WorldWideScience

Sample records for change ecosystems-atmosphere interactions

  1. Ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Blanco, Efrén

    The terrestrial CO2 exchange in the Arctic plays an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle. The Arctic ecosystems, containing a large amount of organic carbon (C), are experiencing on-going warming in recent decades, which is affecting the C cycling and the feedback interactions between its...... of measurement sites, particularly covering full annual cycles, but also the frequent gaps in data affected by extreme conditions and remoteness. Combining ecosystem models and field observations we are able to study the underlying processes of Arctic CO2 exchange in changing environments. The overall aim...... of the research is to use data-model approaches to analyse the patterns of C exchange and their links to biological processes in Arctic ecosystems, studied in detail both from a measurement and a modelling perspective, but also from a local to a pan-arctic scale. In Paper I we found a compensatory response...

  2. Developing a framework for integrating turbulence measurements and modeling of ecosystem-atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are integrators of nutrient and carbon from their watersheds. The effects of climate change in many cases will enhance the rate of these inputs and change the thermodynamics within aquatic environments. It is unclear the extent these changes will have on water quality and carbon assimilation, but the drivers of these processes will be determined by the complex interactions at the land-water and air-water interfaces. For example, flow over and beneath wind-driven surface waves generate turbulence that plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the atmosphere promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the atmosphere by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We have developed capabilities to conduct field and laboratory experiments using eddy covariance on tall-towers and rafts, UAS platforms integrated with remote sensing, and detailed wind-wave measurements with time-resolved PIV in a new boundary layer wind-wave tunnel. We will show measurements of the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field. Results will help interpret remote sensing, energy budget measurements, and turbulence transport

  3. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang Selsted, M

    2010-07-15

    Global change is a reality. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are rising as well as mean global temperature and precipitation patterns are changing. These three environmental factors have separately and in combination effect on ecosystem processes. Terrestrial ecosystems hold large amounts of carbon, why understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will increase carbon turnover. In the full future climate scenario, carbon turnover is over all expected to increase and the heathland to become a source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The methodology of static chamber CO{sub 2} flux measurements and applying the technology in a FACE (free air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility is a challenge. Fluxes of CO{sub 2} from soil to atmosphere depend on a physical equilibrium between those two medias, why it is important to keep the CO{sub 2} gradient between soil and atmosphere unchanged during measurement. Uptake to plants via photosynthesis depends on a physiological process, which depends strongly on the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. Photosynthesis and respiration run in parallel during measurements of net ecosystem exchange, and these measurements should therefore be performed with care to both the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and the CO{sub 2} soil-atmosphere gradient. (author)

  4. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K J; Richardson, S J; Miles, N L

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2-3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute

  5. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase...... carbon turnover. In the full future climate scenario, carbon turnover is over all expected to increase and the heathland to become a source of atmospheric CO2. The methodology of static chamber CO2 flux measurements and applying the technology in a FACE (free air CO2 enrichment) facility is a challenge...... on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Photosynthesis and respiration run in parallel during measurements of net ecosystem exchange, and these measurements should therefore be performed with care to both the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the CO2 soil-atmosphere gradient....

  6. Evidence-Based Interactive Management of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Fleischmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based interactive management of change means hands-on experience of modified work processes, given evidence of change. For this kind of pro-active organizational development support we use an organisational process memory and a communication-based representation technique for role-specific and task-oriented process execution. Both are effective means for organizations becoming agile through interactively modelling the business at the process level and re-constructing or re-arranging process representations according to various needs. The tool allows experiencing role-specific workflows, as the communication-based refinement of work models allows for executable process specifications. When presenting the interactive processes to individuals involved in the business processes, changes can be explored interactively in a context-sensitive way before re-implementing business processes and information systems. The tool is based on a service-oriented architecture and a flexible representation scheme comprising the exchange of message between actors, business objects and actors (roles. The interactive execution of workflows does not only enable the individual reorganization of work but also changes at the level of the entire organization due to the represented interactions.

  7. Climate change and species interactions: ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Amy L; LaDeau, Shannon L; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    With ongoing and rapid climate change, ecologists are being challenged to predict how individual species will change in abundance and distribution, how biotic communities will change in structure and function, and the consequences of these climate-induced changes for ecosystem functioning. It is now well documented that indirect effects of climate change on species abundances and distributions, via climatic effects on interspecific interactions, can outweigh and even reverse the direct effects of climate. However, a clear framework for incorporating species interactions into projections of biological change remains elusive. To move forward, we suggest three priorities for the research community: (1) utilize tractable study systems as case studies to illustrate possible outcomes, test processes highlighted by theory, and feed back into modeling efforts; (2) develop a robust analytical framework that allows for better cross-scale linkages; and (3) determine over what time scales and for which systems prediction of biological responses to climate change is a useful and feasible goal. We end with a list of research questions that can guide future research to help understand, and hopefully mitigate, the negative effects of climate change on biota and the ecosystem services they provide. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  9. Changes of superconducting interaction in interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, J.

    1976-01-01

    The leakage of conduction electrons from metals into dielectric or semiconducting coatings yields changes in electron phonon coupling and hybridization with localized states in the coating. The changed electron-phonon coupling explains the observed strengthened superconducting interaction with some monolayer thick coating. The hybridization with localized states, i.e. resonance scattering, yields pair weakening and hence a monotonic depression of superconductivity with coating thickness in agreement with experiments. The latter effect explains quantitatively the Tsub(c) and Δ depression (Δ/kTsub(c) approximately equal to const) and a decrease in the Maki-Thompson-fluctuation term observed with thin superconducting films. (author)

  10. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO2 concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work....... Fluxes of CO2 from soil to atmosphere depend on a physical equilibrium between those two medias, why it is important to keep the CO2 gradient between soil and atmosphere unchanged during measurement. Uptake to plants via photosynthesis depends on a physiological process, which depends strongly...... on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Photosynthesis and respiration run in parallel during measurements of net ecosystem exchange, and these measurements should therefore be performed with care to both the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the CO2 soil-atmosphere gradient....

  11. Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced

  12. Remote Sensing of Tropical Ecosystems: Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Masking Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Sellers, Piers J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Wang, Yujie

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rainforests are significant contributors to the global cycles of energy, water and carbon. As a result, monitoring of the vegetation status over regions such as Amazonia has been a long standing interest of Earth scientists trying to determine the effect of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance on the tropical ecosystems and its feedback on the Earth's climate. Satellite-based remote sensing is the only practical approach for observing the vegetation dynamics of regions like the Amazon over useful spatial and temporal scales, but recent years have seen much controversy over satellite-derived vegetation states in Amazônia, with studies predicting opposite feedbacks depending on data processing technique and interpretation. Recent results suggest that some of this uncertainty could stem from a lack of quality in atmospheric correction and cloud screening. In this paper, we assess these uncertainties by comparing the current standard surface reflectance products (MYD09, MYD09GA) and derived composites (MYD09A1, MCD43A4 and MYD13A2 - Vegetation Index) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to results obtained from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. MAIAC uses a new cloud screening technique, and novel aerosol retrieval and atmospheric correction procedures which are based on time-series and spatial analyses. Our results show considerable improvements of MAIAC processed surface reflectance compared to MYD09/MYD13 with noise levels reduced by a factor of up to 10. Uncertainties in the current MODIS surface reflectance product were mainly due to residual cloud and aerosol contamination which affected the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): During the wet season, with cloud cover ranging between 90 percent and 99 percent, conventionally processed NDVI was significantly depressed due to undetected clouds. A smaller reduction in NDVI due to increased

  13. Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction in Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The diagram, which attests the El Nino teleconnection observed by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) in 1997, is an example of the results of our research in air-sea interaction - the core component of our three-part contribution to the Climate Variability Program. We have established an interplay among scientific research, which turns spacebased data into knowledge, a push in instrument technology, which improves observations of climate variability, and an information system, which produces and disseminates new data to support our scientific research. Timothy Liu led the proposal for advanced technology, in response to the NASA Post-2002 Request for Information. The sensor was identified as a possible mission for continuous ocean surface wind measurement at higher spatial resolution, and with the unique capability to measure ocean surface salinity. He is participating in the Instrument Incubator Program to improve the antenna technology, and is initiating a study to integrate the concept on Japanese missions. He and his collaborators have set up a system to produce and disseminate high level (gridded) ocean surface wind/stress data from NSCAT and European missions. The data system is being expanded to produce real-time gridded ocean surface winds from Quikscat, and precipitation and evaporation from the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission. It will form the basis for a spacebased data analysis system which will include momentum, heat and water fluxes. The study on 1997 El Nino teleconnection illustrates our interdisciplinary and multisensor approach to study climate variability. The diagram shows that the collapse of trade wind and the westerly wind anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific led to the equatorial ocean warming. The equatorial wind anomalies are connected to the anomalous cyclonic wind pattern in the northeast Pacific. The anomalous warming along the west coast of the United States is the result of the movement of the pre-existing warm sea surface

  14. Learning to walk changes infants' social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W

    2011-02-01

    The onset of crawling marks a motor, cognitive and social milestone. The present study investigated whether independent walking marks a second milestone for social behaviors. In Experiment 1, the social and exploratory behaviors of crawling infants were observed while crawling and in a baby-walker, resulting in no differences based on posture. In Experiment 2, the social behaviors of independently walking infants were compared to age-matched crawling infants in a baby-walker. Independently walking infants spent significantly more time interacting with the toys and with their mothers, and also made more vocalizations and more directed gestures compared to infants in the walker. Experiment 3 tracked infants' social behaviors longitudinally across the transition from crawling and walking. Even when controlled for age, the transition to independent walking marked increased interaction time with mothers, as well as more sophisticated interactions, including directing mothers' attention to particular objects. The results suggest a developmental progression linking social interactions with milestones in locomotor development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global climate change and above- belowground insect herbivore interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wesley McKenzie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicted changes to the Earth’s climate are likely to affect above-belowground interactions. Our understanding is limited, however, by past focus on two-species aboveground interactions mostly ignoring belowground influences. Despite their importance to ecosystem processes, there remains a dearth of empirical evidence showing how climate change will affect above-belowground interactions. The responses of above- and belowground organisms to climate change are likely to differ given the fundamentally different niches they inhabit. Yet there are few studies that address the biological and ecological reactions of belowground herbivores to environmental conditions in current and future climates. Even fewer studies investigate the consequences of climate change for above-belowground interactions between herbivores and other organisms; those that do provide no evidence of a directed response. This paper highlights the importance of considering the belowground fauna when making predictions on the effects of climate change on plant-mediated interspecific interactions.

