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Sample records for change emc strategy

  1. Analysing Company Strategy: The Case of EMC Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Wei Lun, William

    2007-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of David's [41] Comprehensive Strategic Management Model, there exist a number of challenges in the application of the model in practical strategic management cases. The main objective of this paper is to research for an improved model that can be used in conducting an executive level strategic planning effectively and efficiently, and test the methodology using EMC Corporation case. A practical strategic planning model for the top management, called an Ex...

  2. Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. EMC Program Emerqency!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2009-01-01

    @@ On June 15,2009,at the 2009 China Beijing International Energy Saving and Environmental Protection High-level Forum-EMC and Energy Conservation Service Industry,there were 12 enterprises participating in the contract signing ceremony for EMC programs.All the contracted energy conservation companies are member units of Beijing Commission for Promotion of Energy Saving and Environmental Protection(Beijing CPPESEP).And the total amount of cooperation intention is up to tens of millions RMB.It seemed that the EMC mechanism oriented by the market and serving the energy conservation was thriving again.So what is the EMC?

  4. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  5. Introduction to EMC

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John

    1997-01-01

    This is the clear guide for non-specialists to electromagnetic compatability (EMC), the effects of electromagnetic radiation and the European EMC Directive which is now in force. This book helps by explaining the basic principles of EMC, how it may be controlled in practice through filtering, shielding, appropriate printed circuit board design, and other means. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and surge protection are discussed. The growing concern about the effects of electromagnetic waves and fields on health are examined in detail.This introduction provides beginners, technical and

  6. EMC Part Ⅱ Regulatory Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnWong

    2005-01-01

    As described in the Part I, the goal of electromagnetic compatibility, or EMC, is to design electronic systems that are electromagnetically compatible with their environment. EMC requirements exist so that electronic systems designers have a set of guidelines that explain the limits of what is considered electromagnetically compatible. There is not, however, one allencompassing set of EMC guidelines. Instead, EMC guidelines are created by individual product manufacturers,

  7. EMC in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tihanyi, Laszlo

    1995-01-01

    Electronics professionals will find this book invaluable when designing power equipment, because it describes in detail how to cope with the problem of electromagnetic interference. The author shows how to meet the exacting US and European EMC standards for conducted emissions.The book includes a wide range of EMI analysis techniques. An important focus is on the energy content of interference transient signals (traditional analysis concentrates on amplitude and frequency). This provides a more accurate picture of the EMI situation. For those who do not want or need detailed analysis technique

  8. A Globalized Trend Towards EMC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Osamu

    The concept of electromagnetic environment and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is briefly described. A globalized trend in the 21th century EMC technology is reviewed from the following point of view : EMI (electromagnetic interference) reduction, immunity improvement, human safety evaluation of elecrtomagnetic fields and standardization of EMC measurement.

  9. An Architectural Strategy for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond M., Ed.

    This volume presents the proceedings of the preconference institute of the Architecture for Public Libraries Committee of Library Administration Division's Building and Equipment section. The keynote address raises questions about architecture in a strategy for change. The remaining 14 articles and presentations are divided into five sections:…

  10. Market Strategies for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still reflect the political, non-market components. Using empirical information from the largest multinational companies worldwide, this article examines current market responses, focusing on the drivers (threats and opportunities) and the actions being taken by companies to address climate change. It also develops a typology of climate strategies that addresses the market dimensions, covering both the aim (strategic intent) and the degree of cooperation (form of organisation). The aim turns out to be either innovation or compensation, while the organisational arrangements to reach this objective can be oriented at the company level (internal), at companies' own supply chain (vertical) or at cooperation with other companies (competitors or companies in other sectors - horizontal). The typology can assist managers in deciding about the strategic option(s) they want to choose regarding climate change, also based on the insights offered by the paper about the current state of activities of other companies worldwide.

  11. Nuclear force and the EMC effect

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Wang; Xurong Chen

    2015-01-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy contribution. This phenomenological relationship is used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron and to predict the EMC slopes $|dR_{EMC}/dx|$ of various nuclei. We further investigate the correlations be...

  12. EMC A mapping for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    González Arteche, Fernando José; Sharp, P

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the four high-energy physics experiments for the LHC. Describing the electromagnetic (EM) environment of CMS is of major importance for determining and solving problems related to electromagnetic interference, grounding and shielding. This thesis addresses the EMC studies conducted for the CMS experiment to define the baseline of the future CMS EMC policy. The EMC study has been focused on the power supply distribution system. For that purpose, a simplified scheme of the power supply system has been used in this research work to address EMC studies. These studies are mainly focused on the quantification of the FEE sensitivity to conductive noise coupled through the input/output cables, the noise generated by power supplies and the noise propagation effects present in the detector. Also, the magnitude and effects of transient signals disturbing the power supply system are introduced.

  13. EMC effect: asymptotic freedom with nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General features of the EMC effect are discussed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics as expressed via the operator product expansion and asymptotic freedom. These techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the target dependence. 22 references

  14. Nuclear force and the EMC effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE obtained from nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy contribution. This phenomenological relationship is used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC effect on deuteron and to predict the EMC slopes |dREMC/dx| of various nuclei. We further investigate the correlations between RSIE and other quantities which are related to the EMC effect. The observed correlations among RSIE, EMC slope and SRC ratio R2NNtotal/Nnp(S13 imply that the local nuclear environment drives the modification of quark distributions.

  15. Nuclear force and the EMC effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Xurong

    2015-04-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy contribution. This phenomenological relationship is used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron and to predict the EMC slopes | dREMC / dx | of various nuclei. We further investigate the correlations between RSIE and other quantities which are related to the EMC effect. The observed correlations among RSIE, EMC slope and SRC ratio R2NNtotal /Nnp(S31) imply that the local nuclear environment drives the modification of quark distributions.

  16. Nuclear Scaling and the EMC Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Higinbotham, D.W.; J. Gomez; Piasetzky, E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of recent EMC effect measurements and nuclear scaling measurements have both been attributed to local nuclear density effects and not properties of the bulk nuclear system. This lead us to the phenomenological observation that the ratio of the slopes in the 0.3 1 nuclear scaling plateaus. Using this correlation, we developed a phenomenological relation which reproduces the general trends and features of the EMC effect for nuclei fro...

  17. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  18. STRATEGY OF KM-ORIENTED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Pryimak

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the problems of formation and realization of KM-oriented strategy organizational changes in modern business. It gives the practical recommendations concerning engineering technique of communication and technological space of knowledge management and adaptation of company's strategy to KM-oriented organizational changes.

  19. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that...... enable adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach...... is based on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant...

  20. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that...... enable adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach...... is based on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant...

  1. EMC in power electronics and PCB design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chentian

    This dissertation consists of two parts. Part I is about Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in power electronics and part II is about the Maximum Radiated Electromagnetic Emissions Calculator (MREMC), which is a software tool for EMC in printed circuit board (PCB) design. Switched-mode power converters can be significant sources of electromagnetic fields that interfere with the proper operation of nearby circuits or distant radio receivers. Part I of this dissertation provides comprehensive and organized information on the latest EMC developments in power converters. It describes and evaluates different technologies to ensure that power converters meet electromagnetic compatibility requirements. Chapters 2 and 3 describe EMC noise sources and coupling mechanisms in power converters. Chapter 4 reviews the measurements used to characterize and troubleshoot EMC problems. Chapters 5 -- 8 cover passive filter solutions, active filter solutions, noise cancellation methods and reduced-noise driving schemes. Part II describes the methods used, calculations made, and implementation details of the MREMC, which is a software tool that allows the user to calculate the maximum possible radiated emissions that could occur due to specific source geometries on a PCB. Chapters 9 -- 13 covers the I/O coupling EMI algorithm, Common-mode EMI algorithm, Power Bus EMI algorithm and Differential-Mode EMI algorithm used in the MREMC.

  2. Inductive Coupling of Power Converter’s – EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kováčová

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a computer analysis of inductive coupling of theelectromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem. Its focus is on power electronics andelectrical drives and tests performed by a numerical computer simulation that can disclosesuite surprising findings about EMC.

  3. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  4. Fitting EMC structure functions with intrinsic charm

    CERN Document Server

    Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the impact of the data collected by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the parton distribution function (PDF) of the charm quark is presented. The analysis is performed in the NNPDF framework, and the charm PDF is freely parametrized on equal footing as light quark and gluon distributions. We find that variations in the treatment of EMC data do not modify the charm PDF and do not affect our previous conclusion on the presence of an intrinsic component in the charm PDF.

  5. EMCS and time-series energy data analysis in a large government office building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Management Control System (EMCS) data are an underutilized source of information on the performance of commercial buildings. Newer EMCS's have the ability and storage capacity to trend large amounts of data and perform preliminary analyses; however, these features often receive little or no use, as operators are generally not trained in data management, visualization, and analysis. Whole-building hourly electric-utility data are another readily available and underutilized source of information. This paper outlines the use of EMCS and utility data to evaluate the performance of the Ronald V. Dellums Federal Building in Oakland, California, a large office building operated by the Federal General Services Administration (GSA). The project began as an exploratory effort at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to examine the procedures operators were using to obtain information and operate their buildings. Trending capabilities were available, but in limited use by the operators. LBNL worked with the building operators to use EMCS to trend one-minute data for over one-hundred points. Hourly electricity-use data were also used to understand usage patterns and peak demand. The paper describes LBNL's key findings in the following areas: Characterization of cooling plant operations; Characterization of economizer performance; Analysis of annual energy use and peak demand operations; Techniques, strengths, and shortcomings of EMCS data analysis; Future plans at the building for web-based remote monitoring and diagnostics. These findings have helped GSA develop strategies for peak demand reduction in this and other GSA buildings. Such activities are of great interest in California and elsewhere, where electricity reliability and demand are currently problematic. Overall, though the building's energy use is fairly low, significant energy savings are available by improving the existing EMCS control strategies

  6. EMC of Frequency Controlled Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dolecek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with solution possibilities of EMC for voltage inverters, which uses PWM (Pulse Width Modulation. The paper offers solution of interference suppression which is raised by operation of frequency controlled drives. Possible interferences caused by inverters and their solutions are described at the first part of paper and real solution examples at the end of paper.

  7. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst...

  8. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  9. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    contact with the countries of origin, combining individualisation with interconnectedness. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2......Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s...

  10. Model based optimization of EMC input filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggl, K; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Levitronix GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Input filters of power converters for compliance with regulatory electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards are often over-dimensioned in practice due to a non-optimal selection of number of filter stages and/or the lack of solid volumetric models of the inductor cores. This paper presents a systematic filter design approach based on a specific filter attenuation requirement and volumetric component parameters. It is shown that a minimal volume can be found for a certain optimal number of filter stages for both the differential mode (DM) and common mode (CM) filter. The considerations are carried out exemplarily for an EMC input filter of a single phase power converter for the power levels of 100 W, 300 W, and 500 W. (author)

  11. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  12. Strategies for Implementing Change: An Experiential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    An attitude survey and a role-playing case were used to identify the typical approaches people use to implement important changes in organizations. This typical strategy, suggested or used by over 90% of the subjects, was not successful in producing change in any of the fourteen role-playing trials. However, with ten minutes of instruction in the ”Delta Technique,” 86% of the subjects were successful in introducing change in another fourteen role-playing trials. The ”Delta Technique” consists...

  13. Three levels of the electromagnetic compatibility (emc) in automotive engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, D.; Körber, B.; Müller, N.

    2004-01-01

    An important quality factor for vehicles is the compliance of the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). This compliance is given both through legal requirements and by voluntary defaults of the automotive manufacturers and suppliers. In this paper, some selected EMC measuring methods will be presented, whereas two of these were recently developed at the EMC research laboratory at the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau in close cooperation with Volkswagen and Audi.

  14. Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the national implementation strategy which is a part of the coordinated national response to climate change. The approach was developed from the National Climate Change process, established by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for energy and the environment, based on an examination of the impacts, costs and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. The Strategy involves (1) taking action to reduce risks and to improve our understanding of risks associated with climate change, (2) institution of a national framework that includes individual and joint action, while recognizing jurisdictional flexibility in responding to unique circumstances, (3) adopting a phased approach, (4) progressive action in response to changing domestic and international circumstances, (5) clear understanding of the necessary relationship between international and national strategies, (6) developing an understanding of the implications of emission reduction targets and major options, including cross-cutting policy approaches such as emissions trading and allocation of responsibility for reducing emissions. The Strategy uses a risk-management approach that attempts to limit the risks of climate change while maximizing opportunities for Canada to contribute to global and national solutions. This approach incorporates improving scientific and analytical understanding and co-ordinating national and international action and a phased approach to implementation. This policy document focuses on Phase One actions which consist of five connected themes, i. e. enhancing awareness and understanding, promoting technology development and innovation, governments leading by example, investing in knowledge and building the foundation, and encouraging action. Future phases will be linked to greater international certainty based on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of our trading partners

  15. EMC effect: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomin, Nadia [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of the EMC effect over 30 years ago, it has been of great theoretical interest and studied in several experimental measurements. No unified picture arose to explain the underlying cause of per nucleon structure function modification in nuclei. Precise measurements on light nuclei from JLab’s 6 GeV era revitalized this research by showing that traditional A or density dependent models of this nuclear modification do not work. The measurements will be reviewed, discussed and preliminary data on heavy targets from JLab’s E03-103 will be presented.

  16. Gauge symmetry and the EMC spin effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S D

    1993-01-01

    We emphasise the EMC spin effect as a problem of symmetry and discuss the renormalisation of the $C=+1$ axial tensor operators. This involves the generalisation of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly to each of these operators. We find that the contribution of the axial anomaly to the spin dependent structure function $g_1 (x, Q^2)$ scales at $O(\\alpha_s)$. This means that the anomaly can be a large $x$ effect in $g_1$. Finally we discuss the jet signature of the anomaly.

  17. EU energy and climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will summarise the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. In current international negotiations Europe has proposed a 20% reduction in GHG (greenhouse gases) in the developed countries by 2020 or 30% should there be an international agreement in the domain. However it is important to define measures to achieve the targets. One of the principal tools is to improve energy efficiency under the energy efficiency action plan, which will help to achieve a 20% energy saving by 2020. On the other hand, the amount of energy from renewable sources consumed in Europe will have to rise from its current level of 8.5%–20% by 2020. These are ambitious but achievable targets. Nonetheless, these can only be achieved through strong investment in areas of the knowledge triangle which strengthens research and innovation in the energy sector in Europe. The paper covers European Energy and Climate Change Policy, the European Strategic Energy Technology plan, the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, European and national Road maps to a low carbon economy, the Energy Efficiency Plan for 2011 and finishes with a brief consideration of the EU’s energy infrastructure priorities. -- Highlights: ► This paper summarises the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. ► Reduction of GHG emissions by 30%-international agreement or −20% without agreement. ► Use of 20% of renewable energies by 2020. ► Increase of energy efficiency of 20% by 2020. ► Consolidating of the internal energy market.

  18. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  19. Pionic properties of the nucleus and the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One expects certain modifications of the structure of a nucleus inside the nuclear medium. The EMC effect is a striking example, which displays modifications of the quark structure. In these lectures I discuss the traditional nuclear physics viewpoint for the interpretation of this effect. It is based in the modification of the pion cloud and the existence of the a pion excess, for which I discuss the experimental evidence. In particular the e.m polarizability of a free nucleon is dominated by the pion cloud. It is changed in the nucleus, which reflects the distortion of the pion cloud. I also discuss the exchange effects of the Compton scattering amplitude, which are linked to the existence of a pion excess

  20. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  1. 7th european metallurgical conference EMC 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From June 23 – 26, 2013, the GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized 7th European Metallurgical Conference (EMC 2013 in Weimar, Germany. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by  the GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009, and Duesseldorf (2011. The GDMB is a non-profit organization from Clausthal, Germany,,focused on combining science with practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and  manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most well-known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by decision makers from industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 130 presentations. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation., The € 500 worth “Poster Award EMC 2011 was awarded to Christoph Pichler from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria. Not only the most important European countries were represented here, but also more than one third of the lecturers were from countries outside Europe (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in Proceedings: Vol. 1: Copper, Precious Metals, Waste effluents Treatment/ Biohydrometallurgical applications; Process Metallurgy, Bridging Non-Ferrous and Ferrous Metallurgy; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Light metals, Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, Process Control

  2. An overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is becoming increasingly dependent upon the use of electrical and electronic equipment. In the recent years, introduction of semiconductor based devices, microprocessor and micro computer have brought about a technological revolution that has had far reaching effects in the home, in industry, in commerce and in defense. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the discipline which attempts to over come or, at least, minimize the effects of mismatch between equipment and the operating environment in accordance with agreed specifications, standards and regulations. Increased electromagnetic pollution in the environment has caused tremendous concern in the electronic industry and among users. Designers of the electronic products and systems want to be sure that their products do not emit excessive, unintentional radiation to interfere with the operation of the other systems, nor should these products be susceptible to electromagnetic interference which may degrade their performance. (author)

  3. Choosing change strategy for ISO/IEC 33014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Johansen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    The ISO/IEC 33014.2013 [1] standard on process improvement includes a core activity called ‘identify the overall change strategy’, which includes selecting a change strategy among the many available. This selection can be carried out using the ImprovAbility model [2] in which there is a framework...... of how to select change strategy. The framework contains 10 different change strategies to choose from. But which ones are chosen in practice? To answer that, we have analyzed data from 134 assessments in 129 organizations that have used the framework. We give a ranking of strategies chosen, and we...... analyze how they adapt the change strategy to their specific conditions. We conclude that the most often recommended organizational change strategy is optionality followed by three other strategies: specialist-driven, production-organized, and learning-driven....

  4. EMC, RF, and Antenna Systems in Miniature Electronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea

    Advanced techniques for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and for the optimization of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance has been developed under the constraints typical of miniature electronic devices (MED). The electromagnetic coexistence of multiple systems and...

  5. In Medium Nucleon Structure Functions, SRC, and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Gilad, S; Wood, S A

    2014-01-01

    A proposal approved by the Jefferson Lab PAC to study semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the deuteron, tagged with high momentum recoiling protons or neutrons emitted at large angle relative to the momentum transfer. This experiment aims at studying the virtuality dependence of the bound nucleon structure function as a possible cause to the EMC effect and the EMC-SRC correlations. The experiment was approved in 2011 for a total run time of 40 days.

  6. A new integrated architectures of hybrid EMC filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Marwan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the design and implementation of a hybrid integrated EMC filter for aerospace application. The work performed in this thesis is carried out in the framework of FRAE project (Research Foundation for Aviation and Space) titled FEMINA (Electromagnetic Filtering and Materials for the INtegration in Aerospace). To protect the network board from both conducted and radiated electromagnetic interferences and to meet the standards for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and e...

  7. EMC Corporation Provides Colleges with a Course in Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, Ed

    2008-05-01

    EMC Corporation, the world leader in data storage, created the EMC Academic Alliance Program to educate students on storage and close the education gap that exists. EMC developed a Storage Technology course to teach students about the design of storage technologies and the "big picture" of an information infrastructure. The course is "open" and focused on storage technologies, not products. College and universities use the course to teach students about a very important topic in IT: Storage. EMC collaborates with colleges and universities by providing the course, knowledge transfer sessions to faculty and program support. There is no cost to join and no cost to obtain the courses. EMC requires partners to sign an agreement for course use. Several colleges are using the course as an upper level elective and the course is taught by faculty. The alliance program has reduced faculty time to develop a storage course and time to learn the topic. Faculty is responsible for credentialing students and they supplement the course with additional materials. Students are being recruited for jobs by EMC and others, including internships. The Alliance program provides academic institutions with a way to differentiate. This paper will explain the program and the Storage Technology course.

  8. Analysis on the EMC Test of Inverter%变频器的 EMC 测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志勇; 张金苟; 刘勤波

    2015-01-01

    介绍了电磁干扰(EMI)的来源、分类及干扰抑制措施,对变频器 EMC 测试过程进行了分析。通过变频器是否外置 EMC 滤波器情况下的试验测试以及对测试特性曲线的对比,可以看出,外置 EMC 滤波器、屏蔽体及接地措施对变频器干扰有较好的抑制作用。%Introduces the sources,classification of electromagnetic interference(EMI)and interference suppres-sion measures,analyses the testing process of frequency converter EMC.Whether external EMC filter cases by the fre-quency of test,compares the characteristic curve of the test,it can be seen that the external EMC filter,shielding and grounding measures to interfere with the inverter has good inhibition.

  9. Analysis on the EMC Test of Inverter%变频器的 EMC 测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志勇; 张金苟; 刘勤波

    2015-01-01

    Introduces the sources,classification of electromagnetic interference(EMI)and interference suppres-sion measures,analyses the testing process of frequency converter EMC.Whether external EMC filter cases by the fre-quency of test,compares the characteristic curve of the test,it can be seen that the external EMC filter,shielding and grounding measures to interfere with the inverter has good inhibition.%介绍了电磁干扰(EMI)的来源、分类及干扰抑制措施,对变频器 EMC 测试过程进行了分析。通过变频器是否外置 EMC 滤波器情况下的试验测试以及对测试特性曲线的对比,可以看出,外置 EMC 滤波器、屏蔽体及接地措施对变频器干扰有较好的抑制作用。

  10. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  11. Using Networks For Changing Innovation Strategy: The Case of IBM

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Koen; Duysters, Geert; Man, Ard-Pieter

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLarge-scale strategic change projects in companies may be supported by using alliance networks. This paper shows that IBM’s change from an exploitation strategy towards an exploration strategy required a radically different network strategy as well. By entering into more non-equity alliances, involving new partners in the network and loosening the ties with existing partners, IBM supported its transformation from a hardware manufacturing company to a global service provider and so...

  12. Multinational enterprises and climate change strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is often perceived as the most pressing environmental problem of our time, as reflected in the large public, policy, and corporate attention it has received, and the concerns expressed about the (potential) consequences. Particularly due to temperature increases, climate change affects physical and biological systems by changing ecosystems and causing extinction of species, and is expected to have a negative social impact and adversely affect human health (IPCC, 2007). Moreover...

  13. Strategy changes after errors improve performance

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Borght, Liesbet; Desmet, Charlotte; Notebaert, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The observation that performance does not improve following errors contradicts the traditional view on error monitoring (Fiehler et al., 2005; Núñez Castellar et al., 2010; Notebaert and Verguts, 2011). However, recent findings suggest that typical laboratory tasks provided us with a narrow window on error monitoring (Jentzsch and Dudschig, 2009; Desmet et al., 2012). In this study we investigated strategy-use after errors in a mental arithmetic task. In line with our hypothesis, this more co...

  14. Change In Strategy - The Answer To Overcome Global Downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Ghosh

    Full Text Available In terms of overcoming the global downturn, innovative business strategy has three major dimensions namely, ‘Innovative Promotional Practices’, ‘Social and Organizational welfare’, and ‘Ethical behavior’. Fortunately most strategic dimensions in business and management are measurable so as to facilitate development ratings in order to compare and highlight the different levels of overcoming the global downturn. My research paper on the role of innovativebusiness strategy in overcoming the recession and succeeding in the postrecessionary period basically focus on the different categorical elements of business strategies and its direct or indirect impact on the medium and small scale organizations. For the better understanding of the term ‘INNOVATION’ I have carried out a letter by letter scrutinization of this golden term. It goes like this:I-IdeasN-New Plan or DesignN-Noticeable changesO-Optimum change valuationV-VarietyA-Adaptation to the New Environment/New BusinessT-Thought Process for Planned ChangesI-Ideological Developments in BusinessO-Optimization of the changesN-Numero Uno (How Innovation helps in Securing the topmostposition.In order to understand the impact of innovative business strategies n combating the downturn I have formulated four important and innovative strategies. Thesestrategies are:1. HBS Strategy (Holistic Business Strategy.2. PBS Strategy (Polymorphic Business Strategy.3. GBS Strategy (Green Business Strategy.4. CCBS Strategy. (Country-club Business Strategy.By following these innovative strategies an enterprise can reach the zeniths of success and successfully combat the global downturn.

  15. EMC Specific Problems of Frequency Converters Used at Interlocking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of frequency control drive of electromotive switch actuator of railway switch. The frequency converter with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM and the output sinus filter are used for feeding of the asynchronous motor of the switch actuator. This drive is operated in an insulated system of feeding voltages. The drive is fed by a frequency converter with an unshielded cable with length up to 1.2 km. The EMC problems occurring at development and operating of the drive are analyzed in this paper. The used solution of these problems and experience with EMC of the given system from real operation are described in this paper as well.

  16. Temperature simulation of EMC aluminum ingot with induced heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The numerical simulation of temperature field of electromagnetic casting (EMC) aluminum ingots is an effective and also necessary approach to study the temperature field and forecast the quality of EMC ingot, or optimize the technological parameters. In EMC, the alternating electromagnetic field can produce induced current and heat within the surface layer. To calculate the temperature field precisely, the induced heat should be taken into account. The induced heat has been coupled into the calculation formula of temperature field of unit volume per unit time, which provides a convenient and also precise method to calculate the temperature field. Besides, the effect of induced heat on the temperature field of ingot has been simulated and discussed. The results show that the induced heat has large influences on the height of liquid column and the surface temperature of ingot.

  17. Insights into the process of changing sourcing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    FAES, Wouter; Matthyssens, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Structured abstract Purpose: To identify the motivations driving the process of changing sourcing strategy from single sourcing to multiple sourcing or vice versa. Methodology/approach: Ten cases of sourcing strategy change were investigated. A qualitative research method is used to uncover the richness of these change processes. Findings: Most of the advantages and disadvantages stated in the literature were confirmed. Identical objectives (cost cutting and quality improvement) we...

  18. Change blindness: eradication of gestalt strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Steve; Goddard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of eight, texture-defined rectangles were used as stimuli in a one-shot change blindness (CB) task where there was a 50% chance that one rectangle would change orientation between two successive presentations separated by an interval. CB was eliminated by cueing the target rectangle in the first stimulus, reduced by cueing in the interval and unaffected by cueing in the second presentation. This supports the idea that a representation was formed that persisted through the interval befo...

  19. GEF climate change operational strategy: Whither UNDP?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses aspects of the implementation of the program for climatic change which has been come about as part of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Initial effort has focused on providing strategic information and help to countries, on achieving offsets in greenhouse gas emissions by energy conservation or carbon sinking, and an emphasis on development of renewable energy supplies. The U.N. Development Agency has limited funding to help support startup on projects submitted. Specific examples are discussed in the areas of energy conservation and energy efficiency, adoption of renewable energy sources, and reducing the long-term costs of low greenhouse gas-emitting energy technologies.

  20. Response Strategies for Curriculum Change in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Hadgraft, Roger G.; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2016-01-01

    During the last 25 years, there have been many calls for new engineering competencies and a corresponding gradual change in both curriculum and pedagogy in engineering education. This has been a global trend, in the US, Europe, Australia and now emerging in the rest of the world. Basically, there have been two main types of societal challenges…

  1. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use Oliver and Holzinger?s (2008) conceptual framework on the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&D and commercializa...

  2. Adapting to Change in Andean Ecosystems: Climate and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Fernández-Baca, Edith

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the research activities conducted by SANREM CRSP LTRA4 Adapting to Change in the Andes in the Altiplano region. The objectives were to present the project, emphasizing the research activities revolving around climate, strategies and advocacy coalitions. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  3. Winds of change: corporate strategy, climate change and oil multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; D.L. Levy

    2001-01-01

    Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.

  4. National strategy for climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  5. The Future of EMC Education: Keeping Faculty Up to Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1998-01-01

    An account of the activities of the Engineering Educations EMC Network during the project period 1995 - 1998. The network was initiateded by the National Advisory Educational Board for Technology with the objective to initiate a professional development in order to strengthen and renew the...... educations....

  6. A possible level 0 trigger scheme for the STAR EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a level 0 trigger for the STAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter, EMC, which provides a global energy sum and sums over cells appropriate for triggering on direct gammas and jets. It is implemented in analog at low level and digitally with FPGA's at higher level. It will provide trigger information in less than 800 nanoseconds

  7. Recent Developments in Using Measured Sources in Computational EMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent developments in using near-field scanning for proactive EMC work. The aim is to use measured near fields as a source for simulations in order to predict radiated emission from printed circuit boards placed in a product. Far fields were predicted based on...

  8. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper......For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and...

  9. Adaptive Capacity as antecedent to Climate Change Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hillmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decade research on climate change strategies and adaptive capacity emerged as the debate about climate change was intensified with the publishing of the Third Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001. That companies are facing risks and opportunities is not new and the awareness to address these issues is growing. However, there is still need for research in the field of corporate strategic response to climate change. Recently, research focuse...

  10. Culprits, climate change and coping strategies in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, populations are predominantly rural, dependent on rain-fed agriculture for subsistence and livelihoods. Poor families are ill -equipped to respond to changing patterns and the shorter growing season caused by warmer days and nights. Key climate change scenarios in the region are presented like shifting rainfall regimes, droughts, etc with the attendant impact on agricultural output. Coping strategies have been presented which can be replicated in other parts of the world with similar challenges. Keywords: climate change, Nigeria, Africa, rainfall, coping strategies

  11. Postural strategy changes with fatigue of the lumbar extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin L; Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. Anteriorly-directed force perturbations were applied to the upper back with a padded pendulum and attempted to challenge the postural control system without eliciting a stepping response. In three separate sessions, subjects were perturbed both before and after a fatiguing protocol that induced lumbar extensor fatigue to one of three different fatigue levels. Postural strategy was quantified using center of pressure position along with joint angles and joint torques for the ankle, knee, hip, and "low back" joints. Results showed both proactive and reactive changes in postural strategy. Proactive changes involved a slight anterior lean prior to the perturbation, and reactive changes were consistent with a shift toward more of a hip strategy with fatigue. In addition, results suggested that subjects classified as moving mostly at the hip prior to fatigue were more affected by fatigue compared to subjects classified as moving roughly equal amounts at the ankle and hip prior to fatigue. Increasing fatigue level exaggerated some, but not all, of the changes in postural strategy with fatigue. These findings illustrate that neuromuscular fatigue can influence postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. PMID:16023345

  12. Ecosystem Stewardship: Sustainability Strategies for a Rapidly Changing Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, William C.; Chapin, F Stuart; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Folke, Carl; Abel, Nick; Olsson, Per; Smith, D. Mark Stafford; Walker, Brian; Young, Oran R.; Berkes, Fikret; Biggs, Reinette; Grove, J. Morgan; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Pinkerton, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social-ecological traps. All so...

