuomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Boot, Walter R; Vo, Loan T K; Basak, Chandramallika; Vanpatter, Matt; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-07-01

    Although changes in brain function induced by cognitive training have been examined, functional plasticity associated with specific training strategies is still relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined changes in brain function during a complex visuomotor task following training using the Space Fortress video game. To assess brain function, participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 30 h of training with one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. Control participants received only 6 h of FET. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher performance on the game and showed less brain activation in areas related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed movement after training. Compared to the control group, HVT exhibited less brain activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), coupled with greater performance improvement. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that the reduction in brain activation was correlated with improved performance on the task. This study sheds light on the neurobiological mechanisms of improved learning from directed training (HVT) over non-directed training (FET), which is related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed motor planning, while separating the practice-based benefit, which is related to executive control and rule management.

  18. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    María Baca; Peter Läderach; Jeremy Haggar; Götz Schroth; Oriana Ovalle

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic ...

  19. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under the influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    are characterized by long technical lifetimes and high, unrecoverable construction costs. One of the most important barriers for the initiation and implementation of the adaptation strategies is therefore the uncertainty when predicting the magnitude of the extreme rainfall in the future. This challenge is explored...... through the application and discussion of three different theoretical decision support strategies: the precautionary principle, the minimax strategy and Bayesian decision support. The reviewed decision support strategies all proved valuable for addressing the identified uncertainties, at best applied...

  20. Climate Change Experiments in Arctic Ecosystems: Scientific Strategy and Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Hinzman, L. D.; McGuire, A. D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Oechel, W. C.; Norby, R. J.; Thornton, P. E.; Schuur, E. A.; Shugart, H. H.; Walsh, J. E.; Wilson, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    . Participants were asked how experiments could best be designed to address issues related to plant and ecosystem dynamics, permafrost degradation, carbon and methane emissions, landscape processes, and the many land-atmosphere feedbacks that are likely to arise as a result of global warming. Recommendations that address the scientific strategy and design criteria of future large-scale, long-term climate change experiments in Arctic ecosystems were contributed. This information will be summarized and evaluated in the context of existing and emerging efforts to better understand high-latitude ecosystems to climate warming.

  1. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM MEJA GAMBAR DENGAN METODE XY-TABLE 2 SUMBU MENGGUNAKAN MOTOR STEPPER DAN EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Linggarjati

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to produce a drawing table system with 2-aksis XY-table method and EMCsoftware implementation. The EMC (Enhanced Machine Control features are integrated with L297 and L298 as a motorstepper driver to draw simple objects. Methods used in the research are library research, engineering, and laboratory.The results concluded that system can work properly to draw objects such as square, triangle, circle, and capital lettersA-Z according to the given input.

  2. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  3. EMC model in the application of LED street lamp transformation%EMC模式在LED路灯改造的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫忠

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了EMC模式的LED路灯改造,以及通过佛山市南海区桂城街道市政路灯采用EMC模式进行LED路灯改造所带来的经济效益、社会效益,并在实际应用过程中对EMC模式的思考与探索。%this paper introduces the EMC model of LED street lamp transformation,and through Foshan city Nanhai district Guicheng street municipal street lamps using the EMC model for LED street lamp transformation brought about by the economic and social benefits,and in the process of practical application of EMC mode of thinking and exploration.

  4. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  5. Adaptation Strategy of Seaweed Cultivation to Face the Climate Change (Case Study in Segoro Anakan Bay Ngadirojo, Pacitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Nur Amri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The damage of coastal ecosystems are no longer dominated by human activity, but the condition of global climate change were also influenced. Climate change impact on the environment influencing the coastal management paradigm. This study emphasizes on how to develop a adaptation strategy of coastal zone management due to the impact of climate change through remote sensing approach, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, and adaptation strategies analysis. Location of research conducted in the Region of Segoro Anakan Bay, District Ngadirojo Pacitan. The results showed the impact of climate change is affecting the area and production of seaweed culture in the form of tectonic conditions aggravated by silting waters. To combat the effects of climate change, the adaptation scenario is implemented to intensification and extensification of land use, alternative livelihoods, minawisata as a combination of all three.

  6. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012: implications for disease pathogenesis and clinical manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Tse, Herman; Cai, Jian-Piao; Yeung, Man Lung; Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Chen, Honglin; Che, Xiao-Yan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-06-01

    The emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC) was recently isolated from patients with severe pneumonia and renal failure and was associated with an unexplained high crude fatality rate of 56%. We performed a cell line susceptibility study with 28 cell lines. HCoV-EMC was found to infect the human respiratory tract (polarized airway epithelium cell line Calu-3, embryonic fibroblast cell line HFL, and lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549), kidney (embryonic kidney cell line HEK), intestinal tract (colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2), liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh-7), and histiocytes (malignant histiocytoma cell line His-1), as evident by detection of high or increasing viral load in culture supernatants, detection of viral nucleoprotein expression by immunostaining, and/or detection of cytopathic effects. Although an infected human neuronal cell line (NT2) and infected monocyte and T lymphocyte cell lines (THP-1, U937, and H9) had increased viral loads, their relatively lower viral production corroborated with absent nucleoprotein expression and cytopathic effects. This range of human tissue tropism is broader than that for all other HCoVs, including SARS coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63, which may explain the high mortality associated with this disease. A recent cell line susceptibility study showed that HCoV-EMC can infect primate, porcine, and bat cells and therefore may jump interspecies barriers. We found that HCoV-EMC can also infect civet lung fibroblast and rabbit kidney cell lines. These findings have important implications for the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and transmission of HCoV-EMC.

  7. Changes in biofilm structure during the colonization of chalcopyrite by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Meza, J V; Fernández, J J; Lara, R H; González, I

    2013-07-01

    Biofilms of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans were grown on the surface of massive chalcopyrite electrodes (MCE) where different secondary sulfur phases were previously formed by potentiostatic oxidation of MCE at 0.780≤Ean≤0.965 V (electrooxidized MCE, eMCE). The formation of mainly S⁰ and minor amounts of CuS and Sn²⁻ were detected on eMCEs. The eMCEs were incubated with A. thiooxidans cells for 1, 12, 24, 48, and 120 h in order to temporally monitor changes in eMCE's secondary phases, biofilm structure, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition (lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides) using microscopic, spectroscopic, electrochemical, and biochemical techniques. The results show significant cell attachments with stratified biofilm structure since the first hour of incubation and EPS composition changes, the most important being production after 48-120 h when the highest amount of lipids and proteins were registered. During 120 h, periodic oxidation/formation of S⁰/Sn²⁻ was recorded on biooxidized eMCEs, until a stable CuS composition was formed. In contrast, no evidence of CuS formation was observed on the eMCEs of the abiotic control, confirming that CuS formation results from microbial activity. The surface transformation of eMCE induces a structural transformation of the biofilm, evolving directly to a multilayered biofilm with more hydrophobic EPS and proteins after 120 h. Our results suggest that A. thiooxidans responded to the spatial and temporal distribution and chemical reactivity of the Sn²⁻/S⁰/CuS phases throughout 120 h. These results suggested a strong correlation between surface speciation, hydrophobic domains in EPS, and biofilm organization during chalcopyrite biooxidation by A. thiooxidans.

  8. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  9. EMC behaviour modelling and simulation of components of the electric drivetrain; EMV-Verhaltensmodellierung und Simulation von Komponenten des elektrischen Antriebsstrangs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Stephan; Kremer, Frank [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Arbeitsgebiet Bordsysteme; Haase, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Integrierte Schaltungen, Dresden (Germany). Bereich Entwurfsautomatisierung; Hessel, Ewald [Hella KGaA Hueck und Co, Lippstadt (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The introduction of high-voltage on-board electrical systems and high pulsed electric power in the drivetrain tends to lead to higher levels of interference in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), and managing this requires appropriate counter-measures to be taken. Research currently being carried out by TU Dortmund University, Hella and the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits II S in Dresden is focusing on EMC-compliant function development. Modelling and simulation can help to identify potential problems at an early stage.