  16. Interactions between climate change and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedek, Doris; Sundelin, Brita; Readman, James W; Macdonald, Robie W

    2007-12-01

    There is now general consensus that climate change is a global threat and a challenge for the 21st century. More and more information is available demonstrating how increased temperature may affect aquatic ecosystems and living resources or how increased water levels may impact coastal zones and their management. Many ecosystems are also affected by human releases of contaminants, for example from land based sources or the atmosphere, which also may cause severe effects. So far these two important stresses on ecosystems have mainly been discussed independently. The present paper is intended to increase awareness among scientists, coastal zone managers and decision makers that climate change will affect contaminant exposure and toxic effects and that both forms of stress will impact aquatic ecosystems and biota. Based on examples from different ecosystems, we discuss risks anticipated from contaminants in a rapidly changing environment and the research required to understand and predict how on-going and future climate change may alter risks from chemical pollution.

  17. Rural Urban Interaction to Cope with Climate Change (Nigeria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Site internet. http://www.nest.org.ng/. Extrants. Rapports. Triggering Rural-Urban Interactions to Cope With Climate Change: An Adaptation Experiment In Aba and its Region, Southeastern Nigeria - Final Technical Report. Rapports.

  18. Biotic interactions mediate soil microbial feedbacks to climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crowther, T. W.; Thomas, S.M.; Maynard, D.S.; Baldrian, Petr; Covey, K.; Frey, S. D.; van Diepen, L. T. A.; Bradford, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 22 (2015), s. 7033-7038 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : global change * soil feedback * biotic interaction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  19. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yper, L.N. Van; Vermeire, K.; Vel, E.F. De; Beynon, A.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The

  20. Species interactions reverse grassland responses to changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, K B; Thomsen, Meredith A; Power, Mary E

    2007-02-02

    Predictions of ecological response to climate change are based largely on direct climatic effects on species. We show that, in a California grassland, species interactions strongly influence responses to changing climate, overturning direct climatic effects within 5 years. We manipulated the seasonality and intensity of rainfall over large, replicate plots in accordance with projections of leading climate models and examined responses across several trophic levels. Changes in seasonal water availability had pronounced effects on individual species, but as precipitation regimes were sustained across years, feedbacks and species interactions overrode autecological responses to water and reversed community trajectories. Conditions that sharply increased production and diversity through 2 years caused simplification of the food web and deep reductions in consumer abundance after 5 years. Changes in these natural grassland communities suggest a prominent role for species interactions in ecosystem response to climate change.

  1. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Beynon, Andy J; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age. Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs. Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR. Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.

  2. Interactive Effects of Nitrogen and Climate Change on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, E. M.; Bowman, W. D.; Clark, C. M.; Compton, J. E.; Pardo, L. H.; Soong, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biodiversity has been described as the diversity of life on earth within species, between species and in ecosystems. Biodiversity contributes to regulating ecosystem services like climate, flood, disease, and water quality regulation. Biodiversity also supports and sustains ecosystem services that provide material goods like food, fiber, fuel, timber and water, and to non-material benefits like educational, recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment estimated that the rate of biodiversity loss due to human activity in the last 50 years has been more rapid than at any other time in human history, and that many of the drivers of biodiversity loss are increasing. The strongest drivers of biodiversity loss include habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive species, climate change, and pollution, including pollution from reactive nitrogen. Of these stressors, climate change and reactive nitrogen from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in consistent patterns of poleward and elevational range shifts of flora and fauna, causing changes in biodiversity. Warming has also resulted in changes in phenology, particularly the earlier onset of spring events, migration, and lengthening of the growing season, disrupting predator-prey and plant-pollinator interactions. In addition to warming, elevated carbon dioxide by itself can affect biodiversity by influencing plant growth, soil water, tissue stoichiometry, and trophic interactions. Nitrogen enrichment also impacts ecosystems and biodiversity in a variety of ways. Nitrogen enhances plant growth, but has been shown to favor invasive, fast-growing species over native species adapted to low nitrogen conditions. Although there have been a limited number of empirical studies on climate change and nitrogen interactions, inferences can be drawn from observed responses to each stressor by itself. For

  3. Trophic interactions in changing landscapes: responses of soil food webs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedlund, K.; Griffiths, B.; Christensen, S.; Scheu, S.; Setälä, H.; Tscharntke, T.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil communities in landscapes that are rapidly changing due to a range of anthropogenic processes can be regarded as highly transient systems where interactions between competing species or trophic levels may be seriously disrupted. In disturbed communities dispersal in space and time has a role in

  4. Climate change and ocean acidification-interactions with aquatic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2013-01-15

    The possibilities for interactions between toxicants and ocean acidification are reviewed from two angles. First, it is considered how toxicant responses may affect ocean acidification by influencing the carbon dioxide balance. Second, it is introduced, how the possible changes in environmental conditions (temperature, pH and oxygenation), expected to be associated with climate change and ocean acidification, may interact with the toxicant responses of organisms, especially fish. One significant weakness in available data is that toxicological research has seldom been connected with ecological and physiological/biochemical research evaluating the responses of organisms to temperature, pH or oxygenation changes occurring in the natural environment. As a result, although there are significant potential interactions between toxicants and natural environmental responses pertaining to climate change and ocean acidification, it is very poorly known if such interactions actually occur, and can be behind the observed disturbances in the function and distribution of organisms in our seas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  6. Climate change driven plant-metal-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Mani; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Swaminathan, Sandhya; Freitas, Helena

    2013-03-01

    Various biotic and abiotic stress factors affect the growth and productivity of crop plants. Particularly, the climatic and/or heavy metal stress influence various processes including growth, physiology, biochemistry, and yield of crops. Climatic changes particularly the elevated atmospheric CO₂ enhance the biomass production and metal accumulation in plants and help plants to support greater microbial populations and/or protect the microorganisms against the impacts of heavy metals. Besides, the indirect effects of climatic change (e.g., changes in the function and structure of plant roots and diversity and activity of rhizosphere microbes) would lead to altered metal bioavailability in soils and concomitantly affect plant growth. However, the effects of warming, drought or combined climatic stress on plant growth and metal accumulation vary substantially across physico-chemico-biological properties of the environment (e.g., soil pH, heavy metal type and its bio-available concentrations, microbial diversity, and interactive effects of climatic factors) and plant used. Overall, direct and/or indirect effects of climate change on heavy metal mobility in soils may further hinder the ability of plants to adapt and make them more susceptible to stress. Here, we review and discuss how the climatic parameters including atmospheric CO₂, temperature and drought influence the plant-metal interaction in polluted soils. Other aspects including the effects of climate change and heavy metals on plant-microbe interaction, heavy metal phytoremediation and safety of food and feed are also discussed. This review shows that predicting how plant-metal interaction responds to altering climatic change is critical to select suitable crop plants that would be able to produce more yields and tolerate multi-stress conditions without accumulating toxic heavy metals for future food security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interannual Variability In the Atmospheric CO2 Rectification Over Boreal Forests Based On A Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Worthy, D.

    2004-05-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The simulation of this atmospheric rectifier effect is important in understanding the global CO2 distribution pattern. A 12-year (1990-1996, 1999-2003), continuous CO2 measurement record from Fraserdale, Ontario (located ~150 km north of Timmons), along with a coupled Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS), is used to investigate the interannual variability in this effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. Simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effects, (including seasonal and diurnal), quantified as the variation in the mean CO2 concentration from the surface to the top of the PBL, varied from 2.8 to 4.1 ppm, even though the modeled seasonal variations in the PBL depth were similar throughout the 12-year period. The differences in the interannual rectifier effect primarily resulted from changes in the biospheric CO2 uptake and heterotrophic respiration. Correlations in the year-to year variations of the CO2 rectification were found with mean annual air temperatures, simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (r2=0.5, 0.46, 0.42, respectively). A small increasing trend in the CO2 rectification was also observed. The year-to-year variation in the vertical distribution of the monthly mean CO2 mixing ratios (reflecting differences in the diurnal rectifier effect) was related to interannual climate variability, however, the seasonal rectifier effects were found to be more sensitive to climate variability than the diurnal rectifier effects.