  13. Strategies for Survival in Fast-Changing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton M. Christensen; Fernando F. Suárez; Utterback, James M., 1941-

    1998-01-01

    Technology strategy variables tend to predominate as predictors of survival in the fast-changing rigid disk drive industry. Building on these previous studies, we here test the hypothesis that the technological and market strategies of a new entrant are highly interrelated and that their joint effect plays an important role in a firm's probability of survival. In particular, we propose that firms that target new market segments with an architectural innovation will tend to be more successful ...

  14. Employee participation and learning, a strategy for changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, L.B.; Jensen, Lars Peter; Rosenørn, T.U.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show and discuss possibilities and problems cencerning changes using a participatory strategy and with a good working environment in focus. The processing industry is chosen as example. The case study shows that organizational changes can be rather problematic. The...... beginning of the change process where all actors are assumed to use all their potentials in developing their future organization is described. The different employee groups need to learn to participate. An important point is to use the change process to establish a learning culture. Experiments based on...... reflective learning in an "experimentarium" as support for the change process, and the positive results obtained are discussed....

  15. Photon parton distributions in nuclei and the EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankfurt, Leonid [Tel Aviv University; Strikman, Mark [Penn State University

    2010-12-01

    Photons as well as quarks and gluons are constituents of the infinite momentum frame (IMF) wave function of an energetic particle. They are mostly equivalent photons whose amplitude follows from the Lorentz transformation of the particle rest frame Coulomb field into the IMF and from the conservation of the electromagnetic current. We evaluate in a model independent way the dominant photon contribution \\propto \\alpha_{em}(Z^2/A^{4/3})\\ln(1/R_{A}m_{N}x) to the nuclear structure functions as well as the term \\propto \\alpha_{em}Z/A. In addition we show that the definition of x consistent with the exact kinematics of eA scattering (with exact sum rules) works in the same direction as the nucleus field of equivalent photons. Combined, these effects account for the bulk of the EMC effect for x\\le 0.5 where Fermi motion effects are small. In particular for these x the hadronic mechanism contribution to the EMC effect does not exceed \\sim 3% for all nuclei. Also the A-dependence of the hadronic mechanism of the EMC effect for x > 0.5 is significantly modified.

  16. Governing urban finance: changing budgetary strategies in British local government

    OpenAIRE

    P L Pinch

    1995-01-01

    The restructuring of local government finance in Britain is increasingly being viewed as part and parcel of a broader transformation in the capacity for local welfare provision and scope of local governance. The ways in which local authority budgetary processes and strategies have been affected by these changes are examined. It is suggested that, despite strong elements of continuity, significant new developments in local budgeting behaviour are emerging. However, such changes are not univers...

  17. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

  18. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  19. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, S. van den [MEDIAN, Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, M. [University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Bettignies, H.C. de [INSEAD, Fontainebleau (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  20. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  1. Mental health providers confronting organizational change: process, problems, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, S; Oster, G D

    1998-01-01

    Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered. PMID:9919625

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE STRATEGIES IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana, TALMACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main strategies for implementing organizational changes in the current social and economic context, characterized by an unprecedented dynamism. As a result, the paper presents the results of the research that have led to the identification of the factors determining the application of a particular strategy or even the usage of their mix. To achieve the established objectives set we have used as a research method the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' work.

  3. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  4. Strategies to mitigate climate change in a sustainable development framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategies that mitigate climate resulting from increasing concentration of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting sustainable and equitable development are needed to be taken rapidly and immediately by countries world-wide. Choice of strategies that are sensitive to regional and national needs is a major challenge because of diversities in responsibility and obligations and developmental needs in the world. However, large number of tools and techniques available which can assist countries and regions to determine such strategies. They will need to be continuously adapted so as to overcome the numerous barriers and threats that remain in implementing actions to mitigate for climate change. To ensure sustainable development for the vast majority in the world, local management of resources is crucial. (au)

  5. The Need for Knowledge Management Strategy for Organisations Facing Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeianu Otilia-Mari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect the importance of a knowledge management strategy for organisations facing organisational change, as response to crisis. As resource for development, for sure knowledge becomes an inexhaustible power. It is also one of the most important forms of capital - the foundation for innovation and also the drivers that lead to growth and expansion. An organization cannot compete with others in this ever-changing environment without proper knowledge and lack of capacity for renewal. Many managers would like to have a strategic approach in preparing the organisation to avoid crisis. There is a lack of strategic information management and the effect is the degradation of information resources and failure in strengthening employee’s potential. It is vital for the companies to develop a dynamic knowledge management strategy to be integrated into the organization, enhancing the performance of the system and processes. However, organizations need to see knowledge management as a strategy, because knowledge is the key to making the right decisions in guiding the organization. One of the key benefits of approaching knowledge management strategy within organisations is its positive impact on organisational performance, ensuring not only the survival during crisis but even providing a competitive advantage.

  6. Business Responses to Climate Change. Identifying Emergent Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Companies face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the recently adopted Kyoto Protocol on global climate change and the current and future regulations that may emerge from it. Companies have considerable discretion to explore different market strategies to address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines these strategic options by reviewing the market-oriented actions that are currently being taken by 136 large companies that are part of the Global 500. There are six different market strategies that companies use to address climate change and that consist of different combinations of the market components available to managers. Managers can choose between more emphasis on improvements in their business activities through innovation or employ compensatory approaches such as emissions trading. They can either act by themselves or work with other companies, NGOs, or (local) governments

  7. Business Responses to Climate Change. Identifying Emergent Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Companies face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the recently adopted Kyoto Protocol on global climate change and the current and future regulations that may emerge from it. Companies have considerable discretion to explore different market strategies to address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines these strategic options by reviewing the market-oriented actions that are currently being taken by 136 large companies that are part of the Global 500. There are six different market strategies that companies use to address climate change and that consist of different combinations of the market components available to managers. Managers can choose between more emphasis on improvements in their business activities through innovation or employ compensatory approaches such as emissions trading. They can either act by themselves or work with other companies, NGOs, or (local) governments.

  8. Merger Failures & Corporate Strategy: Change Management to Solve the Query

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Abbas; Aroosh Khalid; Ayesha Butt; Fareeha Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Business Mergers are the key for both big and small business corporations. This research paper determines the factors resulting into merger failures and considering “Strategic Change Management” as a solution to the query by doing comparison of corporate strategy and cultures of mergers between Europe and USA through statistics. Factors that lead to merger failures are misgauging strategic fit, cultural clash, communication gap, weak leadership and economic crisis by providing clear vision, p...

  9. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer ...

  10. Innovation as a strategy for academic libraries to survive change

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Ana Cosmelli

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is a strategy that has allowed organizations to survive in a context of changes, many of them disruptive. To evaluate the current most important innovations in academic libraries and aiming to understand if the organizational culture type present in academic libraries promotes innovation, a global Delphi study was undertaken. This technique allows identifying consensus based on the judgement of well-informed individuals. The results of the study were analyzed at the light of CHRIST...

  11. Change communication : the impact on satisfaction with alternative workplace strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Melanie; Brown, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Communication is fundamental to the Facilities Management (FM) role within organisations; especially when the FM department is implementing changes to the workplace. An evaluation of an instance is presented. A self- administered online questionnaire was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The research focused on responses to satisfaction with the communication methods rather than reviewing the merits of alternative workplace strategies. Findings included the impact of...

  12. Adaptation strategies of Mediterranean cropping systems to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mula, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The EPIC simulation model was used to assess the impact of climate change (CC) on intensive and extensive Mediterranean forage systems to study the effects of CC and adaptation strategies. The intensive cropping system (corn silage – Italian ryegrass) is linked to dairy cattle farms. As first step the EPIC model was calibrated based on experimental data. After calibration the EPIC model was used to perform simulations with different climate scenarios (present and future climate) with diffe...

  13. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido; Jesus A. Pulido-Arcas; Jose M. Cabeza-Lainez

    2015-01-01

    Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built usin...

  14. Adaptation or Manipulation? Unpacking Climate Change Response Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F. Smith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a key feature of sustainable social–ecological systems. As societies traverse various temporal and spatial scales, they are exposed to differing contexts and precursors for adaptation. A cursory view of the response to these differing contexts and precursors suggests the particular ability of persistent societies to adapt to changing circumstances. Yet a closer examination into the meaning of adaptation and its relationship to concepts of resilience, vulnerability, and sustainability illustrates that, in many cases, societies actually manipulate their social–ecological contexts rather than adapt to them. It could be argued that manipulative behaviors are a subset of a broader suite of adaptive behaviors; however, this paper suggests that manipulative behaviors have fundamentally different intentions and outcomes. Specifically, adaptive behaviors are respectful of the intrinsic integrity of social–ecological systems and change is directed toward internal or self-regulating modification. By way of contrast, manipulative behaviors tend to disregard the integrity of social–ecological systems and focus on external change or manipulating the broader system with the aim of making self-regulation unnecessary. It is argued that adaptive behaviors represent long-term strategies for building resilience, whereas manipulative behaviors represent short-term strategies with uncertain consequences for resilience, vulnerability, and the sustainability of social–ecological systems. Of greatest significance; however, is that manipulative strategies have the potential to avoid authentic experiences of system dynamics, obscure valuable learning opportunities, create adverse path dependencies, and lessen the likelihood of effective adaptation in future contexts.

  15. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations Aligning Culture and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, Daniel; Lane, Nancy; Lief, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Filled with case studies from firms such as GT Automotive, GE Healthcare China, Vale, Dominos, Swiss Re Americas Division, and Polar Bank, among others, this book (written by Dan Denison and his co-authors) combines twenty years of research and survey results to illustrate a critical set of cultural dynamics that firms need to manage in order to remain competitive. Each chapter uses a case as a means to illustrate an important aspect of culture change focusing on seven common culture-change dilemmas including creating a strategic alignment, keeping strategy simple, and more.

  16. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  17. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  18. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  19. EMC Part V——Grounding (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnWong

    2005-01-01

    1. Introduction Grounding is always one the of most important EMC topics. A well-defined ground system is the first requirements to any electrical and electronics design. Knowing where the return current flows allows designers to estimate the electromagnetic emission and crosstalk. The ground is considered as a point of voltage reference. This is generally true except when large currents or high-frequency currents flow through nonzero impedance with the ground trace or sheet. These unexpected ground voltages will result in failure or malfunction.

  20. What do we learn from the EMC effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present theoretical understanding of the EMC effect is reviewed and questions for experiment are posed. The empirical status of rescaling is discussed and I show how it can make statements about the static properties of bound nucleons; in particular that gA/gV and μ of bound nucleons are unchanged from their free values once pion exchange contributions are taken into account. This suggests that the increased correlation length for quarks is due to exchange effects, not due to physical swelling of nucleons. (orig.)

  1. The EMC effect: local nuclear dynamics or quark-gluon dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Canal, Carlos A García; Vento, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    It has been recently confirmed that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering is linearly related to the Short Range Correlation scaling factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering. By using an effective nucleon mass approach we are able to understand the interplay between the quark-gluon and hadronic degrees of freedom in the discussion of the EMC effect.

  2. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  3. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human-animal-environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants. PMID:26333722

  4. Mechanism and control of un-straightness of EMC large slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英达; 郑贤淑

    2004-01-01

    The experimental study shows that the pull-in of the broad faces (rolling faces) of the EMC large aluminum alloy slabs mainly forms during the solidification process. The thermal bending moment caused by the thermal gradient of the solidified shell along the broad faces is the main reason for the formation of pull-in. The tangential forces resulted from the change of the solidification front curvature push the liquid metal of the solidification front from the hot section to the cold end and compensate the contraction of the cold end, thus form the irreversible deformation. Based on these mechanisms, the Tm-BD software system that can design the opening of molds was programmed. As an example, the straightness of the 1 300 mm × 480 mm slab with the using mold opening was calculated. The agreement of the calculated and measured results provides the basis to optimize the mold design with or without opening.

  5. Quantitative stove use and ventilation guidance for behavior change strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael A; Chiang, Ranyee A

    2015-01-01

    Achieving World Health Organization air quality targets and aspirational fuel savings targets through clean cooking solutions will require high usage rates of high-performing products and low usage rates of traditional stoves. Catalyzing this shift is challenging as fuel and stove use practices associated with new technologies generally differ from those used with traditional technologies. Accompanying this shift with ventilation improvements can help further reduce exposure to emissions of health damaging pollutants. Behavior change strategies will be central to these efforts to move users to new technologies and minimize exposure to emissions. In this article, the authors show how behavior change can be linked to quantitative guidance on stove usage, household ventilation rates, and performance. The guidance provided here can help behavior change efforts in the household energy sector set and achieve quantitative goals for usage and ventilation rates. PMID:25839198

  6. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur;

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, impacts on agriculture from extreme climate are increasingly vulnerable. On the other hand, folk communities are intensely depending on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change has already negatively affected the vegetable production by annual recurrent flood in Bangladesh....... This study is an assessment of the new vegetable production system that could adopt in a changing climatic condition. With the popular eight vegetable species, the field experiment consisted of four treatments which were conducted in the bags. However, treatment (TD) which consisted of Coriander (Coriander...... of this study might be helpful for the flood affected folk communities produce vegetables for their own consumption and income. Likewise, new experiments with altered technique and vegetable species are recommended to conclusively develop climate change adaptation strategies for flood prone areas....

  7. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  8. Performance of prototypes for the PANDA barrel EMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, D. A.; Eissner, T.; Drexler, P.; Moritz, M.; Novotny, R. W.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment will be part of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) and aims for the study of strong interaction within the charm sector via antiproton proton collisions up to antiproton momenta of 15 GeV/c. Reflecting the variety of the physics program the PANDA detector is designed as a multi-purpose detector able to perform tracking, calorimetry and particle identification with nearly complete coverage of the solid angle. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) contained inside its Target Spectrometer is based on cooled PbWO4 scintillator crystals. In order to ensure an excellent performance throughout the large dynamic range of photon/electron energies ranging from a few MeV up to 15 GeV an extensive prototyping phase is mandatory. This contribution describes the measured response of the EMC barrel part prototype PROTO60 at the largest design energy to secondary beams provided by the SPS at CERN. In addition to PROTO60 a tracking station was deployed, providing precise position information of the 15 GeV/c positrons. For calibration purposes a 150 GeV/c muon beam and cosmic radiation, in combination with estimations from GEANT4 simulations were used. The obtained performance concerning energy, position and time information is presented.

  9. EMC effect, short-range nuclear correlations, neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Strikman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The recent x> 1 (e,e') and correlation experiments at momentum transfer Q^2 \\ge 2 GeV^2 confirm presence of short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei mostly build of nucleons. Recently we evaluated in a model independent way the dominant photon contribution to the nuclear structure. Taking into account this effect as using definition of x consistent with the exact kinematics of eA scattering (with exact sum rules) results in the significant reduction of R_A(x,Q^2)=F_{2A}(x,Q^2)/F_{2N}(x,Q^2) ratio which explains the bulk of the EMC effect for x\\le 0.55 where Fermi motion effects are small. The remaining part of the EMC effect at x\\ge 0.5 is consistent with dominance of the contribution of SRCs. Implications for extraction of the $F_{2n}/F_{2p}$ ratio are discussed. Dominance of the nucleonic degrees of freedom even for high local densities is consistent with the observation of neutron star of a double Solar mass. Smallness of the non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei matches well the recent observation of...

  10. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600–700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial. (letters)

  11. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  12. Strategies for Eliminating Health Inequities: A Framework for Change

    OpenAIRE

    Burley, Theresa Madeline

    2015-01-01

    The most  important  challenge  for  health  professionals  is  promoting  health" equity. The WHO  (2008)  asserts  better  living  conditions,  equitable  distribution  of  wealth, and mechanisms to prevent and monitor inequities will result in health equity. The problem at the center of this capstone is how difficult it is to promote health equity and implement strategies  for change. Barriers  t...

  13. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  14. Energy strategies for mitigating global change. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working paper of the International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg (AT) deals with the 'Energy Strategies for Mitigating Global Changes'. The content of this report is: 1. Energy consumption and global warming; 2. Global energy needs; 3. Carbon dioxide emissions as a global 'resource'; 4. Equity issues implicit in reduction schemes; 5. Efficiency improvement and conservation; 6. Less carbon intensive energy options; 7. Carbon-free energy options; 8. Carbon scrubbing and removal; 9. Photosynthesis and afforestation; 9. Inventory of mitigating technologies. Some tabulations and graphics illustrate the investigation and results

  15. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built using both available materials and traditional and academic construction technologies. This paper thoroughly investigates the extant urban conglomerate in Cádiz and analyses, in a qualitative and quantitative manner, which bioclimatic design strategies were applied and the city’s adaptation for future climate scenarios. The results indicate that historic housing in Cádiz is creatively adapted to the local natural conditions by means of a combination of climate responsive strategies, and there is significant scope for improvement in the ongoing response to global warming.

  16. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed

  17. Merger Failures & Corporate Strategy: Change Management to Solve the Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Mergers are the key for both big and small business corporations. This research paper determines the factors resulting into merger failures and considering “Strategic Change Management” as a solution to the query by doing comparison of corporate strategy and cultures of mergers between Europe and USA through statistics. Factors that lead to merger failures are misgauging strategic fit, cultural clash, communication gap, weak leadership and economic crisis by providing clear vision, putting together leadership team, focused management on success and winning the people’s commitment we can solve this query. The research has proved that cross-border mergers are highly influenced by cultural differences. The strategic change management led by new CEO can help in saving a new merger from a failure.

  18. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  19. PERIODIC DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION FOR FIELD ANALYSIS IN EMC CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Feiyan; Ding Jianjin; Sha Fei

    2006-01-01

    Herein a novel Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) is presented to calculate the field in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) chamber. Due to the difficulty of simulating the whole chamber environment, the analysis combines the DGF formulation and the FEM method, with the latter deals with the reflection from absorbers. With DGF formulation for infinite periodic array structures, this paper investigates electromagnetic field in chamber with truncated arrays. The reflection from the absorber serves as the virtual source contributing to the total field. Hence the whole chamber field calculation can be separated from the work of absorber model set-up. Practically the field homogeneity test and Normal Site Attenuation (NSA) test are carried out to evaluate the chamber performance. Based on the method in this paper, the simulation results agree well with the test, and predict successfully the victim frequency points of the chamber.

  20. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10105044

  1. Successful workforce planning : aligning recruitment strategies with changing demographics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, B. [Duke Energy Gas Transmission, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described how demographic trends are changing the energy industry. Duke Energy acquired Westcoast Energy in March 2002 and must attract and retain a skilled workforce to maintain its newly acquired and very large infrastructure. Duke Energy has committed $1.88 million over 3 years to northern opportunities through partnerships with educators, community organizations, government agencies and industry. This paper emphasizes the need for a new focus on workforce planning to ensure that staffing needs are met. It described how to use demographics to identify recruitment needs within a company, and what to look for in data. It also described how to make sure that a recruitment strategy is tailored to various demographic groups. Energy companies are attracting young workers through apprenticeship programs, training and development programs, and other incentives. figs.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...

  3. Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...

  4. EMC-signatures of microcontrollers under thermal stress analyzed by FSV

    OpenAIRE

    Knockaert, Jos; Malki, Mohamed; Baudry, David; Ramdani, Mohamed; Pissoort, Davy

    2011-01-01

    The EMC-signature of devices containing microcontrollers can differ due to thermal or mechanical stress. Research is presented to prove the feature selective validation method (FSV) to be sensitive enough to analyze differences in signatures.

  5. China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, China has made great efforts in energy saving and carbon emission reduction by pushing forward domestic sustainable development along with global climate change mitigation. The efforts have paid off with a dramatic decrease in carbon intensity. Nevertheless, China is still confronted with tough challenges in emission control due to the fast pace of industrialization, large total historical emission and high growth rate of emissions. Therefore, China should give priority to energy saving by improving energy efficiency and sectoral structure adjustment and upgrade, and develop sustainable and renewable energy to optimize energy mix and its carbon content. China should continue to regard significant reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity as the main objective in the near future, strive to achieve peak emissions around 2030, and realize a relatively sharp emissions reduction by 2050 in order to address climate change to meet the goal of making the warming less than 2°. During the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP), China will further strengthen measures to control the amount of energy consumption, establish a statistics, accounting and evaluation system of carbon emissions, and promote a market-based carbon emissions trading mechanism to facilitate the low-carbon transformation of China's economy. - Highlights: ► This paper studies China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation. ► We suggest that China should focus on reducing the energy intensity and carbon intensity of GDP, and optimization of energy mix in the near term. ► In the long term, China should achieve the peak emission around 2030, and realize a relative sharp emission reduction by 2050. ► The paper also concludes some important measures which China should take during the 12th Five-Year-Plan (2011–2015).

  6. EMC/FDTD/MD simulation of carrier transport and electrodynamics in two-dimensional electron systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sule, N; Willis, K. J.; Hagness, S. C.; Knezevic, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the implementation and application of a multiphysics simulation technique to carrier dynamics under electromagnetic excitation in supported two-dimensional electronic systems. The technique combines ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) for carrier transport with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for electrodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) for short-range Coulomb interactions among particles. We demonstrate the use of this EMC/FDTD/MD technique by calculating the room-temperature dc an...

  7. What can Drell-Yan data tell us about the EMC effect and nucleon parton distributions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that knowledge of the x1 and x2 dependence of the ratio of Drell-Yan cross-sections measured on heavy nuclei and deuterium can give us information about the origin of the EMC effect. Conversely, we show that an understanding of the EMC effect, together with (non-ratio) Drell-Yan data can provide us with a way of discriminating between candidates for nucleon parton distributions. (orig.)

  8. EMC and the printed circuit board design theory and layout made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Montrose, Mark I

    1999-01-01

    "This reference text shows how and why RF energy is created within a printed circuit board, and the manner in which propagation occurs. With thorough explanations, this book enables engineers to grasp both the fundamentals of EMC theory and signal integrity, along with the mitigation process needed to prevent an EMC event while maintaining optimal functionality for low- and high-technology products. Mr. Montrose also shows the relationship between time and frequency domains, helping one meet mandatory compliance requirements."--Jacket.

  9. Validation of EMC near-field scanning amplitude and phase measurement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Anders P.; Sørensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    A frequency selection and data validation procedure is presented. It shows that using data from the reference channel it makes possible to estimate the validity of the measured data from an EMC near-field scan with phase on active circuits.......A frequency selection and data validation procedure is presented. It shows that using data from the reference channel it makes possible to estimate the validity of the measured data from an EMC near-field scan with phase on active circuits....

  10. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  11. 7th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-12)

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Young-Sik; Park, Sang; Chen, Hsing-Chung; Embedded and Multimedia Computing Technology and Service

    2012-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-12), will be held in Gwangju, Korea on September 6 - 8, 2012. EMC-12 will be the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Embedded and Multimedia (EM) Computing. EMC-12 will provide an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of EM. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in EM. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject. The EMC-12 is the next event, in a series of highly successful International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing, previously held as EMC 2011 (China, Aug. 2011), EMC 2010 (Philippines, Aug. 2010), EM-Com 2009 (Korea, Dec. 2009), UMC-08 (Australia, Oct. 2008), ESO-08(China, Dec. 2008), UMS-08 ...

  12. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  13. Strategies for Change: A Field Guide to Social Marketing for School Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Strategies for Change outlines how to use social marketing strategies to influence change in the health programs in a building, district or community. Authors describe how to develop a strategy to influence district administrators, school board members, colleagues and parents. This step-by-step guide leads through the process for developing,…

  14. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  15. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  16. Developing Canada's climate change strategy : electricity sector table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO2 emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent)

  17. The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource and Environmental Technology organized the 6th European Metallurgical Conference (2011 in Duesseldorf from June 26 to 29, 2011. The same venue hosted the most important international metallurgical trade fairs for metallurgy of iron and steel, new casting and thermochemical processes METEC, GIFA, THERMOPROCESS and NEWCAST. The previous European metallurgical conferences were organized by GDMB in Friedrichshafen (2001, Hanover (2003, Leipzig (2005, Duesseldorf (2007, Innsbruck (2009. The GDMB is a non-profit organization situated in Clausthal in Germany, which is related to combining science with the practical experience in metallurgy, mining, materials engineering, mineral processing, recycling and refining of metals, and manufacturing of semi- and finishing products. The European Metallurgical conference EMC is one of the most known conferences worldwide in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy and is attended regularly by the decision makers from the industry and universities. The scientific program contained 6 plenary lectures and more than 160 presentations from 40 countries in 5 parallel series. An extensive poster exhibition was held, during which the authors had an opportunity to introduce their posters to the entire plenum as a part of a brief presentation. The best poster from the Montan-University in Leoben, Austria, was awarded the € 500 'Poster Award EMC 2011'. Not only were the most important European countries represented here, more than one third of the lecturers were from the non-European countries (Canada, Japan, China, USA, South Africa, Australia. The origin of the participants reflects the aim of the organizers: to make this conference a worldwide platform for the scientific exchange of experience and information. More than 400 participants from all over the world participated at this conference. The scientific presentations of the conference are presented in five Proceedings

  18. Test plan/procedure for the checkout of the USA cable communications test configuration for the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    A series of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests were conducted in May, 1975 in the Soviet Union. The purpose of the EMC tests was to determine the effects of the operating environment of the Soviet aircraft, Soyuz, upon the electrical performance of the USA's cable communications equipment located in Soyuz. The test procedures necessary to check out the cable communications test configuration in preparation for the EMC tests are presented.

  19. Roles of State Strategy of Adaptation to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Huang Shanfeng; Zhang Mengheng

    2007-01-01

    For the adverse impacts of climate change,China government should place the problem of adaptation to climate change on the agenda.It is time to institute and implement a State adaptive strategy to reduce the adverse impacts on economy,community and people's health and life by international cooperation and our own endeavor.A state strategyofadaptationto cfimate change should be closely linked with other current interrelated national strategies,and they should be supplemented and improved by each other.This paper discusses the roles of the state strategy of adaptation to climate change in the State climate change integrative strategy,the environmental protection strategy,and the sustainable development strategy in China.Furthermore,it proposes the main aims of the State adaptive strategy of China.

  20. First EMC3-Eirene simulations of the TCV snowflake divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the approaches to solve the heat load problem in a divertor tokamak is the so called ‘snowflake’ (SF) configuration, a magnetic equilibrium with two nearby x-points and two additional divertor legs. Here we report on the first EMC3-Eirene simulations of plasma- and neutral particle transport in the scrape-off layer of a series of TCV SF equilibria with different values of σ, the distance between the x-points normalized to the minor radius of the plasma. The constant cross-field transport coefficients were chosen such that the power- and particle deposition profiles at the primary inner strike point (SP) match the Langmuir probe measurements for the σ = 0.1 case. At the secondary SP on the floor, however, a significantly larger power flux than that predicted by the simulation was measured by the probes, indicating an enhanced transport across the primary separatrix. As the ideal SF configuration (σ = 0) is approached, the density as well as the radiation maximum are predicted to move from the target plates upward to the x-point by the simulation. (paper)

  1. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, F.; /CERN /Imperial Coll., London; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  2. EMC noise free endoscope using optical fiber communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Wataru; Minakuchi, Tadashi; Sato, Koichi; Tsutamura, Koichi; Syoji, Takaaki; Sugitani, Kazuo; Arimoto, Akira; Arai, Shinichi

    2008-02-01

    Recently, the number of pixels of an image sensor has reached more than one Mega in the field of video endoscopes, while analog signal transmission bands that use existing electric wires will face physical limitations from the perspective of signal bandwidth and EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility) noise. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a bi-directional digital optical communication endoscope system that employs both an image sensor and a single line optical fiber. In addition, due to the fiber's high-speed image signal transmission, we have incorporated a digital circuit for serial modulation and deserial demodulation. Consequently, we confirmed that transmission speeds of a 1Gbps downlink image signal and a 110Kbps uplink control signal were achieved as a result of simultaneous communication. We also designed and tested a compact, co-axial bi-directional optical transmitter and receiver module that can be built into the distal side of a scope. The optical communication module size is less than φ4×10mm. It was confirmed that this module could be installed in the distal side of a current endoscope.