  10. Lack of nasal carriage of novel corona virus (HCoV-EMC) in French Hajj pilgrims returning from the Hajj 2012, despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, P; Charrel, R; Belhouchat, K; Drali, T; Benkouiten, S; Nougairede, A; Zandotti, C; Memish, Z A; al Masri, M; Gaillard, C; Brouqui, P; Parola, P

    2013-07-01

    A cohort of 154 French Hajj pilgrims participating in the 2012 Hajj were systematically sampled with nasal swabs prior to returning to France, and screened for the novel HCoV-EMC coronavirus by two real-time RT-PCR assays. Despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms (83.4%), including 41.0% influenza-like illness, no case of HCoV-EMC infection was detected. Despite the fact that zoonotic transmission was suspected in the first few cases, a recent family cluster in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia suggests that the virus might show at least limited spread from person to person, which justifies continuing epidemiological surveillance.

  11. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  12. Developing Canada's climate change strategy: electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Canada's climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent)

  13. Transformation by design: nursing workforce innovation and reduction strategies in turbulent times of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Mary O

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of care delivery from an acute care and inpatient standard to the outpatient setting and health promotion model is generating the need for innovative workforce and infrastructure adjustments to meet the new paradigm of population health management. Successful transformation of the nursing workforce necessitates a positive style of thinking that addresses rational concerns during times of difficult transition. Nurse leaders are called to recognize and appreciate the strengths of the nursing workforce by involving them in the course of change through collaboration, planning, and discussion. One unique way to plan and develop new care delivery models is to adopt the framework used in health facility planning and design for new services, units, or hospitals. This framework is flexible and can be adjusted easily to meet the objectives of a small nursing workforce innovation project or expanded to encompass the needs of a large-scale hospital transformation. Structured questioning further helps the team to identify barriers to care and allows for the development of new concepts that are objective and in accord with evidence-based practice and data. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of implementing innovative workforce redesign and workforce reduction strategies.

  14. Inclusion of climate change strategies in municipal Integrated Development Plans: A case from seven municipalities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankolo X. Lethoko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has made it clear that anthropogenic greenhouse gasses are the main cause of observed global warming that leads to climate change. Climate change is now a global reality. In the South African political set-up, local municipalities are the structures that are in direct contact with communities and they draw up Integrated Development Plans (IDPs, which are reviewed and upgraded annually. The article seeks to investigate the extent to which climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies are embedded IDPs in seven vulnerable municipalities in the Limpopo Province. The article conducted an in-depth content analysis of the IDPs of the seven municipalities and the results have revealed that these municipalities have not included adaptation and mitigation strategies adequately in their IDPs despite being the most vulnerable municipalities in the province. The article concludes that these municipalities have not as yet institutionalised climate change in their daily operations, planning and decision making. To this end, the paper recommends that local municipalities should include climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in their IDPs.Keywords: Climate change; adaptation; mitigation; Integrated Development Plan; vulnerable municipalities

  15. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  16. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique D Bohbot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-year old children to 80-year old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM. The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e. hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position. With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the downside of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging.

  17. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes

    management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...... of current practice, the biggest challenges and potential strategies of engineering change management. A total of 55 Brazilian companies from a broad range of industry sectors and company sizes participated from December 2011 until January 2012 in the survey which was elaborated and conducted by members...

  18. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    are characterized by long technical lifetimes and high, unrecoverable construction costs. The most important barrier for the initiation and implementation of the adaptation strategies is therefore the uncertainty when predicting the magnitude of the extreme rainfall in the future. This challenge is explored through...... the application and discussion of three different theoretical decision support strategies: The precautionary principle, the minimax strategy and Bayesian decision support. The reviewed decision support strategies all proved valuable for addressing the identified uncertainties, at best applied together as they all...

  19. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  20. Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

    In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

  1. School Counselors' Strategies for Social Justice Change: A Grounded Theory of What Works in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Urbano, Alessandra; Haston, Meg; McMahon, Eleanor

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the strategies that 16 school counselors who self-identified as social justice agents used to advocate for systemic change within their school communities. Findings included seven overarching themes: (a) using political savvy to navigate power structures, (b) consciousness raising,…

  2. A method for evaluating climate change adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers using survey, experimental and modeled data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.; Thornton, P.K.; Herrero, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is predicted to experience considerable negative impacts of climate change. The IPCC Fourth Assessment emphasizes that adaptation strategies are essential. Addressing adaptation in thecontext of small-scale, semi-subsistence agriculture raises special challenges. High data d

  3. Effectiveness of a Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy to Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Uce, Musa; Saricayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

    2006-01-01

    The results of previous educational research raise some questions about the efficacy of conventional teaching strategies and point to a need for using teaching strategies that explicitly take into account misconceptions students bring to the classes or acquire during the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, this article presents efforts to…

  4. Contact-2: A computer-assisted instructional strategy for promoting conceptual change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.J.A.; Simons, P.R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Previous research seems to support the assumption that students need instructional guidance to activate and correct their preconceptions. Such an instructional strategy is the CONTACT strategy, characterised by continuous, computer-assisted activation of the conceptions of individual learners. Our p

  5. Diverging business strategies towards climate change : a USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der K.F.; Wit, de C.M.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The research project has investigated what strategies specific sectors of industry develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In an USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the bank and insu

  6. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  7. Strategy Ranges: Describing Change in Prospective Elementary Teachers' Approaches to Mental Computation of Sums and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sets of mental computation strategies used by prospective elementary teachers to compute sums and differences of whole numbers. In the context of an intervention designed to improve the number sense of prospective elementary teachers, participants were interviewed pre/post, and their mental computation strategies were…

  8. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  9. Objectives and strategies for energy revolution in the context of tackling climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change mitigation and CO2 emission reduction have promoted the revolutionary transformation in energy system.The core content of energy system revolutionary transformation is to replace the high-carbon energy system dominated by fossil energy with low-carbon energy system dominated by new and renewable energy and finally realize the near-zero emission of CO2.The new energy system transformation has also led to a reform in global economic and social development patterns.Developing low-carbon economy becomes the fundamental strategy of sustainable development under climate risk management and the only solution to getting on the road from industrial civilization to ecological civilization.China intends to achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2030 and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20% by 2030.Guided by the targets,China directs its economy development to a low-carbon pattern.Therefore,new and renewable power capacity need to reach 1300 GW,and the electricity generated should be 4 times of that in 2013 with a continuous increase rate of 6%e8% around 2030.The pace of energy substitution need to be accelerated and efficient,safe,clean,and low-carbon energy supply and consumption systems should be established besides strengthened energy conservation and improved energy efficient.Therefore,reform need be deepened,favorable policy system and market mechanism for energy revolution and low-carbon development need be established,energy pricing mechanism should be reformed,and national carbon market should be formed to provide a favorable policy and market environment for low-carbon technology innovation and industry development.

  10. Development of EMC-based empirical model for estimating spatial distribution of pollutant loads and its application in rural areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qitao; Li, Hui; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-09-01

    An integrated approach to easily calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds is suggested and verified in this research. The basic concepts of this empirical tool were based on the assumption that variations in event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants from a given agricultural watershed during rainstorms were only attributable to the rainfall pattern. Fifty one sets of EMC values were obtained from nine different watersheds located in the rural areas of Korea, and these data were used to develop predictive tools for the EMCs in rainfall runoff. The results of statistical tests of these formulas show that they are fairly good in predicting actual EMC values of some parameters, and useful in terms of calculating pollutant loads for any rainfall event time span such as daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. This model was further checked in for its field applicability in a reservoir receiving stormwater after a cleanup of the sediments, covering 17 consecutive rainfall events from 1 July to 15 August in 2007. Overall the predicted values matched the observed values, indicating the feasibility of this empirical tool as a simple and useful solution in evaluating timely distribution of nonpoint source pollution loads from small rural watersheds of Korea.

  11. How Knowledge Accumulation changed the Competitive Advantage of Strategy Consulting Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); M.G. Baaij (Marc); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractResearch evidence confirms that the accumulation of knowledge contributes to the competitive advantage of firms. In the strategy consulting industry, one of the most knowledge-intensive professional services industries, however, established firms that exploited their knowledge accumulati

  12. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests.