  8. The influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exhanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Biraud, S.C.; Noone, D.C.; Buenning, N.H.; Randerson, J.T.; Torn, M.S.; Welker, J.; White, J.W.C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G.D.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} isotope fluxes ('isofluxes') in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C{sub 4} grassland), in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model, ISOLSM. Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C{sub 4} grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2} may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  9. Comparative ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of energy and mass in a European Russian and a central Siberian bog II. Interseasonal and interannual variability of CO2 fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneth, A.; Kolle, O.; Lloyd, J.; Schulze, E.D.; Kurbatova, J.; Vygodskaya, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO 2 (NEE) was measured in two boreal bogs during the snow-free periods of 1998, 1999 and 2000. The two sites were located in European Russia (Fyodorovskoye), and in central Siberia (Zotino). Climate at both sites was generally continental but with more extreme summer-winter gradients in temperature at the more eastern site Zotino. The snow-free period in Fyodorovskoye exceeded the snow-free period at Zotino by several weeks. Marked seasonal and interannual differences in NEE were observed at both locations, with contrasting rates and patterns. Amongst the most important contrasts were: (1) Ecosystem respiration at a reference soil temperature was higher at Fyodorovskoye than at Zotino. (2) The diurnal amplitude of summer NEE was larger at Fyodorovskoye than at Zotino. (3) There was a modest tendency for maximum 24 h NEE during average rainfall years to be more negative at Zotino (-0.17 versus -0.15 mol/m 2 /d), suggesting a higher productivity during the summer months. (4) Cumulative net uptake of CO 2 during the snow-free period was strongly related to climatic differences between years. In Zotino the interannual variability in climate, and also in the CO 2 balance during the snow-free period, was small. However, at Fyodorovskoye the bog was a significant carbon sink in one season and a substantial source for CO 2 -C in the next, which was below-average dry. Total snow-free uptake and annual estimates of net CO 2 -C uptake are discussed, including associated uncertainties

  10. The essential interactions between understanding climate variability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Global change is sometimes perceived as a field separate from other aspects of atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Despite the long history of communication between the scientific communities studying global change and those studying interannual variability and weather, increasing specialization and conflicting societal demands on the fields can put these interactions at risk. At the same time, current trajectories for greenhouse gas emissions imply substantial adaptation to climate change will be necessary. Instead of simply projecting effects to be avoided, the field is increasingly being asked to provide regional-level information for specific adaptation strategies—with associated requirements for increased precision on projections. For extreme events, challenges include validating models for rare events, especially for events that are unprecedented in the historical record. These factors will be illustrated with examples of information transfer to climate change from work on fundamental climate processes aimed originally at timescales from hours to interannual. Work to understand the effects that control probability distributions of moisture, temperature and precipitation in historical weather can yield new factors to examine for the changes in the extremes of these distributions under climate change. Surprisingly simple process models can give insights into the behavior of vastly more complex climate models. Observation systems and model ensembles aimed at weather and interannual variations prove valuable for global change and vice versa. Work on teleconnections in the climate system, such as the remote impacts of El Niño, is informing analysis of projected regional rainfall change over California. Young scientists need to prepare to work across the full spectrum of climate variability and change, and to communicate their findings, as they and our society head for future that is more interesting than optimal.

  11. Changing intensity of interaction can resolve prisoner's dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Chunyan; Sun, Qinglin; Chen, Zengqiang; Zhang, Jianlei

    2016-03-01

    We put forward a computational model which mainly focuses on the effect of changing the intensity of interaction between individuals to study the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game in social networks. In this model, an individual will unilaterally increase the intensity of interaction from it to some of its neighbors in case it is satisfied with the current income which it obtains from the neighbor; conversely, the individual will unilaterally reduce the intensity of interaction from it to its neighbor. We show that this simple evolutionary rule can effectively shift the survival barrier of cooperators and drastically facilitate the emergence of cooperation. Interestingly, for a fixed temptation to defect, there exists the smallest increment of intensity of interaction, resulting in a plateau of high cooperation level due to the positive feedback mechanism. Furthermore, we find good agreement between simulation results and theoretical predictions obtained from an extended pair-approximation method. Meanwhile, we illustrate the dynamical evolution of cooperators on the network, and investigate the impact of noise during the strategy updates.

  12. Ice sheet-ocean interactions and sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets has increased rapidly since the mid-1990s. Their combined loss now accounts for about one-third of global sea level rise. In Greenland, a growing body of evidence points to the marine margins of these glaciers as the region from which this dynamic response originated. Similarly, ice streams in West Antarctica that feed vast floating ice shelves have exhibited large decadal changes. We review observational evidence and present physical mechanisms that might explain the observed changes, in particular in the context of ice sheet-ocean interactions. Processes involve cover 7 orders of magnitudes of scales, ranging from mm boundary-layer processes to basin-scale coupled atmosphere-ocean variability. We discuss observational needs to fill the gap in our mechanistic understanding.

  13. Hemodynamic changes by drug interaction of adrenaline with chlorpromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Hitoshi; Yabuki, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Adrenaline (epinephrine) is included in dental local anesthesia for the purpose of vasoconstriction. In Japan, adrenaline is contraindicated for use in patients receiving antipsychotic therapy, because the combination of adrenaline and an antipsychotic is considered to cause severe hypotension; however, there is insufficient evidence supporting this claim. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the changes in hemodynamics caused by drug interaction between adrenaline and an antipsychotic and to evaluate the safety of the combined use of adrenaline and an antipsychotic in an animal study. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. A catheter was inserted into the femoral artery to measure blood pressure and pulse rate. Rats were pretreated by intraperitoneal injection of chlorpromazine or chlorpromazine and propranolol, and after 20 minutes, saline or 1 of 3 different doses of adrenaline was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Changes in the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate were measured after the injection of adrenaline. Significant hypotension and tachycardia were observed after the injection of adrenaline in the chlorpromazine-pretreated rats. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner, and 100 μg/kg adrenaline induced significant hemodynamic changes. Furthermore, in the chlorpromazine and propranolol-pretreated rats, modest hypertension was induced by adrenaline, but hypotension and tachycardia were not significantly shown. Hypotension was caused by a drug interaction between adrenaline and chlorpromazine through the activation of the β-adrenergic receptor and showed a dose-dependent effect. Low-dose adrenaline similar to what might be used in human dental treatment did not result in a significant homodynamic change.

  14. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  15. A Symplectic Beam-Beam Interaction with Energy Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    The performance of many colliding storage rings is limited by the beam-beam interaction. A particle feels a nonlinear force produced by the encountering bunch at the collision. This beam-beam force acts mainly in the transverse directions so that the longitudinal effects have scarcely been studied, except for the cases of a collision with a crossing angle. Recently, however, high luminosity machines are being considered where the beams are focused extensively at the interaction point (IP) so that the beam sizes can vary significantly within the bunch length. Krishnagopal and Siemann have shown that they should not neglect the bunch length effect in this case. The transverse kick depends on the longitudinal position as well as on the transverse position. If they include this effect, however, from the action-reaction principle, they should expect, at the same time, an energy change which depends on the transverse coordinates. Such an effect is reasonably understood from the fact that the beam-beam force is partly due to the electric field, which can change the energy. The action-reaction principle comes from the symplecticity of the reaction: the electromagnetic influence on a particle is described by a Hamiltonian. The symplecticity is one of the most fundamental requirements when studying the beam dynamics. A nonsymplectic approximation can easily lead to unphysical results. In this paper, they propose a simple, approximately but symplectic mapping for the beam-beam interaction which includes the energy change as well as the bunch-length effect. In the next section, they propose the mapping in a Hamiltonian form, which directly assures its symplecticity. Then in section 3, they study the nature of the mapping by interpreting its consequences. The mapping itself is quite general and can be applied to any distribution function. They show in Section 4 how it appears when the distribution function is a Gaussian in transverse directions. The mapping is applied to the

  16. Family nonuniversal Z' models with protected flavor-changing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Alejandro; Fuentes-Martín, Javier; Jung, Martin; Serôdio, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    We define a new class of Z' models with neutral flavor-changing interactions at tree level in the down-quark sector. They are related in an exact way to elements of the quark mixing matrix due to an underlying flavored U(1)' gauge symmetry, rendering these models particularly predictive. The same symmetry implies lepton-flavor nonuniversal couplings, fully determined by the gauge structure of the model. Our models allow us to address presently observed deviations from the standard model and specific correlations among the new physics contributions to the Wilson coefficients C9,10' ℓ can be tested in b →s ℓ+ℓ- transitions. We furthermore predict lepton-universality violations in Z' decays, testable at the LHC.

  17. Interactions of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    I review literature on the impacts of climate change on air quality and human health, with a focus on articles published from 2013 on ozone and airborne particles. Selected previous literature is discussed where relevant in tracing the origins of our current knowledge. Climate and weather have strong influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution concentrations. Emissions of ozone and PM 2.5 precursors increase at higher ambient temperatures. The reactions that form ozone occur faster with greater sunlight and higher temperatures. Weather systems influence the movement and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere through the action of winds, vertical mixing, and precipitation, all of which are likely to alter in a changing climate. Recent studies indicate that, holding anthropogenic air pollution emissions constant, ozone concentrations in populated regions will tend to increase in future climate scenarios. For the USA, the climate impact on ozone is most consistently seen in north-central and north-eastern states, with the potential for many thousands of additional ozone-related deaths. The sensitivity of anthropogenic PM 2.5 to climate is more variable across studies and regions, owing to the varied nature of PM constituents, as well as to less complete characterization of PM reaction chemistry in available atmospheric models. However, PM emitted by wildland fires is likely to become an increasing health risk in many parts of the world as climate continues to change. The complex interactions between climate change and air quality imply that future policies to mitigate these twin challenges will benefit from greater coordination. Assessing the health implications of alternative policy approaches towards climate and pollution mitigation will be a critical area of future work.