  3. Strategies for Hydrology Teaching for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2010-05-01

    Hydrology as a science has undergone dramatic changes in the past 80 years. However, as evidenced by the text books that are being used and conversations with many educators, it appears that hydrologic education has not kept pace. The legacy of the past growth of hydrology is reflected in the materials and methods used in hydrology teaching as practiced now. Current teaching methods tend to present a mix of empirical approaches (e.g., data analysis, multiple regressions), systems approaches (e.g., unit hydrograph methods, bucket models), and process theories (e.g., infiltration, runoff generation, evaporation, channel flow), often in the form of recipes or skill sets. However, they represent an old paradigm where hydrology was seen as dealing with the movement of water through and over a static earth, aimed at solving one or a combination of separate boundary value problems. However at least since the 1990s there is a new research paradigm operating, which treats hydrology as a distinct geoscience, which does not just deal with the movement of water, but with an interacting holistic earth system that includes not just hydrological but also biogeochemical, ecological and human subsystems. Global change increasingly dictates that this geoscience paradigm be further extended to include highly non-stationary, evolutionary behaviors strongly governed by human-nature interactions. Shouldn't this be recognized in our teaching, and if so how can we achieve it? In this talk I will outline broad strategies we can adopt that could pave the way for a paradigm shift also in the way we teach hydrology. Beyond the essential skills that we have always taught, some of the new skill sets we need to impart are, amongst many others: learning to read the landscape, learning from patterns in the data, including patterns in the landscape and in the atmosphere (e.g., channel morphology, vegetation patterns, climatic patterns), comparative studies as opposed to place-based studies

  4. Strict EMC regulations for a cooling system in computer rooms; Strenge EMC-eisen voor een koelinstallatie in computerruimten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot Boerle, D.J. [Thales Nederland, Hengelo (Netherlands); Van der Knaap, M. [Climate Solutions Holland CSH, Raamdonksveer (Netherlands); Van Velsen, F. [Ingenieursbureau Oranjewoud, Heerenveen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    Since the implementation of the ElectroMagnetic Compatibility Directive, equipment that may cause electromagnetic disturbances or be sensitive to them must meet certain requirements to obtain the CE quality mark. For climate installations it is relatively easy to meet these requirements. This is quite different for a cooling installation in a computer room, especially if the influence and availability for the production process is large. This article describes how multiple parties achieved a 'First Time Right' in the qualification of cooling equipment in a project of the Gasunie thanks to thorough preparation. [Dutch] Sinds de invoering van de EMC-richtlijn (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility) moeten installaties die elektromagnetische storing kunnen veroorzaken of daar gevoelig voor zijn, voldoen aan bepaalde eisen om het CE-keurmerk te krijgen. Voor een klimaatinstallatie is het relatief eenvoudig aan de eisen te voldoen. Dat wordt anders bij een koelinstallatie voor een computerruimte. Zeker als de invloed en beschikbaarheid voor het productieproces groot is. Dit artikel beschrijft hoe meerdere partijen dankzij een goede voorbereiding en samenwerking een 'First Time Right' hebben bereikt in de kwalificatie van een koelinstallatie in een project van de Gasunie.

  5. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  6. Instructional change in academic departments: An analysis from the persepctive of two environment-focused change strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Kathleen M.

    Numerous reports demand changes in college and university teaching practices. This is especially true for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. STEM stakeholders are concerned about student retention within STEM majors, as well as the lack of sufficient graduates with the knowledge to advance these fields. A common conclusion of these reports is that teaching practices must change. Although these calls for change have occurred for decades, STEM fields have yet to experience widespread change. Thus, there is a need for more effective change strategies. Recently, researchers have suggested that effective change strategies should focus on changing the environments of academic departments. This is in contrast to most commonly-used change strategies that focus on individual instructors. Environmentfocused change strategies have two main varieties: those that have a goal of implementing prescribed outcomes, and those that expect the outcomes to emerge from the change process. Yet, little is known about how to enact environment-focused change strategies. The goal of this research is to provide guidance for change agents and researchers by analyzing a large-scale change initiative from the perspective of two environment-focused change strategies: Kotter's eight-stage leadership process (prescribed) and complexity leadership theory (emergent). This analysis was guided by two research questions. 1. Within the context of a higher education change initiative, how is the change process described from the perspectives of two distinct leadership theories? 2. How do these descriptions frame problems and solutions associated with change? Each change strategy identified different activities as contributing to change as well as different missed opportunities. For example, when the change vision was not communicated effectively, the eight-stage leadership process indicated that the involvement of the department chair was needed, while complexity

  7. Change In Strategy - The Answer To Overcome Global Downturn

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhartha Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    In terms of overcoming the global downturn, innovative business strategy has three major dimensions namely, ‘Innovative Promotional Practices’, ‘Social and Organizational welfare’, and ‘Ethical behavior’. Fortunately most strategic dimensions in business and management are measurable so as to facilitate development ratings in order to compare and highlight the different levels of overcoming the global downturn. My research paper on the role of innovative business strategy in overcoming the re...

  8. New measurements of the EMC Effect in Light Nuclei and at Large x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the modification of structure functions in nuclei (the EMC Effect) has been the focus of intense experimental and theoretical study since the original discovery in 1983, the experimental emphasis has been on heavy or mediumheavy nuclei. The theoretical interpretation of the EMC Effect is far from clear; it remains difficult to disentangle the ''conventional'' nuclear physics effects of binding and Fermi motion from more exotic effects. The study of the EMC Effect in light nuclei, where the detailed nuclear structure is well understood, and at large x, where effects from Fermi motion dominate, will add new insight into the underlying mechanism at work. Experiment E03103 at Jefferson Lab measured electron scattering cross sections from nuclei (A=3 to 197) and the deuteron to provide new data on the EMC Effect. These measurements will greatly improve the precision of the existing data set on 4He, provide the first measurement of the EMC Effect in 3He for x>0.5, a

  9. New data strengthen the connection between Short Range Correlations and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Weinstein, L B

    2012-01-01

    Recently published measurements of the two nucleon short range correlation ($NN$-SRC) scaling factors, $a_2(A/d)$, strengthen the previously observed correlation between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at $0.35\\le x_B\\le 0.7$ and the SRC scaling factor measured at $x_B \\ge 1$. The new results have improved precision and include previously unmeasured nuclei. The measurements of $a_2(A/d)$ for $^9$Be and $^{197}$Au agree with published predictions based on the EMC-SRC correlation. This paper examines the effects of the new data and of different corrections to the data on the slope and quality of the EMC-SRC correlation, the size of the extracted deuteron IMC effect, and the free neutron structure function. The results show that the linear EMC-SRC correlation is robust and that the slope of the correlation is insensitive to most combinations of corrections examined in this work. The inclusion of new nuclei shows that while neither the EMC effect nor the SRC scaling ...

  10. A change in strategy: Static emotion recognition in Malaysian Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystalle B.Y. Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that while East Asians focused on the center of the face to recognize identities, participants adapted their strategy by focusing more on the eyes to identify emotions, suggesting that the eyes may contain salient information pertaining to emotional state in Eastern cultures. However, Western Caucasians employ the same strategy by moving between the eyes and mouth to identify both identities and emotions. Malaysian Chinese have been shown to focus on the eyes and nose more than the mouth during face recognition task, which represents an intermediate between Eastern and Western looking strategies. The current study examined whether Malaysian Chinese continue to employ an intermediate strategy or shift towards an Eastern or Western pattern (by fixating more on the eyes or mouth respectively during an emotion recognition task. Participants focused more on the eyes, followed by the nose then mouth. Directing attention towards the eye region resulted in better recognition of certain own- than other-race emotions. Although the fixation patterns appear similar for both tasks, further analyses showed that fixations on the eyes were reduced whereas fixations on the nose and mouth were increased during emotion recognition, indicating that participants adapt looking strategies based on their aims.

  11. Marketing strategies in financial crisis : with change in mobile phone technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir, Rizwan; Ur Rehman, Attiq

    2010-01-01

    The financial crisis has affected every economy during the last decade thus under this changing environment that effect the marketing strategies and these strategies began to change according to the buying behavior of the people. In this research the consumer perspective is examined with the change in mobile phone technology. This is an industry of constant change and innovation in which manufacturers are continually developing new technologies for consumers. As the buying behavior of the con...

  12. URBAN INDIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE: MITIGATION STRATEGIES TOWARDS INCLUSIVE GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sohail; Mack Joong CHOI

    2010-01-01

    Climate change has been emerged as a major challenge for the sustainable human settlement. The recent studies have established scientific evidences for climate change. This paper presents impacts of climate change in the urban India, which has about 30 percent of population and expected to grow over 800 million by next 50 years. Citizens are already facing adverse impact of climate change, which is evenly spread throughout the country and mostly to vulnerable citizens. India’s expenditure on ...

  13. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  14. Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes and the flavor-dependent EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes are proposed as a promising tool with which to measure the flavor dependence of the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect, that is, the flavor-dependent modification of quark distributions in the nuclear medium. Existing pionic Drell-Yan data are compared with calculations using a recent model for nuclear quark distributions that incorporates flavor-dependent nuclear effects. While no firm conclusions can yet be drawn, we find that existing Drell-Yan data likely imply a flavor dependence of the EMC effect. We demonstrate that pion-induced Drell-Yan experiments on nuclear targets can access new aspects of the EMC effect not probed in deep inelastic scattering and can therefore provide important new constrains on the nuclear quark distributions. Predictions for possible future pion-induced Drell-Yan experiments are also presented.

  15. Connections among residual strong interaction, the EMC effect and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from the nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy part. The observed correlation supports the recent speculation that the nuclear dependence of quark distributions depend on the local nuclear density. This phenomenological relationship can be used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron. Most importantly, the EMC slopes $dR_{EMC}/dx$ of nuclei can be predicted with the nuclear binding energy data. The relationship between nucleon-nucleon (N-N) short range correlation (SRC) and RSIE is also presented.

  16. Human Cell Tropism and Innate Immune System Interactions of Human Respiratory Coronavirus EMC Compared to Those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Zielecki, F.; Weber, M.; Eickmann, M.; Spiegelberg, L.; Zaki, A. M.; Matrosovich, M.; Becker, S.; Weber, F.

    2013-01-01

    Infections with human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) are associated with severe pneumonia. We demonstrate that HCoV-EMC resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in productively infecting primary and continuous cells of the human airways and in preventing the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) responses. However, HCoV-EMC was markedly more sensitive to the antiviral state established by ectopic IFN. Thus,...

  17. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W., E-mail: wei.zhang@ipp.mpg.de [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lunt, T.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Brida, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Jacquet, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 10{sup 22} electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  18. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D2) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 1022 electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments

  19. Results from FNAL E745 on neutrino-nucleus interactions (EMC effect and hadron formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dark tracks (stubs) in high energy neutrino-nucleus interactions in the Tohoku High Resolution Freon Bubble Chamber are investigated. Classifying events into groups by using the dark tracks, correlations between the dark track production and neutrino interactions are studied. Events without dark tracks comprise a reasonable sample of events which occurred on quasi-free nucleons inside nucleus. By comparing the groups using the no dark track group as a comparison sample instead of neutrino-deuterium events, the EMC effect and hadron formation are investigated. This method provides new results which differ somewhat from the conventional data for the EMC effect and formation-rescattering. 10 refs., 17 figs

  20. EMC studies for the vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrade of the Belle II experiment plans to use a vertex detector based on two different technologies, DEPFET pixel (PXD) technology and double side silicon microstrip (SVD) technology. The vertex electronics are characterized by the topology of SVD bias that forces to design a sophisticated grounding because of the floating power scheme. The complex topology of the PXD power cable bundle may introduce some noise inside the vertex area. This paper presents a general overview of the EMC issues present in the vertex system, based on EMC tests on an SVD prototype and a study of noise propagation in the PXD cable bundle based on Multi-conductor transmission line theory

  1. GPS Synchronization and EMC of Harmonic and Transient Measurement Equipment in Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Arana, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    measurements. The paper clearly presents possible electromagnetic interference in wind turbines that can affect measurements. Also the application of appropriate mitigation techniques such as data acquisition board configuration, coaxial cable leading, as well as usage of EMC-proof boxes for high frequency...... synchronization, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) challenges during the development, construction, testing and installation of a measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term data logging is described in this paper. The presented measurement system was tested in a rough...

  2. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In this paper specific hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational culture and certain change strategies are formulated. Types of organizational culture are differentiated according to Handy’s and Trompenaars’ classifications. Organizational change strategies have been differentiated according to previous work of Chin & Benne but one more strategy has been added. Classifications of both the organizational cultures and of the organizational change strategies are based on the same criteria of differentiation: distribution of power in an organization and orientation toward relationships or tasks. For this reason it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational cultures and certain types of organizational change strategies. Thus, eight hypotheses are formulated in this paper, relating particular change strategies with particular types of organizational culture.

  3. PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF DIRECTING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE VIA LABORATORY TRAINING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENNIS, WARREN G.

    THIS CHAPTER OF A LARGER WORK ON THE SOCIOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE SUGGESTS GUIDELINES FOR USING LABORATORY TRAINING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL SYSTEMS. THE ULTIMATE AIM OF SUCH TRAINING IS NOT ONLY TO IMPART HUMAN RELATIONS SKILLS TO THE PARTICIPANTS, BUT ALSO TO CHANGE ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES SO THAT HUMAN FEELINGS ARE REGARDED AS…

  4. Effective Strategies for Talking about Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about climate science presents some unique challenges. Unlike many other science topics, mitigation and adaptation to climate change will require students to take action. This article outlines five major challenges to communicating about climate change in the classroom, drawing on research in environmental psychology: scepticism,…

  5. Climate Change and Poverty : An Integrated Strategy for Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Cord, Louise; Hull, Catherine; Hennet, Christel; Van der Vink, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries are most exposed to the impact of climate change and within these countries, the poor face the brunt of the burden. Climate change is not a discrete problem that can be dealt with through isolated reforms: impacting economic growth, health, and institutional capacity, it represents a full-frontal challenge to development. This note traces the multi-dimensional impacts ...

  6. Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by rice farmers in Southwestern, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode Arimi

    2014-01-01

    Poor adaptation to climate change is a major threat to sustainable rice production in Nigeria. Determinants of appropriate climate-change adaptation strategies used by rice farmers in Southwestern Nigeria have not been fully investigated. In this study, the determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by rice farmers in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Data were obtained through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and field survey conducted in the study areas. Data obtained wer...

  7. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability and w...... scales and the implications for resilience....... work with a number of barriers for resilience. The objective of the article is first to address the position of institutional barriers in the studies and strategies. Second the article analyses the role human agency is ascribed in proposed strategies and projects in Nunavut and Greenland. With a focus...

  8. Incorporating climate change into corporate business strategies. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the papers presented at the International Climate Change Conference and Technologies Exhibition June 12-13, 1997. Topics include energy supply and electricity generation; forestry and agriculture; and the chemical, energy, and manufacturing industries.

  9. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  10. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of c...

  11. Physic Nut: A Proactive Climate Change Risk Management Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, M. A.; Orire, I. O.

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the regional variability in the causes and effects of Climate Change, it poses a major threat to both global human and ecological survival. Therefore, adapting and mitigating its consequences require an integrated approach which is not mutually exclusive of any specialization as enshrined in the Kyoto protocol. This paper reviews the concept, cause, impacts of climate change vis-a-vis the cultivation and viability of Jatropha curcas plant as a pro-active adaptation and mitigatio...

  12. Degrees of change: Steps towards an Ontario global warming strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, M.; Jessup, P.; Lourie, B.; Macdonald, M.; Makuch, Z.; Valiante, M.; Warner, B.

    1991-06-01

    The measures and policy strategies that would be required to achieve a 20% reduction in Ontario carbon dioxide emissions by 2005 are explored. Estimates of primary and secondary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for 1988 and 2005 are presented, and three strategies are examined in each end-use sector: energy efficiency, fuel switching, and renewable energy measures. For the residential, commercial, transport, industrial, and iron/steel industry sectors, a profile of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy intensity trends is offered, opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction and measures to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are described, and the economic and social implications are discussed. Natural gas cogeneration is examined as a technological option for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and creating important opportunities for the Ontario economy. The role of energy utility reform in CO{sub 2} emissions reduction is assessed in an examination of the key factors needed for the design and implementation of demand side management programs that achieve high participation rates and significant reductions in energy demand. 102 refs., 6 figs., 53 tabs.

  13. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  14. Developing consensus in response to regulatory change: a survival strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years now, the nuclear industry has implemented basic regulatory guides and pursued evolving incremental changes by de facto execution of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission codes or in anticipation of them. The purpose of this paper is to describe a consensus-building process recently employed by industry representatives to respond to changes to 10CFR55, Operator's Licenses and Conforming Amendment. This process resulted from the necessity for industry stakeholders to evaluate the impact of pending regulatory change. It also highlighted the need for more dialogue in the industry and the potential of expanding links with academic representatives. In addition, the paper reports participants; documentation of unnecessary regulatory constraint and vagueness of new terminology and requirements

  15. Macromodeling of Digital I/O Ports for System EMC Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Stievano, Igor Simone; Maio, Ivano Adolfo; Canavero, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of accurate and efficient behavioral models of digital integrated circuit input and output ports for EMC and signal integrity simulations. A practical modeling process is proposed and applied to some example devices. The modeling process is simple and efficient, and it yields models performing at a very high accuracy level

  16. GPS Synchronization and EMC of Harmonic and Transient Measurement Equipment in Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper; Sørensen, Troels; Bak, Claus Leth; Holbøll, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    measurements. The paper clearly presents possible electromagnetic interference in wind turbines that can affect measurements. Also the application of appropriate mitigation techniques such as data acquisition board configuration, coaxial cable leading, as well as usage of EMC-proof boxes for high frequency...

  17. Parton distribution of nucleon and nuclear EMC effect in a statistical model

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xian-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    We study the parton distribution of nucleon and nuclear EMC effect in a statistical model. We find when we choose the parameters appropriately, the predictions given by pure statistical laws can fit the experimental data well in most range of $x$, this reveal statistical law play an important role in the parton distribution of nucleon.

  18. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as CODcr, TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO3, TP, PO4 and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. - Research highlights: → Field test on urban highway were performed to 50 of 100 storm events for 3 years. → The peak pollutant concentrations occurs 20 min after the first runoff. → The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and rainfall intensity. → Relationship between runoff and event mean concentration for SS and COD. → A crest of the EMC by 70-80 m3/event and decreasing EMC after 70-80 m3/event. - This study investigate the characterization of the EMC of runoff during rainfall event on highway.

  19. Elektromagnetiline ühildatavus - probleemide jada aastast 1930 : EMC = EMI + EMS / Peeter Lamster

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamster, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Elektrisüsteemist lähtuvast seadmete tööd häirivast elektromagnetilisest inferentsist (EMI), elektromagnetilise haavatavuse (EMS) vähendamisest ja elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse (EMC) tagamisest. Elektromagnetilise ühildatavuse tähtsusest sõjanduses

  20. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Noise Background Testing for Double Chooz PMT System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double Chooz PMT system is a HV/signal splitter. In this report is presented an electromagnetic compatibility and background noise testing for the Double Chooz PMT system. It was possible to proceed the EMC testing on different grounding configurations of PMT splitter due to its special PCB design, endowed of jumping points and a metal box ground electrode. (Author)

  1. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Noise Background Testing for Double Chooz PMT System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepero, J. R.; Encabo Fernandez, F. J.; Pepe, I.; Verdugo, A.

    2009-05-21

    The Double Chooz PMT system is a HV/signal splitter. In this report is presented an electromagnetic compatibility and background noise testing for the Double Chooz PMT system. It was possible to proceed the EMC testing on different grounding configurations of PMT splitter due to its special PCB design, endowed of jumping points and a metal box ground electrode. (Author)

  2. Adjustment Strategies Revisited: Agricultural Change in the Welsh Marches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, much attention was paid by British agricultural geographers to the restructuring of the farm sector under pressures of national, European and global change. The need to adopt a perspective capable of looking beyond the farm gate inspired the introduction of modified political economy approaches into agricultural…

  3. Date and Acquaintance Rape: Perceptions and Attitude Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patrick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the dimensions of university students' (n=96) attitudes toward date and acquaintance rape. Examined the effects of a program designed to change those attitudes. Found college men had substantially greater tendencies to blame the victim for date and acquaintance rape than did women. (Author/ABL)

  4. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  5. The Scanfin Merger: Technology, Strategy and Change (Case D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    order to do so, he has been commanded to overcome the barriers between business and IT people and to act pro-actively to achieve the necessary business changes. At the start of the project, however, Olaf Dahlberg, the Norwegian CIO, is fired brutally after making a comment on the IT line co...

  6. Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Organic Agriculture (OA) as an adaptation strategy (AS) to Climate Change (CC) is a concrete and promising option for adaptation in rural communities. OA has additional potential as a mitigation strategy (MS). This text is a short review note on this topic. Adaptation and mitigation based on OA can build on well-established practice as OA is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of experience in several climate zones and under a wide range of specific local conditions. Given the larg...

  7. 77 FR 19661 - Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental... Protection Agency is publishing for public comment a draft long-range strategy that describes how the agency... to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted...

  8. Climate change, markets and livelihood strategies for adaptation in vulnerable Altiplano Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Seth, Anji

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a framework of scales and interactions, Altiplano climate trends and change, markets, livelihood strategies and perceptions of risks across the Altiplano ecosystem, uncertainty, and participatory research in adaptive capacities. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  9. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  10. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosis of peritoneal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungoci, Corneliu; Mironiuc, Aurel Ion; Muntean, Valentin; Oniu, Traian; Leebmann, Hubert; Mayr, Max; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-15

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was link with "terminal status/despair". The current multimodal treatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, but seems to be the best treatment option for PM patients. As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasize some milestones and also, controversies in the history of proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outline the philosophy of this approach, which seems to be an unusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear, but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of human and material resources (multi-center and -institutional research), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPEC found their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4 years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodal treatment, by launching research pathways. In selected patients, with requires training, it demonstrated a significant survival results (similar to the Hepatic Metastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs. The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatment were based on the oncologists' perspective and the small number of randomized clinical trials. It is important to statement the PM patient has the right to be informed of the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatment resource, the decision being made by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26798438

  11. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosisof peritoneal metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases(PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was linkwith "terminal status/despair". The current multimodaltreatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery(CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, butseems to be the best treatment option for PM patients.As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasizesome milestones and also, controversies in the historyof proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outlinethe philosophy of this approach, which seems to be anunusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear,but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of humanand material resources (multi-center and -institutionalresearch), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPECfound their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodaltreatment, by launching research pathways. In selectedpatients, with requires training, it demonstrated asignificant survival results (similar to the HepaticMetastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs.The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatmentwere based on the oncologists' perspective and the smallnumber of randomized clinical trials. It is important tostatement the PM patient has the right to be informedof the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatmentresource, the decision being made by multidisciplinaryteams.

  12. The Chang Management Strategies and Processes for Successful ERP Implementation-A Case Study of MADAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hala M Al-Shamlan; Abdullah S Al-Mudimigh

    2011-01-01

    Top management usually faces an unexpected attitude from potential users during implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. For one reason or another, they resist the implementation process and may cause the failure of ERP system. Therefore, top management should be deal with this problem using effective change management strategies and processes. In this paper, we discuss the successful change management strategies and processes in literature. A case study of MADAR has been pr...

  13. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Phillipo; Magreth Bushesha; Zebedayo S. K. Mvena

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of...

  14. Climate change, vulnerability and the local adaptation strategies of food enterprises in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Puupponen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses vulnerability and the adaptation strategies of Finnish food supply chains in the context of climate change. A case study was conducted in 2012 within three Finnish regions. The people interviewed were food entrepreneurs, the managers of food enterprises and relevant stakeholders. According to the study, food enterprises seem to trust local and decentralised food supply chains as an adaptation strategy for combating climate change. Hence, the case study di...

  15. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  16. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  17. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management.

  18. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management

  19. The Chang Management Strategies and Processes for Successful ERP Implementation-A Case Study of MADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M Al-Shamlan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Top management usually faces an unexpected attitude from potential users during implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP system. For one reason or another, they resist the implementation process and may cause the failure of ERP system. Therefore, top management should be deal with this problem using effective change management strategies and processes. In this paper, we discuss the successful change management strategies and processes in literature. A case study of MADAR has been presented to discover the strategies and processes used for the successful enterprise system.

  20. Hydropower, an integral part of Canada's climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and implementation of a climate change policy could be among the most far-reaching environmental initiatives ever embarked upon in Canada and abroad. If Canada is to stabilize or reduce its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over the long term, a significant adjustment to Canadian industry will be required as we move away from fossil fuel-intensive and GHG producing activities. Future hydroelectric projects provide Canada with a unique opportunity to significantly reduce the costs associated with stabilizing its GHG emissions. In addition, the energy storage and dispatchability associated with hydropower can support development of other low emitting renewable resources such as wind and solar. This document discusses the potential role of hydropower as a tool to reduce emissions, recommends action to reduce barriers facing hydropower and comments on some of the policy tools available to manage Canada's GHG emissions. (author)

  1. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  2. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Boeckmann; Hajo Zeeb

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strate...

  3. How does a change in the control room design affect diagnostic strategies in nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, main control rooms have been considerably changed by modern computer techniques. Some of the features that distinguish digital control rooms from conventional, analog rooms in nuclear power plants include advanced alarm systems, graphic information display systems, computerized procedure systems, and soft control. These features can bring changes in operator tasks, changing the characteristics of tasks or creating new tasks for operators. It is especially expected that these features may bring out changes in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in a digital control room as compared with an analog control room. This study investigates the differences in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in analog and digital control rooms. This study also attempts to evaluate how new systems in a digital control room affect diagnostic strategies. Three different approaches, which are complementary, are used to identify diagnostic strategies in the digital control room and in the analog control room: (1) observation in the simulator, (2) interview with operators, and (3) a literature review. The results show that the digital control room introduces new diagnosis strategies compared with the analog control room while also changing the characteristics of the strategies, mostly by gaining more support from the computerized system. (author)

  4. Understanding the cost of change Function: A basis for using an effective small step change strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Peter A.; Basheer M. Khumawala

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops the cost of change function under the Continuous Improvement (CI) paradigm advocated by quality gurus such as Deming, Taguchi, and Shingo. CI is considered to be focusing on "frame bending" or minor changes while Organizational Change (OC) is considered to be focusing on "frame breaking " or major changes. The cost of change function is modified to be a discrete function incorporating a "monitoring" cost component and a "doing" cost element, which leads to a better underst...

  5. Thermal stability of LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingsong; SUN Jinhua; CHEN Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of lithium-ion battery electrolyte could substantially affect the safety of lithium-ion battery. In order to disclose the thermal stability of 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)+dimethyl carbonate (DMC)+ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) electrolyte, a micro calorimeter C80 micro calorimeter was used in this paper. The electrolyte samples were heated in argon atmosphere, and the heat flow and pressure performances were detected. It is found that LiPF6 influences the thermal behavior remarkably, with more heat generation and lower onset temperature. LiPF6/EC shows an exothermic peak at 212 ℃ with a heat of reaction -355.4J·g-1.DMC based LiPF6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 68.5 and 187 ℃ in argon filled vessel at elevated temperature. EMC based LiPF 6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 191 and 258 ℃ in argon filled vessel.1.0mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+ EMC electrolyte shows an endothermic and exothermic process one after the other at elevated temperature. By comparing with the thermal behavior of single solvent based LiPF6 solution, it can be speculated that LiPF6 may react with EC, DMC and EMC separately in 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte, but the exothermic peak is lower than that of 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC solution. Furthermore, The 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6 /EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte decomposition reaction order was calculated based on the pressure data, its value is n =1.83, and the pressure rate constants kp=6.49×10-2k Pa·-0.83·min-1 .

  6. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  7. Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report, Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America, reports the results of action research to identify and prioritize stakeholder driven, locally relevant response options to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The study has three primary objectives. The first is to develop and apply a pilot methodology for assessing agricultural ...

  8. Interpretation of the EMC-SLAC effect and its A dependence in self-consistent approach without exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of interpretation of the self-consistent description of the EMC-SLAC effect A-dependence on the basis of standard representation of nuclear structure is discussed. Different models suggested for description of the EMC effect satisfying the following requirements: conservation of energy-momentum; conservation of baryon charge; self-consistent description of static, spectroscopic an dynamic characteristics of nucleus; account of space-time picture of the process; absence of free parameters in description of EMC effect A-dependence, are discussed. Results of self-consistent calculations of structure functions for d, 12C, 56Fe, 108Ag are presented. The carried out consideration permitted to conclude that EMC effect and its A dependence are not critical to selection of meson or quark phenomenology and the latter is not applied as exotics at the background of usual description

  9. Dynamics of three-dimensional radiative structures during RMP assisted detached plasmas on the large helical device and its comparison with EMC3-EIRENE modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shwetang N.; Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ida, Katsumi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Sano, Ryuichi; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Hirohiko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Motojima, Gen; Ohno, Noriyasu; LHD Experiment Group

    2016-04-01

    The resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) island introduced in the stochastic edge of the large helical device (LHD) plasma plays an important role in the stabilization of the plasma detachment (Kobayashi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 093032). The plasma enters in the sustained detachment phase in the presence of an RMP once the line averaged density exceeds a critical value with a given input power. During detachment the enhanced radiation from the stochastic edge of the LHD undergoes several spatiotemporal changes which are studied quantitatively by an infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic. The experimental results are compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the radiation predicted by the 3D transport simulation with fluid model, EMC3-EIRENE. A fair amount of qualitative agreement, before and after the detachment, is reported. The issue of overestimated radiation from the model is addressed by changing the free parameters in the EMC3-EIRENE code till the total radiation and the radiation profiles match closely, within a factor of two with the experimental observations. A better quantitative match between the model and the experiment is achieved at higher cross-field impurity diffusion coefficient and lower sputtering coefficient after the detachment. In this article a comparison, the first of its kind, is established between the quantified radiation from the experiments and the synthetic image obtained from the simulation code. This exercise is aimed towards validating the model assumptions against the experimentally measured radiation.

  10. The Impact of changed organizational structures- on middle managers' perception of strategy and people management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    Much research on organizational change and middle management has emphasized the idea of flatter more performance- and customer focused organizations, in which middle managers’ main responsibilities concern elements of organizational change and development such as strategy involvement, and managing...... managers reported that the amount of managerial levels had actually been reduced in the last three years. Secondly, middle managers who had experienced such a reduction perceived aspects of strategy and organizational development as more important. Thirdly, such a reduction did not introduce significant...... changes in their perception of people management. Implications for research and practice are addressed in the discussion....