  13. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  14. Gravity influence on rhythmic plant movements - circumnutations. A study using the EMCS hardware on the ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Gees Bokn Solheim, Bjarte; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    The European Modular Cultivation System, installed in the Destiny unit of the International Space Station, ISS, is now functioning and allows automatic long term biological experiments. We have endeavoured to study growth movements of Arabidopsis thaliana in a 75 days long experiment using the hardware. The experiment has a seed-to-seed study as the overall goal, but unforeseen technical problems allowed only concentrating on the other main goal, viz. a study of possible oscillatory movements of the plant parts in weightlessness. Seeds were planted in Plant Cultivation Chambers (PCCs) with Experimental Containers (ECs) that allowed them to germinate when imbibed. Roots developed in a zeolite medium. White plus red light was provided by LED arrays and a 16:8 LD regime was chosen. Automatic humidity control in the air as well as in the medium was provided to guarantee optimal growth. The ECs were mounted on two identical rotors, allowing centrifugation in the interval 0g to 2g. Images of the ECs were taken by programmed cameras that viewed the ECs via mirrors. Sampling procedures were nominally activated every sixth min. Due to technical difficulties and power off periods for the EMCS planned experimental sequences had to be abandoned at several occasions. However, the experiment allowed acceleration pulses between 0g and approximately 1g to be given to plants throughout their development, a novel feature which is possible to use in system analysis in long term experiments. The circumnutations in Arabidopsis thaliana (wild type) have been studied on Earth and are intriguingly complicated. Under 1 g (on the Earth) the hypocotyls show a multitude of frequencies and the existence of two simultaneous oscillators generating complicated movements has been proposed (Johnsson et al. 1999). Darwin (1881) proposed an endogenous nature of the circumnutations while gravity's possible influence has been emphasized by others researchers (review by Johnsson 1997, Mugnai et al. 2007

  15. TSA suppresses miR-106b-93-25 cluster expression through downregulation of MYC and inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human EMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Ning; Bai, Jiu-Xu; Zhou, Qiang; Yan, Bo; Qin, Wei-Wei; Jia, Lin-Tao; Meng, Yan-Ling; Jin, Bo-Quan; Yao, Li-Bo; Wang, Tao; Yang, An-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as a novel class of anti-tumor agents and have manifested the ability to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis in different cancer cells. A significant number of genes have been identified as potential effectors responsible for the anti-tumor function of HDAC inhibitor. However, the molecular mechanisms of these HDAC inhibitors in this process remain largely undefined. In the current study, we searched for microRNAs (miRs) that were affected by HDAC inhibitor trichostatin (TSA) and investigated their effects in endometrial cancer (EMC) cells. Our data showed that TSA significantly inhibited the growth of EMC cells and induced their apoptosis. Among the miRNAs that altered in the presence of TSA, the miR-106b-93-25 cluster, together with its host gene MCM7, were obviously down-regulated in EMC cells. p21 and BIM, which were identified as target genes of miR-106b-93-25 cluster, increased in TSA treated tumor cells and were responsible for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We further identified MYC as a regulator of miR-106b-93-25 cluster and demonstrated its down-regulation in the presence of TSA resulted in the reduction of miR-106b-93-25 cluster and up-regulation of p21 and BIM. More important, we found miR-106b-93-25 cluster was up-regulated in clinical EMC samples in association with the overexpression of MCM7 and MYC and the down-regulation of p21 and BIM. Thus our studies strongly indicated TSA inhibited EMC cell growth and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at least partially through the down-regulation of the miR-106b-93-25 cluster and up-regulation of it's target genes p21 and BIM via MYC.

  16. Climate Change Education: Goals, Audiences, and Strategies--A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Sherrie; Feder, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The global scientific and policy community now unequivocally accepts that human activities cause global climate change. Although information on climate change is readily available, the nation still seems unprepared or unwilling to respond effectively to climate change, due partly to a general lack of public understanding of climate change issues…

  17. Does Cognitive Style Affect Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies of Change Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, John W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 152 change agents were given 24 diagnostic questions they might ask the client organization, questions related to the change agents' cognitive styles and the tactics most likely used by the change agents to bring about organizational and/or individual change. Conclusions are compared with previous research findings. (Author)

  18. Renewable energy to develop adaptation strategies to the climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Pieranna; Bergonzoli, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Changes in land use and combustion of fossil fuels have been largest human impact on the global carbon cycle and without a complete accounting of net greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes, developing and evaluating adaptation strategies are not possible. The major source of GHG fluxes associated with crop production are soil N2O emissions, soil CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes, and CO2 emission associated with agricultural inputs and farm equipment operation. This study points out the main principles which are at the base of solar energy use for sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Field tests were carried out in order to compare crop yield and solar pump plant performance, for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, connected to drip irrigation and sprinkler system plants during the irrigation season. The system mainly consists of the parts listed here: set of flat photovoltaic panels consisting of 150 panels for a total of 3000 W peak value once installed, connected in serial-parallel to obtain a 120 Vdc operating voltage rating. The panels utilize 36 serially connected single-crystal silicon cells providing a 12 V voltage rating. The serial connection of 10 panels generates the system's operating voltage rating (120 Vdc). The total 3000 W peak value power is obtained by connecting in parallel 15 serial-strings. When the circuit is open, the voltage at the ends of the panels can reach 210 Volts. The photovoltaic system supplies, through an inverter, a three-phase 1.6 kW canned pump located in the artesian well. The relevant hydraulic line connects this pump to the various utilities. The hydraulic capacity of the helium pump has been used during the irrigation season in order to meet the water needs of a corn crop. Therefore, along with the solar pump was used a dispersing wing type drip irrigation system with double chamber hosing (70 kPa operating pressure), with external holes spaced 0.3 m apart, 0.75 m distance between the wings, wing length 120 m and placed

  19. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  20. EMC3-EIRENE modeling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lore, J.D., E-mail: lorejd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Reinke, M.L. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); LaBombard, B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Churchill, R.M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Feng, Y. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ∼50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modeling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.

  1. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  2. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...

  3. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  4. Change: Switch from Library Lingo to a School-Wide Strategy to Get It Done!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Making changes in the school setting is not easy. However, it is possible if one looks beyond the library, to see how change can benefit the entire school. Just switching wording from the comfortable language of library lingo to a broader school perspective, made change possible in the author's school. In this article, the author shares her…

  5. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  6. A Study of Preservice Educators' Dispositions to Change Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    Student behavior problems contribute to poor academic achievement and poor teacher retention. This study investigated preservice teachers' dispositions to implement positive and proactive strategies for managing behavior in the general education elementary urban classroom. The author interviewed 19 preservice teachers in a large urban school…

  7. Using Technology-Based Strategies to Change Drug-Related Attitudes and First-Time Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ben; Roblyer, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that a solid pre-trial drug intervention program is a vital first step in educating first-time offenders about the seriousness of drug abuse and criminal behavior, staff at the Intervention Program for Substance Abusers in Montgomery County, Maryland's Department of Correction and Rehabilitation decided that better strategies were…

  8. The Role of Community and School Groups in School Desegregation: Strategies for Crisis and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard H.; Laue, James H.

    This manual was designed for community and school groups to aid them in clarifying their goals and selecting strategies for resolving issues related to school desegregation. After a brief review of the law, Part 1 reviews the major issues involved in the school desegregation process: quality education, white flight, middle-class minority flight,…

  9. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  10. Influence of hydrological modelling strategies on the diagnosis of the impact of climate change on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, Grégory; Roy, René; Anctil, François

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties related to the assessment of the impacts of climate change on water resources are large, from multiple sources, and lead to diagnoses sometimes difficult to interpret. Therefore, the quantification of these uncertainties is a key element to yield confidence in the analyses and to provide water managers with valuable information. This research specifically evaluates the sensitivity of future water resources projections to the choice of hydrological modelling strategies, on thirty-seven watersheds in the Province of Québec, Canada. These modelling strategies mainly focus on calibration and hydrological model choices, as well as individual versus ensemble approaches. Twenty lumped hydrological models, representing a wide range of operational options, are calibrated with three objective functions on six historical calibration periods. The hydrological models are forced with 122 climate simulations corresponding to four RCP and twenty-nine GCM from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5), provided by the Canadian consortium Ouranos. Two bias correction techniques are also evaluated and lead to future projections in the 2041-2070 period. Results show that the diagnosis of the impacts of climate change on water resources are quite sensitive to the hydrological models selection and calibration strategies. This statement is particularly true when evaluating changes in an absolute way. Multimodel approaches offer the best options in terms of calibration performance and robustness on contrasted climate conditions. Hydrological indicators, dedicated to water management, are sensitive to the calibration objective functions and period selection. Overall, these results illustrate the need to provide water managers with detailed information on relative changes analysis, but also absolute changes values, especially for hydrological indicators acting as security policy thresholds.