  18. Interaction management by partnerships: The case of biodiversity and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Glasbergen, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the contributions that partnerships make to interaction management. Our conceptualization of interaction management builds on earlier contributions to the literature on regimes and governance. The article focuses on the interactions among the biodiversity and climate change

  19. Climate Change Feedbacks from Interactions Between New and Old Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, Jeffrey S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Phillips, Richard P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2016-05-24

    plots to simulate root-derived C fluxes. Specifically, we constructed artificial roots attached to an automated peristaltic pump to deliver the compounds to soil semi-continuously during the peak of the growing season. We found that changes in exudate quality had small but significant effects on microbial activities, often interacting with N availability and temperature-induced changes. These results further underscore the importance of priming effects, especially under warming conditions. Collectively, our results provide some of the first field-based estimates of how soil moisture and temperature can directly and indirectly alter root-induced changes in SOM dynamics. This exploratory project lays the groundwork for further research on priming that incorporates effects of plant species and microbial communities to global changes. Such information should enable the development of more mechanistic and better predictive models of SOM decomposition under increased greenhouse gas levels, with the ultimate goal of reducing the level of uncertainty in projections of future climate.

  20. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  1. Aspect-Oriented Change Realizations and Their Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vranić, Valentino; Menkyna, Radoslav; Bebjak, Michal

    2009-01-01

    With aspect-oriented programming, changes can be treated explicitly and directly at the programming language level. An approach to aspect-oriented change realization based on a two-level change type model is presented in this paper. In this approach, aspect-oriented change realizations are mainly...

  2. Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…

  3. Social interaction is associated with changes in infants’ motor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Scola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants’ engagement in motor activity. Methods: We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i.e. passive presence of a stranger or the infant's mother, weak or intense interaction with the stranger/mother as she sings a nursery play song. Results: The infants’ face and foot motor activity was significantly reduced during the interactive episodes, compared with the episodes without any interaction, in both the mother and stranger conditions. Furthermore, the level of their motor activity was significantly lower in the stranger condition than in the mother one for some parameters. Conclusion: These results are in line with those reported by previous studies and confirm the relevance of using motor activity to delineate the early forms of interactive episodes in infants.

  4. Writing for Change — An Interactive Guide to Effective Writing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Writing for Change, you will learn the core skills of effective writing, how to write ... It is full of practical exercises and examples from the field of international development. ... Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Health in Colombia and Bolivia.

  5. Climate change projections and stratosphere-troposphere interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaife, Adam A.; Fereday, David R.; Butchart, Neal; Hardiman, Steven C. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Spangehl, Thomas; Cubasch, Ulrich; Langematz, Ulrike [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Akiyoshi, Hideharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Bekki, Slimane [LATMOS-IPSL, UVSQ, UPMC, CNRS/INSU, Paris (France); Braesicke, Peter [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chipperfield, Martyn P. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Gettelman, Andrew [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Michou, Martine [GAME/CNRM (Meteo France, CNRS), Toulouse (France); Rozanov, Eugene [PMOD/WRC and ETHZ, Davos (Switzerland); Shepherd, Theodore G. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    Climate change is expected to increase winter rainfall and flooding in many extratropical regions as evaporation and precipitation rates increase, storms become more intense and storm tracks move polewards. Here, we show how changes in stratospheric circulation could play a significant role in future climate change in the extratropics through an additional shift in the tropospheric circulation. This shift in the circulation alters climate change in regional winter rainfall by an amount large enough to significantly alter regional climate change projections. The changes are consistent with changes in stratospheric winds inducing a change in the baroclinic eddy growth rate across the depth of the troposphere. A change in mean wind structure and an equatorward shift of the tropospheric storm tracks relative to models with poor stratospheric resolution allows coupling with surface climate. Using the Atlantic storm track as an example, we show how this can double the predicted increase in extreme winter rainfall over Western and Central Europe compared to other current climate projections. (orig.)

  6. The Interactive Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone on Changes in Emotional Eating Across the Menstrual Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Klump, Kelly L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Boker, Steven; Hu, Jean Yueqin

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that within-person changes in estrogen and progesterone predict changes in binge eating across the menstrual cycle. However, samples have been extremely small (maximum N = 9), and analyses have not examined the interactive effects of hormones that are critical for changes in food intake in animals. The aims of the current study were to examine ovarian hormone interactions in the prediction of within-subject changes in emotional eating in the largest sample of women to date (N ...

  7. Social media, interactive tools that change business model dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Donaire, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-folded. On the one hand, it attempts to assist employers of Catalan micro-retailers in designing, implementing and developing their Social Media strategy as a complementary channel of communication. On the other hand, it attempts to contribute to the research community with a better understanding on both which building block of the micro-retailer¿s Business Model is more influenced by the customer level of interaction by means of the Social Media...

  8. Global Change Effects on Plant-Soil Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie

    of this dissertation has been to determine how soil food web structure and function is affected when the quantity and quality of plant input is altered under global change. By studying the abundance and composition of soil organisms, particularly those in the rhizosphere, closely associated with living plants, we...... (Paper III). Furthermore, by way of meta-analysis, the role of organisms in global change effects on ecosystem function is modelled (Paper IV). Among CO2, warming and summer drought, CO2 is the factor most consistently impacting soil organisms. CO2 increases abundance of microorganisms and nematodes...... suggest that not only the global change effects on established ecosystems, but also the global change effects on plant community composition as well as land use management may determine the composition and function of soil food webs in the future....

  9. Water–Soil–Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of land degradation, topsoil erosion, and hydrologic alteration typically focus on these subjects individually, missing important interrelationships among these important aspects of the Earth’s system. However, an understanding of water–soil–vegetation dynamic interactions is needed to develop practical and effective solutions to sustain the globe’s eco-environment and grassland agriculture, which depends on grasses, legumes, and other fodder or soil-building crops. This special issue is intended to be a platform for a discussion of the relevant scientific findings based on experimental and/or modeling studies. Its 12 peer-reviewed articles present data, novel analysis/modeling approaches, and convincing results of water–soil–vegetation interactions under historical and future climates. Two of the articles examine how lake/pond water quality is related to human activity and climate. Overall, these articles can serve as important references for future studies to further advance our understanding of how water, soil, and vegetation interactively affect the health and productivity of the Earth’s ecosystem.

  10. Climate change and the past, present, and future of biotic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Jessica L; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Finnegan, Seth

    2013-08-02

    Biotic interactions drive key ecological and evolutionary processes and mediate ecosystem responses to climate change. The direction, frequency, and intensity of biotic interactions can in turn be altered by climate change. Understanding the complex interplay between climate and biotic interactions is thus essential for fully anticipating how ecosystems will respond to the fast rates of current warming, which are unprecedented since the end of the last glacial period. We highlight episodes of climate change that have disrupted ecosystems and trophic interactions over time scales ranging from years to millennia by changing species' relative abundances and geographic ranges, causing extinctions, and creating transient and novel communities dominated by generalist species and interactions. These patterns emerge repeatedly across disparate temporal and spatial scales, suggesting the possibility of similar underlying processes. Based on these findings, we identify knowledge gaps and fruitful areas for research that will further our understanding of the effects of climate change on ecosystems.

  11. Interaction management by partnerships: The case of biodiversity and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Glasbergen, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the contributions that partnerships make to interaction management. Our conceptualization of interaction management builds on earlier contributions to the literature on regimes and governance. The article focuses on the interactions among the biodiversity and climate change governance systems, since these systems interact intensively on the issues of biofuels and forests (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation—REDD+). The article shows that seven pa...

  12. The role of learning and social interaction for changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    The paper presents initial theoretical suggestions on how practice theory might be combined with understandings of learning as an experiential and social activity. The aim is to inspire to further thinking about how to make practice theory more “applicable” for designing changes towards a low...

  13. How interactive marketing is changing in financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Merlin; Laughlin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the impact of the Internet and related information and communications technology developments on how financial services (FS) are distributed and how customers are managed, in particular, not only how companies can differentiate between “good” and “bad” customers and manage them appropriately but also how customers can be “bad” and escape the consequences. It also explores how changes in information asymmetry between suppliers and customers affects who gain...

  14. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  15. Changes in cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition after performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that motor learning is supported by the cerebellum and the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Response inhibition involves motor responses and the higher-order inhibition that controls the motor responses. In this functional MRI study, we measured the cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition in two separate days of task performance, and detected the changes in the interaction following performance improvement. Behaviorally, performance improved in the second day, compared to the first day. The psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed the interaction decrease from the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) to the cerebellum (lobule VII or VI). It was also revealed that the interaction increased from the same cerebellar region to the primary motor area. These results suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in response inhibition, and raise the possibility that the performance improvement was supported by the changes in the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevnsbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David

    2012-01-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate4 can be expected to influence above–belowground interactions. Here, we use...... a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms.We use an insect herbivore...... a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground–belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability....

  17. An Interactive Multi-Model for Consensus on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocarev, Ljupco [University of California, San Diego

    2014-07-02

    This project purports to develop a new scheme for forming consensus among alternative climate models, that give widely divergent projections as to the details of climate change, that is more intelligent than simply averaging the model outputs, or averaging with ex post facto weighting factors. The method under development effectively allows models to assimilate data from one another in run time with weights that are chosen in an adaptive training phase using 20th century data, so that the models synchronize with one another as well as with reality. An alternate approach that is being explored in parallel is the automated combination of equations from different models in an expert-system-like framework.

  18. Effects of Solar UV Radiation and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycling: Interactions and Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions...