  11. Changes in competitive strategies due to deregulation and privatization in the petroleum industry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is part of a series of four dedicated to the study of the global oil competition game through the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. By means of a questionnaire answered by top executives in ten oil companies, the authors investigate the changes in the competitive strategy of these companies in the downstream side of the oil business due to deregulation and privatization. The paper starts by establishing the relationship between Porter's generic competitive strategies and specific competitive methods. Then, it describes how companies have changes their competitive methods after privatization and major deregulation. Changes in the industry structure are also analyzed. (authors)

  12. Climate change mitigation strategies in Germany. Integrated dynamic approach to the year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national strategy for mitigation of the consequences of a climate change has to take into account the national economic welfare. With regard to this, a cost effective greenhouse gas mitigation strategy that aims at maximizing the amount of CO2 reduced per German Mark invested is of paramount importance. The climate change, a sound economy, a sustainable environment and security of energy supply have to be taken as a unit, on which political and economic decisions should focus. The study presents different climate change mitigation options aiming at achieving environmentally and economically compatible solutions for abatement of energy related greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. (author). 5 figs

  13. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  14. EMC Testing on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) - A Summary of the EMC Test Campaign for the Science Payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft/observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  15. Testing a participatory strategy to change hygiene behaviour: face washing in central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; West, S K; Muñoz, B; Kayongoya, A; Taylor, H R; Mmbaga, B B

    1994-01-01

    A participatory strategy to increase face washing was designed and tested in central Tanzania. Changing children's face-washing behaviour is postulated to be important in preventing the transmission of eye disease, particularly blinding trachoma. The strategy used non-formal adult education techniques at neighbourhood level meetings to build a community consensus to keep children's faces clean for the prevention of eye disease. Men, women, schoolchildren, traditional healers and village social groups participated in the intervention. The strategy was evaluated by observing changes in numbers of clean faces of a sample of preschool children in the village. Clean faces increased from 9% to 33% over the course of a year. Factors which were related to sustained change in children's clean faces included distance to water, age of the child, and presence of a corrugated metal roof. Owning cattle was associated with lack of sustainable change in this population. PMID:7992324

  16. Business Climate Change Adaptation Strategies as Contributions towards a Sustainable Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Julia Toledo Ribeiro; Dunkerley, Sophie; Nichols, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is happening, presenting threats and opportunities for society as a whole and business in particular. The transition to a low carbon economy as a result of climate change offers opportunities for business; it also represents an opportunity to create a more sustainable society. This paper considers how a business response to the climate change challenge can be used as a leverage to move towards sustainability. The focus is on adaptation strategies adopted to address the threats ...

  17. Implications of land ecosystem-atmosphere interactions for strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to predicting climate change, assessing its impacts and planning mitigation strategies tends to be compartmentalized, leading to inadequate or incomplete advice for climate policy. Climate models used for future global warming predictions and attribution of past changes generally consider only global climate drivers, ignoring local drivers, such as land use change and urban effects. Impacts studies are generally carried out in isolation from each other and hence ignore i...

  18. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers\\\\\\' Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kitinya, Kirina T.; Onwonga, Richard N.; Cecilia Onyango; Joseph P. Mbuvi; Geoffrey Kironchi

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV) from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainf...

  19. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers’ Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kitinya, Kirina T.; Onwonga, Richard N.; Cecilia Onyango; Joseph P. Mbuvi; Geoffrey Kironchi

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV) from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainf...

  20. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In ...

  1. Economic analysis of climate change adaptation strategies in selected coastal areas in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, M.L.; Sajise, A.J.U.; Ramirez, P.J.B.; Arias, J.K.B.; A. H. Purnomo; Dipasupil, S.R.; Regoniel, P.A.; Nguyen, K.A.T.; Zamora, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards. Their situation is further compli...

  2. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  3. Analysis of semileptonic decays and EMC data. No real evidence for strange quarks in the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton model with three valence quarks, a sea of nonstrange quark-antiquark pairs and no strange quark is shown to fit all the EMC and semileptonic baryon decay data used in previous analyses. Conclusions requiring strange quarks in the proton are shown to depend crucially on a model-dependent assumption, invalid for this model, that SU(3) symmetry relates matrix elements of charge and neutral axial currents. The nonstrange sea breaks SU(3) badly and contributes to the neutral current matrix elements relevant to the semileptonic decays. Thus the standard SU(3) analysis of semileptonic decays holds for this model but gives no information on the sea contribution to EMC. (author)

  4. Measurement of the EMC effect on nuclei with different mass number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis the analysis of the NA2' experiment of the European Muon Collaboration was treated. The result is the measurement of the EMC effect on deuterium, carbon, copper, and tin with low statistical and systematic errors. The experiment was after the discovery of the EMC effect in the year 1983 concepted just for this purpose. By an able target construction and by the periodic exchange of the different targets it could be reached that the geometrical acceptances of the experiment were identical for the different targets and that by this scarcely corrections for the measured event rates resulted. The most important physical correction of the raw data was the electromagnetic radiative correction which was performed with special regards to the nuclear effects. A manifold of systematic studies was performed in order to confirm the measurements results and to facilitate an estimation of systematic errors. (orig./HSI)

  5. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Musa Hasen

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effec...

  6. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, Rhona; Benfield, Greg; Francis, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curri...

  7. High Frequency Model of Electrified Railway Propulsion System for EMC Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Kelin

    2012-01-01

    A model of the electrified railway propulsion system working in a wide frequency range is studied in this thesis. The high frequency modeling is the first stage to study and predict the Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems in the electrified railway propulsion system, which are safety and reliability issues of high concern. Modeling methods and models for the line converter, motor power supply module, and the traction motor are developed. These models can work individually or be combi...

  8. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, P; M. Kuban; P. Horsky

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME) of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC). The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC) and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three te...

  9. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  10. EMC-SLAC effect from quark clustering and constituent quark Fermi motion and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A-dependence of the EMC-effect, as recently measured at SLAC, has been calculated from the probability of forming > 3q clusters, by using the space-time wavefunction of valence quarks, and assuming nuclei to be in hexagonal or cubic dense packing. A fair fit to the x-distributions of sigmasub(A)/sigmasub(d) is obtained, investing the valence quark's average Fermi momentum and mass from our previous determinations. (orig.)

  11. Detection and Reduction of EMC Problems in Microwave Antenna Feed Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Kaloyan I. Zlatkov; Dankov, Plamen I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers several spread internal EMC problems, which take place in some microwave passive non-antenna devices – parasitic radiation, “high-altitude” fields, crosstalk, grounding inefficiency, etc. Near-field scanning combined with electromagnetic simulations have been used for their prediction and detection. Several design rules have been discussed to avoid these problems in the multi-layer antenna arrays up to Ka band.

  12. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. PMID:27241441

  13. Transport Properties of Graphene and Suspended Graphene with EMC: The Role of Various Scattering Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, M. D.; Atasever, Ö. S.; Özdemir, B.; Yarar, Z.; Özdemir, M.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic transport properties of graphene and suspended (intrinsic) graphene sheets are studied using an ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) technique. The combined scattering mechanisms that are taken into account for both cases are nonpolar optic and acoustic phonons, ionized impurity, interface roughness, and surface polar phonon scatterings. The effect of screening is also considered in the ionized impurity and surface polar phonon scatterings of electrons. A rejection technique is used in EMC simulations to account for the occupancy of the final states. Velocity-field characteristics of graphene and suspended graphene sheets are obtained using various values of acoustic deformation potential constants. The variation of electron mobility of graphene is studied as a function of electron concentration and its variation as a function of temperature are investigated for the case of suspended graphene. For the former case, the mobility increases with electron concentration first and after a certain value of electron concentration it begins to decrease, while for the latter case the mobility decreases almost linearly with temperature. The mobility results from EMC simulations are compatible with the existing experimental studies for the unsuspended graphene case.

  14. Taking a climate chance: a procedural critique of Vietnam's climate change strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, François

    2010-01-01

    This article asks through what processes and for which interests the emerging Vietnamese climate change strategy is being designed, and if, ultimately, it is likely or not to be effective in the face of the looming threat. Through a review of an emerging body of literature and field observations, the paper finds the strategy partial and problematic in several ways. Its technocratic process prevents a pluralist representation of interests, obfuscating and perpetuating sectorial ones, at the expense of a more transparent and democratic resource allocation. The strategy therefore reflects and reinforces existing power relations in both politics and production. It feeds into a business-as-usual complacency, protecting national and international interests vested in unchallenged continuity, even when considering post-carbon technological fixes, which largely serve to expand capital accumulation opportunities. The article concludes that the national climate change strategy provides an illusion of intervention and security, but largely fails to identify and mitigate the underlying causes of climate change, or to lay the ground for a robust mid- and long-term adaptation strategy that can cope with yet unknown levels of climatic and other structural changes. PMID:21132943

  15. Strategy implementation and organizational change in healthcare organizations - a distributed change leadership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    This paper examines some theoretical underpinnings of distributed leadership and its ability to serve as change leadership during the process of major organizational changes in healthcare organizations. The study was initiated as part of a larger research project on distributed leadership (DL......) in the healthcare sector, financed by a research grant addressing both empirical and theoretical questions. The paper clarifies the relationship between distributed leadership and change leadership, and more specifically, the characteristics of distributed leadership in the change leadership process. We also...... propose a distributed change leadership (DCL) model that permits further development of research design and empirical studies of DCL. On a more general side, with this paper we shed more light on some aspects of leadership patterns in healthcare, where there is a distinct gap....

  16. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  17. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  18. Formation of Marketing Strategies and Programs in the Context of Global Change

    OpenAIRE

    Vedernikova Olga A.; Babenko Nataliya V.; Rybas Yana N.

    2012-01-01

    This article gived an analysis of modern trends in globalization processes and their connection with the formation of a global business strategy. It was substantiated the topicality of forming a new conceptual approach to strategy development in a «stable instability». It was proposed a model of development strategy, which involves the formation of interconnected network of alternative strategies, and allows flexible to adapt to changing conditions.В статье выполнен анализ современных тенденц...

  19. Maintenance strategies and safety on a deregulated market. Mapping of changes in maintenance strategies and their possible consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of the project was to make a survey of the changes in the Swedish nuclear power plants over the last five years. There is a risk that nuclear power companies after a deregulation will focus especially on reducing operation and maintenance costs and that the changes could have a negative effect on the reactor safety. The task has involved summarising the actual changes, describing the present situation, the need for future development and the differences between the plants as well as identifying possible reactor safety related risks. The survey has been carried out in a broad perspective, studying the changes in equipment, maintenance strategies and the work situation of the staff. Three case studies were carried out at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Documentation from the companies has been analysed and a selection of in total 27 'informed' employees in different positions have been interviewed in total. The project also included a fourth case study concerning railway traffic. This branch of business is interesting because of its longer experience on a deregulated and competitive market. Conclusions concerning the companies individually as well as similarities and differences between them are presented in this report. Results: There have been more changes both in strategy and organisation in the last five years than during the preceding 5-10-year-period and the pace has been relatively rapid. The deregulation of the electricity market was implemented January 1997 and became the main motive force for the changes. The staffing has been reduced or unchanged and the work demands have increased. The maintenance skills have been redistributed within the organisation. New methods and equipment, i.e. RCM, and programmable systems make increased demands for analytical and theoretical competence. In the short term, job satisfaction and motivation have in some cases been negatively influenced by the new organisation forms, according to several of the

  20. International Strategy For Climate Change And The Countries Commitment For Developing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovska-Stefanova, Aneta; Vckova, Nadica

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is not only a modern term that is constantly used in international politics to show awareness about this significant issue in the world media, or as a subject that states have to consider as important in the future when the world will be politically and economically more stabile. Climate change has become a global political and environmental challenge for humanity over the last decades. Therefore, coordinate approach of the countries and international strategy for disaster risk...

  1. Adapting to change in the Andes: Practices and strategies for vulnerable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings of the SANREM CRSP research project "Practices and strategies for vulnerable agro-ecosystems", with specific regard to the impact of climate change. Research highlights focus on the importance of developing multiple types of capital to make farmers and farming systems more resilient in the face of climate change. The presentation also discusses the significance of pest and disease forecasting technologies in assisting producers. LTRA-4 (Practices a...

  2. Identity work during strategic change: Coping strategies, dynamics and complexities. Case Aalto Univeristy School of Business

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of the study was to contribute to a better understanding of the intra-organizational identity work during strategic change. Based on earlier research strategic change is known to cause disruption to the members ongoing identity work in an organization. The aim of this study was to find out how the new strategy and organizational identity were interpreted among the members of the organization, and what kind of disruptions did the new identity-challenging...

  3. Implementing an Open Source Learning Management System: A Critical Analysis of Change Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the change and innovation strategies that Charles Sturt University (CSU) used from 2007 to 2009 during the implementation and mainstreaming of an open source learning management system (LMS), Sakai, named locally as "CSU Interact". CSU was in January 2008 the first Australian University to implement an open source learning…

  4. Organizational Strategies for Promoting Instructional Change: Implementation Dynamics in Schools Working with Comprehensive School Reform Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Brian; Miller, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for studying how three comprehensive school reform (CSR) programs organized schools for instructional change and how the distinctive strategies they pursued affected implementation outcomes. The conceptual model views the Accelerated Schools Project as using a system of cultural control to produce…

  5. Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

  6. The impacts of influence strategies on organizational subgroup members' evaluations of management accounting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten

    2014-01-01

    This research project investigates how different influence strategies affect business unit managers’ and controllers’ evaluations of the success of a management accounting change (MAC). Using survey data on paired observations from managers and controllers in 68 business units, I find that influence

  7. Organisational strategies for changing clinical practice: how trusts are meeting the challenges of clinical governance

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, L.; Freeman, T.; Latham, L; Walshe, K; Spurgeon, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To describe the use, perceived effectiveness, and predicted future use of organisational strategies for influencing clinicians' behaviour in the approach of NHS trusts to clinical governance, and to ascertain the perceived benefits of clinical governance and the barriers to change.

  8. Economic Legal and Political Framework of the EU Strategy on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODEA Al.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study are presented essential legislative asepects of the strategy regarding the European Uniongrowing problem of climate change There are briefly outlined the most important documents adopted at European levelin the last decade in order to reduce the extent that this phenomenon reached, from Kyoto Protocol, to the most recentEU legislation in this area.

  9. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  10. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-12-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  11. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  12. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Phillipo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of information. The collected information were analysed by using content analysis. This paper found that smallholder farmers use a variety of practices to adapt to climate variability and change. These practices include: crop management, livestock management, diversification of livelihood strategies and land use management. Availability of extension services, climate change information and membership to social networks were among the factors identified dictating smallholder farmers adaptation to climate variability and change. The paper recommends to the Government of sub-Saharan Africa and development partners to come up with adaptation framework that takes into consideration differences in geographical location. They are needed also to provide enabling conditions to smallholder farmers through strengthening farmers’ supportive services to enhance their adaptive capacities.

  13. The impact of climate change on grain maize production over Europe - adaptation with different irrigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglar, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Chukaliev, O.; Duveiller, G.; Niemeyer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of water deficit and maize yield deficit across Europe has been compared between current and expected climatic conditions in the near future (time window 2030). Maize yields and water requirements were simulated using the WOFOST (World Food Studies) crop growth model. In our study, the priority has been given to future projections of the A1B emission scenario produced within the ENSEMBLE project: HadRM3 RCM nested within the HADCM3 GCM (HADLEY) and HIRHAM5 RCM nested within ECHAM5 GCM (ECHAM). The two realizations can be considered as warm (HADLEY) and cold (ECHAM5) according to simulated temperature in the near future and therefore represent the extremes in air temperature change within those analyzed in ENSEMBLES project, allowing us to evaluate the largest range of uncertainty in weather inputs to the impact model. In addition, we also explored the advantages of different irrigation strategies for the target crop to offset climate change impacts. In wake of limited amount of water availability for agriculture purposes, we explored effectiveness of three different irrigation strategies on maize yield over Europe, namely full, deficit and supplemental irrigation. The results of our study indicate that the maize yield under rainfed conditions is expected to decrease over the Southern Europe as well as regions around the Black Sea during the 2030s under both climate model realizations. Water deficit is expected to increase especially in the Mediterranean, whereas slightly less in parts of Central and Western Europe. However, adaptation strategies followed in this study negate the detrimental effect of climate change and result in an increased maize yield. Three irrigation strategies have been simulated differing in timing of water application and in the total volume of water supplied during the growing season. The results show that yields, achieved using deficit and full irrigation strategies, are not significantly different. Hence, at least

  14. Changes in parenting strategies after a young person’s self-harm: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrey, AE; Hughes, ND; Simkin, S; Locock, L; Stewart, A; Kapur, N; Gunnell, D; Hawton, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background When faced with the discovery of their child’s self-harm, mothers and fathers may re-evaluate their parenting strategies. This can include changes to the amount of support they provide their child and changes to the degree to which they control and monitor their child. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with 37 parents of young people who had self-harmed in which we explored how and why their parenting changed after the discovery of self-harm. Re...

  15. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are kno...... to modify the dynamic behavior of the structure. In this paper, a procedure to optimize the mass change strategy is proposed, which uses the modal parameters(natural frequencies and mode shapes) of the original structure as the basic information....

  16. Rubber Cash Crop and Changes in Livelihoods Strategies in a Village in Northeastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Maniemai Thongyou

    2014-01-01

    This research article aims to explain the changes of livelihoods strategies in a village in the Northeast region of Thailand after the introduction of rubber as cash crop. Northeast region is considered a new rubber growing area of Thailand, the world’s largest rubber exporter. A village in Udornthani province was selected as a case study for a qualitative research conducted in 2012-2013. In order to get a full understanding of these changes, the research studied livelihood changes in the vil...

  17. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  18. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  19. Rethinking health systems strengthening: key systems thinking tools and strategies for transformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R Chad; Cattaneo, Adriano; Bradley, Elizabeth; Chunharas, Somsak; Atun, Rifat; Abbas, Kaja M; Katsaliaki, Korina; Mustafee, Navonil; Mason Meier, Benjamin; Best, Allan

    2012-10-01

    While reaching consensus on future plans to address current global health challenges is far from easy, there is broad agreement that reductionist approaches that suggest a limited set of targeted interventions to improve health around the world are inadequate. We argue that a comprehensive systems perspective should guide health practice, education, research and policy. We propose key 'systems thinking' tools and strategies that have the potential for transformational change in health systems. Three overarching themes span these tools and strategies: collaboration across disciplines, sectors and organizations; ongoing, iterative learning; and transformational leadership. The proposed tools and strategies in this paper can be applied, in varying degrees, to every organization within health systems, from families and communities to national ministries of health. While our categorization is necessarily incomplete, this initial effort will provide a valuable contribution to the health systems strengthening debate, as the need for a more systemic, rigorous perspective in health has never been greater. PMID:23014154

  20. SU-E-T-344: Validation and Clinical Experience of Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm (EMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo (Algorithm for routine clinical uses. Methods: The PTW inhomogeneity phantom (T40037) with different combination of heterogeneous slabs has been CT-scanned with Philips Brilliance 16 slice scanner. The phantom contains blocks of Rando Alderson materials mimicking lung, Polystyrene (Tissue), PTFE (Bone) and PMAA. The phantom has 30×30×2.5 cm base plate with 2cm recesses to insert inhomogeneity. The detector systems used in this study are diode, tlds and Gafchromic EBT2 films. The diode and tlds were included in CT scans. The CT sets are transferred to Eclipse treatment planning system. Several plans have been created with Eclipse Monte Carlo (EMC) algorithm 11.0.21. Measurements have been carried out in Varian TrueBeam machine for energy from 6–22mev. Results: The measured and calculated doses agreed very well for tissue like media. The agreement was reasonably okay for the presence of lung inhomogeneity. The point dose agreement was within 3.5% and Gamma passing rate at 3%/3mm was greater than 93% except for 6Mev(85%). The disagreement can reach as high as 10% in the presence of bone inhomogeneity. This is due to eclipse reporting dose to the medium as opposed to the dose to the water as in conventional calculation engines. Conclusion: Care must be taken when using Varian Eclipse EMC algorithm for dose calculation for routine clinical uses. The algorithm dose not report dose to water in which most of the clinical experiences are based on rather it just reports dose to medium directly. In the presence of inhomogeneity such as bone, the dose discrepancy can be as high as 10% or even more depending on the location of normalization point or volume. As Radiation oncology as an empirical science, care must be taken before using EMC reported monitor units for clinical uses

  1. Development of Biocompatibility Procedures for Assessment of Plant Growth in Ground Test Hardware for the EMCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R. N.; Steele, M. K.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an European Space Agency-developed facility designed to support plant research in microgravity on the IS NASA is responsible for providing US specific hardware to use within the EMCS. In preparation for flight, research will be developed and tested at Ames Research Center in the EMCS ground test hardware, the Experiment Reference Module (ERM) In order to determine the acceptability of the ERM for such purposes, biocompatibility tests will be performed to determine that the hardware functions as intended and successfully supports the' growth of plants. In this report, we describe the development of procedures and the collection of baseline data against which to compare ERM function, e.g. biocompatibility testing. A simple and robust system was developed to grow whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants within the confined volumes characteristic of spaceflight hardware. Our system for growing plants eliminated the necessity of a water/nutrient delivery system and allowed for quantifiable assessment of individual plants, as well as entire population dynamics. To insure uniform germination, seeds were started in small straw segments and transplanted into modified scintillation vials. Seedlings were selected prior to transplantation to decrease genetic variability. Plants were grown for a total of 24 days in standard laboratory plant growth chambers under controlled conditions. Sequential digital still images were taken on a daily basis. Analysis of these images allowed for the quantification of even minute environmental effect, on growth dynamics whole plants. The data collected provide reliable growth curves against which to compare plants grown in the ERM.

  2. The Use of Original Structure-Directing Agents for the Synthesis of EMC-1 Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daou T.J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available By using a steric approach, it is possible to design templates matching closely with an inorganic framework. Herein, the design, synthesis and successful application of several di(azacrown ether templates to direct the formation of EMC-1 zeolite (FAU-type are reported. Following a high throughput experiment design, the synthesis gel composition was optimized to obtain well-crystallized materials. Taking into account their respective crystallization rates, their textural and morphological properties were comparable to their counterparts, typically structured by 15-crown-5 ether.

  3. What do we learn from the EMC [European Muon Collaboration] effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present theoretical understanding of the EMC effect is reviewed and questions for experiment are posed. The empirical status of rescaling is discussed and the author shows how it can make statements about the static properties of bound nucleons; in particular that sup(g)A/sup(g)V and μ of bound nucleons are unchanged from their free values once pion exchange contributions are taken into account. This suggests that the increased correlation length for quarks is due to exchange effects, not due to physical swelling of nucleons. (author)

  4. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    A new session of the course Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction will be held on May 22 (am), in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme. This session, bilingual English-French, is free of charge, and will be given by F. Szoncso of TIS-GS division. The course is designed for physicists, engineers and technicians facing electromagnetic interference problems, and will describe the underlying phenomena and mechanisms of electromagnetic interference and their remedies. More information and online registration by EDH are available from the Technical Training "Electronics Design" pages, under the chapter "Miscellaneous". Please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch should you need any other information.

  5. EMC of harmonic and transient measurement equipment in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    offshore environment at Avedøre Holme and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms. The paper clearly presents possible electromagnetic interference in wind turbines that can affect measurements. Also the application of appropriate mitigation techniques such as data acquisition board configuration, coaxial cable......The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) challenges during the development, construction, testing and installation of a measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term data logging is described in this paper. The presented measurement system was tested in a rough...

  6. An EMC Evaluation of the Use of Unshielded Motor Cables in AC Adjustable Speed Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanigovszki, Norbert; Poulsen, J.; Spiazzi, G.;

    2004-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses. As a result, for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) reasons, in most applications shielded cables are used between the inverter and the motor, implying high installation costs. The present paper discusses the use...... of cheaper, unshielded cables. A new method for measuring electromagnetic interference (EMI) from unshielded cables is proposed and measurement results are presented. The level of EMI is evaluated in different situations: without an output filter, with a classical LC output filter and with an...

  7. Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes and the flavor-dependent EMC effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, D.; Peng, J. -C.; Cloet, I. C.; Gaskell, D.

    2010-01-01

    Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes are proposed as a potential tool to measure the flavor dependence of the EMC effect, that is, the flavor-dependent modification of quark distributions in the nuclear medium. Existing pionic Drell-Yan data are compared with calculations using a recent model for nuclear quark distributions that incorporates flavor-dependent nuclear effects. While no firm conclusions can yet be drawn, we demonstrate that existing Drell-Yan data seem to imply a flavor dependence o...

  8. Multipath Propagation of UWB Through-Wall Radar and EMC Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fiser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The UWB (ultra wide band radar output signals can be substantially affected due to electromagnetic wave propagation through obstacles (such as walls and multipath effects, too. Multipath effects are analyzed and simulated numerically for various cases with several antenna heights and distances. Delays (due to propagation through walls and various paths of direct and reflected rays and the ringing (similar to UWB propagation through wall can be clearly observed and analyzed. Moreover, frequency spectra analyses can demonstrate both UWB interferences and susceptibility from electromagnetic compatibility (EMC viewpoint.

  9. The challenge of the EMC effect: Existing data and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malace, Simona P. [JLAB; Gaskell, David J. [JLAB; Higinbotham, Douglas W. [JLAB; Cloet, Ian C. [ANL

    2014-08-01

    Since the discovery that the ratio of inclusive charged lepton (per-nucleon) cross sections from a nucleus A to the deuteron is not unity - even in deep inelastic scattering kinematics - a great deal of experimental and theoretical effort has gone into understanding the phenomenon. The EMC effect, as it is now known, shows that even in the most extreme kinematic conditions the effects of the nucleon being bound in a nucleus can not be ignored. In this paper we collect the most precise data available for various nuclear to deuteron ratios, as well as provide a commentary on the current status of the theoretical understanding of this thirty year old effect.

  10. Modeling of HVDC IGBT in Pspice : Serving an ultimate goal for converter station EMC studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    An IGBT/diode model with more accurate characteristics than simple switchis required to serve for EMC issues from converter valve. The purpose of thismaster thesis is to develop an IGBT and diode model to achieve both accuratetransient behavior and fast simulation time during single pulse switchingtest circuit for the 4:5 kV and 2:0 kA StakPakTM IGBT module. A gate unitwhich resembles the ABB gate unit is implemented to obtain a good agreementbetween simulation and measurement. For demonstrat...

  11. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed

  12. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  13. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26956654

  14. Management strategies in anticipation of climatic change and the resulting impact on wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two significant impacts of climate change could affect waterfowl. Climate changes that induce dryness and reduce surface water would have a detrimental effect on waterfowl production capabilities. Global warming could also increase sea levels and flood critical waterfowl overwintering habitat. Strategies undertaken by Ducks Unlimited, a waterfowl conservation organization, to respond to the threat posed by global warming to waterfowl are reviewed. Ducks Unlimited will continue to assist with wetland restoration and preservation throughout the Great Plains. Strategies to enhance retention include converting marginally arable land to permanent forage, forage backflooding, and encouragement of zero and minimum tillage operations. Improved efficiency of irrigation projects is important to foster water conservation. Widespread surface water drainage should be discouraged, by combinations of legislation and economic incentives. Ducks Unlimited is refocusing its activites on parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba that are likely to have relatively wetter conditions under climatic warming

  15. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Food Industry—Insights from Product Carbon and Water Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is recommended. However, there is a general lack of operational tools to support this. In this study, carbon and water footprints were conducted at a low-precision screening level in three case studies in Australia: Smith’s potato chips, OneHarvest Calypso™ mango and selected Treasury Wine Estates products. The approach was cost-effective when compared to high-definition studies intended to support environmental labels and declarations, yet provided useful identification of physical, financial, regulatory and reputational hotspots related to climate change. A combination of diagnostic footprinting, downscaled climate projection and semi-quantitative value chain analysis is proposed as a practical and relevant toolkit to inform climate adaptation strategies.

  16. Rethinking health systems strengthening: key systems thinking tools and strategies for transformational change

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, R. Chad; Cattaneo, Adriano; Bradley, Elizabeth; Chunharas, Somsak; Atun, Rifat; Abbas, Kaja M.; Katsaliaki, Korina; Mustafee, Navonil; Mason Meier, Benjamin; Best, Allan

    2012-01-01

    While reaching consensus on future plans to address current global health challenges is far from easy, there is broad agreement that reductionist approaches that suggest a limited set of targeted interventions to improve health around the world are inadequate. We argue that a comprehensive systems perspective should guide health practice, education, research and policy. We propose key ‘systems thinking’ tools and strategies that have the potential for transformational change in health systems...

  17. Indoor-Atmospheric Radon-Related Radioactivity Affected by a Change of Ventilation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2006-01-01

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8:00-21:00 with weekend halt...

  18. Indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity affected by a change of ventilation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2006-01-01

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8: 00-21 : 00 with weekend h...

  19. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we ...

  20. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. MOREKI; C.M. TSOPITO

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surf...

  1. Climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Congo basin forest of Cameroon : strategies for synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Eugene Loh

    2011-01-01

    Climate change mitigation through Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and land Degradation (REDD), is dominating climate policy processes in many tropical forests countries. However concerns have been stressed about the implications of these activities for the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities, who are already vulnerable to climatic and non-climatic stresses. Synergizing adaptation and mitigation to exploit win-win opportunities is a necessary but challenging strategy. Build on the...