  11. Good year, bad year: changing strategies, changing networks? A two-year study on seed acquisition in northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Violon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of seed exchange networks at a single point in time may reify sporadic relations into apparently fixed and long-lasting ones. In northern Cameroon, where environment is not only strongly seasonal but also shows unpredictable interannual variation, farmers' social networks are flexible from year to year. When adjusting their strategies, Tupuri farmers do not systematically solicit the same partners to acquire the desired propagules. Seed acquisitions documented during a single cropping season may thus not accurately reflect the underlying larger social network that can be mobilized at the local level. To test this hypothesis, we documented, at the outset of two cropping seasons (2010 and 2011, the relationships through which seeds were acquired by the members of 16 households in a Tupuri community. In 2011, farmers faced sudden failure of the rains and had to solicit distant relatives, highlighting their ability to quickly trigger specific social relations to acquire necessary seeding material. Observing the same set of individuals during two successive years and the seed sources they solicited in each year enabled us to discriminate repeated relations from sporadic ones. Although farmers did not acquire seeds from the same individuals from one year to the next, they relied on quite similar relational categories of people. However, the worse weather conditions during the second year led to (1 a shift from red sorghum seeds to pearl millet seeds, (2 a geographical extension of the network, and (3 an increased participation of women in seed acquisitions. In critical situations, women mobilized their own kin almost exclusively. We suggest that studying the seed acquisition network over a single year provides a misrepresentation of the underlying social network. Depending on the difficulties farmers face, they may occasionally call on relationships that transcend the local relationships used each year.

  12. Trajectories of Mothers' Discipline Strategies and Interparental Conflict: Interrelated Change during Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Staples, Angela D; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2013-07-01

    Using data collected annually when children were in kindergarten through 3(rd) grade (N = 478), this study investigated changes in mothers' use of nonharsh, harsh verbal, and physical discipline; changes in interparental conflict; and associations between changes in discipline and interparental conflict. Controlling for potential confounds, physical discipline decreased over the course of middle childhood, whereas harsh verbal and nonharsh discipline remained stable. Increases in interparental conflict were associated with increases in physical discipline; decreases in interparental conflict were associated with decreases in physical discipline. Change in interparental conflict was unrelated to change in harsh verbal or nonharsh discipline, although more frequent interparental conflict was associated with more frequen10t use of all three types of discipline in 1(st) grade. Findings extend previous research on how two major forms of communication within families-conflict between parents and parents' attempts to influence their children through discipline-change across middle childhood.

  13. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  14. The Climate Change Strategy Gap: Crafting a Strategic Framework for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    result of climate change related events, led to the current situation. Syria will be presented as a case study for understanding the potential strategic...stability in a fragile country. The Syria case study demonstrates how the climate change influencing precipitation patterns can accelerate...will require a lead agency to pull together the necessary information from country studies , to climate change modeling capabilities, working through

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Drylands. Climate variability, livelihood strategies and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands); Dietz, A.J. [Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies AGIDS, University of Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    The findings of the Impact of Climate Change on Drylands (ICCD) project were discussed during a workshop held on 26 and 27 April 2001. The aims of the workshop were to disseminate the findings of the ICCD project, create awareness of the possible effects of climate change and contribute to the dialogue on climate change research in West Africa. Both the workshop and the project were financed by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP), Centre Technique de Cooperation de Agricole et Rurale (CTA), Wageningen University (INREF), and Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies (AGIDS)

  16. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  17. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A. Engineering Report: Electromagnetic Interface (EMI)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), for the METSAT/METOP AMSU-A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the procedure and the test results of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Susceptibility, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) qualification test for the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) and the Meteorological Operation Platform (METOP) projects. The test was conducted in accordance with the approved EMI/EMC Test Plan/Procedure, Specification number AE-26151/5D. This document describes the EMI/EMC test performed by Aerojet and it is presented in the following manner: Section-1 contains introductory material and a brief summary of the test results. Section 2 contains more detailed descriptions of the test plan, test procedure, and test results for each type of EMI/EMC test conducted. Section 3 contains supplementary information that includes test data sheets, plots, and calculations collected during the qualification testing.

  18. Changes in students’ problem-solving strategies in a course that includes context-rich, multifaceted problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Ogilvie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Most students struggle when faced with complex and open-ended tasks because the strategies taught in schools and universities simply require finding and applying the correct formulae or strategy to answer well-structured, algorithmic problems. For students to develop their ability to solve ill-structured problems, they must first believe that standardized procedural approaches will not always be sufficient for solving engineering and scientific challenges. In this paper we document the range of beliefs university students have about problem solving. Students enrolled in a physics course submitted a written reflection both at the start and the end of the course on how they solve problems. We coded approximately 500 of these reflections for the presence of different problem-solving approaches. At the start of the semester over 50% of the students mention in written reflections that they use Rolodex equation matching, i.e., they solve problems by searching for equations that have the same variables as the knowns and unknowns. We then describe the extent to which students’ beliefs about physics problem solving change by the end of a semester-long course that emphasized problem solving via context-rich, multifaceted problems. The frequency of strategies such as the Rolodex method reduces only slightly by the end of the semester. However, there is an increase in students describing more expansive strategies within their reflections. In particular there is a large increase in describing the use of diagrams, and thinking about concepts first.

  19. Body and Soul: Sources of Social Change and Strategies of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Philip

    1982-01-01

    A critical theory of education, which moves the study of education away from cultural reproduction to cultural change, is discussed. The ideas of Gramsci, Trotsky, and the Frankfurt School are outlined and applied to the current cultural crises. A positive alternative to curriculum, to aid in the development of social change, is described. (CJ)

  20. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in Northern India: Impact and adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Singh, T.; Siderius, C.; Balakrishnan, S.; Mishra, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of clim

  1. Enrollment Management with Academic Portfolio Strategies: Preparing for Environment-Induced Changes in Student Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Michael B.

    1990-01-01

    A marketing model of enrollment management focusing on relationships between changes in the macroenvironment, target market student preferences, college marketing mix, and enrollment is presented. Application of the model illustrates how institutions can offset, enhance, or neutralize potential enrollment effects of job market changes through…

  2. The Relationship of Future Agricultural Extension Educators' Cognitive Styles and Change Strategies for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Robert; Irani, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The study expands reported here Extension education's knowledge regarding characteristics of potential change agents. Graduate students learning to become agricultural Extension educators were studied to determine their definition of a change agent. Participants' cognitive styles were assessed using Kirton's Adaptation-Innovation Inventory to…

  3. Program on ecosystem change and society: An international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, S.R.; Folke, C.; Norström, A.V.; Olsson, O.; Schultz, L.; Agarwal, B.; Balvanera, P.; Campbell, B.; Castilla, J.C.; Cramer, W.; DeFries, R.; Eyzaguirre, P.; Hughes, T.P.; Polasky, S.; Sanusi, Z.A.; Scholes, R.J.; Spierenburg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality a

  4. Acting locally, developing knowledge globally: a transitions perspective on designing climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grin, J.; Driessen, J.; Leroy, P.; van Vierssen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, from many perspectives and for many reasons, is a complex issue: scientifically, politically, and in terms of global justice. As such, climate change might be the global societal and political challenge of the 21st century. Dealing with it, either via mitigation or via adaptation, wi

  5. Conservation strategies to adapt to projected climate change impacts in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is potential for climate change to have negative effects on agricultural production via extreme events (Pruski and Nearing, 2002b; Zhang et al., 2012; Walthall 2012), and there is a need to implement conservation practices for climate change adaptation (Delgado et al. 2011; 2013). Recent repo...

  6. Farmer perceptions of climate change risk and associated on-farm management strategies in Vermont, northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Schattman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little research has been conducted on how agricultural producers in the northeastern United States conceptualize climate-related risk and how these farmers address risk through on-farm management strategies. Two years following Tropical Storm Irene, our team interviewed 15 farmers in order to investigate their perceptions of climate-related risk and how their decision-making was influenced by these perceptions. Our results show that Vermont farmers are concerned with both ecological and economic risk. Subthemes that emerged included geographic, topographic, and hydrological characteristics of farm sites; stability of land tenure; hydrological erosion; pest and disease pressure; market access; household financial stability; and floods. Farmers in our study believed that these risks are not new but that they are significantly intensified by climate change. Farmer responses were heavily focused on adaptation activities, with discussion of climate change mitigation activities notably absent. Psychological distance construal theory and hyperbolic discounting emerged as well-suited frames to explain why farmers reported adaptation activities but not mitigation strategies. Farmers will probably experience an increasing severity of climate-related impacts in the northeast region; therefore, information about climate-related risks coming from farmers’ personal experience should be integrated with forecasting data to help farmers plan effective adaptation strategies.