  19. The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Research and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Manfredo, M.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Rechkemmer, A.; Duke, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land change is the result of multiple human-environment interactions operating across different scales. Land change research needs to account for processes ranging from global trade of food and energy to the local management of land resources at farm and landscape level. Land change has a pronounced

  20. Effects on Ion Cyclotron Emission of the Orbit Topology Changes from the Wave-Particle Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.; Holmstroem, K.; Johnson, T.; Bergkvist, T.; Laxaback, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that non-relaxed distribution functions can give rise to excitation of magnetosonic waves by ion cyclotron interactions when the distribution function increases with respect to the perpendicular velocity. We have found that in a toroidal plasma also collisional relaxed distribution functions of central peaked high-energy ions can destabilise magnetosonic eigenmodes by ion cyclotron interactions, due to the change in localisation of the orbits establishing inverted distribution functions with respect to energy along the characteristics describing the cyclotron interactions. This can take place by interactions with barely co-passing and marginally trapped high-energy ions at the plasma boundary. The interactions are enhanced by tangential interactions, which can also prevent the interactions to reach the stable part of the characteristics where they interact with more deeply trapped orbits. (author)

  1. Informational mismatches: a neglected threat of climate change to interspecific interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deseada eParejo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific interactions are deeply affected by the current scenario of climate change. This is because interactions are sensitive to many traits of interacting species as phenology, distribution, behaviour and relative abundances which may be differently influenced by climate change in each species. In this scenario, positive interactions, which require temporal coordination of events of life history of interacting species, could be particularly altered due to differential effects of climate change on phenology, apart from by the effects on abundance and distribution. Hitherto, studies focusing on the effects of climate change on positive biotic interactions are scarce and mainly focused on plant-pollinator interactions. Here I propose that, by inducing informational mismatches, climate change may lead to individuals from competing species relying on heterospecific social information to making mis- or un-informed decisions. The idea is that competing species are valuable sources of social information to each other provided overlap of their activities occurs. However, whenever coordination of events fails, competing species will co-occur at the wrong moment, co-occur only in small numbers or even not co-occur at all and thus they will not be able to access useful or any social information from heterospecifics. In that scenario, interacting species would be mis- or un- informed, and, consequently, decision taking will be impaired, leading to disequilibrium in the community. Throughout the manuscript, I will develop the idea of mismatches of information and illustrate it with some case studies.

  2. Flavor changing heavy Higgs interactions at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Altunkaynak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A general two Higgs doublet model (2HDM is adopted to study the signature of flavor changing neutral Higgs (FCNH decay ϕ0→tc¯+t¯c, where ϕ0 could be a CP-even scalar (H0 or a CP-odd pseudoscalar (A0. Measurement of the light 125 GeV neutral Higgs boson (h0 couplings at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC favor the decoupling limit or the alignment limit of a 2HDM, in which gauge boson and diagonal fermion couplings of h0 approach Standard Model values. In such limit, FCNH couplings of h0 are naturally suppressed by a small mixing parameter cos⁡(β−α, while the off-diagonal couplings of heavier neutral scalars ϕ0 are sustained by sin⁡(β−α∼1. We study physics background from dominant processes with realistic acceptance cuts and tagging efficiencies. Promising results are found for the LHC running at 13 or 14 TeV collision energies.

  3. How to debrief teamwork interactions: using circular questions to explore and change team interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Michaela; Marty, Adrian; Seelandt, Julia; Grande, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    We submit that interaction patterns within healthcare teams should be more comprehensively explored during debriefings in simulation-based training because of their importance for clinical performance. We describe how circular questions can be used for that purpose. Circular questions are based on social constructivism. They include a variety of systemic interviewing methods. The goals of circular questions are to explore the mutual dependency of team members' behavior and recurrent behavior patterns, to generate information, to foster perspective taking, to "fluidize" problems, and to put actions into relational contexts. We describe the nature of circular questions, the benefits they offer, and ways of applying them during debriefings.

  4. The Changes of Interaction Patterns between Males and Famales in Love Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    川名 , 好裕

    2014-01-01

    Internet survey was conducted to study the changes of interaction patterns betweenmen and women in love relationships. Survey participants are 968 males and 967 females of all over Japan. Their ages are between 20~49. Samples were divided into 6 different love relationship phases: friend, unrequited, platonic, love-sexual, affianced and married. The degrees of contents of love relation interactions; communication, co-activities, body contacts were investigated. These interaction patterns were...

  5. Combined and interactive effects of global climatee change and toxicants on popuylations and communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, S.R.; Schamphelaere, de K.A.C.; Clements, W.H.; Sorensen, T.; Brink, van den P.J.; Liess, M.

    2013-01-01

    Increased temperature and other environmental effects of global climate change (GCC) have documented impacts on many species (e.g., polar bears, amphibians, coral reefs) as well as on ecosystem processes and species interactions (e.g., the timing of predator-prey interactions). A challenge for

  6. After Early Autism Diagnosis: Changes in Intervention and Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD…

  7. Biotic interactions in the face of climate change: a comparison of three modelling approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Jaeschke

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter biotic interactions, and may lead to temporal and spatial mismatches of interacting species. Although the importance of interactions for climate change risk assessments is increasingly acknowledged in observational and experimental studies, biotic interactions are still rarely incorporated in species distribution models. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the obligate interaction between Aeshna viridis and its egg-laying plant Stratiotes aloides in Europe, based on an ensemble modelling technique. We compared three different approaches for incorporating biotic interactions in distribution models: (1 We separately modelled each species based on climatic information, and intersected the future range overlap ('overlap approach'. (2 We modelled the potential future distribution of A. viridis with the projected occurrence probability of S. aloides as further predictor in addition to climate ('explanatory variable approach'. (3 We calibrated the model of A. viridis in the current range of S. aloides and multiplied the future occurrence probabilities of both species ('reference area approach'. Subsequently, all approaches were compared to a single species model of A. viridis without interactions. All approaches projected a range expansion for A. viridis. Model performance on test data and amount of range gain differed depending on the biotic interaction approach. All interaction approaches yielded lower range gains (up to 667% lower than the model without interaction. Regarding the contribution of algorithm and approach to the overall uncertainty, the main part of explained variation stems from the modelling algorithm, and only a small part is attributed to the modelling approach. The comparison of the no-interaction model with the three interaction approaches emphasizes the importance of including obligate biotic interactions in projective species distribution modelling. We recommend the use of

  8. Multiple stressors on biotic interactions: how climate change and alien species interact to affect pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schweiger, O.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Bommarco, R.; Hickler, T.; Hulme, P. E.; Klotz, S.; Kühn, I.; Moora, M.; Nielsen, A.; Ohlemüller, R.; Petanidou, T.; Potts, S. G.; Pyšek, Petr; Stout, J. C.; Sykes, M. T.; Tscheulin, T.; Vila, M.; Walther, G.-R.; Westphal, C.; Winter, M.; Zobel, M.; Settele, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 4 (2010), s. 777-795 ISSN 1464-7931 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E09053; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * pollination * global change Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.574, year: 2010

  9. Land-Atmosphere Interactions in Cold Environments (LATICE): The role of Atmosphere - Biosphere - Cryosphere - Hydrosphere interactions in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J. F.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Stordal, F.; Berntsen, T.; Westermann, S.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Etzelmuller, B.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T.; Hamran, S. E.; Lande, T. S.; Bryn, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is impacting the high latitudes more rapidly and significantly than any other region of the Earth because of feedback processes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. A warmer climate has already led to thawing of permafrost, reducing snow cover and a longer growing season; changes, which in turn influence the atmospheric circulation and the hydrological cycle. Still, many studies rely on one-way coupling between the atmosphere and the land surface, thereby neglecting important interactions and feedbacks. The observation, understanding and prediction of such processes from local to regional and global scales, represent a major scientific challenge that requires multidisciplinary scientific effort. The successful integration of earth observations (remote and in-situ data) and model development requires a harmonized research effort between earth system scientists, modelers and the developers of technologies and sensors. LATICE, which is recognized as a priority research area by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Oslo, aims to advance the knowledge base concerning land atmosphere interactions and their role in controlling climate variability and climate change at high northern latitudes. The consortium consists of an interdisciplinary team of experts from the atmospheric and terrestrial (hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere) research groups, together with key expertise on earth observations and novel sensor technologies. LATICE addresses critical knowledge gaps in the current climate assessment capacity through: Improving parameterizations of processes in earth system models controlling the interactions and feedbacks between the land (snow, ice, permafrost, soil and vegetation) and the atmosphere at high latitudes, including the boreal, alpine and artic zone. Assessing the influence of climate and land cover changes on water and energy fluxes. Integrating remote earth observations with in-situ data and

  10. GHOST : exploring the subtleties 'of' and 'interaction with' shape-changing interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores how to design for the aesthetics of interaction with shape-changing interfaces from a phenomenological point of view. Using shape-change as both in- and output we want to explore it as a new layer of communication between (systems) of intelligent products and people. We

  11. Historical and projected interactions between climate change and insect voltinism in a multivoltine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Sudha Nagarkatti; Greg Loeb; Michael C. Saunders

    2008-01-01

    Climate change can cause major changes to the dynamics of individual species and to those communities in which they interact. One effect of increasing temperatures is on insect voltinism, with the logical assumption that increases in surface temperatures would permit multivoltine species to increase the number of generations per year. Though insect development is...