  2. Changing business perceptions regarding biodiversity: from impact mitigation towards new strategies and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Houdet, Joël; Trommetter, Michel; Weber, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Business activities play a major role in biodiversity loss and, as a result, firms are under increasing pressures from stakeholders to reduce their negative impacts on living systems. In response, business attitudes, behaviors and strategies regarding biodiversity are progressively changing, suggesting that interactions between business and biodiversity could go beyond the search of a compromise between development and conservation. This paper proposes an analysis of business perceptions rega...

  3. Coping Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya in Response to Environmental Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Francis M. Mathooko; Martin Ogutu

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in...

  4. Assessing the potential of in-field rainwater harvesting as an adaptation strategy to climate change for African agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebel, S.; Fleskens, L.; Forster, P.M.; Jackson, L.S.; Lorenz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilizing smallholder crop yields under changing climatic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa will require adaptation strategies focused on soil and water management. Impact studies of climate change on crop yields often ignore the potential of adaptation strategies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH)

  5. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  6. Towards Comprehensive and Disciplined Change Management Strategy in Agile Transformation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Javdani Gandomani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Moving to agile through a well-defined strategy and framework is essential and this socio-technical process should be studied in deep. Advantages and earned values of agile approach in software industry motivate a lot of companies to try to use agile methods in their software product lines. Transformation process to agile methods is not easy and because of its nature, takes a long time. Since agile transformation needs organizational mutation, companies are faced with many challenges during this process. While several studies have been conducted for how to use agile methods, some other studies have focused on finding obstacles in agile adoption process. However, previous studies are valuable, but each of them has focused the change process from a particular perspective. In this study we discuss the dimensions of agile transformation process from a wider perspective. We will show that focusing on agile adoption is not the only master key for success in agile transformation process and we need to define an agile change management strategy for this organizational metamorphosis. This strategy should consider all aspects of changing approach and is underpinning of achievement in agile transformation process through substantive transformation experiences.

  7. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers’ Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirina T. Kitinya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainfall amounts and distribution had occurred over the years and were rated by 60% of farmers as the frequently experienced aspect of CCV. About 33% of farmers had heard of but not used decision support tools (DST to inform their agricultural activities. Workshops and seminars were reported by 67% of farmers as principal sources of information on CCV. Additionally, 50% of farmers relied on traditional knowledge for weather prediction. Only 20% of farmers had alternative strategies; agroforestry and growing drought tolerant crops particularly sorghum and cowpea, to minimize effects of CCV. Another 67% of farmers prioritized; terracing, ridging and water harvesting as adaptation strategies to minimize negative effects of CCV. The farmers were thus aware of CCV and through experience, backed with traditional technical knowledge, had gained prerequisite skills for addressing its negative effects. Nevertheless farmers’ agricultural practices could be improved by use of forecasted weather data and application of DST. Consequently enhancing farmers’ preparedness to tackle challenges posed by CCV.

  8. Compromise-based Robust Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.

  9. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette;

    2009-01-01

    wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate...... of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify...... context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate...

  10. Farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ajao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate is changing and global mean temperatures have increased this is expected to have profound effects on food security. Long-term changes in climate will disproportionately affect tropical regions, meaning poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa will likely bear the brunt of adverse impacts. Adaptation plays an important role in reducing vulnerability to climate change and is therefore critical and of concern in developing countries, particularly in Africa where vulnerability is high because ability to adapt is low. This study examined farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo State of Nigeria. One hundred and fifty farmers were interviewed to obtain information from using a multistage sampling procedure. The results of the study showed that the types of climate change identified in the study area were delayed on-set of rainfall (38.0 percent, higher temperature (20.0 percent and less rain (17.3 percent. The outcome of climate change were food shortage (41.3percent, decline in livestock yield (30.7 percent, decline in crop yield (28.7 percent and death of livestock (16.0 percent. The identified actions taken to address climate change are growing a new crop (57.4 percent, adoption of drought tolerant/ resistance crop varieties (50.0 percent, diversification from crops to livestock production (40.7 percent and using of new land management practices. The long-term improvement investments commonly adapted in the study area were tree planting/agroforestry, mulching/surface cover, improved fallowing and fallowing.The study concluded that household size, extension visits and non-farm income significantly impact on the various strategies used in adaptation to climate change.

  11. Activation of type I interferon signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands during the acute phase of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguchi, Atsuko; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Doi, Kunio; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The present study was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of EMC virus-induced sialodacryoadenitis in mice during the acute phase infection focusing on the activation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands. In the parotid gland, a few apoptotic acinar cells were detected at 2days post inoculation (DPI). The ratio of apoptotic acinar cells increased at 3 and 4DPI. On the other hand, in the exorbital lachrymal gland, apoptosis of acinar cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly composed of mononuclear cells started at 3DPI, and prominent acinar cell damage developed at 4DPI. Viral RNA was detected at 3 and 4DPI in both glands and the expression level was higher in the exorbital lachrymal gland than in the parotid gland. The up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as Irf7, Pkr and Oas, was quickly induced at 2DPI in the parotid gland, and this probably contributed to suppress viral replication and to eliminate affected cells by apoptosis. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the expression levels of ISGs mRNAs were not elevated at 2DPI, suggesting no induction of an effective anti-viral response such as apoptosis at this time point. In the exorbital lachrymal gland, the mRNA expression of IFN beta and IFN alpha (type I IFNs) was weak- to strong-positive at 1DPI, and became negative at 2DPI. The weak- to strong-positive expression of IFNs at 1DPI is likely related to the abrupt viral replication and pathological changes in the exorbital lachrymal gland through activating the negative feedback regulation that depressed the IFN signaling cascade at 2DPI. In conclusion, the present study showed the changes in factors involved in the activation of type I IFN signaling cascade in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands and their differences between the two glands during the acute phase of EMC virus infection in mice. PMID:27079771

  12. Diverging business strategies towards climate change. A USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, K.F.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E. [Institue for Environmental Studies, Vrije Univ. IVM/VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management WIMM, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D.L. [University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in successful efforts to address climate change, due to both their role as major emitters of greenhouse gases and to their capacity to invest in mitigation technologies. However, relatively little is known about the triggers for change in corporate behaviour, which are at the basis of corporate decisions to support or oppose policy initiatives. In the title project it has been investigated what strategies - and why and how - specific industrial sectors develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The objective was to provide information of relevance to the sixth Convention of Parties (CoP6) that is to be held in The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the banking and insurance sector. Together, these sectors are the most important players in the climate policy debate. Special attention has been paid to the questions whether strategies of European Union (EU)- based corporations differ systematically from US-based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks. European corporations generally tend to have more advanced policies than their US counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. Corporate strategies appear to be highly determined by a combination of market situation in their home country and of access to alternative technologies. In the automobile industry, the USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible. 100 refs.

  13. Strategies of petroleum companies facing climate change issues; Strategies des compagnies petrolieres face a la problematique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, St.

    2005-05-01

    The oil industry is particularly concerned with the issue of climate change. The implementation of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction policies can be perceived as an additional environmental constraint for the management of the production chain. It is also represents a first step towards a possible decarbonization of the economy. In the long-term, the fight against global warming calls thus into question the activity level of petroleum companies. Confronted with this, still uncertain, new environmental deal, some petroleum multinationals adopt proactive behaviors, e.g. with voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions, or with investments in alternative technologies. First of all, we present the potential economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on oil industry. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of the 'Kyoto risk' for the five largest multinationals of this sector according to their activities and their geographical implantations. Then, for the purpose to interpreting proactive strategies of firms such as BP and Shell, we examine various explanations including 'win-win', public image and the response to broad societal needs. This leads us to formalize the proactive behavior as an anticipatory management of carbon contestability, particularly perceptible in financial markets. Lastly, we try to justify economically investments of companies in the field of alternative energy sources and technologies through the lens of real options theory and by a management of the exhaustible fossil resources. (author)

  14. Damage of Elastomeric Matrix Composites (EMC-rubbers) Under Static Loading Conditions: Experimental and Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, F.; Bayraktar, E.; Zghal, A.

    2011-01-01

    Elastomeric matrix composites (EMC-rubbers) are considered as isotropic hyper elastic incompressible materials under static loading conditions. As a rubber material element cannot be extended to an infinite stretch ratio, a damage mechanism at large strain is considered. The phenomenon of cavitation plays an important role in the damage of EMCs and influences the toughening mechanism of rubber-modified plastics. Indeed, cavitation in elastomers is thought to be initiated from flaws, which grow primarily due to a hydrostatic tensile stress and ahead of the crack; there will not only be a high stress perpendicular to the plane of the crack but also significant stress components in the other direction. However, there exists historically much discussion on the evolution of the cavitation in elastomers under monotonic and/or static solicitation. Mainly, cavitation instability occurs when the stress levels are sufficiently high so that the void expansion rate becomes infinitely large. Many research works have been performed to understand the effects of rubber cavitation on toughening of plastics. In fact, the cavitation phenomenon is not well known in detail. The most popular idea states that the cavitation is related to the existence of the gas bubbles trapped in the material during the production stage and the growing of the cavities would then be the result of the growing gas bubbles. Further, instable failure mechanism at the end of the cavitation is not well known too.

  15. Damage of Elastomeric Matrix Composites (EMC-rubbers) Under Static Loading Conditions: Experimental and Numerical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastomeric matrix composites (EMC-rubbers) are considered as isotropic hyper elastic incompressible materials under static loading conditions. As a rubber material element cannot be extended to an infinite stretch ratio, a damage mechanism at large strain is considered. The phenomenon of cavitation plays an important role in the damage of EMCs and influences the toughening mechanism of rubber-modified plastics. Indeed, cavitation in elastomers is thought to be initiated from flaws, which grow primarily due to a hydrostatic tensile stress and ahead of the crack; there will not only be a high stress perpendicular to the plane of the crack but also significant stress components in the other direction. However, there exists historically much discussion on the evolution of the cavitation in elastomers under monotonic and/or static solicitation. Mainly, cavitation instability occurs when the stress levels are sufficiently high so that the void expansion rate becomes infinitely large. Many research works have been performed to understand the effects of rubber cavitation on toughening of plastics. In fact, the cavitation phenomenon is not well known in detail. The most popular idea states that the cavitation is related to the existence of the gas bubbles trapped in the material during the production stage and the growing of the cavities would then be the result of the growing gas bubbles. Further, instable failure mechanism at the end of the cavitation is not well known too.

  16. EMC中的两种接地技术%Case analysis of EMC grounding technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚红

    2011-01-01

    电磁兼容接地设计有单点接地和多点接地2种基本方法,低频电路中要求用单点接地,高频电路中用多点接地,用多点接地设备如果不能通过EFT/B测试,可以尝试单点接地方法。实验证明,对某些高频电路完全可以用单点接地方法满足EMC要求。%The EMC grounding design consists of single-point grounding and multi-point grounding. Low-frequency circuits require single-point grounding, while multi-point grounding is usually used for equipments of high-frequency circuits. However, when the equipment can not pass the EFT/B test, single-point grounding can be used instead. Experiments prove that some high-frequency circuits can use single-point grounding to meet the EMC requirements.

  17. Substituting EMC emission measurement by field and cable scan method using measured transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinas, D.; Jia, J.; Zeichner, A.; Frei, S.

    2013-07-01

    Today EMC emissions of automotive components are often measured in anechoic chambers by an antenna at fixed position according to CISPR 25 (ALSE-method). The antenna voltage often cannot sufficiently describe the behaviour of the measured electronic components and systems. Furthermore space requirements and costs are very high for the ALSE-method. Field- and cable-scan methods combined with near-field to far-field transformation techniques might be a good alternative. Residual reflections from the walls, the metallic floor, the measuring table, interaction of the antenna with the environment, and other factors affect the measurements. Thus, models which only regard the current distribution for near- and far field calculation cannot produce results equal to a chamber measurement. In this paper methods for computing transfer functions for the substitution of EMC antenna measurements with field- and cable scans in a specified calibration area are introduced. To consider influences of the environment, the environment is characterized in a first step and included with transfer functions in the calculation process for the equivalent ALSE-field.

  18. Spatial Vulnerability Map and Distributed Response Strategies for Irrigation System Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. H.; Tung, C. P.; Lien, W. Y.

    2012-04-01

    It is an important issue whether irrigation systems can continuously provide quality service under climate change conditions. The streamflow irrigation system, which delivers water from a river directly, is still widely applied in Taiwan. Due to the impacts of climate change, the amount of available streamflow may decrease during dry season and higher variation of flows can be expected, which influences irrigation systems severely. Furthermore, sub-irrigation areas may have different levels of impacts under climate change. Instead of applying the adaptation strategies to the whole irrigation areas, different adaptive measures should be considered according to the vulnerability of each sub-irrigation area in order to face the impacts of climate change. The purposes of this study include defining the carrying capacity of an irrigation system, developing spatial distributed assessment methods through geographic information system and discussing how to develop adaptation systems for the areas which are more vulnerable. In this study, both agricultural and domestic water supply systems of the Touchien creek watershed are considered in this study. Future water demands of agriculture are estimated under the change of temperature and rainfall, and the amount of water supply to each sub-irrigation area is calculated according to its area and water losses. As for public water uses, the most restrict scenarios are taken in, e.g. the largest impact toward agriculture in the Touchien creek watershed. Then, the vulnerability of sub-irrigation areas is quantified by agricultural shortage index (ASI). ASI represents the percentage of crop yields in that area comparing with its potential crop yields. At last, the spatial distribution of vulnerability is established in order to emphasize the climate change impacts on each sub-irrigation area and to analyze their possible responses. Possible distributed adaptive strategies are proposed in this study too. Keywords: Vulnerability

  19. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  20. [Effects of planning and executive functions on young children's script change strategy: A developmental perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaoka, Kaichi

    2016-02-01

    This research examined the effects of planning and executive functions on young children's (ages 3-to 5-years) strategies in changing scripts. Young children (N = 77) performed a script task (doll task), three executive function tasks (DCCS, red/blue task, and nine box task), a planning task, and a receptive vocabulary task. In the doll task, young children first enacted a "changing clothes" script, and then faced a situation in which some elements of the script were inappropriate. They needed to enact a script by compensating inappropriate items for the other-script items or by changing to the other script in advance. The results showed that shifting, a factor of executive function, had a positive influence on whether young children could compensate inappropriate items. In addition, planning was also an important factor that helped children to change to the other script in advance. These findings suggest that shifting and planning play different roles in using the two strategies appropriately when young children enact scripts in unexpected situations. PMID:26964369

  1. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Farm-level Efficiency in Food Crop Production in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions, especially in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture predominate. The extent to which climate impacts are felt depends principally on the adaptation measures used by farmers. This study focused on the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on farm-level technical efficiency. The study used primary data collected from 360 randomly selected farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Cobb-Douglass stochastic frontier production model was used to analyse the data. Multiple cropping, land fragmentation, multiple planting dates, mulching and cover cropping were the major climate change adaptation strategies employed by the farmers. While land fragmentation and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationships, years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationships, with technical inefficiency. This may be because while land fragmentation may hinder farm mechanization, multiple planting dates may increase the monotonousness and drudgery of farming. On the other hand, social capital and climate change awareness could help ameliorate the effects of, particularly, land fragmentation through resource pooling. It is therefore recommended that the farmers be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to leverage their resource status through collective efforts.

  2. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  3. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Sharpe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curriculum development and evaluation of school-supported projects. It is clear that the implementation of the e-learning strategy has led to a large and increasing proportion of our students experiencing blended learning. In addition, there are initial indications that this has enhanced some learning and teaching processes. Where there has been sustainable embedding of effective e-learning, the following levers were identified as particularly important: flexibility in practices that allow schools to contextualise their plans for change, the facilitation of communities of key staff and creating opportunities for staff to voice and challenge their beliefs about e-learning.

  4. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human–animal–environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants. PMID:26333722

  5. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Ruscio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human–animal–environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants.

  6. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  7. Role of competition in vegetation change: evolutionarily stable strategy analysis as a means for predicting change in vegetation distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrior, C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the clearest differences among major vegetation types is allocation to woody biomass. Whether and to what extent plants invest in this long-lived tissue has a major impact on carbon storage and can have important feedbacks to the rising CO2 in the atmosphere. Wood is a multifaceted structure. It can allow plants to escape from ground fires, the pressure of herbivores, and perhaps most importantly competition with other plants for light. Understanding the result of this final pressure requires an incorporation of individual-based interactions among plants. This can be a particularly difficult because of both high computational demands and errors in implementation and understanding of such complex models. We have made progress on both difficulties for understanding allocation to woody biomass among trees in forests. Across gradients in resource availability within forests, we find a significant influence of individual-based competition on dominant plant allocation to woody biomass. In model predictions and observed differences among forests globally major tradeoffs occur in allocation to woody biomass versus allocation to fine roots. This is driven by shifting importance of individual-based competition for light versus shared resources belowground, in particular water and nitrogen. Moving beyond forests to biome boundaries, transitions between grassland, savanna, and forest we see again that competition can play an important role. In these zones of rapid change however, population dynamics is not as simple as a steady-state closed-canopy forest. Disturbance dynamics including response to fire and drought stress are also important pressures on dominant plant strategies. Here I show progress in incorporating disturbance dynamics with individual based competition to predict and understand dominant plant strategies including allocation to woody biomass. Results indicate that the influence of competition varies with disturbance regime. With stochastic disturbance

  8. Rhetorical Strategies of Consumer Activists: Reframing Market Offers to Promote Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Scaraboto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer researchers have most frequently looked at the influence the marketplace has on consumers’ identity projects, while the reverse process – how consumers’ identity projects influence the marketplace and general culture – is an important issue that has received less attention. Aiming to contribute to the development of this literature, we conduct a qualitative netnographic investigation of the Fat Acceptance Movement, an online-based movement led by consumer-activists who attempt to change societal attitudes about people who are fat. Our main goal is, therefore, to investigate how consumer activists who congregate online, that is, cyberactivists, reframe market offers while attempting to promote market and cultural change. We identify several rhetorical strategies employed by online consumer activists in their quests to change themselves, other consumers, and the broader culture. Our findings advance consumer research on how consumers may mobilize resources to initiate and promote self-, market-, and cultural transformations.

  9. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we hypothesized that high levels of HECS buffer the adverse effect of daily physical symptoms on increases in chronic and functional health problems. We found that daily physical symptoms were associated with declines in chronic and functional health among older adults who were not engaged in addressing their health problems, but not among their counterparts who reported high levels of HECS. These findings suggest that active control strategies play an important role in the maintenance of older adults’ physical health. PMID:18578842

  10. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    environmental impacts of different storm water management strategies. It is tested with two different adaptation strategies for the Nørrebro catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Cloudburst Management Plan (CMP), which uses a multi-functional approach and combines green infrastructure with subsurface pipes, and a...... on the surface without harming assets. When evaluating different adaptation approaches, a cost assessment is typically carried out, while environmental impacts usually are not considered. To close this gap, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based method is developed, which allows to quantify...... Subsurface scenario (SSA), which uses only pipes and underground retention basins. To ensure comparability, flood safety levels for different rain events are defined, which have to be met in both scenarios. The environmental impacts are calculated for eight different categories, including climate change...

  11. Strategy changing penalty promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner’s dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many classical studies suggest that punishment is a useful way to promote cooperation in the well-mixed public goods game, whereas relative evidence in the research of spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is absent. To address this issue, we introduce a mechanism of strategy changing penalty, combining memory and penalty during the update process, into spatial prisoner’s dilemma game. We find that increasing penalty rate or memory length is able to promote the evolution of cooperation monotonously. Compared with traditional version, recorded penalty could facilitate cooperation better. Moreover, through examining the process of evolution, we provide an interpretation for this promotion phenomenon, namely, the effect of promotion can be warranted by an evolution resonance of standard deviation of fitness coefficient. Finally, we validate our results by studying the impact of uncertainty within strategy adoptions on the evolution of cooperation. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in the society.

  12. Understanding the relationship of maternal health behavior change and intervention strategies in a Nicaraguan NGO network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Hage, Jerald; Vargas, William

    2005-09-01

    Few studies of community interventions examine independent effects of investments in: (1) capital (i.e., physical, human and social capital), and (2) management systems (e.g., monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E)) on maternal and child health behavior change. This paper does this in the context of an inter-organizational network. In Nicaragua, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs formed the NicaSalud Federation. Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), 14 member organizations took baselines measures of maternal safe motherhood and child health behavior indicators during November 1999 and August 2000, respectively, and final evaluation measures in December 2001. In April 2002, retrospective interviews were conducted with supervisors and managers in the 14 organizations to explore changes made to community health strategies, factors associated with the changes, and impacts they attributed to participating in NicaSalud. Physical capital (density of health huts), human capital (density and variety of paramedical personnel) and social capital (density of health committees) were associated with pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) 3+ times, and/or retaining ANC cards. The variety of paramedic personnel was also associated with women making post-partum visits to clinics. Physical capital (density of health huts) and social capital (density of health committees and mothers' clubs) were associated with child diarrhea case management indicators. One safe motherhood indicator (delivery of babies by a clinician) was not associated with intervention strategies. At the management level, NicaSalud's training of members to use LQAS for M&E was associated with the number of strategic and tactical changes they subsequently made to interventions (organizational learning). Organizational learning was related to changes in maternal and child health behaviors of the women (including changes in the proportion using post-partum care). As the

  13. Rubber Cash Crop and Changes in Livelihoods Strategies in a Village in Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniemai Thongyou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research article aims to explain the changes of livelihoods strategies in a village in the Northeast region of Thailand after the introduction of rubber as cash crop. Northeast region is considered a new rubber growing area of Thailand, the world’s largest rubber exporter. A village in Udornthani province was selected as a case study for a qualitative research conducted in 2012-2013. In order to get a full understanding of these changes, the research studied livelihood changes in the village over the last 62 years or since the village establishment. We have classified livelihood strategies into three periods, based on the dominant mode of production and livelihoods. The first period was the livelihoods before cash crops, in which people were involved in subsistence mode of production. The second period was marked by the introduction of cash crops and market economy into the village in the early 1960s. During this period, subsistence economy had been transformed into market oriented. Forest lands were changed into cash crop farms, so much that the natural capital lost its balance and became less dependable. The third period, starting in 2001, was the rubber period, the focus of this research. Rubber came to the northeastern region as a result of the promotion of the state. Strong research, development and extension supports that used to work well in the Southern region were applied to promote rubber growing here. However, the adoption of rubber was not without problems. People had to adjust themselves to the capitalist standardized farming practices of rubber. In addition, there was a misbalance of and unequal access to capital assets, particularly financial capital. Within the changing socio-economic context and constraining status of capital assets and access, rural households adopted integrated livelihood strategies, including 1 economic diversification or pluri-activities to reduce risks and increase income 2 maintaining rice

  14. Changing gears during succession: shifting functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Dylan; Hall, Jefferson S; Berlyn, Graeme P; Ashton, Mark S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-09-01

    Adaptations to resource availability strongly shape patterns of community composition along successional gradients in environmental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent to which variation in functional composition explains shifts in trait-based functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests during the most dynamic stage of succession (0-20 years). Functional composition of two size classes in 51 secondary forest plots was determined using community-weighted means of seven functional traits, which were intensively measured on 55 woody plant species (n = 875-1,761 individuals). Along the successional gradient in forest structure, there was a significant and consistent shift in functional strategies from resource acquisition to resource conservation. Leaf toughness and adult plant size increased significantly, while net photosynthetic capacity (A(mass)) decreased significantly during succession. Shifts in functional strategies within size classes for A(mass) and wood density also support the hypothesis that changes in functional composition are shaped by environmental conditions along successional gradients. In general, 'hard' functional traits, e.g., A(mass) and leaf toughness, linked to different facets of plant performance exhibited greater sensitivity to successional changes in forest structure than 'soft' traits, such as leaf mass area and leaf dry matter content. Our results also suggested that stochastic processes related to previous land-use history, dispersal limitation, and abiotic factors explained variation in functional composition beyond that attributed to deterministic shifts in functional strategies. Further data on seed dispersal vectors and distance and landscape configuration are needed to improve current mechanistic models of succession in tropical secondary forests. PMID:25990298

  15. Climate change, adaptation strategies and mobility: evidence from four settlements in Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sall, Mohamadou [Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (Senegal); Tall, Serigne Mansour [ONU-Habitat (UN); Tandian, Aly [Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Senegal); Samb, Al Assane

    2011-11-15

    This research investigates the impact of climate change on the mobility of people in four settlements in Senegal: Ngueye Ngueye, Gandiole, the Senegal River delta and Ourossogui. A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups was used to determine how daily life in these communities is being affected by environmental change. Some migrants spend long periods as far afield as Mauritania, the Gambia or Spain, while others stay closer to home, going to places like Saint-Louis, Dakar and Mbour for short periods. Mobility is an opportunity for migrants to generate funds and send money home. It is a key factor in adaptation to climate change, as a strategy for survival and for diversifying incomes. The problems encountered in the ecological study zones are not entirely due to climate change, for migration is also triggered by factors such as the opening of the breach in Saint-Louis or lack of support for rural development. However, climate change is certainly accelerating disruptions and transformations in the study sites. Moreover, while migrants' financial transfers help improve daily life for some families, they also increase socio-economic inequalities between households that include migrants and those that do not. People are moving away from (but not necessarily abandoning) purely agricultural livelihoods and seeking to diversify their sources of income. This may come from migration, or from artisanal activities undertaken in the locality - such as metalwork, woodwork, sewing or hairdressing. Another option that many women have taken is using micro-credit facilities to start processing local produce, crushing groundnuts and preparing cereals to sell at the weekly markets. Other adaptation strategies are developed and adopted through technical innovations or awareness-raising and educational activities. These activities often require institutional support from the State or from NGOs involved in implementing projects and helping

  16. Impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on crop production in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vulnerability of agricultural to climate change is of particular interest to policy makers because the high social and economical importance of agriculture sector in Nigeria, which contributes approximately 40 percent to total GDP and support 70 percent of the population. It is necessary to investigate the potential climate change impacts in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that will be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and implement and develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these changes. In this framework, this study aimed to assess the climate change impacts on Nigerian agricultural sector and to explore some of potential adaptation strategies for the most important crops in the food basket of the Country. The analysis was made using the DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that allows to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. In this analysis, for each selected crop, the models included into DSSAT-CSM software were ran, after a calibration phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output were "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models in order to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soils and climate conditions, crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone of Nigeria. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future changed climate conditions. The models ran by keeping

  17. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  18. Envisioning Adaptive Strategies to Change: Participatory Scenarios for Agropastoral Semiarid Systems in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Simelton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the semiarid social–ecological systems of the dry Central American corridor have proven resilient to pressures. However, in the last century, these systems have experienced huge environmental and socioeconomic changes that have increased the vulnerability of local livelihoods to shocks. New approaches are needed to capture complex, uncertain, cross-scale and nonlinear relationships among drivers of change and vulnerability. Therefore, to tackle this challenge, we have applied a participatory and interdisciplinary methodological framework of vulnerability assessment to a case study in northern Nicaragua. We triangulated a range of information and data from participatory and scientific research to explore historical and current drivers of changes that affect the system’s components and indicators of vulnerability, represented in a 3-dimensional space in terms of ecological resilience, the socioeconomic ability of individuals to adapt to change, and an institutional capacity to buffer and respond to crisis. A projection of climatic changes combined with a participatory scenario analysis helped, then, to heuristically analyze tendencies of vulnerability in the future and to explore what policy options might enhance the system’s adaptive capacity to face new pressures. Our work primarily contributes to an empirical understanding of key factors that influence vulnerability and learning about local strategies to adapt to change in semiarid agropastoral systems in Central America. We also make a methodological contribution by testing the use of a multidimensional vulnerability framework as a way of stimulating discussion among researchers, local stakeholders, and policy makers.

  19. From E=mc^2 to the Lorentz transformations via the law of addition of relativistic velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Criado, C

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show how to get the Lorentz transformations from E=mc^2, the laws of conservation of energy and momentum, and the special relativity principle. To this end we first deduce the law of addition of relativistic velocities

  20. From E=mc^2 to the Lorentz transformations via the law of addition of relativistic velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we show how to get the Lorentz transformations from E=mc^2, the laws of conservation of energy and momentum, and the special relativity principle. To this end we first deduce the law of addition of relativistic velocities

  1. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  2. Once and for all--how people change strategy to ignore irrelevant information in visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N; Frensch, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Ignoring irrelevant visual information aids efficient interaction with task environments. We studied how people, after practice, start to ignore the irrelevant aspects of stimuli. For this we focused on how information reduction transfers to rarely practised and novel stimuli. In Experiment 1, we compared competing mathematical models on how people cease to fixate on irrelevant parts of stimuli. Information reduction occurred at the same rate for frequent, infrequent, and novel stimuli. Once acquired with some stimuli, it was applied to all. In Experiment 2, simplification of task processing also occurred in a once-for-all manner when spatial regularities were ruled out so that people could not rely on learning which screen position is irrelevant. Apparently, changes in eye movements were an effect of a once-for-all strategy change rather than a cause of it. Overall, the results suggest that participants incidentally acquired knowledge about regularities in the task material and then decided to voluntarily apply it for efficient task processing. Such decisions should be incorporated into accounts of information reduction and other theories of strategy change in skill acquisition. PMID:25203902

  3. Projected wetland densities under climate change: Habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen; Skagen, Susan; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Rashford, Benjamin S.; Reese, Gordon; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Wood, Andrew W.; Noon, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    complexes containing both small and relatively large wetland basins, which is an ongoing conservation strategy, may also act to hedge against uncertainty in the effects of climate change.

  4. Discursive shifts in Dutch river management: 'deep' institutional change or adaptation strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, B.J.M.; Wiering, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that a discursive shift is taking place in Dutch water policy, from `a battle against water¿ to `living with water¿ or `accommodating water¿. Yet we ask ourselves whether this shift is just an adaptation strategy of the existing elite group of water managers, who pay lip-service to new management approaches in order to maintain their vested interests, as some authors claim, or whether it implies `deep¿ institutional change, e.g. in terms of the emergence of new water institu...