  7. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    strong upslope shifting of open grassland, chaparral and hardwood types, which may be initiated by increased fire frequencies, particularly where fires have not recently burned within normal fire recurrence interval departures (FRID). An evaluation of four fire management strategies (business as usual; resist change; foster orderly change; protect vital resources) across four combinations of future climate and fire frequency found that no single management strategy was uniformly successful in protecting critical resources across the range of future conditions examined. This limitation is somewhat driven by current management constraints on the amount of management available to resource managers, which suggests management will need to use a triage approach to application of proactive fire management strategies, wherein MOC landscape projections can be used in decision support.

  8. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  9. The fight against international terrorism and changes in the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marrero Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the the fight against international terrorism, as a new organising principle in U.S. foreign policy and security policy, has conditioned and modified the American conception of and strategy for combatting nuclear arms proliferation. On the one hand, it analyses the concepts of “axis of evil” or “rogue states” as instruments of automatic and forced connection between international terrorism and nuclear armsproliferating states. On the other hand, it also deals with the changes in American nonproliferation and disarmament strategy, characterised by a distrust towards international cooperation and a clear preference for using means of a unilateral nature, which challenge, and even scorn, international institutions and the rules of international law in this area.

  10. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    , the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies......Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009...

  11. The changing epidemiology of Asian digestive cancers: From etiologies and incidences to preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Ying; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2015-12-01

    Digestive cancers are a major health burden in Asia. Due to the presence of similar "infection-inflammation-cancer" pathways in the carcinogenesis process, eradicating infective pathogens or attenuating relevant inflammatory signaling pathways may reduce digestive cancer incidences and improve patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to review the recent evidence regarding the epidemiology of three major digestive cancers in Asia: stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer. We focused on the incidence trends, the major etiologies, and especially the potential preventive strategies.

  12. TEACHING STRATEGIES IN THE MSc PROGRAME IN CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESTORATION ON DEGRADED LAND

    OpenAIRE

    Arraiza Bermudez-Cañete, Maria Paz; Lopez Alvarez, Jose Vicente; Santamarta, J.C.; Loras, F.; Hernández, L.E.; Neris, Joany

    2012-01-01

    UPM is a leader on landslide assessment and environmental restoration, as well as in waste management. The study of climate change and degraded land requires innovative techniques in teaching that will be analyzed and discussed in the following paper.

  13. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration.

  14. Introduction to the symposium theme : climate change in fragmented landscapes: can we develop spatial adaptation strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Verboom, J.; Vos, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that by increasing the concentration of greenhouse gasses, man has a discernible influence on climate, and this is expected to be a long-term phenomenon affecting the environment in the forthcoming decades or even centuries. Since climate is a key driving force for ecological processes, climate change is likely to exert considerable impact on ecosystems. Since nature policy worldwide is often based upon policy plans which do not ...

  15. Robust Organizational Fitness for Reinventing Strategy in Rapidly Changing Industry Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Michael; Voelpel, Sven C.; Leibold, Marius

    2003-01-01

    In fast-changing industry landscapes, companies are often engaged in both adaptive (reactive) and inventive (proactive, newly-shaping) change processes, and these require different types of organizational fitness capabilities. Our research of more than a decade conducted in a wide range of industries (See "About our Research") reveal that many companies are predominantly focused on past successes and internal difficulties, and do not possess the necessary robust capabilities to also inventive...

  16. Measurements and simulations on position dependencies in the response of single PWO crystals and a prototype for the $\\overline{P}ANDA$ EMC

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Daniel Andreas

    The PANDA experiment, which will be located at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, aims at the study of strong interaction within the charm sector via antiproton- proton collisions. An essential component of the PANDA detector to achieve the ambitious physics goals is the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC). Reason for this is particularly its high detection efficiency for photons and electrons over a large dynamic range, since most of the expected physics channels are accompanied by secondary photons. The EMC is based on second generation lead tungstate scintillator crystals and thus features a very compact design and improved performance. To guarantee a homogeneous and precise energy and momentum response, an exact knowledge on the incident particle position is mandatory. In the scope of this work, non-uniformities in the light yield of single lead tungstate crystals with tapered geometry are investigated. This effect was studied with the SLitrani simulation package in comparison to a series ...

  17. Strategy Dependent Swimming Dynamics Change among a Predatory Algae Species with Different Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Adolf, Jason; Place, Allen

    2008-11-01

    Digital holographic microscopic cinematography is used for measuring the 3D, time resolved, swimming behavior of toxic and non-toxic strains the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum. We focus on the response of predators of the same species, but with different predation strategy, to the presence of prey, Storeatula major. Experiments are performed in a 3x3 mm cuvette, at densities extending to 100,000 cells/ml. Holograms are recorded at 60fps and at 20X magnification. In each case, we simultaneously track 200-500 cells in the 3mm deep sample, at a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4x2 μm. We show that responses are largely dependent on the predation strategy. K. veneficum 2064, a toxic mixotroph, slows down and decreases the helix radius and clusters around the prey. Conversely, MD5, a non-toxic, autotrophic-like strain is completely oblivious to prey. Strain 1974, which is toxic and twice as motile, shows heterotrophic-like responses with characteristics of an active hunter. Also, on going spectral analysis of the 3-D motion provides quantitative insight on the swimming dynamics of microorganisms.

  18. Changes in postural strategy during exercise against perturbation using the balance exercise assist robot: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Norihide; Tanabe, Shigeo; Hirano, Satoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kawabata, Jumpei; Imoto, Daisuke; Mikami, Yasuo; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify the changes in postural strategy by evaluating leg joint motion and muscle activity before and after continuous exercise against perturbation using the Balance Exercise Assist Robot (BEAR). [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy subjects (male 7, female 2; mean age 23 ± 1 years) performed a postural perturbation coping exercise only. In the task, the robot leaned and moved automatically. Participants were instructed to maintain their default upright position and they performed the exercise five times in a row (1 minute/trial). Changes in total movement distance, range of motion of each joint (hip, knee, ankle), and mean activity of each muscle for the first and fifth trials were compared. [Results] The total movement distance of BEAR and range of motion in the hip decreased significantly from the first trial to the last trial. No change in muscle activity was observed in the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior or gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] The results for exercise against perturbation using BEAR in this study suggest that BEAR may be a promising method to improve the ankle strategy for maintaining a standing posture. PMID:28210030

  19. Smart and Resilient Cities. A Systemic Approach for Developing Cross-sectoral Strategies in the Face of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is considered one of the main environmental issues challenging contemporary cities. Meanwhile, urban development patterns and the growth of urban population represent the main contributors to climate change, affecting the total energy consumptions and the related greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, a breakthrough in current urban development patterns is required to counterbalance the climate-related issues.This study focuses on the Smart City and Resilient City concepts; in detail, based on the review of existing literature, it analyzes the synergies between the two concepts, highlighting how the Smart City concept is more and more widely interpreted as a process addressed to make cities “more livable and resilient and, hence, able to respond quicker to new challenges” (Kunzmann, 2014. Nevertheless, current initiatives to improve cities’ smartness and resilience in the European cities are very fragmented and operational tools capable to support multi-objective strategies are still at an early stage. To fill this gap, embracing a systemic perspective, the main characteristics of a smart and resilient urban system have been identified and arranged into a conceptual model. The latter represents a preliminary step for the development of an operational tool capable to guide planners and decision-makers in carrying out multi-objective strategies addressed to enhance the response capacities of complex urban systems in the face of climate change.