  12. Climate change-contaminant interactions in marine food webs: Toward a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Cheung, William W L; Ross, Peter S; Sumaila, U Rashid

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health, and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate, and effects, are likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation, or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs. We propose here a conceptual framework to illustrate the impacts of climate change on contaminant accumulation in marine food webs, as well as the downstream consequences for ecosystem goods and services. The potential impacts on social and economic security for coastal communities that depend on fisheries for food are discussed. Climate change-contaminant interactions may alter the bioaccumulation of two priority contaminant classes: the fat-soluble persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as well as the protein-binding methylmercury (MeHg). These interactions include phenomena deemed to be either climate change dominant (i.e., climate change leads to an increase in contaminant exposure) or contaminant dominant (i.e., contamination leads to an increase in climate change susceptibility). We illustrate the pathways of climate change-contaminant interactions using case studies in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. The important role of ecological and food web modeling to inform decision-making in managing ecological and human health risks of chemical pollutants contamination under climate change is also highlighted. Finally, we identify the need to develop integrated policies that manage the

  13. Climate change and disturbance interactions: Workshop on climate change and disturbance interactions in western North America, Tucson, Ariz., 12-15 February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Don; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    Warming temperatures across western North America, coupled with increased drought, are expected to exacerbate disturbance regimes, particularly wildfires, insect outbreaks, and invasions of exotic species. Many ecologists and resource managers expect ecosystems to change more rapidly from disturbance effects than from the effects of a changing climate by itself. A particular challenge is to understand the interactions among disturbance regimes; for example, how will massive outbreaks of bark beetles, which kill drought-stressed trees by feeding on cambial tissues, increase the potential for large severe wildfires in a warming climate?Researchers in climatology, ecosystem science, fire and insect ecology, and landscape modeling from across western North America convened in Tucson, Ariz., for a 2 and a half day intensive workshop to identify new research directions in climate change and disturbance ecology. Four work groups focused on different aspects of the response of disturbance regimes to climate change: (1) extreme events and climatic variability (2) the effects of changing disturbance regimes on ecosystems, (3) disturbance interactions and cumulative effects, and (4) developing new landscape disturbance models. The workshop was structured with the analytic hierarchy process, a decision support method for achieving consensus from diverse groups of experts without sacrificing individual contributions.

  14. After Early Autism Diagnosis: Changes in Intervention and Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L; Abrams, Danielle N

    2016-08-01

    This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD risk during a well-baby checkup. Children diagnosed with ASD (n = 44) were 2.69 times more likely to increase intervention hours. After ASD diagnosis, the relation between intervention and interaction quality was complex: although increases in intervention and interaction quality were only modestly related, the overall amount of intervention after diagnosis was associated with higher quality interactions. Moreover, lower quality interactions before diagnosis significantly increased the likelihood that intervention would increase post-diagnosis.

  15. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L; González, Angélica L; Hagen, Elizabeth M; Nathaniel Holland, J; Kotler, Burt P; Maestre, Fernando T; Smith, Stanley D; Wolf, Blair O

    2012-08-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  16. On Variability in Satellite Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements: Relationships with Phenology and Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange, Vegetation Structure, Clouds, and Sun-Satellite Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E.; Koehler, P.; Jung, M.; Tucker, C. J.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Frankenberg, C.; Berry, J. A.; Koster, R. D.; Reichle, R. H.; Lee, J. E.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Walker, G. K.; Van der Tol, C.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past several years, there have been several breakthroughs in our ability to detect the very small fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll in vegetation globally from space. There are now multiple instruments in space capable of measuring this signal at varying temporal and spatial resolutions. We will review the state-of-the-art with respect to these relatively new satellite measurements and ongoing studies that examine the relationships with photosynthesis. Now that we have a data record spanning more than seven years, we can examine variations due to seasonal carbon uptake, interannual variability, land-use changes, and water and temperature stress. In addition, we examine how clouds and satellite viewing geometry impact the signal. We compare and contrast these variations with those from popular vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), related to the potential photosynthesis as well as with measurements from flux tower gas exchange measurements and other model-based estimates of Global Primary Productivity (GPP). Vegetation fluorescence can be simulated in global vegetation models as well as with 1D canopy radiative transport models. We will describe how the satellite fluorescence data are being used to evaluate and potentially improve these models.

  17. Transient simulations of historical climate change including interactive carbon emissions from land-use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, A.; Matthews, H. D.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon fluxes from land conversion are among the most uncertain variables in our understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle, which limits our ability to estimate both the total human contribution to current climate forcing and the net effect of terrestrial biosphere changes on atmospheric CO2 increases. The current generation of coupled climate-carbon models have made significant progress in simulating the coupled climate and carbon cycle response to anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but do not typically include land-use change as a dynamic component of the simulation. In this work we have incorporated a book-keeping land-use carbon accounting model into the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM), and intermediate-complexity coupled climate-carbon model. The terrestrial component of the UVic ESCM allows an aerial competition of five plant functional types (PFTs) in response to climatic conditions and area availability, and tracks the associated changes in affected carbon pools. In order to model CO2 emissions from land conversion in the terrestrial component of the model, we calculate the allocation of carbon to short and long-lived wood products following specified land-cover change, and use varying decay timescales to estimate CO2 emissions. We use recently available spatial datasets of both crop and pasture distributions to drive a series of transient simulations and estimate the net contribution of human land-use change to historical carbon emissions and climate change.

  18. Exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion alters ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and N2O and carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junji; Ding, Weixin; Liu, Deyan; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin

    2015-04-01

    Coastal salt marshes are sensitive to global climate change and may play an important role in mitigating global warming. To evaluate the impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on global warming potential (GWP) in Chinese coastal areas, we measured CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil organic carbon sequestration rates along a transect of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu province, China, including open water; bare tidal flat; and invasive S. alterniflora, native Suaeda salsa, and Phragmites australis marshes. Annual CH4 emissions were estimated as 2.81, 4.16, 4.88, 10.79, and 16.98 kg CH4 ha(-1) for open water, bare tidal flat, and P. australis, S. salsa, and S. alterniflora marshes, respectively, indicating that S. alterniflora invasion increased CH4 emissions by 57-505%. In contrast, negative N2O fluxes were found to be significantly and negatively correlated (P carbon sequestration rate of S. alterniflora marsh amounted to 3.16 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in the top 100 cm soil profile, a value that was 2.63- to 8.78-fold higher than in native plant marshes. The estimated GWP was 1.78, -0.60, -4.09, and -1.14 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat, P. australis marsh and S. salsa marsh, respectively, but dropped to -11.30 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicate that although S. alterniflora invasion stimulates CH4 emissions, it can efficiently mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2 and N2O along the coast of China. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered.

  20. The Effects of Interactive Stratospheric Chemistry on Antarctic and Southern Ocean Climate Change in an AOGCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Newman, Paul; Pawson, Steven; Waugh, Darryn

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has played a dominant role in driving Antarctic climate change in the last decades. In order to capture the stratospheric ozone forcing, many coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) prescribe the Antarctic ozone hole using monthly and zonally averaged ozone field. However, the prescribed ozone hole has a high ozone bias and lacks zonal asymmetry. The impacts of these biases on model simulations, particularly on Southern Ocean and the Antarctic sea ice, are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of using interactive stratospheric chemistry instead of prescribed ozone on Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate change in an AOGCM. We compare two sets of ensemble simulations for the 1960-2010 period using different versions of the Goddard Earth Observing System 5 - AOGCM: one with interactive stratospheric chemistry, and the other with prescribed monthly and zonally averaged ozone and 6 other stratospheric radiative species calculated from the interactive chemistry simulations. Consistent with previous studies using prescribed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations, the interactive chemistry runs simulate a deeper Antarctic ozone hole and consistently larger changes in surface pressure and winds than the prescribed ozone runs. The use of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model in this study enables us to determine the impact of these surface changes on Southern Ocean circulation and Antarctic sea ice. The larger surface wind trends in the interactive chemistry case lead to larger Southern Ocean circulation trends with stronger changes in northerly and westerly surface flow near the Antarctica continent and stronger upwelling near 60S. Using interactive chemistry also simulates a larger decrease of sea ice concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of using interactive chemistry in order to correctly capture the influences of stratospheric ozone depletion on climate

  1. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms modified in climate change experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevnbak, Karen; Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J.; Beier, Claus; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Christensen, Søren

    2012-11-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect ecosystem process rates and community composition, with direct and indirect effects on belowground food webs. In particular, altered rates of herbivory under future climate can be expected to influence above-belowground interactions. Here, we use a multifactor, field-scale climate change experiment and independently manipulate atmospheric CO2 concentration, air and soil temperature and drought in all combinations since 2005. We show that changes in these factors modify the interaction between above- and belowground organisms. We use an insect herbivore to experimentally increase aboveground herbivory in grass phytometers exposed to all eight combinations of climate change factors for three years. Aboveground herbivory increased the abundance of belowground protozoans, microbial growth and microbial nitrogen availability. Increased CO2 modified these links through a reduction in herbivory and cascading effects through the soil food web. Interactions between CO2, drought and warming can affect belowground protozoan abundance. Our findings imply that climate change affects aboveground-belowground interactions through changes in nutrient availability.