  5. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks. PMID:19042291

  6. A Strategy and Model of Change for SMEs in the Hong Kong Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K; F; Chu

    2002-01-01

    The re-establishment of the Hong Kong manufacturin g industry as a local pillar of economy is vital in the restructuring of the e conomy in Hong Kong. The SMEs should play a key role in such a process. It requi res major changes to take place in the operation of the enterprises in order to enhance their competitiveness and therefore the chance of success in the restruc turing process. It is suggested that the strategy of going for high value-added products and related services together with the practic...

  7. Success through innovation and change – consultancy report on strategy for E.ON UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Maciuk, Aneta; Paramashivaiah, Roshan; Seal, Devakalpa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to formulate the future strategy for E.ON UK in the face of fast changing environment. The main objective is to identify the strategically attractive opportunities that could reinforce E.ON strategic position. This paper provides in–depth analysis of internal and external environments of E.ON in order to answer the research question about future strategic choices. Based on the models used and concepts applied we were able to get an overview of the UK Utili...

  8. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  9. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  10. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development. Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests.

  11. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes;

    initiators of changes lie both in company external sources like the market (customers, end users, market trends) or restrictions (laws, regulation and certi-fication) and in the R&D department as internal initiator. The latter bears potential to proactively reduce and avoid unnecessary changes. The....... Favorite strategies to cope with engineering changes focus on early phases like the early detection of change needs and avoiding unnecessary changes, where further research is required....

  12. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van, J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depends on local conditions. Therefore, hotspot regions are defined, where specific issues related to agriculture will be assessed. Mitigation strategies in East Africa in general and Ethiopia in partic...

  13. Vulnerability of Worldwide Pastoralism to Global Changes and Interdisciplinary Strategies for Sustainable Pastoralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten case studies from seven major pastoral regions across six continents were studied in this paper by conceptualizing three factors (agro-ecosystem resilience, livelihood options, and institution capacity as the axes of a three-dimensional vulnerability framework. This analysis highlights the vulnerability of agriculture-based livelihood systems to global changes and helps identify what institutions have the potential to mobilize effective relief in different pastoral regions. In terms of results, this vulnerability assessment shows that the vulnerability of pastoralism was very different in all the cases across the globe. As such, a further analysis, based on the pressure-state-response (PSR model was undertaken to enhance our understanding of the ways that global changes put pressures on pastoral livelihoods worldwide. From this we conclude that climate change and climate variability are driving fragile pastoral ecosystems into more vulnerable conditions. Socioeconomic factors, such as changes in land tenure, agriculture, sedentarization, and institutions are fracturing large-scale pastoral ecosystems into spatially isolated systems. The implications of this analysis are that professionals, practitioners, and policy makers should jointly develop a coupled human and natural systems approach that focuses on enhancing the resilience of pastoral communities and their practices. This requires institutional developments to support asset building and good governance to enhance adaptive capability. In addition, pastoralists' adaptation strategies to global change need to be supported by public awareness and improved by institutional decisions at different scales and dimensions.

  14. Contextualising change through a common strategy: Lecturers' perceptions and key role in supporting academic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindelan, Paz; Martin, Ana

    2014-05-01

    European universities are currently going through a process of change in order to meet the common goals set for higher education by the European Commission. They are revising their educational models to adjust them to the guidelines of the "Bologna Process" and are devising an institutional strategy for its implementation. In practical terms, this means aligning former national degrees and diplomas to standard European Bachelor and Masters degrees and PhD doctorates, by creating acknowledged professional qualification benchmarks that also include adjusted course lengths and contents. This process, in the end, mostly affects academic staff members who have a fundamental role to play in carrying out the pedagogical reforms on the teaching front. Besides presenting a commentary on the institutional approach of one particular technical university in Spain, the purpose of this paper is to propose, from the authors' point of view as lecturers, a strategy which has the potential to create a favourable atmosphere for carrying out such a reform. The article's main objective is to highlight a series of action points which may serve to reinforce and advance the main institutional strategy by relying on the powerful influence of its academic staff members.

  15. Children's behavioral health system transformation: one state's context and strategies for sustained change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Deborah S; Stephan, Sharon H; Kaye, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the State of Maryland as a case study of sustained change efforts in the service delivery system for children with significant behavioral health needs and their families. A punctuated equilibrium paradigm is introduced to describe Maryland's behavioral health system transformation over the course of three decades. The context and specific strategies that characterized Maryland's execution of its recent Mental Health Transformation State Incentive Grant are highlighted. There is a discussion of one of the pinnacle achievements of Maryland's transformation efforts, the recent statewide establishment of care management entities for children with behavioral health challenges, and its implications for behavioral health in the context of health care reform changes. This case study illustrates how a state can systematically and incrementally develop systems of care for children and families that are values-based, sustainable, and flexible. PMID:23657753

  16. Combating climate change : A case study of Statoil′s climate strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Josefin; Eklöf, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Level:                           Master thesis in Business administration with concentration towards Ecological economics   Title:             Combating climate change – a case study of Statoil’s climate strategy   Problem:       The world is facing an environmental situation where we no longer can ignore problems like climate change, losses of species and an overall environmental degradation. Many actors have to take their responsibility and do as much as they can for a sustainable developme...

  17. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  18. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level. PMID:27390633

  19. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F.; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depen

  20. The effects of changes in competition, technology and strategy on organizational performance in small and medium manufacturing companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Zainun Tuanmat; Malcolm Smith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to examine how the relationship among competitive environment, manufacturing technology and organisational strategy affect organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach – Using a contingency approach, this study investigates the changes in competitive environment, manufacturing technology and organisational strategy in small and medium Malaysian manufacturing companies. The data is collected using a mailed questionnaire survey of manufacturing companies in ...

  1. Teaching strategies and conceptual change in a professional development program for science teachers of K--8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji

    This case study investigates two consecutive science courses for teachers of K-8 in a professional development program at Washington University. It aims (1) to trace the processes of the teachers' conceptual change; (2) to analyze the teaching strategies by course instructors; and (3) to try to establish possible links between the two. To achieve this goal, I build a modeling theory to account for the observations. The main body of the study consists of four sub-cases. The first two cases instantiate the elements of the modeling theory. The opening case of balance shows that learning tools and task structures shape the learning outcome, and discusses cycles of modeling. The case also delineates the strategy that the instructors employed---moving from concrete experience to abstract explanation. The second case of buoyancy demonstrates that the modeling theory is able to explain the origins and forming mechanism of the alternative conceptions held by the teachers. It also shows that the teaching strategies of using alternative conceptions, applying analogies and following a logical sequence helped the teachers build new models. The last two cases demonstrate the ways of improving the competence of modelers. The third case of physical models emphasizes the metacognition of the learner who builds models. It illustrates that teachers' level of self-awareness in learning is increased when the models are physical. It shows that the creativity of modeling is rooted in agency, curiosity, communicability, and confidence, and that a chain of transformation among models is the key of systematizing and forming knowledge. The last case of frames of reference tries to answer the question "what is the justification of models if there are alternatives?" The teachers employed different forms of justification which relied heavily on common sense, authority, relativism, and pragmatism, all of which are not rational. While discussing both the positive and negative traits of these

  2. Changing academic medicine: strategies used by academic leaders of integrative medicine-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Holmberg, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change. PMID:23093984

  3. Changing Academic Medicine: Strategies Used by Academic Leaders of Integrative Medicine—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Witt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change.

  4. Spot market natural gas strategies and reliability dealing with changing industry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many in the energy industry thought the natural gas buying game had finally settled down to a predictable pattern in the 90's. After a tumultuous decade in the 80's they are ready to turn their attention to new challenges such as electricity wheeling and cogeneration. They were wrong. There is plenty of change left in the natural gas industry for the rest of the century. This growth will dramatically increase the number of options available to Energy Buyers, giving them new flexibility to design programs that meet goals for cost reduction, supply reliability, and administrative effort. However, with new options also come the responsibility for choices. Energy Managers of well designed gas programs will make these choices after careful consideration of the pro's and con's of each option. In short, the effective Buyer will develop a natural gas strategy. This report will begin by reviewing the basic types of change occurring in the industry, and then discuss some of the varied strategy options available to the Energy Buyer

  5. The challenge of the EMC effect: existing data and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery that the ratio of inclusive charged lepton (per-nucleon) cross-sections from a nucleus A to the deuteron is not unity — even in deep inelastic scattering kinematics — a great deal of experimental and theoretical effort has gone into understanding the phenomenon. The EMC effect, as it is now known, shows that even in the most extreme kinematic conditions the effects of the nucleon being bound in a nucleus cannot be ignored. In this paper, we collect the most precise data available for various nuclear to deuteron ratios, as well as provide a commentary on the current status of the theoretical understanding of this thirty year old effect. (author)

  6. Efficient stochastic EMC/EMI analysis using HDMR-generated surrogate models

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2011-08-01

    Stochastic methods have been used extensively to quantify effects due to uncertainty in system parameters (e.g. material, geometrical, and electrical constants) and/or excitation on observables pertinent to electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) analysis (e.g. voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) [1]. In recent years, stochastic collocation (SC) methods, especially those leveraging generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions, have received significant attention [2, 3]. SC-gPC methods probe surrogate models (i.e. compact polynomial input-output representations) to statistically characterize observables. They are nonintrusive, that is they use existing deterministic simulators, and often cost only a fraction of direct Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Unfortunately, SC-gPC-generated surrogate models often lack accuracy (i) when the number of uncertain/random system variables is large and/or (ii) when the observables exhibit rapid variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lynn, Joel E; Schwenk, Achim

    2016-01-01

    We show that the empirical linear relation between the magnitude of the EMC effect in deep inelastic scattering on nuclei and the short range correlation scaling factor $a_2$ extracted from high-energy quasi-elastic scattering at $x\\ge 1$ is a natural consequence of scale separation and derive the relationship using effective field theory. While the scaling factor $a_2$ is a ratio of nuclear matrix elements that depend on the calculational scheme, we show that the ratio is independent of this choice. We perform Green's function Monte Carlo calculations with both chiral and Argonne-Urbana potentials to verify this and determine the scaling factors for light nuclei. The resulting values for $^3$He and $^4$He are in good agreement with experimental values. We also present results for $^9$Be and $^{12}$C extracted from variational Monte Carlo calculations.

  8. Calculation of power consumption and induced heat for EMC aluminum ingots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The electrical parameters and power consumption in electromagnetic casting of aluminum ingots were calculated and discussed in detail. Moreover, the induced heat was calculated with the eddy current within the liquid column. It is found that the calculated values agree with the measured results. Once the inductor current was given, the magnetic flux density in electromagnetic casting could be calculated and the electromagnetic pressure could be obtained. The key to the EMC is the balance between the electromagnetic pressure and the metallostatic pressure. As the liquid column, controlled by the casting speed and pouring speed through a magnetic sensor, is kept away from the inductor, a gap forms linear relationship between the inductor and ingot. The bigger the current is, the smaller the ingot size is.

  9. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  10. What Role Should Black Carbon Play in Climate Change Mitigation Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelo, B. J.

    2006-12-01

    The uncertainties of the black carbon-climate linkage remain large with regard to emissions quantification, temporal and regional atmospheric concentrations, and net radiative and other climatic effects. Given these physical uncertainties plus other economic and emission control considerations, what is the appropriate role for BC and organic carbon in any climate change mitigation strategy? If the climate effects of BC are considered `large enough' (a judgment call) to warrant emission controls to mitigate climate change, additional considerations are necessary to determine how best to do this. First, BC cannot be singly targeted, as BC is co-emitted with OC in various ratios depending on fuel type and combustion technology. The climate effects of any control strategy will depend on the net BC and OC, plus possible greenhouse gas, co-effects, which in turn will vary by specific emission source, sector and region. Second, the extent to which air quality policies (primarily targeting particulate matter for health concerns) control BC and OC can determine whether additional emission mitigation is necessary, or if additional mitigation is best pursued within the context of air quality policies, rather than being introduced into the climate area. In the U.S., on-road and off-road diesel vehicles are the largest sources of BC, but these emissions are expected to decline substantially over the next few decades due to recently issued U.S. EPA standards. Third is the issue of costs of BC reductions relative to the costs of other mitigation strategies. Results will be presented on 1) near-term (out to 2020) emission projections for the U.S. taking into account recent air quality regulations; 2) emerging work from the Energy Modeling Forum Black Carbon Subgroup on global and regional projections by region and sector, and mitigation scenarios; and 3) the costs of potential BC mitigation options for the U.S.

  11. Reliability and Validity Test of Questionnaire on the Adaptation Strategy of Cryosphere Changes in Arid Inland River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to test the reliability and validity of questionnaire on the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin. [Method] A questionnaire on "the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin" was carried out in Urumchi River basin and Aksu River basin, and its reliability and validity were tested by means of statistical method, so as to investigate the stability and accuracy of questionnaire. [Result] Reliability analysis of questionnaire sho...

  12. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin; Wolfgang Bokelmann; Jason Scott Entsminger

    2014-01-01

    Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1) the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies) as a result of changes in climate; (2) ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3) identification the socio-ec...

  13. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  14. Host life history strategy, species diversity, and habitat influence Trypanosoma cruzi vector infection in Changing landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Gottdenker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: R. pallescens vectors (N = 643 were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3% vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3% dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as r(max, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase, and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of r(max were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T

  15. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Holmner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  16. The Empowerment Strategy for The Food Crop Farmers in Anticipating The Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efriyani Sumastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, the climate change and the global warming like changes in the pattern and distribution of the rainfall give impacts on agricultural production at large, especially in the food crops. These also cause droughts, floods, landslides, forest fires, rising temperatures in urban areas, and rising sea levels. The above impacts are felt by the farmers because those can lead to a decrease in production even the crop failure. This research aims to develop an empowerment strategy of the food crop farmers in anticipating the climate change in Central Java. The data used is the primary data obtained through in-depth interviews with key-person and the Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP is conducted to determine the program priorities and strate gies. The result of research shows that anticipating the climate change should be synergistically conducted in four aspects: human resources, technology, institutional and production, by involving various groups in the society. Various groups can be grouped into academics, businessmen / private sectors, government and community of food crop farmers / society.

  17. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

  18. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  19. Values under seige in Mexico: strategies for sheltering traditional values from change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, L J

    1993-01-01

    The adverse economic conditions of inflation and falling oil prices over the late 1970s and 1980s in Mexico forced many middle-class married women out of the home and into the workplace in order to help the family maintain its socioeconomic standing. Although this phenomenon ran directly against the traditional Mexican cultural construction of gender and family, many Uruapan middle-class couples had no alternative and rationalized the change by concealing, reinterpreting, or not directly challenging traditional values. Sections discuss the dilemma of middle-class families, Mexican middle-class adaptation to wives' employment, strategies for existing change in values, and the open acceptance of changed values. The author's comments and conclusions are based largely upon interviews with 16 married women of the period. It is concluded that even though the middle class resists them, changes have taken place over the past 20 years in the acceptance of married women in the workplace, the sharing of domestic work, fertility control, and equality between spouses in family decision making. It remains to be seen, however, whether these women will stop working and return to their formerly exclusive roles of wives and mothers if and when economic conditions improve in Mexico. PMID:12345240

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand in Rheraya Watershed (Morocco, with Potential Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yacoubi Khebiza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheraya watershed already suffers from the impacts of climate variability and will be further affected by climate change. Severe water shortages and extremely fragile ecological conditions necessitate careful attention to water resources management. The aim of this study is to analyze Rheraya’s future water situation under different scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change until 2100. The Water Evaluation and Planning System model (WEAP has been applied to estimate the current water demands and the increased water demands resulting from climate change. WEAP was calibrated using meteorological and demand observations, then, updated with present-day and future climatic conditions using the Statistical Down-scaling Model with two projections (A2, B2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Those projections show an increase in temperature of about 2–3 °C and a reduction in precipitation of 40–60% with respect to baseline. The results show that the pressure on Rheraya’s water resources will increase, leading to greater competition for surface water, and that domestic, tourist, livestock and agricultural demands will not be met by the year 2100. The Results also demonstrate that the assessments of adaptation strategies proposed by decision makers are effective but not sustainable for the watershed.

  1. Delivering step change improvements to UK low level waste strategy - 16188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Nuclear Industry continues to produce significant quantities of Low Level Waste (LLW) as decommissioning projects generating waste become more prevalent. Current infrastructure and projected increasing waste volumes will deliver a volumetric shortfall of storage capacity in the near future. Recently established as a standalone site licence company, the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) near Drigg, in West Cumbria (formerly operated and owned by British Nuclear Group) is tasked with managing the safe treatment and disposal of LLW in the UK, on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The problem is complex involving many stakeholders with potentially different priorities. Previously, most nuclear waste generators operated independently with limited integration with other similar organisations. However, the current financial, programme and technical pressures require collaborative working to facilitate a step-change improvement in LLW management. Achieving this quickly is as much of a challenge as delivering robust cost effective technical solutions. NDA is working in partnership with LLWR to develop a LLW Strategy for the Nuclear Industry and has in parallel commissioned a number of studies by the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), looking at opportunities to share best practice. A National Strategy Group has been established to develop a working partnership between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, LLW Repository Ltd, Regulators, Stakeholders and LLW Consignors, promoting innovation, value for money, and robust implementation of the waste hierarchy (avoid-reduce-re-use-recycle). Additionally the LLWR supported by the NNL have undertaken a comprehensive strategic review of the UK's LLW management activities. Initial collaborative work has provided for the first time a detailed picture of the existing strategic baseline and identified significant national benefits from improving the way LLW is forecasted, characterised, segregated, and

  2. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in Southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46, 6.11-16.79, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13-0.20, 1.82-3.01, 0.04-0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster Analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two groups (group A and group B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous pollution control strategies were still present in the lake management strategy. To solve these problems, suitable control measures are needed, especially considering the current old-age status of Dianchi Lake. The fundamental improvement of the water quality within Caohai Lake was dependent on the

  3. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  4. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health and Adaptation Strategies in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; WANG Xian-Wei; YANG Xiao-Feng; MA Wen-Jun; AI Hui; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews the impacts of climate change on human health and presents corresponding adaptation strategies in South China. The daily mean surface air temperatures above or below 26.4◦C increase the death risk for the people in Guangzhou, especially the elderly are vulnerable to variations in temperature. Heat waves can cause insomnia, fatigue, clinical exacerbation, or death from heatstroke etc., while cold spells show increases in patients with fractures. During a cold spell period, the rates of both on-site emergency rescues and non-implementable rescues increase, and the risk of non-accidental deaths and respiratory disease deaths significantly rise as well. Both time series of hazy days and ozone concentrations have significant positive correlations with the number of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Both malaria and dengue fever reach higher altitudes and mountainous areas due to climate warming. Climate change is likely to bring stronger heat waves in the future, thereby increasing heat wave-related illnesses and deaths, particularly in the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta. The projected increase of continuous cold days in Guangdong province and parts of northern Guangxi province will affect residents’ health in the future. The rising temperature exaggerates ozone pollution, but it is not clear whether climate change is aggravating or mitigating haze pollution. The transmission potential of malaria in South China will increase by 39%-140% and the transmission season will extend by 1-2 months with an air temperature increase of 1-2◦C. By 2050, most areas in Hainan province are projected to convert from non-endemic dengue into endemic dengue areas. The aging population will cause more vulnerable people. To mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on human health, sound and scientific adaptation strategies must be adopted in advance, such as strengthening the surveillance of epidemic diseases in potential transmission areas

  6. Experimental Investigation of Human Adaptation to Change in Agent's Strategy through a Competitive Two-Player Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Yamada, Seiji; Ito, Akira

    We conducted an experimental investigation on human adaptation to change in an agent's strategy through a competitive two-player game. Modeling the process of human adaptation to agents is important for designing intelligent interface agents and adaptive user interfaces that learn a user's preferences and behavior strategy. However, few studies on human adaptation to such an agent have been done. We propose a human adaptation model for a two-player game. We prepared an on-line experimental system in which a participant and an agent play a repeated penny-matching game with a bonus round. We then conducted experiments in which different opponent agents (human or robot) change their strategy during the game. The experimental results indicated that, as expected, there is an adaptation phase when a human is confronted with a change in the opponent agent's strategy, and adaptation is faster when a human is competing with robot than with another human.

  7. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

  8. Preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures for Jakarta slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pooroe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is a city with unpredictable yet annual water shortages, both during the dry and wet season, which disproportionately affect the urban poor. One possible solution is to redevelop the existing water supply system which is now working in one of the largest slum area in Penjaringan, North Jakarta. This system is equipped with a large meter, the Master Meter, to record the communal water consumption and individual meters to record household consumptions. The Community Based Organization uses, operates, and maintains the system based on agreement with water users. Improvement of the Master Meter is achieved by harvesting uncollected rain water during the wet season with its high rainfall intensity, modifying the water storage system and improving the influent water quality. This paper aims to provide a preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures based on a case study of community-based water supply project in Penjaringan, Jakarta.

  9. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  10. Global climate change : progress on Canada's national implementation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Climate Change Secretariat, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-05-01

    This power point presentation included information about the Kyoto Protocol and discussed how Canada will address the challenge of this important global issue. The national process by which Canada and each province will begin implementation of options was described. The presentation also discussed the international context on the Kyoto Challenge, the development of a strategy and the role of the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) in the 2000 Federal Budget. The two major objectives of the CCAF are to build the foundation for the development of a national implementation strategy and to initiate early action through the $150 million in contributions from government, private sector and other interested parties over the next 3 years. Charts depicting Canada's carbon dioxide emissions projections and the Kyoto target indicate that under a business as usual scenario, carbon dioxide emissions would reach 764 Mt by 2010. If the Kyoto target of 6 per cent below 1990 levels is achieved, those emissions would be 26 per cent lower or the equivalent of 565 Mt. The projected increases of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1990 to 2010 by sector were also presented according to residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electricity generation, fossil fuel production, agroecosystems and other non-energy sectors. It is forecasted that the transportation sector will account for the highest contribution to GHG emissions. The largest increase from 1990 levels will be seen in the fossil fuel production sector. Similar charts were presented for GHG emissions by province. A total of 69 projects have been initiated involving CCAF contributions. Funding has been provided in support of climate model improvements, studies of GHG sources and sinks as well as ocean and arctic research. Other studies included the impacts of climate change on crop yield variability, permafrost degradation, sea level rise, forest fire incidence, marine growth, water quality and forest health. 7

  11. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  12. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  13. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Mohammed; Bokelmann, Wolfgang; Entsminger, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1) the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies) as a result of changes in climate

  14. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  15. Efficient local behavioral change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yilei; Mills, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic; for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her l...

  16. Videogame training strategy-induced change in brain function during a complex visuomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Boot, Walter R; Vo, Loan T K; Basak, Chandramallika; Vanpatter, Matt; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-07-01

    Although changes in brain function induced by cognitive training have been examined, functional plasticity associated with specific training strategies is still relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined changes in brain function during a complex visuomotor task following training using the Space Fortress video game. To assess brain function, participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 30 h of training with one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. Control participants received only 6 h of FET. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher performance on the game and showed less brain activation in areas related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed movement after training. Compared to the control group, HVT exhibited less brain activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), coupled with greater performance improvement. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that the reduction in brain activation was correlated with improved performance on the task. This study sheds light on the neurobiological mechanisms of improved learning from directed training (HVT) over non-directed training (FET), which is related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed motor planning, while separating the practice-based benefit, which is related to executive control and rule management. PMID:22504276

  17. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oreana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic ...

  18. A realist review of interventions and strategies to promote evidence-informed healthcare: a focus on change agency

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, Brendan; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; DeCorby, Kara; Hutchinson, Alison M; Bucknall, Tracey; Kent, Bridie; Schultz, Alyce; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Stetler, Cheyl; Titler, Marita; Wallin, Lars; Wilson, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Change agency in its various forms is one intervention aimed at improving the effectiveness of the uptake of evidence. Facilitators, knowledge brokers and opinion leaders are examples of change agency strategies used to promote knowledge utilization. This review adopts a realist approach and addresses the following question: What change agency characteristics work, for whom do they work, in what circumstances and why? Methods The literature reviewed spanned the period 1997-2007. Ch...

  19. Forest adjacent households’ voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households’ voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate chang...

  20. Loading Concentrations of Pollutant in Alur Ilmu at UKM Bangi Campus: Event Mean Concentration (EMC) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water pollutant loadings and river discharge are among the basic data used in determining the dynamicity of a river. The input of water quality and river discharge are usually available through the collection of water samples in the field or at the observatory, and are done automatically using the data logger sensor. This paper discusses the concentrations pollutant load water quality and its relationship with discharge (m3/ s) using Event Mean Concentration (EMC) in the Alur Ilmu, UKM source from the Diptrokarp forest at Hutan Simpan Bangi (2 degree 55'14.72 N 101 degree 46'57.37 E). Alur Ilmu is a 1.79 km long stretching across the main campus of National University of Malaysia before flowing into the Langat River. Water quality was measured using automatic gauging and continuous water quality stations which are installed at downstream of Alur Ilmu (2 degree 55'40.33 N 100 degree 46'47.15 E) and involves in measuring the parameters of total dissolved solid (TDS) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Laboratory analysis carried out for chemical parameters such as ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total suspended solid (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in accordance with guidelines American Public Health Association (APHA, 1995). The normal discharge rate recorded at Alur Ilmu is 0.33 m3/ s and the wet discharge is 13.04 m3/ s.The total estimated pollutant loadings according to EMC as DO (18.51±3.01 mg/ L), TDS (794.92±186.72 mg/ L), BOD (11.57±0.28 mg/ L), COD (201.29±1.55 mg/ l), TSS (470.03±27.63 mg/ L) and Ammonia Nitrogen (2.52±0.0 mg/ L). Correlation test showed a direct relationship between rainfall and flow (Q) and several pollutant loadings with R2=1 at a significance level of 0.05. The study also classified some of the pollutants concentrations in class III and IV as determined by the Water Quality Index (WQI). (author)

  1. The Changing Patterns of Advertising Strategy by Japanese Business Firms in the U.S. Market: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiko Suzuki

    1980-01-01

    This article analyzes the changing pattern of advertisement strategy by Japanese business firms in the U.S. market. Taking the advertisement activities of four major industrial sectors that appeared in both Business Week and Newsweek during the 1965–1977 period as samples, this article has found that the Japanese advertisement strategy in the U.S. market has passed sequentially through the following four stages: (1) Nationality-Supportive, (2) Product-Attributes, (3) Challenge and Responses, ...

  2. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  3. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  4. EMC3-EIRENE modelling of edge impurity transport in the stochastic layer of the large helical device compared with extreme ultraviolet emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuyu; Kobayashi, M.; Kawamura, G.; Morita, S.; Zhang, H. M.; Oishi, T.; Feng, Y.; Wang, D. Z.; Suzuki, Y.; the LHD Experimental Group

    2016-06-01

    The transport properties and line emissions of carbon impurity in the stochastic layer of the Large Helical Device have been investigated with the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE. A parameter study has been performed to examine the sensitivity of the simulation results on each transport term in the impurity transport model and the impurity source characteristics, i.e. the source amount and the location. The modelling has revealed that in order to reproduce the experimental results of the emission distribution, the impurity perpendicular transport coefficient (D imp) and the first wall source play important roles, while changes to the ion thermal and the friction forces are rather irrelevant. The detailed study of flux tube tracing and magnetic field structure in the edge stochastic layer, in relation to impurity transport, has shown that the deeper penetration of impurity into the higher plasma density region due to the enhanced D imp and the first wall source is responsible for the change of emission pattern as well as the intensity. The analysis indicates that D imp might be larger than that of background plasma by a few factors and also that there probably exists a substantial amount of first wall impurity source.

  5. An h-adaptive stochastic collocation method for stochastic EMC/EMI analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of electromagnetic compatibility and interference (EMC/EMI) phenomena is often fraught by randomness in a system\\'s excitation (e.g., the amplitude, phase, and location of internal noise sources) or configuration (e.g., the routing of cables, the placement of electronic systems, component specifications, etc.). To bound the probability of system malfunction, fast and accurate techniques to quantify the uncertainty in system observables (e.g., voltages across mission-critical circuit elements) are called for. Recently proposed stochastic frameworks [1-2] combine deterministic electromagnetic (EM) simulators with stochastic collocation (SC) methods that approximate system observables using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPC) [3] (viz. orthogonal polynomials spanning the entire random domain) to estimate their statistical moments and probability density functions (pdfs). When constructing gPC expansions, the EM simulator is used solely to evaluate system observables at collocation points prescribed by the SC-gPC scheme. The frameworks in [1-2] therefore are non-intrusive and straightforward to implement. That said, they become inefficient and inaccurate for system observables that vary rapidly or are discontinuous in the random variables (as their representations may require very high-order polynomials). © 2010 IEEE.

  6. Psychosocial strategies used to change attitudes towards people discriminated against because of their disability or mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Armando Delgado Meza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a review of psychosocial strategies related to the change in attitude frequently used in programs aimed at attitudinal changes specifically in the public´s perception of persons vulnerable to discrimination many of whom are disabled or have a mental health problem. The method of documentary review was used and scientific psychological databases were searched. The database searches resulted in the retrieval of 80 bibliofraphic references of which 58 were used for the investigation. The findings of the review highlight that the most used strategies in attitudinal reorientation programs, addressing both types of discrimination, are: education and social contact in combination with other techniques.