  20. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  1. Design and Construction of EMC Lab for Power System%电力系统电磁兼容实验室设计与建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文亮; 陆家榆; 赵鹏; 赵明敏; 杨志超; 李学津; 黄幼松

    2013-01-01

    Technical features of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) lab newly-built in Beijing UHVDC base is introduced. Considering such properties of power sector as large size, high-voltage and high-power, through the design of technical characteristics and test ability of test site the optimized configuration and integration of test equipments and test system are performed. A 10m semi-anechoic chamber (SAC), and then a 3m fully anechoic chamber (FAC) and five test chambers are built. In the newly-built EMC lab all routine tests in the fields of electromagnetic conduction interference, radiation interference and electromagnetic immunity can be carried out. The newly-built EMC lab is of international advanced level and can meet the demand of power sector and EMC standard home and abroad.%  介绍了新建于北京特高压直流试验基地电磁兼容实验室的技术特性。结合电力行业大尺寸、高电压、大功率的特点,通过对测试场地技术特性和试验能力的设计与建设,对测试设备和测试系统的优化配置与集成,新建成1座10 m法半电波暗室、1座3 m法全电波暗室和5间屏蔽室。新建实验室可以进行电磁传导干扰、辐射干扰和电磁抗扰度的全部常规试验。新建实验室达到国际先进水平,能够满足电力行业、国内和国际电磁兼容标准与要求。

  2. 计算电磁学在电磁兼容仿真中的应用%Application of Computational Electromagnetic in EMC Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧

    2011-01-01

    由于航空飞行器上用电设备电磁兼容问题频发及其复杂性,用电设备的电磁兼容设计就显得尤为重要.为此,提出了利用计算电磁学理论对用电设备的电磁兼容性进行分析,针对系统中不同电磁兼容问题以及不同数值计算方法的自身特点,选择适用的数值方法对问题进行仿真计算.最终实现在产品的设计初期,就能够对其电磁兼容性进行预测和评估,满足其电磁兼容性的要求.因此,采用计算电磁学进行仿真分析可为解决用电设备电磁兼容问题提供有效的手段和途径.%The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem of aircraft electric equipment is complex and happened frequently, the electromagnetic compatibility design of electric equipment is particularly important. A technique that using computational electromagnetic theory to solve problem of EMC is presented. According to the system of electromagnetic compatibility issues and its own charactenstics of different numerical methods, the applicable methods are selected to solve the different problems. Finally, prediction and assessment can be realized in the stage of production design, and the EMC requirement of electric equipment can be fulfilled. So, the computational electromagnetic provides effective means and channels to solve the problems of aircraFt EMC.

  3. Full Monte Carlo and measurement-based overall performance assessment of improved clinical implementation of eMC algorithm with emphasis on lower energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Jarkko; Kapanen, Mika; Hyödynmaa, Simo

    2016-06-01

    New version 13.6.23 of the electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm in Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system has a model for 4MeV electron beam and some general improvements for dose calculation. This study provides the first overall accuracy assessment of this algorithm against full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for electron beams from 4MeV to 16MeV with most emphasis on the lower energy range. Beams in a homogeneous water phantom and clinical treatment plans were investigated including measurements in the water phantom. Two different material sets were used with full MC: (1) the one applied in the eMC algorithm and (2) the one included in the Eclipse™ for other algorithms. The results of clinical treatment plans were also compared to those of the older eMC version 11.0.31. In the water phantom the dose differences against the full MC were mostly less than 3% with distance-to-agreement (DTA) values within 2mm. Larger discrepancies were obtained in build-up regions, at depths near the maximum electron ranges and with small apertures. For the clinical treatment plans the overall dose differences were mostly within 3% or 2mm with the first material set. Larger differences were observed for a large 4MeV beam entering curved patient surface with extended SSD and also in regions of large dose gradients. Still the DTA values were within 3mm. The discrepancies between the eMC and the full MC were generally larger for the second material set. The version 11.0.31 performed always inferiorly, when compared to the 13.6.23.

  4. The delegated authority model misused as a strategy of disengagement in the case of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries De Smet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterisation of anthropogenic climate change as a violation of basic human rights is gaining wide recognition. Many people believe that tackling this problem is exclusively the job of governments and supranational institutions (especially the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This argument can be traced back to the delegated authority model, according to which the legitimacy of political institutions depends on their ability to solve problems that are difficult to address at the individual level. Since the institutions created to tackle climate change fail to do so, their legitimacy is under great pressure and can only be saved by considerations of feasibility. We argue that democratically elected representatives are able to claim that a more robust climate policy is unfeasible, but only because the mandate we as citizens grant them is very restrictive. Instead of shifting responsibility for the thoroughly inadequate response to climate change fully to political representatives, we should highlight the failure of the political community as a whole to fulfil its responsibility at the input-side of the delegation of authority. When individual voters fail to fulfil the minimal obligation to at least vote for parties that explicitly advocate robust climate policies, they cannot hide behind the delegated authority argument, but should accept their complicity in the massive violations of basic human rights caused by the failure to successfully tackle climate change.

  5. Nursing entrepreneurship: motivators, strategies and possibilities for professional advancement and health system change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    In Canada, as well as internationally, efficiency-focused organizational restructuring in healthcare has resulted in stressful job change for nurses, although nurses continue to work in a system that values technology-based, physician-provided services. Employed nurses have had to participate in organizational activities that undermine their professional values and goals. Nursing entrepreneurship presents an opportunity to explore nursing's professional potential in nursing practice that is uniquely independent. In this study, a focused ethnographic approach was used to explore the experiences of self-employed nurses, who see themselves as leaders in advancing the profession of nursing and its contribution to healthcare. Key themes in the findings include the responses of self-employed nurses to health system change, expanded roles for nurses, the consequences of this non-traditional approach to nursing work and the possibilities for change that arise from nursing entrepreneurship. This research has implications for healthcare policy, professional advocacy and nursing education.

  6. A Matter of Perspective - E and P Strategy in a Changing World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Phill

    1998-12-31

    This presentation states that the exploration and production industry sees many new opportunities, as a result of political changes and its own expanding capabilities. There is increasing competition for scarce resources - people, tools, technology, capital and public support. The industry must meet pressing challenges, including low oil prices and changing societal expectations. Investors seek predictable terms that are appropriate for both global and local conditions. They have to assess the risks, value the opportunities, consider whether they have the necessary resources, and satisfy themselves they can maintain standards. Their choices are constrained by economic conditions and commercial realities

  7. Changing value chain strategies of Danish clothing and fashion companies, 1970-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Jensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last four decades, the clothing industry has seen one of the most radical, global transformations of any industry, and Western European clothing companies have been put under strain. To the surprise of industry observers and academics, however, Denmark continues to hold expansive and profitable companies within this industry. Both the trade itself and industry observers see the present success of Danish fashion as the result of Danish pioneering in international outsourcing. The article challenges the commonly told story, arguing that the present success should be seen as the result of new companies entering the sector rather than the transformation of old ones. The article demonstrates that value chain strategies are constantly in the making and successful ones rarely remain competitive for long.

  8. Global biogeochemical cycles: Studies of interaction and change, some views on the strategy of approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, B.

    1984-01-01

    The global biosphere is an exceedingly complex system. To gain an understanding of its structure and dynamic features, it is necessary to increase knowledge about the detailed processes, but also to develop models of how global interactions take place. Attempts to analyze the detailed physical, chemical and biological processes need, in this context, to be guided by an advancement of understanding of the latter. It is necessary to develop a strategy of data gathering that serves both these purposes simultaneously. climate research during the last decade may serve as a useful example of how to approach this difficult problem in a systematic way. Large programs for data collection may easily become rigid and costly. While realizing the necessity of a systematic and long lasting effort of observing the atmosphere, the oceans, land and life on Earth, such a program must remain flexible enough to permit the modifications and even sometimes improvisations that are necessary to maintain a viable program.

  9. Northwest regional climate hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment draws from a large bank of information developed by scientists and extension specialists in the Northwest to describe where we need to focus when dealing with climate risks to working landscapes. The changing climate has many secondary effects, such as irrigation water loss, increase...

  10. A method to explore social response for sustainable water management strategies under changing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, Astrid; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Valkering, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Society aims at sustainable water management, which means that it is effective (meeting targets for people, planet and profit), robust (able to cope with uncertainties) and flexible (easily adaptable to changing conditions). The past has demonstrated that extreme weather events and their impacts are

  11. Adaptive strategy changes as a function of task demands : a study of car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, F; Meijman, T; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    When drivers perform additional tasks while driving, research shows conflicting results: primary driving performance may deteriorate but adaptive changes such as reducing driving speed have also been noted. We hypothesized that the nature of the secondary task may be important: drivers may give more

  12. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotype fitness and various control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, P.N.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated v

  13. Towards strategies to adapt to pressures on safety of fresh produce due to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Jacxsens, L.; Boekel, van T.; Luning, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a Delphi study aimed to generate insights from a systems perspective about responding to climate change in terms of food safety of fresh produce. The study identified pressures to food safety of fresh produce at primary production, related to contamination of

  14. ICES and PICES strategies for coordinating research on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The social, economic, and ecological consequences of projected climate change on fish and fisheries are issues of global concern. In 2012, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) established a Strategic Initiative...