  2. Climate change amplifies the interactions between wind and bark beetle disturbances in forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Rammer, Werner

    2017-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that climate change could substantially alter forest disturbances. Interactions between individual disturbance agents are a major component of disturbance regimes, yet how interactions contribute to their climate sensitivity remains largely unknown. Here, our aim was to assess the climate sensitivity of disturbance interactions, focusing on wind and bark beetle disturbances. We developed a process-based model of bark beetle disturbance, integrated into the dynamic forest landscape model iLand (already including a detailed model of wind disturbance). We evaluated the integrated model against observations from three wind events and a subsequent bark beetle outbreak, affecting 530.2 ha (3.8 %) of a mountain forest landscape in Austria between 2007 and 2014. Subsequently, we conducted a factorial experiment determining the effect of changes in climate variables on the area disturbed by wind and bark beetles separately and in combination. iLand was well able to reproduce observations with regard to area, temporal sequence, and spatial pattern of disturbance. The observed disturbance dynamics was strongly driven by interactions, with 64.3 % of the area disturbed attributed to interaction effects. A +4 °C warming increased the disturbed area by +264.7 % and the area-weighted mean patch size by +1794.3 %. Interactions were found to have a ten times higher sensitivity to temperature changes than main effects, considerably amplifying the climate sensitivity of the disturbance regime. Disturbance interactions are a key component of the forest disturbance regime. Neglecting interaction effects can lead to a substantial underestimation of the climate change sensitivity of disturbance regimes.

  3. An entropy-based analysis of lane changing behavior: An interactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-05-19

    As a novelty, this article proposes the nonadditive entropy framework for the description of driver behaviors during lane changing. The authors also state that this entropy framework governs the lane changing behavior in traffic flow in accordance with the long-range vehicular interactions and traffic safety. The nonadditive entropy framework is the new generalized theory of thermostatistical mechanics. Vehicular interactions during lane changing are considered within this framework. The interactive approach for the lane changing behavior of the drivers is presented in the traffic flow scenarios presented in the article. According to the traffic flow scenarios, 4 categories of traffic flow and driver behaviors are obtained. Through the scenarios, comparative analyses of nonadditive and additive entropy domains are also provided. Two quadrants of the categories belong to the nonadditive entropy; the rest are involved in the additive entropy domain. Driving behaviors are extracted and the scenarios depict that nonadditivity matches safe driving well, whereas additivity corresponds to unsafe driving. Furthermore, the cooperative traffic system is considered in nonadditivity where the long-range interactions are present. However, the uncooperative traffic system falls into the additivity domain. The analyses also state that there would be possible traffic flow transitions among the quadrants. This article shows that lane changing behavior could be generalized as nonadditive, with additivity as a special case, based on the given traffic conditions. The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this article, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that the Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either the extensive or nonextensive entropy region would

  4. Clinical handover as an interactive event: informational and interactional communication strategies in effective shift-change handovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Suzanne; Slade, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Clinical handover -- the transfer between clinicians of responsibility and accountability for patients and their care (AMA 2006) -- is a pivotal and high-risk communicative event in hospital practice. Studies focusing on critical incidents, mortality, risk and patient harm in hospitals have highlighted ineffective communication -- including incomplete and unstructured clinical handovers -- as a major contributing factor (NSW Health 2005; ACSQHC 2010). In Australia, as internationally, Health Departments and hospital management have responded by introducing standardised handover communication protocols. This paper problematises one such protocol - the ISBAR tool - and argues that the narrow understanding of communication on which such protocols are based may seriously constrain their ability to shape effective handovers. Based on analysis of audio-recorded shift-change clinical handovers between medical staff we argue that handover communication must be conceptualised as inherently interactive and that attempts to describe, model and teach handover practice must recognise both informational and interactive communication strategies. By comparing the communicative performance of participants in authentic handover events we identify communication strategies that are more and less likely to lead to an effective handover and demonstrate the importance of focusing close up on communication to improve the quality and safety of healthcare interactions.

  5. Large-Scale Ocean Circulation-Cloud Interactions Reduce the Pace of Transient Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trossman, D. S.; Palter, J. B.; Merlis, T. M.; Huang, Y.; Xia, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Changes to the large scale oceanic circulation are thought to slow the pace of transient climate change due, in part, to their influence on radiative feedbacks. Here we evaluate the interactions between CO2-forced perturbations to the large-scale ocean circulation and the radiative cloud feedback in a climate model. Both the change of the ocean circulation and the radiative cloud feedback strongly influence the magnitude and spatial pattern of surface and ocean warming. Changes in the ocean circulation reduce the amount of transient global warming caused by the radiative cloud feedback by helping to maintain low cloud coverage in the face of global warming. The radiative cloud feedback is key in affecting atmospheric meridional heat transport changes and is the dominant radiative feedback mechanism that responds to ocean circulation change. Uncertainty in the simulated ocean circulation changes due to CO2 forcing may contribute a large share of the spread in the radiative cloud feedback among climate models.

  6. Land-use change interacts with climate to determine elevational species redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengyi; Lenoir, Jonathan; Bonebrake, Timothy C

    2018-04-03

    Climate change is driving global species redistribution with profound social and economic impacts. However, species movement is largely constrained by habitat availability and connectivity, of which the interaction effects with climate change remain largely unknown. Here we examine published data on 2798 elevational range shifts from 43 study sites to assess the confounding effect of land-use change on climate-driven species redistribution. We show that baseline forest cover and recent forest cover change are critical predictors in determining the magnitude of elevational range shifts. Forest loss positively interacts with baseline temperature conditions, such that forest loss in warmer regions tends to accelerate species' upslope movement. Consequently, not only climate but also habitat loss stressors and, importantly, their synergistic effects matter in forecasting species elevational redistribution, especially in the tropics where both stressors will increase the risk of net lowland biotic attrition.

  7. Land cover change interacts with drought severity to change fire regimes in Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor H; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Pinedo-Vásquez, Miguel; Fernandes, Katia; Ceccato, Pietro; Baethgen, Walter; Padoch, Christine

    Fire is becoming a pervasive driver of environmental change in Amazonia and is expected to intensify, given projected reductions in precipitation and forest cover. Understanding of the influence of post-deforestation land cover change on fires in Amazonia is limited, even though fires in cleared lands constitute a threat for ecosystems, agriculture, and human health. We used MODIS satellite data to map burned areas annually between 2001 and 2010. We then combined these maps with land cover and climate information to understand the influence of land cover change in cleared lands and dry-season severity on fire occurrence and spread in a focus area in the Peruvian Amazon. Fire occurrence, quantified as the probability of burning of individual 232-m spatial resolution MODIS pixels, was modeled as a function of the area of land cover types within each pixel, drought severity, and distance to roads. Fire spread, quantified as the number of pixels burned in 3 × 3 pixel windows around each focal burned pixel, was modeled as a function of land cover configuration and area, dry-season severity, and distance to roads. We found that vegetation regrowth and oil palm expansion are significantly correlated with fire occurrence, but that the magnitude and sign of the correlation depend on drought severity, successional stage of regrowing vegetation, and oil palm age. Burning probability increased with the area of nondegraded pastures, fallow, and young oil palm and decreased with larger extents of degraded pastures, secondary forests, and adult oil palm plantations. Drought severity had the strongest influence on fire occurrence, overriding the effectiveness of secondary forests, but not of adult plantations, to reduce fire occurrence in severely dry years. Overall, irregular and scattered land cover patches reduced fire spread but irregular and dispersed fallows and secondary forests increased fire spread during dry years. Results underscore the importance of land cover

  8. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  9. Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ge; Segura, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. T...

  10. Changes in motivational and higher level cognitive processes when interacting with in-vehicle automation

    OpenAIRE

    Beggiato, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Many functions that at one time could only be performed by humans can nowadays be carried out by machines. Automation impacts many areas of life including work, home, communication and mobility. In the driving context, in-vehicle automation is considered to provide solutions for environmental, economic, safety and societal challenges. However, automation changes the driving task and the human-machine interaction. Thus, the expected benefit of in-vehicle automation can be undermined by changes...

  11. Changes in motivational and higher level cognitive processes when interacting with in-vehicle automation

    OpenAIRE

    Beggiato, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Many functions that at one time could only be performed by humans can nowadays be carried out by machines. Automation impacts many areas of life including work, home, communication and mobility. In the driving context, in-vehicle automation is considered to provide solutions for environmental, economic, safety and societal challenges. However, automation changes the driving task and the human-machine interaction. Thus, the expected benefit of in-vehicle automation can be undermined by changes...

  12. Species as Stressors: Heterospecific Interactions and the Cellular Stress Response under Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; King, Emily E; Boyer, Kirsten; Tsukimura, Brian; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic global change is predicted to increase the physiological stress of organisms through changes in abiotic conditions such as temperature, pH, and pollution. However, organisms can also experience physiological stress through interactions with other species, especially parasites, predators, and competitors. The stress of species interactions could be an important driver of species' responses to global change as the composition of biological communities change through factors such as distributional and phenological shifts. Interactions between biotic and abiotic stressors could also induce non-linear physiological stress responses under global change. One of the primary means by which organisms deal with physiological stress is through the cellular stress response (CSR), which is broadly the upregulation of a conserved set of genes that facilitate the removal and repair of damaged macromolecules. Here, we present data on behavioral interactions and CSR gene expression for two competing species of intertidal zone porcelain crab (Petrolisthes cinctipes and Petrolisthes manimaculis). We found that P. cinctipes and P. manimaculis engage in more agonistic behaviors when interacting with heterospecifics than conspecifics; however, we found no evidence that heterospecific interactions induced a CSR in these species. In addition to our new data, we review the literature with respect to CSR induction via species interactions, focusing on predator-prey systems and heterospecific competition. We find extensive evidence for predators to induce cellular stress and aspects of the CSR in prey, even in the absence of direct physical contact between species. Effects of heterospecific competition on the CSR have been studied far less, but we do find evidence that agonistic interactions with heterospecifics can induce components of the CSR. Across all published studies, there is clear evidence that species interactions can lead to cellular stress and induction of the CSR

  13. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  14. Changing spin-orbit interaction with increasing exoticism across the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, Sukhendusekhar

    2005-01-01

    Recently, experimental information about nuclei away from the valley of stability are being available. Several workers have suggested that shell structures may change away from the line of stability and nuclear spin-orbit interaction weakens as a function of the neutron excess

  15. Hierarchical responses of plant–soil interactions to climate change: consequences for the global carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardgett, R.D.; Manning, P.; Morrien, E.; De Vries, F.T.