  7. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US$). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction. (letter)

  8. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  9. Vadose zone monitoring strategies to control water flux dynamics and changes in soil hydraulic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Abellan, Javier; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquin; Candela, Lucila

    2013-04-01

    For monitoring the vadose zone, different strategies can be chosen, depending on the objectives and scale of observation. The effects of non-conventional water use on the vadose zone might produce impacts in porous media which could lead to changes in soil hydraulic properties, among others. Controlling these possible effects requires an accurate monitoring strategy that controls the volumetric water content, θ, and soil pressure, h, along the studied profile. According to the available literature, different monitoring systems have been carried out independently, however less attention has received comparative studies between different techniques. An experimental plot of 9x5 m2 was set with automatic and non-automatic sensors to control θ and h up to 1.5m depth. The non-automatic system consisted of ten Jet Fill tensiometers at 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 cm (Soil Moisture®) and a polycarbonate access tube of 44 mm (i.d) for soil moisture measurements with a TRIME FM TDR portable probe (IMKO®). Vertical installation was carefully performed; measurements with this system were manual, twice a week for θ and three times per week for h. The automatic system composed of five 5TE sensors (Decagon Devices®) installed at 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 cm for θ measurements and one MPS1 sensor (Decagon Devices®) at 60 cm depth for h. Installation took place laterally in a 40-50 cm length hole bored in a side of a trench that was excavated. All automatic sensors hourly recorded and stored in a data-logger. Boundary conditions were controlled with a volume-meter and with a meteorological station. ET was modelled with Penman-Monteith equation. Soil characterization include bulk density, gravimetric water content, grain size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves determined following laboratory standards. Soil mineralogy was determined by X-Ray difractometry. Unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters were model-fitted through SWRC-fit code and

  10. Moving polewards in winter: a recent change in the migratory strategy of a pelagic seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the non-breeding period, many birds migrate to milder areas, found closer to the equator than their breeding sites. Opposite movements are very rare. In the Southern Ocean, the abundance of 13C declines markedly with more southern latitude, providing a characteristic 13C isoscape. This can be used as a tracer for the movement of seabirds between breeding and inter-breeding areas, by comparing stable isotope ratios of feathers grown at different times of the year. Results We studied seasonal movements of Thin-billed prions (Aves, Procellariiformes, breeding at the Subantarctic Falkland/Malvinas Islands, compared with those of Wilson's storm-petrels breeding in the Antarctic South Shetland Islands. The two species showed opposite migratory movements. While Wilson's storm-petrels moved to warmer waters north of the Drake Passage in winter, Thin-billed prions showed a reversed movement towards more polar waters. Carbon stable isotope ratios in recent and historical feathers indicated that poleward winter movements of Thin-billed prions were less common historically (45% in 1913-1915, and have only recently become dominant (92% in 2003-2005, apparently in response to warming sea temperatures. Conclusions This study shows that pelagic seabirds can rapidly change migration strategies within populations, including migration towards more poleward waters in winter.

  11. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  12. The scope and impact of obesity in Vermont - Strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Harry L

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a complex, multi-faceted condition amplified by a confluence of socio-economic and environmental forces. Even in Vermont, a state long ranked as one of the healthiest, 25% of adults are obese, a rate better than 44 other states, but more than double that in 1990. Obesity puts people at greater risk for a number of serious health conditions, and may soon overtake tobacco as the #1 real killer if the current trend is not reversed. Beyond the cost to an individual's health, the projected financial impacts of an increasingly obese population are great. Nationally, the estimated direct and indirect costs of obesity add up to more than $190 billion each year. In public health terms, the challenge we are facing with obesity can well be compared to our experience with tobacco. We can easily track advances in policy, counter-marketing and other changes that together have created an environment in which smoking is no longer the norm. The Vermont Department of Health is beginning to apply strategies similar to those used to successfully cut smoking rates. This commentary describes Vermont's efforts to increase physical activity, decrease caloric intake, and enlist partners to help make healthy choices easier and more accessible for everyone. PMID:25818233

  13. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  14. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Spring Barley Production in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop model CERES-Barley was used to assess the impacts of increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 on growth and development of the most important spring cereal in Central and Western Europe, i.e., spring barley, and to examine possible adaptation strategies. Three experimental regions were selected to compare the climate change impacts in various climatic and pedological conditions. The analysis was based on multi-year crop model simulations run with daily weather series obtained by stochastic weather generator and included two yield levels: stressed yields and potential yields. Four climate change scenarios based on global climate models and representing 2 x CO2 climate were applied. Results: (1) The crop model is suitable for use in the given environment, e.g., the coefficient of determination between the simulated and experimental yields equals 0.88. (2) The indirect effect related to changed weather conditions is mostly negative. Its magnitude ranges from -19% to +5% for the four scenarios applied at the three regions. (3) The magnitude of the direct effect of doubled CO2 on the stressed yields for the three test sites is 35-55% in the present climate and 25-65% in the 2 x CO2 climates. (4) The stressed yields would increase in 2 x CO2 conditions by 13-52% when both direct and indirect effects were considered. (5) The impacts of doubled CO2 on potential yields are more uniform throughout the localities in comparison with the stressed yields. The magnitude of the indirect and direct effects ranges from -1 to -9% and from +31 to +33%, respectively. Superposition of both effects results in 19-30% increase of the potential yields. (6) Application of the earlier planting date (up to 60 days) would result in 15-22% increase of the yields in 2 x CO2 conditions. (7) Use of a cultivar with longer vegetation duration would bring 1.5% yield increase per one extra day of the vegetation season. (8) The initial water content in the soil water profile proved to be one

  15. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique D Bohbot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-year old children to 80-year old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM. The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e. hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position. With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the downside of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging.

  16. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  17. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  18. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  19. Effectiveness of a Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy to Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Uce, Musa; Saricayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

    2006-01-01

    The results of previous educational research raise some questions about the efficacy of conventional teaching strategies and point to a need for using teaching strategies that explicitly take into account misconceptions students bring to the classes or acquire during the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, this article presents efforts to…

  20. The Testing Effect: Illustrating a Fundamental Concept and Changing Study Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Gilles O.; Mullet, Hillary G.; Harrison, Tyler L.

    2012-01-01

    An important recent finding is that testing improves learning and memory. In this article, the authors describe a demonstration that illustrates this principle and helps students incorporate more testing into their learning. The authors asked students to read one text using a Study-Study strategy and one text using a Study-Test strategy. One week…

  1. Diverging business strategies towards climate change : a USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der K.F.; Wit, de C.M.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The research project has investigated what strategies specific sectors of industry develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In an USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the bank and insu

  2. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  3. Objectives and strategies for energy revolution in the context of tackling climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change mitigation and CO2 emission reduction have promoted the revolutionary transformation in energy system. The core content of energy system revolutionary transformation is to replace the high-carbon energy system dominated by fossil energy with low-carbon energy system dominated by new and renewable energy and finally realize the near-zero emission of CO2. The new energy system transformation has also led to a reform in global economic and social development patterns. Developing low-carbon economy becomes the fundamental strategy of sustainable development under climate risk management and the only solution to getting on the road from industrial civilization to ecological civilization. China intends to achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2030 and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20% by 2030. Guided by the targets, China directs its economy development to a low-carbon pattern. Therefore, new and renewable power capacity need to reach 1300 GW, and the electricity generated should be 4 times of that in 2013 with a continuous increase rate of 6%–8% around 2030. The pace of energy substitution need to be accelerated and efficient, safe, clean, and low-carbon energy supply and consumption systems should be established besides strengthened energy conservation and improved energy efficient. Therefore, reform need be deepened, favorable policy system and market mechanism for energy revolution and low-carbon development need be established, energy pricing mechanism should be reformed, and national carbon market should be formed to provide a favorable policy and market environment for low-carbon technology innovation and industry development.

  4. Objectives and strategies for energy revolution in the context of tackling climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change mitigation and CO2 emission reduction have promoted the revolutionary transformation in energy system.The core content of energy system revolutionary transformation is to replace the high-carbon energy system dominated by fossil energy with low-carbon energy system dominated by new and renewable energy and finally realize the near-zero emission of CO2.The new energy system transformation has also led to a reform in global economic and social development patterns.Developing low-carbon economy becomes the fundamental strategy of sustainable development under climate risk management and the only solution to getting on the road from industrial civilization to ecological civilization.China intends to achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2030 and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20% by 2030.Guided by the targets,China directs its economy development to a low-carbon pattern.Therefore,new and renewable power capacity need to reach 1300 GW,and the electricity generated should be 4 times of that in 2013 with a continuous increase rate of 6%e8% around 2030.The pace of energy substitution need to be accelerated and efficient,safe,clean,and low-carbon energy supply and consumption systems should be established besides strengthened energy conservation and improved energy efficient.Therefore,reform need be deepened,favorable policy system and market mechanism for energy revolution and low-carbon development need be established,energy pricing mechanism should be reformed,and national carbon market should be formed to provide a favorable policy and market environment for low-carbon technology innovation and industry development.

  5. When we don't know the costs or the benefits: adaptive strategies for abating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most quantitative studies of climate-change policy attempt to predict the greenhouse-gas reduction plan that will have the optimum balance of long-term costs and benefits. The authors find that the large uncertainties associated with the climate-change problem can make the policy prescriptions of this traditional approach unreliable. In this study the authors construct a large uncertainty space that includes the possibility of large and/or abrupt climate changes and/or of technology breakthroughs that radically reduce projected abatement costs. Computational experiments are used on a linked system of climate and economic models to compare the performance of a simple adaptive strategy - one that can make midcourse corrections based on observations of the climate and economic systems - and two commonly advocated 'best-estimate' policies based on different expectations about the long-term consequences of climate change. It was found that the 'Do-a-Little' and 'Emissions-Stabilization' best-estimate policies perform well in the respective regions of the uncertainty space where their estimates are valid, but can fail severely in those regions where their estimates are wrong. In contrast, the adaptive strategy can make midcourse corrections and avoid significant errors. While its success is no surprise, the adaptive-strategy approach provides an analytic framework to examine important policy and research issues that will likely arise as society adapts to climate change, which cannot be easily addressed in studies using best-estimate approaches. 44 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  6. ERP evidence of cognitive strategy change in motivational conditions with varying level of difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillier, L; Whitebread, D; Szucs, D

    2015-04-01

    Recent research suggests that motivation improves cognitive functions but the particular mechanisms and precise behavioural conditions involved in such improvement still remain unknown. Particularly, it is unclear when in time and in which conditions these mechanisms are engaged. In the present study, we aimed to look at the neural markers of cognitive control strategies in different motivational conditions (motivation vs neutral) with different levels of difficulty (high vs low). Twenty-five adults completed a newly designed task in the four conditions above. Three ERP components were analysed: the CNV, LRP and P3b. We found that a motivational situation triggers the use of a proactive strategy when low cognitive control is required. A reactive strategy was used in a non-motivational situation and for difficult trials. Our study is also the first to provide evidence that the difference between proactive and reactive strategies occurs after the first stimulus (cue) is processed. PMID:25708173

  7. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible

  8. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, F.; De Wit, K.; Vellinga, P. [Institue for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management, Faculty of Economics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D. [Department of Management, University of Massachusetts, Boston, VA (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible.

  9. Energetic Optimisation of Foraging Honeybees: Flexible Change of Strategies in Response to Environmental Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Stabentheiner; Helmut Kovac

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, ...

  10. Methodology to determine the vulnerability of deltas to climate change and to identify adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, M.; Offermans, A. G. E.; Middelkoop, H.

    2009-04-01

    Development of sustainable water management strategies involves analysing current and future vulnerability, identification of adaptation possibilities, effect analysis and evaluation of the strategies under different possible futures. Recent studies on water management often followed the pressure-effect chain and compared the state of social, economic and ecological functions of water systems in one or two future situations. The future is, however, more complex and dynamic. Our approach starts at the end of the cause-effect chain by describing optimal conditions and critical thresholds for each water-related function in terms of their physical boundary conditions. This gives an indication of the current and future vulnerability. By comparing the optimal conditions with the physical conditions under the current and future climate and sea level we can identify mismatches. Where these occur are the vulnerable ‘hotspots' for which adaptation strategies should be defined. We developed a rapid assessment model to analyse the effectiveness of strategies for a large set of transient scenarios, in order to evaluate the strategies on robustness. This model describes the Pressure-State-Impact-Response chain of a delta system and exists of simple cause-effect relations based on outcomes of vulnerability analyses, complex hydrological models and studies on social responses. With the model transient scenarios are considered. These scenarios comprise time series that include trends, unexpected events, floods and droughts and the interaction between water system and society. We present the concept methodology for sustainable water management strategies by means of an imaginary case.

  11. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  12. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  13. Climate Change Education: Goals, Audiences, and Strategies--A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Sherrie; Feder, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The global scientific and policy community now unequivocally accepts that human activities cause global climate change. Although information on climate change is readily available, the nation still seems unprepared or unwilling to respond effectively to climate change, due partly to a general lack of public understanding of climate change issues…

  14. Impacts of climate change on in-stream nitrogen in a lowland chalk stream. An appraisal of adaptation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, P.G.; Butterfield, D.; Wade, A.J. [Aquatic Environments Research Centre, Department of Geography, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Wilby, R.L. [Environment Agency, Trentside Office, Scarrington Road, West Bridgford, Nottingham, NG2 5FA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    The impacts of climate change on nitrogen (N) in a lowland chalk stream are investigated using a dynamic modelling approach. The INCA-N model is used to simulate transient daily hydrology and water quality in the River Kennet using temperature and precipitation scenarios downscaled from the General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the period 1961-2100. The three GCMs (CGCM2, CSIRO and HadCM3) yield very different river flow regimes with the latter projecting significant periods of drought in the second half of the 21st century. Stream-water N concentrations increase over time as higher temperatures enhance N release from the soil, and lower river flows reduce the dilution capacity of the river. Particular problems are shown to occur following severe droughts when N mineralization is high and the subsequent breaking of the drought releases high nitrate loads into the river system. Possible strategies for reducing climate-driven N loads are explored using INCA-N. The measures include land use change or fertiliser reduction, reduction in atmospheric nitrate and ammonium deposition, and the introduction of water meadows or connected wetlands adjacent to the river. The most effective strategy is to change land use or reduce fertiliser use, followed by water meadow creation, and atmospheric pollution controls. Finally, a combined approach involving all three strategies is investigated and shown to reduce in-stream nitrate concentrations to those pre-1950s even under climate change. (author)

  15. Does the change of educational strategy for chest compression based on the change of guidelines affect on the quality of prehospital chest compression?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims. International guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) changed their strategy with respect to the rate of chest compression (CC) and ventilation from 15:2 to 30:2. The object of this study was to clarify the effect of this change on the quality of CPR. Subjects and Methods. We recorded the frequency of CC and ventilation performed by Emergency Life Support Technicians (ELSTs) during CPR in ambulances, and compared the period when ELSTs performed 15:2 CPR with th...

  16. Renewable energy to develop adaptation strategies to the climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Pieranna; Bergonzoli, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Changes in land use and combustion of fossil fuels have been largest human impact on the global carbon cycle and without a complete accounting of net greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes, developing and evaluating adaptation strategies are not possible. The major source of GHG fluxes associated with crop production are soil N2O emissions, soil CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes, and CO2 emission associated with agricultural inputs and farm equipment operation. This study points out the main principles which are at the base of solar energy use for sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Field tests were carried out in order to compare crop yield and solar pump plant performance, for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, connected to drip irrigation and sprinkler system plants during the irrigation season. The system mainly consists of the parts listed here: set of flat photovoltaic panels consisting of 150 panels for a total of 3000 W peak value once installed, connected in serial-parallel to obtain a 120 Vdc operating voltage rating. The panels utilize 36 serially connected single-crystal silicon cells providing a 12 V voltage rating. The serial connection of 10 panels generates the system's operating voltage rating (120 Vdc). The total 3000 W peak value power is obtained by connecting in parallel 15 serial-strings. When the circuit is open, the voltage at the ends of the panels can reach 210 Volts. The photovoltaic system supplies, through an inverter, a three-phase 1.6 kW canned pump located in the artesian well. The relevant hydraulic line connects this pump to the various utilities. The hydraulic capacity of the helium pump has been used during the irrigation season in order to meet the water needs of a corn crop. Therefore, along with the solar pump was used a dispersing wing type drip irrigation system with double chamber hosing (70 kPa operating pressure), with external holes spaced 0.3 m apart, 0.75 m distance between the wings, wing length 120 m and placed

  17. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  18. X射线诊断机在EMC测试中的同步控制设计%X-ray Diagnostic Machine Synchronization Control on EMC Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洪斌

    2013-01-01

      提出了在医疗X射线诊断机电磁兼容测试领域,采用EMC测试系统与X射线诊断机同步加载控制的全新方法,彻底解决了X射线诊断机EMC测试结果复现的难题。%This paper puts forward a new synchronous loading control method using EMC test system & X-ray diagnostic machine in the field of X-ray diagnostic machine on EMC test, solves it's recurrence problem.

  19. Climate Change and Agriculture in Latin America, 2020-2050 : Projected Impacts and Response to Adaptation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Erick C.M. Fernandes; Soliman, Ayat; Confalonieri, Roberto; DONATELLI Marcello; Tubiello, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on agriculture are projected to be significant in coming decades, so response strategies, and their likely costs, should be evaluated now. That is why this study produced an open-access, crop-climate-economic impact modeling platform for Latin America and the Caribbean, that can be extended to other regions, then modified and improved by users as new crop, cli...

  20. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical...

  1. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  2. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  3. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  4. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  5. Ecological restoration of tidal estuaries in North Western Europe: an adaptive strategy to multi-scale changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrotoy, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Estuaries are subject to increasing pressures due to local human activities. In addition, global change is affecting coastal habitats. Such disturbances impinge on goods and services provided by these ecosystems. The paper is devoted to efforts to restore environmental quality in some industrialised estuaries during the few past decades. It then compares strategies to recover damaged habitats and methods to restore lost ecological functionalities. Case studies are taken from the Seine in Fran...

  6. PREDICTING CHANGE IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS: THE EFFECTS OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Waweru

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on a survey that investigated changes in management accounting and control systems in 31 Canadian manufacturing companies. Six variables that may influence changes in management accounting and control systems are identified from contingency theory literature. The findings indicate considerable changes in the organizations’ management accounting systems during the three year period. Changes in management accounting were best predicted by organizational capacity to learn. S...

  7. 飞机天线系统EMC设计%EMC design of aircraft antenna system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亮; 李峰; 王涛涛

    2012-01-01

    飞机天线系统EMC设计的主题思想就是为了保证所有机载设备都能够相互无干扰地调和工作,即各天线在能够正常工作的同时,不会干扰其他天线的工作,还要兼顾天线的性能和工程安装要求,满足整机机载设备正常工作,任务设备也能够正常工作.采用仿真软件进行天线系统电磁兼容的仿真计算后制作了1∶1飞机壳体,进行了天线布局的缩比模型模拟测试,得出了整个飞机的天线布局方案.并提出当出现天线间隔离度太小,可能导致相互间干扰时,从系统层面上考虑分时或分频工作,而需要同时工作的不同频率的天线,应在系统链路上附加滤波器等措施,提高天线发射机对谐波和三阶交调系数的抑制.%EMC design purpose of the aircraft antenna system is to ensure that all the airborne equipments work normally without interaction interference. In addition, the design takes into account of the antenna performance and requirements of the antenna engineering installation, so as to meet the normal work of other airborne equipments. The simulation software is adopted to perform the simulation calculation of the electromagnetic compatibility of the antenna system in this paper. A 1:1 aircraft shell was produced to carry out the scale-reduced model simulation testing for the antenna layout. The scheme of the entire aircraft antenna layout was obtained. A conclusion that when the isolation degree is too small. it is supposed that the in teraction interference may occur. The time-shearing and frequency demultiplication were considered in the system level. When more antennas work simultaneously at different frequencies, an additional filter should be put into the periodic line of the system or other measures should be taken to improve the inhibition ability of antenna transmitter in the harmonic and third order intermodulation coefficient.

  8. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1 the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies as a result of changes in climate; (2 ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3 identification the socio-economic factors associated with adoption of coping strategies, and (4 ranking potential constraints to adoption of coping strategies based on farmers’ reporting on the degree to which they face these constraints. As a preliminary matter, this paper also reports on the perceptions of farmers in the study about their experiences with climatic change. The research area is comprised of three villages in the coastal region (Sathkhira district, a geographic region which climate change literature has highlighted as prone to accelerated degradation. One-hundred (100 farmers participated in the project’s survey, from which the data was used to calculate weighted indexes for rankings and to perform logistic regression. The rankings, model results, and descriptive statistics, are reported here. Results showed that a majority of the farmers self-identified as having engaged in adaptive behavior. Out of 14 adaptation strategies, irrigation ranked first among farm adaptive measures, while crop insurance has ranked as least utilized. The logit model explained that out of eight factors surveyed, age, education, family size, farm size, family income, and involvement in cooperatives were significantly related to self-reported adaptation. Despite different support and technological interventions being available, lack of available water, shortage of cultivable land, and unpredictable weather ranked highest as the respondent group’s constraints to coping with environmental

  9. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems. PMID:26558625

  10. The radiation hardness of silica optical fiber used in the LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LED-fiber system has been used to monitor BLM and BESIII EMC. A radiation hard silica optical fiber is essential for its stability and reliability. Three types of silica optical fibers, silicone-clad silica optical fiber with high OH- content (SeCS), silica-clad silica optical fiber with low OH- content (SCSL) and silica-clad silica opical fiber with high OH- content (SCSH) were studied. In the experiment, 12 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by 60Co and 3 groups of fiber samples were irradiated by BEPCII background radiation. Radiation hardness: the radiation hardness of SCSH is best and meets the radiation hardness requirement for LED-fiber monitor of BLM and BESIII EMC. The transmission of SeCS and SCSH decreased to around 80% under the 60Co-irradiation of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively. The radiation hardness of SeCS is worst because of its silicone cladding. Recovery characteristics: 60Co-irradiated by the same doses, there were both more annealable and more permanent color centers formed in SeCS than SCSL, and for the same kind of fibers, as long as the irradiated doses are under a certain amount (for example, less than 5 Gy for SeCS), the higher the doses, both the more annealable and the more permanent color centers are formed.

  11. Transport simulations of linear plasma generators with the B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.; Owen, L. W.; Bonnin, X.; Caneses, J. F.; Canik, J. M.; Corr, C.; Lore, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    Linear plasma generators are cost effective facilities to simulate divertor plasma conditions of present and future fusion reactors. The codes B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene were extensively used for design studies of the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). Effects on the target plasma of the gas fueling and pumping locations, heating power, device length, magnetic configuration and transport model were studied with B2.5-Eirene. Effects of tilted or vertical targets were calculated with EMC3-Eirene and showed that spreading the incident flux over a larger area leads to lower density, higher temperature and off-axis profile peaking in front of the target. The simulations indicate that with sufficient heating power MPEX can reach target plasma conditions that are similar to those expected in the ITER divertor. B2.5-Eirene simulations of the MAGPIE experiment have been carried out in order to establish an additional benchmark with experimental data from a linear device with helicon wave heating.

  12. A Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy To Facilitate High School Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Chacon, Eleazar

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that used a teaching strategy based on two teaching experiments which could facilitate students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry. Involves two sections (n=29 and n=28) of 10th grade high school students in Venezuela. Concludes that the teaching experiments facilitated student understanding of electrochemistry.…

  13. A Study of Preservice Educators' Dispositions to Change Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    Student behavior problems contribute to poor academic achievement and poor teacher retention. This study investigated preservice teachers' dispositions to implement positive and proactive strategies for managing behavior in the general education elementary urban classroom. The author interviewed 19 preservice teachers in a large urban school…

  14. Do organic foodservice intervention strategies lead to changes in the availability of healthy options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    schools are implementing environmental friendly polices i.e. organic procurement strategies (Mu, 2008). It is therefore relevant to investigate the relationship between the different components of such interventions. This study carried out a survey in primary schools in Denmark and Norway through a Web...

  15. Collaboration Strategies to Facilitate Successful Transition of Students with Disabilities in a Changing Higher Education Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Donna M.; Lucia, Jennifer H.; Wenzel, Christine M.; Anderson, Bryanna G.

    2011-01-01

    Disability service (DS) offices today need to be resourceful, creative, and forward-thinking in order to meet the needs of college students with disabilities. A key strategy to meeting these needs is to develop relationships with colleagues across the campus, in both Student and Academic Affairs (Whitt et al. 2008). The Center for Students with…

  16. Developmental changes in children's awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, J L; Ruble, D N

    1989-12-01

    Children at 3 age levels (5-6 1/2, 7 1/2-9, and 10-12 years) were interviewed to determine their spontaneous suggestions of coping strategies designed to manage frustration caused by waiting for a desired object (positive valence) and fear caused by waiting for an unpleasant event (negative valence) in uncontrollable situations. Subjects' responses were grouped into categories based on coping techniques discussed in the adult coping literature on a continuum from approach to avoidance techniques. The avoidance tactics, the main focus of interest, were further divided into 4 distinct forms. In contrast to investigations of children's coping in more controllable situations, approach strategies were very infrequently mentioned. An age increase was found in the proportion of cognitive distraction strategies suggested, but behavioral distraction strategies were most frequently suggested by children at all age levels and did not differ significantly across age. The developmental differences were particularly evident for the negative valence scenarios and, within the negative valence scenarios, for the story likely to be the most stressful to young children--getting a shot. The results are discussed in terms of possible reasons for age differences in cognitive but not behavioral distraction and their implications for children's ability to cope with uncontrollable stress. PMID:2612245

  17. Mainstreaming Environment and Climate Change in the Implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Griebenow, Gonzalo; Kishore, Sunanda

    2009-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategies (PRSs) provide a central framework for macroeconomic, structural, and social policies in developing countries. Because of the numerous and complex links between environment and poverty, it is important that environmental issues are taken into account in the PRS process. This paper follows six previous assessments of the degree of mainstreaming environment in th...

  18. A Comparison of Strategies for Changing College Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eileen S.; Torgler, Cyndee C.

    1990-01-01

    Compared effects of strategies for informing college students about date rape. Assigned students to either experimental group that viewed videotape on acquaintance rape (n=33), experimental group that read brochure on acquaintance rape (n=31), or control group (n=25). Findings revealed no significant difference between effects of videotape and…

  19. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  20. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis. PMID:24601668

  1. Stuck in the tar sands : how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The credibility of any federal climate change strategy must be measured against its ability to reduce emissions from the tar sands. However, the federal government has proposed a climate change strategy that would allow tar sands producers to double their total emissions over the next decade. This report discussed how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook. The report discussed the problems and harmful effects associated with tar sands development, including greenhouse gas emissions; water depletion and pollution; toxic air emissions; destruction of the boreal forest; violation of native rights; threat to energy security; and negative socio-economic spin-off from an overheated economy. The federal government's proposed strategy was also assessed in terms of its weak greenhouse gas targets; ignoring the recent growth in tar sands emissions; adopting intensity-based targets instead of hard caps on greenhouse gas pollution, allowing total emissions from the tar sands to keep climbing; putting off critical measures until 2018; awarding oil companies hundreds of millions of dollars in credits for meeting targets they have already adopted voluntarily; lowballing the price of oil and downplaying future growth in tar sands emissions; ignoring huge portions of the oil industry's greenhouse gas pollution; letting oil companies buy their way out at rockbottom prices instead of forcing them to reduce their own emissions; and subsidizing increased tar sands production. It was concluded that the federal government's proposed plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was inadequate, because it failed to crack down on rising greenhouse gas emissions from the tar sands, one of Canada's most carbon intensive and fastest growing industries. 29 refs., 1 appendix

  2. Learning and assessment credibility: The design of examination strategies in a changing learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Diprose

    2013-01-01

    Learning environments for higher education have changed considerably in the last 20 years, especially since the advent of the internet. In addition to the change in learning technologies has come an increasing politicisation of higher education and in the UK a change from being virtually free in the 1980s to one where annual costs (Sheffield Press Release, 2012) can now be in excess of £9000 p.a. Since there are various routes to attaining higher education and commercialisation and competitio...

  3. Assessing natural disaster preparedness and climate change mitigation strategies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur

    2013-01-01

    Global climate is changing continuously as a result of industrial revolution and rapid urbanisation in many countries of the world which has significant impacts on environment, socio-economic condition, physical and biological issues. Increase of global temperature, rainfall changes, sea level rise, occurrences of extreme weather events such as floods, cyclones, typhoons, droughts etc. are the major and direct consequences of climate change in the world (Pulhin et al., 2010, & Shaw et al., 20...

  4. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  5. Competition vs. Cooperation: Analyzing Strategy Dilemma in Business Growth under Changing Social Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2006-01-01

    There are many factors that determine the structure of competition in the environment of growing globalization. Of these, the factors which predominates the nature of competition include not only rivals, but also the economics of particular industries, new entrants, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers, and the threat of substitute services or products. Hence, competition seems to be inevitable. However, collaboration in the business strategy may be considered analogous with the co...

  6. Towards Comprehensive and Disciplined Change Management Strategy in Agile Transformation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Taghi Javdani Gandomani; Hazura Zulzalil; Abdul Azim Abd. Ghani; Abu Bakar Md Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Moving to agile through a well-defined strategy and framework is essential and this socio-technical process should be studied in deep. Advantages and earned values of agile approach in software industry motivate a lot of companies to try to use agile methods in their software product lines. Transformation process to agile methods is not easy and because of its nature, takes a long time. Since agile transformation needs organizational mutation, companies are faced with many challenges during t...

  7. Changing Academic Medicine: Strategies Used by Academic Leaders of Integrative Medicine—A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia M Witt; Christine Holmberg

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academ...