  15. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotypic fitness and various control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, P.N.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Arendonk, J.A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated v

  16. Small, medium and large scale strategies: cases of social response and change in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    2005-01-01

    Greenland has experienced several socio-economic shifts during the 20th century, characterised by interations between natural systems, climate change and the socio-economic and socio-technical systemm of resource exploitation. The focus is on the socio-economic characteristics of the two recent...

  17. A Framework and Strategies for Advancing Change and Innovation in Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Conrad, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding variation in institutional missions, two-year colleges are the gateway to postsecondary education for the majority of college and university students in this country. As institutions of choice for many and institutions of necessity for others, two-year institutions are constantly challenged to meet the rapidly changing needs of…

  18. The University of Colorado Puebla Experience: A Study in Changing Attitudes and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Philip; Escamilla, Kathy; Aragon, Lorenso

    2010-01-01

    Students participated in a 2-week intensive program in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The experience included university course work, cultural field trips, and teaching and observing in Mexican elementary schools. It also included many opportunities to interact and participate in daily life in Puebla. The study examined changes in attitudes about…

  19. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in northern India: impacts and adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Eddy; Singh, Tanya; Siderius, Christian; Balakrishnan, Sneha; Mishra, Arabinda

    2013-12-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of climate change on diarrhoea as a representative of a waterborne infectious disease affecting human health in the Ganges basin of northern India. A conceptual framework is presented for climate exposure response relationships based on studies from different countries, as empirical studies and appropriate epidemiological data sets for India are lacking. Four climate variables are included: temperature, increased/extreme precipitation, decreased precipitation/droughts and relative humidity. Applying the conceptual framework to the latest regional climate projections for northern India shows increases between present and future (2040s), varying spatially from no change to an increase of 21% in diarrhoea incidences, with 13.1% increase on average for the Ganges basin. We discuss three types of measures against diarrhoeal disease: reactive actions, preventive actions and national policy options. Preventive actions have the potential to counterbalance this expected increase. However, given the limited progress in reducing incidences over the past decade consorted actions and effective implementation and integration of existing policies are needed.

  20. Organization Change and Social Organizing Strategies: Employee-Initiated Organization Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Rod Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) employees create formal and informal groups within workplaces to provide social support and to seek organizational change at their places of employment. I present a case study of a coalition of these groups working together to attain domestic partner benefits within a large three-campus…

  1. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts...

  2. Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

  3. Utilizing the Optimum Start/Stop Control Strategy for Heating Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    b, block number) EMCS, energy conservation, energy management, single board computer , optimum start/stop and runtime mode control strategies 0 A BS...I 13 1 Appendix MEMCS HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE HARDWARE (see Figure 2b) Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is a single - board computer made by INTEL...memory * One multimodule connector (ISBX bus) One reason the INTEL Single Board Computer products were selected is that a development system purchased

  4. Land management strategies for improving water quality in biomass production under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Miae; Wu, May

    2017-03-01

    The Corn Belt states are the largest corn-production areas in the United States because of their fertile land and ideal climate. This attribute is particularly important as the region also plays a key role in the production of bioenergy feedstock. This study focuses on potential change in streamflow, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus due to climate change and land management practices in the South Fork Iowa River (SFIR) watershed, Iowa. The watershed is covered primarily with annual crops (corn and soybeans). With cropland conversion to switchgrass, stover harvest, and implementation of best management practices (BMPs) (such as establishing riparian buffers and applying cover crops), significant reductions in nutrients were observed in the SFIR watershed under historical climate and future climate scenarios. Under a historical climate scenario, suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) at the outlet point of the SFIR watershed could decrease by up to 56.7%, 32.0%, and 16.5%, respectively, compared with current land use when a portion of the cropland is converted to switchgrass and a cover crop is in place. Climate change could cause increases of 9.7% in SS, 4.1% in N, and 7.2% in P compared to current land use. Under future climate scenarios, nutrients including SS, N, and P were reduced through land management and practices and BMPs by up to 54.0% (SS), 30.4% (N), and 7.1% (P). Water footprint analysis further revealed changes in green water that are highly dependent on land management scenarios. The study highlights the versatile approaches in landscape management that are available to address climate change adaptation and acknowledged the complex nature of different perspectives in water sustainability. Further study involving implementing landscape design and management by using long-term monitoring data from field to watershed is necessary to verify the findings and move toward watershed-specific regional programs for climate adaptation.

  5. Modeling and distributed gain scheduling strategy for load frequency control in smart grids with communication topology changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Xiaoping P; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the modeling and distributed control problems for the load frequency control (LFC) in a smart grid. In contrast with existing works, we consider more practical and real scenarios, where the communication topology of the smart grid changes because of either link failures or packet losses. These topology changes are modeled as a time-varying communication topology matrix. By using this matrix, a new closed-loop power system model is proposed to integrate the communication topology changes into the dynamics of a physical power system. The globally asymptotical stability of this closed-loop power system is analyzed. A distributed gain scheduling LFC strategy is proposed to compensate for the potential degradation of dynamic performance (mean square errors of state vectors) of the power system under communication topology changes. In comparison to conventional centralized control approaches, the proposed method can improve the robustness of the smart grid to the variation of the communication network as well as to reduce computation load. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed gain scheduling approach is capable to improve the robustness of the smart grid to communication topology changes.

  6. Peri-urban areas and food-energy-water nexus sustainability and resilience strategies in the age of climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Magoni, Marcello; Menoni, Scira

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the nexus among food, energy and water in peri-urban areas, demonstrating how relevant this nexus is for environmental sustainability. In particular it examines the effective management of the nexus in the face of the risks and trade-offs of mitigation policies, and as a mean to create resilience to climate change. The book delineates strategies and actions necessary to develop and protect our natural resources and improve the functionality of the nexus, such as: integrated management of the major resources that characterize the metabolism of a city, stronger coordination among stakeholders who often weight differently the services that are relevant to their individual concerns, integration of efforts towards environmental protection, adaptation to and prevention of climate change and disaster risks mitigation.

  7. Evaluating the demand for carbon sequestration in olive grove soils as a strategy toward mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Entrena, Macario; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Gómez-Limón, José A; Espinosa-Goded, María; Castro-Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-12-15

    In this paper we present an estimate of the economic value of carbon sequestration in olive grove soils derived from the implementation of different agricultural management systems. Carbon sequestration is considered jointly with other environmental co-benefits, such as enhanced erosion prevention and increased biodiversity. The estimates have been obtained using choice experiments and show that there is a significant demand from society for these environmental services. From a policy perspective, an agri-environmental scheme that delivers the highest level of each environmental service would be valued by society at 121 Euros per hectare. If we focus on carbon sequestration, each ton of CO(2) would be valued at 17 Euros. These results show that there is scope to include agricultural soil carbon sequestration in climate change mitigation strategies and to provide guidance for setting payments for agri-environmental schemes promoting soil management changes.