  8. Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

  9. Renovation strategies: use and changes to Lisbon’s domestic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Amoêda, Rogério; Lira, Sérgio; Pinheiro, Cristina; Wall Gago, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    This contribution proposes a comparative analysis of the original and transformed domestic layout in recent renovations of late 18th and early 19th century housing in Lisbon’s Baixa Pombalina. We specifically look at modifications of room function and connections between spaces according to three main strategies: re-using alcoves for new bathrooms or storage; addressing the kitchen’s present role in domestic sociability; creating additional housing units through flat division. The aim is to i...

  10. Integrated Water Management Strategies For The Rhine and Meuse Basins In A Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelkoop, H.; van Asselt, M. B. A.; van St Klooster, S. A.; van Deursen, W. P. A.; Kwadijk, J. C. J.; Buiteveld, H.; Haasnoot, M.; Können, G. P.

    Water management of the Rhine and Meuse is surrounded by major uncertainties. The central question is then: given the uncertainties, what is the best water management strategy? This raises the need for integrated scenarios that consider possible futures in a coherent and consistent way. Within the framework of IRMA-SPONGE a scenario study was carried out in which physical modelling was combined with socio-cultural theory. Existing climate, land use and socio-economic scenarios, as well as water man- agement strategies have been structured using the Perspectives method. This resulted in integrated scenarios for water management, each representing a different view on the future, together with the according water management style. These were put in a scenario matrix with combinations of world views and management styles, both where these match and mis-match. Using a suite of existing modelling tools the implications of each scenario for the water systems were evaluated. Finally, a comparison of differ- ent water management styles under different possible futures was made, showing the risk, cost and benefits of different strategies.

  11. The Relationship of Future Agricultural Extension Educators' Cognitive Styles and Change Strategies for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Robert; Irani, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The study expands reported here Extension education's knowledge regarding characteristics of potential change agents. Graduate students learning to become agricultural Extension educators were studied to determine their definition of a change agent. Participants' cognitive styles were assessed using Kirton's Adaptation-Innovation Inventory to…

  12. Adapting agriculture to climate change in Kenya: household strategies and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Okoba, Barrack; Roncoli, Carla; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2013-01-15

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable to climate change, given dependence on agricultural production and limited adaptive capacity. Based on farm household and Participatory Rural Appraisal data collected from districts in various agroecological zones in Kenya, this paper examines farmers' perceptions of climate change, ongoing adaptation measures, and factors influencing farmers' decisions to adapt. The results show that households face considerable challenges in adapting to climate change. While many households have made small adjustments to their farming practices in response to climate change (in particular, changing planting decisions), few households are able to make more costly investments, for example in agroforestry or irrigation, although there is a desire to invest in such measures. This emphasizes the need for greater investments in rural and agricultural development to support the ability of households to make strategic, long-term decisions that affect their future well-being. PMID:23201602

  13. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    strong upslope shifting of open grassland, chaparral and hardwood types, which may be initiated by increased fire frequencies, particularly where fires have not recently burned within normal fire recurrence interval departures (FRID). An evaluation of four fire management strategies (business as usual; resist change; foster orderly change; protect vital resources) across four combinations of future climate and fire frequency found that no single management strategy was uniformly successful in protecting critical resources across the range of future conditions examined. This limitation is somewhat driven by current management constraints on the amount of management available to resource managers, which suggests management will need to use a triage approach to application of proactive fire management strategies, wherein MOC landscape projections can be used in decision support.

  14. Development of EMC-based empirical model for estimating spatial distribution of pollutant loads and its application in rural areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qitao; Li, Hui; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-09-01

    An integrated approach to easily calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds is suggested and verified in this research. The basic concepts of this empirical tool were based on the assumption that variations in event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants from a given agricultural watershed during rainstorms were only attributable to the rainfall pattern. Fifty one sets of EMC values were obtained from nine different watersheds located in the rural areas of Korea, and these data were used to develop predictive tools for the EMCs in rainfall runoff. The results of statistical tests of these formulas show that they are fairly good in predicting actual EMC values of some parameters, and useful in terms of calculating pollutant loads for any rainfall event time span such as daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. This model was further checked in for its field applicability in a reservoir receiving stormwater after a cleanup of the sediments, covering 17 consecutive rainfall events from 1 July to 15 August in 2007. Overall the predicted values matched the observed values, indicating the feasibility of this empirical tool as a simple and useful solution in evaluating timely distribution of nonpoint source pollution loads from small rural watersheds of Korea. PMID:26354686

  15. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  16. Pricing strategy for aesthetic surgery: economic analysis of a resident clinic's change in fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-02-01

    The laws of microeconomics explain how prices affect consumer purchasing decisions and thus overall revenues and profits. These principles can easily be applied to the behavior aesthetic plastic surgery patients. The UCLA Division of Plastic Surgery resident aesthetics clinic recently offered a radical price change for its services. The effects of this change on demand for services and revenue were tracked. Economic analysis was applied to see if this price change resulted in the maximization of total revenues, or if additional price changes could further optimize them. Economic analysis of pricing involves several steps. The first step is to assess demand. The number of procedures performed by a given practice at different price levels can be plotted to create a demand curve. From this curve, price sensitivities of consumers can be calculated (price elasticity of demand). This information can then be used to determine the pricing level that creates demand for the exact number of procedures that yield optimal revenues. In economic parlance, revenues are maximized by pricing services such that elasticity is equal to 1 (the point of unit elasticity). At the UCLA resident clinic, average total fees per procedure were reduced by 40 percent. This resulted in a 250-percent increase in procedures performed for representative 4-month periods before and after the price change. Net revenues increased by 52 percent. Economic analysis showed that the price elasticity of demand before the price change was 6.2. After the price change it was 1. We conclude that the magnitude of the price change resulted in a fee schedule that yielded the highest possible revenues from the resident clinic. These results show that changes in price do affect total revenue and that the nature of these effects can be understood, predicted, and maximized using the tools of microeconomics. PMID:9950562

  17. The fight against international terrorism and changes in the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marrero Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the the fight against international terrorism, as a new organising principle in U.S. foreign policy and security policy, has conditioned and modified the American conception of and strategy for combatting nuclear arms proliferation. On the one hand, it analyses the concepts of “axis of evil” or “rogue states” as instruments of automatic and forced connection between international terrorism and nuclear armsproliferating states. On the other hand, it also deals with the changes in American nonproliferation and disarmament strategy, characterised by a distrust towards international cooperation and a clear preference for using means of a unilateral nature, which challenge, and even scorn, international institutions and the rules of international law in this area.

  18. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009......, the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies...

  19. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration. PMID:16146687

  20. Gender specific reproductive strategies of an arctic key species (Boreogadus saida) and implications of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Nahrgang, Jasmine; Varpe, Øystein; Korshunova, Ekaterina; Murzina, Svetlana; Hallanger, Ingeborg G.; Vieweg, Ireen; Berge, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing at an unprecedented rate. What consequences this may have on the Arctic marine ecosystem depends to a large degree on how its species will respond both directly to elevated temperatures and more indirectly through ecological interactions. But despite an alarming recent warming of the Arctic with accompanying sea ice loss, reports evaluating ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic remain sparse. Here, based upon a large-scale field study, we present ba...

  1. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Michael Brubaker; Joshua Glasser; Will Hueston; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of c...

  2. Introduction to the symposium theme : climate change in fragmented landscapes: can we develop spatial adaptation strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Verboom, J.; Vos, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that by increasing the concentration of greenhouse gasses, man has a discernible influence on climate, and this is expected to be a long-term phenomenon affecting the environment in the forthcoming decades or even centuries. Since climate is a key driving force for ecological processes, climate change is likely to exert considerable impact on ecosystems. Since nature policy worldwide is often based upon policy plans which do not ...

  3. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Holmner, Åsa; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today’s most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health inf...

  4. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    I. Weindl; Lotze-Campen, H.; Popp, A; C. Müller; Havlik, P.; Herrero, M.; Schmitz, C; S. Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farming is the world's largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions a...

  5. Robust Organizational Fitness for Reinventing Strategy in Rapidly Changing Industry Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Michael; Voelpel, Sven C.; Leibold, Marius

    2003-01-01

    In fast-changing industry landscapes, companies are often engaged in both adaptive (reactive) and inventive (proactive, newly-shaping) change processes, and these require different types of organizational fitness capabilities. Our research of more than a decade conducted in a wide range of industries (See "About our Research") reveal that many companies are predominantly focused on past successes and internal difficulties, and do not possess the necessary robust capabilities to also inventive...

  6. Climate change and eHealth : a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Åsa Holmner; Joacim Rocklöv; Nawi Ng; Maria Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of hea...

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand in Rheraya Watershed (Morocco), with Potential Adaptation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rochdane, Saloua; Reichert, Barbara; Messouli, Mohammed; Babqiqi, Abdelaziz; Khebiza, Mohammed Yacoubi

    2012-01-01

    Rheraya watershed already suffers from the impacts of climate variability and will be further affected by climate change. Severe water shortages and extremely fragile ecological conditions necessitate careful attention to water resources management. The aim of this study is to analyze Rheraya’s future water situation under different scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change until 2100. The Water Evaluation and Planning System model (WEAP) has been applied to estimate the curr...

  8. Gravity influence on rhythmic plant movements - circumnutations. A study using the EMCS hardware on the ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Gees Bokn Solheim, Bjarte; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    The European Modular Cultivation System, installed in the Destiny unit of the International Space Station, ISS, is now functioning and allows automatic long term biological experiments. We have endeavoured to study growth movements of Arabidopsis thaliana in a 75 days long experiment using the hardware. The experiment has a seed-to-seed study as the overall goal, but unforeseen technical problems allowed only concentrating on the other main goal, viz. a study of possible oscillatory movements of the plant parts in weightlessness. Seeds were planted in Plant Cultivation Chambers (PCCs) with Experimental Containers (ECs) that allowed them to germinate when imbibed. Roots developed in a zeolite medium. White plus red light was provided by LED arrays and a 16:8 LD regime was chosen. Automatic humidity control in the air as well as in the medium was provided to guarantee optimal growth. The ECs were mounted on two identical rotors, allowing centrifugation in the interval 0g to 2g. Images of the ECs were taken by programmed cameras that viewed the ECs via mirrors. Sampling procedures were nominally activated every sixth min. Due to technical difficulties and power off periods for the EMCS planned experimental sequences had to be abandoned at several occasions. However, the experiment allowed acceleration pulses between 0g and approximately 1g to be given to plants throughout their development, a novel feature which is possible to use in system analysis in long term experiments. The circumnutations in Arabidopsis thaliana (wild type) have been studied on Earth and are intriguingly complicated. Under 1 g (on the Earth) the hypocotyls show a multitude of frequencies and the existence of two simultaneous oscillators generating complicated movements has been proposed (Johnsson et al. 1999). Darwin (1881) proposed an endogenous nature of the circumnutations while gravity's possible influence has been emphasized by others researchers (review by Johnsson 1997, Mugnai et al. 2007

  9. Promoting women's health: redefining the knowledge base and strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, S; Hill, J

    1986-01-01

    Promoting women's health involves undertaking a critical gender-based analysis of women's health status and health needs and the knowledge bases which underlie health promotion action. The authors argue that professional and lay definitions of health problems often differ and that these differences stem from a differential emphasis on existing knowledge bases. Here the authors explore the focus of epidemiological, clinical, and experiential knowledge and suggest ways in which each does or does not address many key health issues which women themselves identify as important. Attention is also directed towards women's own suppressed and devalued knowledge as embodied in traditional folk practices and alternative care forms. Recommendations are made to improve existing knowledge bases by transforming some of the value orientations, priorities, methods and the social organization of research. The authors suggest that positive health promotion strategies must be based on an improved knowledge base and must incorporate three key concepts which women emphasize as central--self determination, women-centred values, and a gender-based political analysis. Strategies and methods to achieve these ends are suggested for health educators and policy-makers who wish to develop more positive approaches to promoting women's health. PMID:10286863

  10. Forest management considerations and climatic change in the Pacific Northwest: A framework for devising adaptation/mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for global climate change, especially in its regional and local manifestations, requires decision making in the face of uncertainty. It is demonstrated that in the Pacific Northwest region, the present climate forecasts are uncertain and probabilistic, and the ecological responses are equally uncertain, but a framework for analyzing and devising response strategies for future conditions is feasible in this context. A risk-based approach derived from classical decision analysis is suggested as the most rational response currently practicable to protect the forest resources of the Pacific Northwest. Lists of possible events are needed for two areas: the anticipated outcome of climate change and the possible responses of Pacific Northwest forests to these changes. Meaningful analysis requires estimates of the outcomes and responses, even if they remain subjective for some time, or at least until better and more reliable information becomes available. Once possible responses have been identified, an analysis of the valuation of the tradeoffs for various strategies needs to be made. This approach permits updating, revision, and even negation, but also provides a process that puts focus on information needs and priorities for action. It is concluded that it is highly unlikely that mitigation may be easier to implement than adaptation. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Smart and Resilient Cities. A Systemic Approach for Developing Cross-sectoral Strategies in the Face of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is considered one of the main environmental issues challenging contemporary cities. Meanwhile, urban development patterns and the growth of urban population represent the main contributors to climate change, affecting the total energy consumptions and the related greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, a breakthrough in current urban development patterns is required to counterbalance the climate-related issues.This study focuses on the Smart City and Resilient City concepts; in detail, based on the review of existing literature, it analyzes the synergies between the two concepts, highlighting how the Smart City concept is more and more widely interpreted as a process addressed to make cities “more livable and resilient and, hence, able to respond quicker to new challenges” (Kunzmann, 2014. Nevertheless, current initiatives to improve cities’ smartness and resilience in the European cities are very fragmented and operational tools capable to support multi-objective strategies are still at an early stage. To fill this gap, embracing a systemic perspective, the main characteristics of a smart and resilient urban system have been identified and arranged into a conceptual model. The latter represents a preliminary step for the development of an operational tool capable to guide planners and decision-makers in carrying out multi-objective strategies addressed to enhance the response capacities of complex urban systems in the face of climate change.

  12. Changes in Ecosystem Services and related Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Renaud, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta (Vietnam) is highly vulnerable to the many impacts of global environmental change as well as to the accelerating anthropogenic changes in the catchment and in the delta itself. Today the delta is an agricultural landscape controlled by engineering structures such as channels, dykes, embankments, and sluice gates. These structures have been constructed gradually over the last 200 years mainly for irrigation and flood control in the upper part of the delta and to control saline intrusion in the coastal areas. Recent changes in the hydrology mainly driven by upstream hydropower development on the mainstream and the tributaries of the Mekong will likely have far reaching impacts on the delta´s social-ecological systems through changes in e.g. sedimentation processes, nutrient transport as well as the health of aquatic ecosystems. Further threats to the delta include sea level rise and an increase in seasonal rainfall variability leading to an increase in flood variability. These changes affect the lives of millions of low-income inhabitants who depend on the ecosystem services provided by the Mekong for their livelihoods and sustenance. Since the changes in ecosystem service provision are occurring relatively fast while the resource dependency of the delta population is very high, adaptation becomes a challenge. An assessment of livelihood dependencies on ecosystem services requires an understanding of ecosystem services affected by different drivers of change, as well as of the types of livelihoods likely to be jeopardized as a result of these changes. We will present main ecosystem services supporting specific livelihoods, discuss how they are threatened, and analyse the merits of potential solutions. Options based solely on grey infrastructure might be problematic on the long term while an integration of ecosystem based solution such as a (re)adaptation of agricultural production systems to floods in the upper delta might be a more sustainable

  13. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  14. The delegated authority model misused as a strategy of disengagement in the case of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries De Smet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterisation of anthropogenic climate change as a violation of basic human rights is gaining wide recognition. Many people believe that tackling this problem is exclusively the job of governments and supranational institutions (especially the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This argument can be traced back to the delegated authority model, according to which the legitimacy of political institutions depends on their ability to solve problems that are difficult to address at the individual level. Since the institutions created to tackle climate change fail to do so, their legitimacy is under great pressure and can only be saved by considerations of feasibility. We argue that democratically elected representatives are able to claim that a more robust climate policy is unfeasible, but only because the mandate we as citizens grant them is very restrictive. Instead of shifting responsibility for the thoroughly inadequate response to climate change fully to political representatives, we should highlight the failure of the political community as a whole to fulfil its responsibility at the input-side of the delegation of authority. When individual voters fail to fulfil the minimal obligation to at least vote for parties that explicitly advocate robust climate policies, they cannot hide behind the delegated authority argument, but should accept their complicity in the massive violations of basic human rights caused by the failure to successfully tackle climate change.

  15. [The role of science and technology in Canada's implementation strategy for climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific-technical challenge facing Canada in meeting its Kyoto target was the subject of this discourse. It was suggested that in order to meet the six per cent reduction target we need to introduce new technology into the economy, but just as importantly, we need to change how people use energy and how they use things that emit greenhouse gases. The role that climate change experts can and must play in defining what needs to be done and how to do it, and the crucial contribution that science, analysis and modelling can make to the process, were discussed at length. The question of federal leadership, the role of the Climate Change Secretariat, the role of the Climate Change Action Fund, early action initiatives, the performance of the voluntary action initiative and its future role, federal-provincial cooperation in formulating and implementing climate change policy, and the question of whether or not to impose common greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables on all nations were some of the other major points touched upon. With regard to developing countries, this author put forth the view that developing countries would benefit most from a differentiated system of targets

  16. Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih Kai; Lin, I. Chun; Tsai, Din Ping

    2006-05-01

    Conductive-atomic force microscopy has been successfully used for characterizing recorded marks on commercial digital versatile disk and Blu-ray disk. Nano recorded marks beyond diffraction limit are imaged with high spatial resolution and excellent contrast of conductivity. The smallest mark size resolved is around 23.5 nm which is limited by background spots around 18.5 nm. The results of different optical power and writing strategy on the size, shape, and close packed writing process of recorded marks clearly show the opto-thermal response of phase-change recording layer.

  17. Algorithmic strategies for adapting to environmental changes in 802.11 location fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian S.;

    2010-01-01

    . Unlike previous work, our approach does not require the deployment of special sensors that capture current signal strength phenomena, but rather lends itself towards ubiquitous indoor positioning. An empirical comparison of our proposals against conventional, static radio maps demonstrates very....... In particular, the dominant fingerprinting technique uses a database (called a radio map) of manually collected Wi-Fi signal strengths and is able to achieve positioning accuracies that enable a wide range of location-based services. However, a major weakness of fingerprinting occurs when changes occur...... in the indoor environment that cause the signal propagation patterns and thus signal strength to change. Under such circumstances, a radio map collected at one time is unable to offer accurate positioning at all times. We propose a data-centric approach to achieving accurate positioning in changing environments...

  18. Nursing entrepreneurship: motivators, strategies and possibilities for professional advancement and health system change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    In Canada, as well as internationally, efficiency-focused organizational restructuring in healthcare has resulted in stressful job change for nurses, although nurses continue to work in a system that values technology-based, physician-provided services. Employed nurses have had to participate in organizational activities that undermine their professional values and goals. Nursing entrepreneurship presents an opportunity to explore nursing's professional potential in nursing practice that is uniquely independent. In this study, a focused ethnographic approach was used to explore the experiences of self-employed nurses, who see themselves as leaders in advancing the profession of nursing and its contribution to healthcare. Key themes in the findings include the responses of self-employed nurses to health system change, expanded roles for nurses, the consequences of this non-traditional approach to nursing work and the possibilities for change that arise from nursing entrepreneurship. This research has implications for healthcare policy, professional advocacy and nursing education. PMID:23809640

  19. A Matter of Perspective - E and P Strategy in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation states that the exploration and production industry sees many new opportunities, as a result of political changes and its own expanding capabilities. There is increasing competition for scarce resources - people, tools, technology, capital and public support. The industry must meet pressing challenges, including low oil prices and changing societal expectations. Investors seek predictable terms that are appropriate for both global and local conditions. They have to assess the risks, value the opportunities, consider whether they have the necessary resources, and satisfy themselves they can maintain standards. Their choices are constrained by economic conditions and commercial realities

  20. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... level and decision making: (i) epistemic uncertainties can be reduced by gaining more knowledge; (ii) uncertainties related to ambiguity can be reduced by dialogue and knowledge sharing between the different stakeholders; and (iii) aleatory uncertainty is, by its nature, non-reducible. The uncertainty...

  1. The Transformational CIO Leadership and Innovation Strategies for IT Executives in a Rapidly Changing World

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hunter

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational CIO is chock full of stimulating thought leadership and useful knowledge that will help you leverage new and existing technologies to create business value, generate more revenue, increase profits and improve customer relationships in rapidly changing global markets. This book is a practical guide for senior executives seeking optimal returns on technology investments, now and in the future.Hot-button issues and essential topics covered in the book include:Vision and OrganizationCulture and ChangePartnering with the BusinessThe Art and Science of IT LeadershipTeam Building

  2. Southern Ocean deep-sea biodiversity: sampling strategies and predicting responses to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Barnes, David K. A.

    2008-01-01

    The deep sea surrounds Antarctica and constitutes about 80%, of the Southern Ocean (SO) seabed. Scientific cruises (e.g. ANDEEP) reveal that SO abyssal life can be highly abundant, rich and endemic. With a vast water volume, the buffering effect of ice, data paucity and low sampling effort, signals of regional change may not be detected there for some time. The deep sea is likely to change in many ways, particularly becoming more acid and warmer, but over centuries or millennia. More immediat...

  3. Designing environmental campaigns by using agent-based simulations: strategies for changing environmental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Martens, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Agent-based computer simulation was used to create artificial communities in which each individual was constructed according to the principles of the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo [1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 123-205]. Campaigning strategies and community characteristics were varied systematically to understand and test their impact on attitudes towards environmental protection. The results show that strong arguments influence a green (environmentally concerned) population with many contacts most effectively, while peripheral cues have the greatest impact on a non-green population with fewer contacts. Overall, deeper information scrutiny increases the impact of strong arguments but is especially important for convincing green populations. Campaigns involving person-to-person communication are superior to mass-media campaigns because they can be adapted to recipients' characteristics. PMID:17548145

  4. Learning about frequency on the fly: Recent experience changes strategies regarding linguistic frequency in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy K

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the author examines whether participants can adjust recognition response strategies to account for the effects of linguistic frequency. Experiment 1 used a counterfeit-list technique to replicate findings that indicate that participants exhibit a bias toward choosing high-frequency lures. Experiment 2 demonstrates that when participants are exposed to a training phase that includes an opportunity to recognize high- and low-frequency words, participants no longer demonstrate a significant bias toward choosing high-frequency items on the counterfeit list task. Experiments 3 and 4 examine how participants learn to adjust for linguistic frequency by manipulating the information available during training. The results demonstrate that participants use information from the training phase indicating that high word frequency is a good cue to oldness to guide their memory decisions during the counterfeit list task, but do not use training phase information indicating that low frequency is the best cue to oldness in a similar fashion. PMID:20441131

  5. Changing value chain strategies of Danish clothing and fashion companies, 1970-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Jensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last four decades, the clothing industry has seen one of the most radical, global transformations of any industry, and Western European clothing companies have been put under strain. To the surprise of industry observers and academics, however, Denmark continues to hold expansive and profitable companies within this industry. Both the trade itself and industry observers see the present success of Danish fashion as the result of Danish pioneering in international outsourcing. The article challenges the commonly told story, arguing that the present success should be seen as the result of new companies entering the sector rather than the transformation of old ones. The article demonstrates that value chain strategies are constantly in the making and successful ones rarely remain competitive for long.

  6. Global biogeochemical cycles: Studies of interaction and change, some views on the strategy of approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, B.

    1984-01-01

    The global biosphere is an exceedingly complex system. To gain an understanding of its structure and dynamic features, it is necessary to increase knowledge about the detailed processes, but also to develop models of how global interactions take place. Attempts to analyze the detailed physical, chemical and biological processes need, in this context, to be guided by an advancement of understanding of the latter. It is necessary to develop a strategy of data gathering that serves both these purposes simultaneously. climate research during the last decade may serve as a useful example of how to approach this difficult problem in a systematic way. Large programs for data collection may easily become rigid and costly. While realizing the necessity of a systematic and long lasting effort of observing the atmosphere, the oceans, land and life on Earth, such a program must remain flexible enough to permit the modifications and even sometimes improvisations that are necessary to maintain a viable program.

  7. EMC3-EIRENE modeling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lore, J.D., E-mail: lorejd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Reinke, M.L. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); LaBombard, B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Churchill, R.M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Feng, Y. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ∼50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modeling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.

  8. From Admin to Strategy: The Changing Face of the HR Function. IES Report 332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkin, Penny; And Others

    Evidence from academic research and management experts in the United Kingdom and elsewhere confirms that the recent focus in work organizations on cost reductions through downsizing has changed the roles and structures of many human resources (HR) units. HR units have had to prove their contribution to the organization's bottom line, raise their…

  9. Towards strategies to adapt to pressures on safety of fresh produce due to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Jacxsens, L.; Boekel, van T.; Luning, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a Delphi study aimed to generate insights from a systems perspective about responding to climate change in terms of food safety of fresh produce. The study identified pressures to food safety of fresh produce at primary production, related to contamination of

  10. Adaptive strategy changes as a function of task demands : a study of car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, F; Meijman, T; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    When drivers perform additional tasks while driving, research shows conflicting results: primary driving performance may deteriorate but adaptive changes such as reducing driving speed have also been noted. We hypothesized that the nature of the secondary task may be important: drivers may give more

  11. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Several extraordinary rainfall events have occurred in Denmark within the last few years. For each event problems in urban areas occurred as the capacity of the existing drainage systems were exceeded. Adaptation to climate change is necessary but also very challenging as urban drainage systems are...

  12. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under the influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Several extraordinary rainfall events have occurred in Denmark within the last few years. For each event, problems in urban areas occurred as the capacity of the existing drainage systems were exceeded. Adaptation to climate change is necessary but also very challenging as urban drainage systems...

  13. Adaptive Capacity in Tanzanian Maasailand: Changing strategies to cope with drought in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mara J; Riosmena, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the ways in which the adaptive capacity of households to climatic events varies within communities and is mediated by institutional and landscape changes. We present qualitative and quantitative data from two Maasai communities differentially exposed to the devastating drought of 2009 in Northern Tanzania. We show how rangeland fragmentation combined with the decoupling of institutions and landscapes are affecting pastoralists ability to cope with drought. Our data highlight that mobility remains a key coping mechanism for pastoralists to avoid cattle loss during a drought. However, mobility is now happening in new ways that require not only large amounts of money but new forms of knowledge and connections outside of customary reciprocity networks. Those least affected by the drought, in terms of cattle lost, were those with large herds who were able to sell some of their cattle and to pay for private access to pastures outside of Maasai areas. Drawing on an entitlements framework, we argue that the new coping mechanisms are not available to all, could be making some households more vulnerable to climate change, and reduce the adaptive capacity of the overall system as reciprocity networks and customary institutions are weakened. As such, we posit that adaptive capacity to climate change is uneven within and across communities, is scale-dependent, and is intimately tied to institutional and landscape changes. PMID:25400331

  14. Organization Change and Social Organizing Strategies: Employee-Initiated Organization Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Rod Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) employees create formal and informal groups within workplaces to provide social support and to seek organizational change at their places of employment. I present a case study of a coalition of these groups working together to attain domestic partner benefits within a large three-campus…

  15. Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

  16. UK adaptation strategy and technical measures: the impacts of climate change on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the importance of climate change for the UK building stock and reviews the predictions of the United Kingdom Climate Impacts Programme 2002 (UKCIP02) scenarios for the future climate that are of relevance to buildings and construction. The possible impacts of these changes on flooding, wind damage, driving rain impact, subsidence and the internal environment of buildings are reviewed and the steps that might be taken to mitigate these impacts discussed. The current response of regulators, standardisation bodies, building owners and the insurance industry to these impacts is examined, and it is shown that each body acts in different ways to different impacts. Some bodies, such as government departments responsible for building regulations and the insurance industry, are taking the possibility of climate change very seriously. However, the uncertainty of future climate predictions, especially as regards wind speed, means that it is not easy to incorporate these issues in formal legislation. The whole culture of standardisation, which is based on well-established data, such as mean climate data over the last 30 years, makes it difficult for British and European Standards, which underpin regulations, to react to the changing climate. (author)

  17. Climate Change in the High Andes:implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, C.; Nicklin, C.; Dangles, O.; Vanek, S.; Sherwood, S.G.; Halloy, S.; Garrett, K.A.; Forbes, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Global climate change represents a major threat to sustainable farming in the Andes. Farmers have used local ecological knowledge and intricate production systems to cope, adapt and reorganize to meet climate uncertainty and risk, which have always been a fact of life. Those traditional sy

  18. A Framework and Strategies for Advancing Change and Innovation in Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Conrad, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding variation in institutional missions, two-year colleges are the gateway to postsecondary education for the majority of college and university students in this country. As institutions of choice for many and institutions of necessity for others, two-year institutions are constantly challenged to meet the rapidly changing needs of…

  19. Small, medium and large scale strategies: cases of social response and change in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    2005-01-01

    Greenland has experienced several socio-economic shifts during the 20th century, characterised by interations between natural systems, climate change and the socio-economic and socio-technical systemm of resource exploitation. The focus is on the socio-economic characteristics of the two recent s...

  20. Conceptual Change in Adopting the Nationwide Special Education Strategy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuneberg, H.; Hautamäki, J.; Ahtiainen, R.; Lintuvuori, M.; Vainikainen, M. -P.; Hilasvuori, T.

    2014-01-01

    Educational reform is rarely considered from the point of view of conceptual change. Typically, reform starts at the policy document level by introducing criteria intended to lead to the adoption of new practices. This study offers a case study of how legal national educational reforms can be localized. The case in focus is the recent legislative…