  8. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and

  9. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  10. Use of an Innovative Personality-Mindset Profiling Tool to Guide Culture-Change Strategies among Different Healthcare Worker Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lindsay Grayson

    Full Text Available Important culture-change initiatives (e.g. improving hand hygiene compliance are frequently associated with variable uptake among different healthcare worker (HCW categories. Inherent personality differences between these groups may explain change uptake and help improve future intervention design.We used an innovative personality-profiling tool (ColourGrid® to assess personality differences among standard HCW categories at five large Australian hospitals using two data sources (HCW participant surveys [PS] and generic institution-wide human resource [HR] data to: a compare the relative accuracy of these two sources; b identify differences between HCW groups and c use the observed profiles to guide design strategies to improve uptake of three clinically-important initiatives (improved hand hygiene, antimicrobial stewardship and isolation procedure adherence.Results from 34,243 HCWs (HR data and 1045 survey participants (PS data suggest that HCWs were different from the general population, displaying more individualism, lower power distance, less uncertainty avoidance and greater cynicism about advertising messages. HR and PS data were highly concordant in identifying differences between the three key HCW categories (doctors, nursing/allied-health, support services and predicting appropriate implementation strategies. Among doctors, the data suggest that key messaging should differ between full-time vs part-time (visiting senior medical officers (SMO, VMO and junior hospital medical officers (HMO, with SMO messaging focused on evidence-based compliance, VMO initiatives emphasising structured mandatory controls and prestige loss for non-adherence, and for HMOs focusing on leadership opportunity and future career risk for non-adherence.Compared to current standardised approaches, targeted interventions based on personality differences between HCW categories should result in improved infection control-related culture-change uptake. Personality

  11. More Water Resources but Less for Irrigation: Adaptation Strategy of the Yellow River in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q.; Yin, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow River is the primary source of freshwater to the northern China. Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the river basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Development of adaptation strategies would have significant implications for water and food security of this region. In this study, the outputs of multiple hydrological models forced with the bias-corrected climatic variables from multiple global climate models were used to assess the change in renewable water resources of the river basin in the 21st century. The outputs of multiple crop models were used to assess the change in agricultural water demand. The domestic and industrial water demands were estimated based on the future socio-economic conditions under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Besides basic ecosystem needs for water which must be met, the water use in domestic and industrial sectors is considered to have a higher priority than the agricultural water use when water is insufficient. The results show that the renewable water resources of the basin would increase as global mean temperature increases while the water demand would grow much more rapidly, largely due to water demand increase in domestic and industrial sectors. In most of the sub-basins of the Yellow River basin, the available water resources can not sustain all the water use sectors starting from the next a few decades. As more water resources would be appropriated by domestic and industrial sectors, a part of irrigated area had to be converted to rainfed agriculture which led to a large reduction in food production. This study highlights the linked water and food security in a changing environment and suggests that the trade-off should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  12. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonova, K. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  13. Win-stay lose-shift strategy in formation changes in football

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Managerial decision making is likely to be a dominant determinant of performance of teams in team sports. Here we use Japanese and German football data to investigate correlates between temporal patterns of formation changes across matches and match results. We found that individual teams and managers both showed win-stay lose-shift behavior, a type of reinforcement learning. In other words, they tended to stick to the current formation after a win and switch to a different formation after a loss. In addition, formation changes did not affect the results of succeeding matches in most cases. The results indicate that a swift implementation of a new formation in the win-stay lose-shift manner may not be a successful managerial rule of thumb.

  14. [Strategy changes in the treatment of ureteral lithiasis and nephritic colic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Enguita, C; Calahorra Fernández, F J; García de la Peña, E; Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Vela Navarrete, R

    1996-04-01

    Since lithotripters were first introduced to the clinical practice in 1980, extracorporeal shock wave lithotrite (ESWL) has been universally recognized as the first choice to resolve urinary tract lithiasis, ureteral calculi being the most susceptible lithiasic site for controversy. The urologist approach to the lithiasic patient has changed mainly as compared to that of ureteral calculi. These profound changes translate an undeniable advance of the extracorporeal procedures versus those of endourology, basically based on ESWL low morbidity. In those cases when lithiasis is found in a situation of nephritic colic, there is a real therapeutical chance with ESWL, thus leading to drug therapy losing its major role. We present 768 patients with ureteral lithiasis (1991-1994), 20-25% of which were examined for a nephritic colic. Once the colic situation is overcome in all instances, 35% will require a new lithotrite for complete lithiasic resolution. Overall, our rate of successful ureteral lithiasis resolution is 97% (30% need repeated session).

  15. The National Strategy and the National Action Plan on Climatic Change

    OpenAIRE

    Braºoveanu Florica

    2011-01-01

    The environment si a component of human life, being indisposable to their life, as they perform their activities in the environment. It is the vital element of human life. This article tries to analyze the evolution of the environment, the global heating and the most important changes known by the environment. The reason we chose this subject is to present the evolution and the level of global warming and the impact it has on human life.

  16. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational

  17. Gender specific reproductive strategies of an arctic key species (Boreogadus saida) and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrgang, Jasmine; Varpe, Oystein; Korshunova, Ekaterina; Murzina, Svetlana; Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Vieweg, Ireen; Berge, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing at an unprecedented rate. What consequences this may have on the Arctic marine ecosystem depends to a large degree on how its species will respond both directly to elevated temperatures and more indirectly through ecological interactions. But despite an alarming recent warming of the Arctic with accompanying sea ice loss, reports evaluating ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic remain sparse. Here, based upon a large-scale field study, we present basic new knowledge regarding the life history traits for one of the most important species in the entire Arctic, the polar cod (Boreogadus saida). Furthermore, by comparing regions of contrasting climatic influence (domains), we present evidence as to how its growth and reproductive success is impaired in the warmer of the two domains. As the future Arctic is predicted to resemble today's Atlantic domains, we forecast changes in growth and life history characteristics of polar cod that will lead to alteration of its role as an Arctic keystone species. This will in turn affect community dynamics and energy transfer in the entire Arctic food chain.

  18. Gender specific reproductive strategies of an arctic key species (Boreogadus saida and implications of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Nahrgang

    Full Text Available The Arctic climate is changing at an unprecedented rate. What consequences this may have on the Arctic marine ecosystem depends to a large degree on how its species will respond both directly to elevated temperatures and more indirectly through ecological interactions. But despite an alarming recent warming of the Arctic with accompanying sea ice loss, reports evaluating ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic remain sparse. Here, based upon a large-scale field study, we present basic new knowledge regarding the life history traits for one of the most important species in the entire Arctic, the polar cod (Boreogadus saida. Furthermore, by comparing regions of contrasting climatic influence (domains, we present evidence as to how its growth and reproductive success is impaired in the warmer of the two domains. As the future Arctic is predicted to resemble today's Atlantic domains, we forecast changes in growth and life history characteristics of polar cod that will lead to alteration of its role as an Arctic keystone species. This will in turn affect community dynamics and energy transfer in the entire Arctic food chain.

  19. Changes in root architecture under elevated concentrations of CO₂ and nitrogen reflect alternate soil exploration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidler, Katilyn V; Taylor, Benton N; Strand, Allan E; Cooper, Emily R; Schönholz, Marcos; Pritchard, Seth G

    2015-02-01

    Predicting the response of fine roots to increased atmospheric CO₂ concentration has important implications for carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Root architecture is known to play an important role in how trees acquire soil resources in changing environments. However, the effects of elevated CO₂ on the fine-root architecture of trees remain unclear. We investigated the architectural response of fine roots exposed to 14 yr of CO₂ enrichment and 6 yr of nitrogen (N) fertilization in a Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) forest. Root traits reflecting geometry, topology and uptake function were measured on intact fine-root branches removed from soil monoliths and the litter layer. CO₂ enrichment resulted in the development of a fine-root pool that was less dichotomous and more exploratory under N-limited conditions. The per cent mycorrhizal colonization did not differ among treatments, suggesting that root growth and acclimation to elevated CO₂ were quantitatively more important than increased mycorrhizal associations. Our findings emphasize the importance of architectural plasticity in response to environmental change and suggest that changes in root architecture may allow trees to effectively exploit larger volumes of soil, thereby pre-empting progressive nutrient limitations.

  20. Algorithmic strategies for adapting to environmental changes in 802.11 location fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous and accurate indoor positioning represents a key capability of an infrastructure that enables indoor location-based services. At the same time, such positioning has yet to be achieved. Much research uses commercial, off-the-shelf 802.11 (Wi-Fi) hardware for indoor positioning. In parti......Ubiquitous and accurate indoor positioning represents a key capability of an infrastructure that enables indoor location-based services. At the same time, such positioning has yet to be achieved. Much research uses commercial, off-the-shelf 802.11 (Wi-Fi) hardware for indoor positioning....... In particular, the dominant fingerprinting technique uses a database (called a radio map) of manually collected Wi-Fi signal strengths and is able to achieve positioning accuracies that enable a wide range of location-based services. However, a major weakness of fingerprinting occurs when changes occur...... in the indoor environment that cause the signal propagation patterns and thus signal strength to change. Under such circumstances, a radio map collected at one time is unable to offer accurate positioning at all times. We propose a data-centric approach to achieving accurate positioning in changing environments...