    2013-01-01

    1.Interactions between plant and soil communities play a major role in determining the impact of climate change on ecosystem functioning and the carbon cycle, and the mechanisms involved operate over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. 2.We present a framework for understanding the

  16. The Interactions between Problem Solving and Conceptual Change: System Dynamic Modelling as a Platform for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the interactions between problem solving and conceptual change in an elementary science class where students build system dynamic models as a form of problem representations. Through mostly qualitative findings, we illustrate the interplay of three emerging intervening conditions (epistemological belief, structural knowledge…

  17. Learning as Longitudinal Interactional Change: From "Other"-Repair to "Self"-Repair in Physiotherapy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathrin; Sahlstrom, Fritjof

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this article are to address how learning is constituted and can be studied as a phenomenon in interaction and to discuss how teaching and learning are related. Theoretically, the article argues for and discusses constraints and affordances for relating sociocultural understandings of learning as changing participation to "conversation…

  18. Conceptual Change within Dyadic Interactions: The Dance of Conceptual and Material Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyd-Metzuyanim, Einat; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2017-01-01

    We offer a new approach to emergent knowledge in processes of conceptual change in dyadic interaction by drawing on Pickering's ("The Mangle of Practice," The University of Chicago Press, London, 1995) Mangle of Practice theory, which theorizes the emergence of new scientific knowledge as occurring due to material resistance and human…

  19. Predictors of Change in Stress, Interaction Styles, and Depression in Parents of Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocchio, Jennie S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of change in parental stress (including parent and child factors), depression, and interaction style in parents of toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), exposed to two types of early intervention (EI) programs, PLAY and Community Standard (CS). This study utilized secondary data of…

  20. Combined chemical shift changes and amino acid specific chemical shift mapping of protein-protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Frank H.; Riepl, Hubert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Maurer, Till [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Analytical Sciences Department (Germany); Gronwald, Wolfram [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Neidig, Klaus-Peter [Bruker BioSpin GmbH, Software Department (Germany); Kalbitzer, Hans Robert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)], E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@biologie.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-12-15

    Protein-protein interactions are often studied by chemical shift mapping using solution NMR spectroscopy. When heteronuclear data are available the interaction interface is usually predicted by combining the chemical shift changes of different nuclei to a single quantity, the combined chemical shift perturbation {delta}{delta}{sub comb}. In this paper different procedures (published and non-published) to calculate {delta}{delta}{sub comb} are examined that include a variety of different functional forms and weighting factors for each nucleus. The predictive power of all shift mapping methods depends on the magnitude of the overlap of the chemical shift distributions of interacting and non-interacting residues and the cut-off criterion used. In general, the quality of the prediction on the basis of chemical shift changes alone is rather unsatisfactory but the combination of chemical shift changes on the basis of the Hamming or the Euclidian distance can improve the result. The corrected standard deviation to zero of the combined chemical shift changes can provide a reasonable cut-off criterion. As we show combined chemical shifts can also be applied for a more reliable quantitative evaluation of titration data.

  1. Stress in Marital Interaction and Change in Depression: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Keith, Pat M.

    1998-01-01

    A model of the effects of two types of stress in everyday marital interaction on change in depressive symptoms is investigated. Mediating variables are unfavorable reflected appraisals, low competency, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Participants (N=98 couples) were interviewed twice. The data supported the model. (Author/EMK)

  2. Interactive effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Aliny P F; Srivastava, Diane S; Marino, Nicholas A C; MacDonald, A Andrew M; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Farjalla, Vinicius F

    2018-05-01

    Climate change and biodiversity loss are expected to simultaneously affect ecosystems, however research on how each driver mediates the effect of the other has been limited in scope. The multiple stressor framework emphasizes non-additive effects, but biodiversity may also buffer the effects of climate change, and climate change may alter which mechanisms underlie biodiversity-function relationships. Here, we performed an experiment using tank bromeliad ecosystems to test the various ways that rainfall changes and litter diversity may jointly determine ecological processes. Litter diversity and rainfall changes interactively affected multiple functions, but how depends on the process measured. High litter diversity buffered the effects of altered rainfall on detritivore communities, evidence of insurance against impacts of climate change. Altered rainfall affected the mechanisms by which litter diversity influenced decomposition, reducing the importance of complementary attributes of species (complementarity effects), and resulting in an increasing dependence on the maintenance of specific species (dominance effects). Finally, altered rainfall conditions prevented litter diversity from fueling methanogenesis, because such changes in rainfall reduced microbial activity by 58%. Together, these results demonstrate that the effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on ecosystems cannot be understood in isolation and interactions between these stressors can be multifaceted. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Learning in Different Modes: The Interaction Between Incremental and Radical Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Hedegaard; Boer, Harry; Gertsen, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study presented in this article is to contribute to the development of theory on continuous innovation, i.e. the combination of operationally effective exploitation and strategically flexible exploration. A longitudinal case study is presented of the interaction between...... incremental and radical change in Danish company, observed through the lens of organizational learning. The radical change process is described in five phases, each of which had its own effects on incremental change initiatives in the company. The research identified four factors explaining these effects, all...

  4. Constraining flavor changing interactions from LHC Run-2 dilepton bounds with vector mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaldo S. Queiroz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of vector mediators, is a new signal observed in flavor changing interactions, particularly in the neutral mesons systems K0−K¯0, D0−D¯0 and B0−B0¯, consistent with dilepton resonance searches at the LHC? In the attempt to address this very simple question, we discuss the complementarity between flavor changing neutral current (FCNC and dilepton resonance searches at the LHC run 2 at 13 TeV with 3.2 fb−1 of integrated luminosity, in the context of vector mediators at tree level. Vector mediators, are often studied in the flavor changing framework, specially in the light of the recent LHCb anomaly observed at the rare B decay. However, the existence of stringent dilepton bound severely constrains flavor changing interactions, due to restrictive limits on the Z′ mass. We discuss this interplay explicitly in the well motivated framework of a 3-3-1 scheme, where fermions and scalars are arranged in the fundamental representation of the weak SU(3 gauge group. Due to the paucity of relevant parameters, we conclude that dilepton data leave little room for a possible new physics signal stemming from these systems, unless a very peculiar texture parametrization is used in the diagonalization of the CKM matrix. In other words, if a signal is observed in such flavor changing interactions, it unlikely comes from a 3-3-1 model.

  5. The pH changes of artificial saliva after interaction with oral of artificial saliva after interaction with oral micropathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgorund: Saliva contains several protein elements, exocrine proteins and antibodies, such as lactoferrin, sIgA, peroxidase, albumin, polypeptides, and oligopeptides that contribute to the defense of oral mucosa and dental pellicle to prevent infection caused by oral micropathogen, such as Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Those micropathogens have a role to change salivary pH as an indicator of oral disease activities. Purpose: This study was aimed to analyze the changes of artificial saliva pH after interaction with S. mutans, C. albicans, and A. Actinomycetemcpmitans. Methods: The materials used in this study consist of S. mutans (ATCC 31987, C. albicans (ATCC 10231, A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATTC 702 358, and artificial saliva. To examine the pH changes of artificial saliva, those three microbiotas were cultured and incubated for 24 hours. Results: The results showed that the interactions of S. mutans, C. albicans, and A. actinomycetemcomitans in the artificial saliva can change the salivary on neutral. There were no significant difference with the control treatment salivary pH 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 (p>0.05. Similarly, there was also no significant difference when those three microorganism interacted each other in the artificial saliva (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the biological activity of S. mutans, C. albicans, and A. actinomycetemcomitans in artificial saliva can change the salivary pH into neutral. It indicates that those microbiotas mutually supported and cooperated in influencing the biological cycle of the oral cavity with salivary pH as an indicator.Latar belakang: Saliva merupakan cairan eksokrin yang mengandung unsur protein dan antibodi seperti sIgA laktoferin peroksidase, albumin, polipeptida dan oligopeptida yang berperan pada pertahanan mukosa rongga mulut dan gigi guna mencegah infeksi oral mikropatogen seperti C. albicans, S. mutans, dan

  6. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

  7. Interactive effects of global climate change and pollution on marine microbes: the way ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Santos, Ana L; Coimbra, Joana; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Cleary, Daniel F R; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-06-01

    Global climate change has the potential to seriously and adversely affect marine ecosystem functioning. Numerous experimental and modeling studies have demonstrated how predicted ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can affect marine microbes. However, researchers have largely ignored interactions between ocean acidification, increased UVR and anthropogenic pollutants in marine environments. Such interactions can alter chemical speciation and the bioavailability of several organic and inorganic pollutants with potentially deleterious effects, such as modifying microbial-mediated detoxification processes. Microbes mediate major biogeochemical cycles, providing fundamental ecosystems services such as environmental detoxification and recovery. It is, therefore, important that we understand how predicted changes to oceanic pH, UVR, and temperature will affect microbial pollutant detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. The intrinsic characteristics of microbes, such as their short generation time, small size, and functional role in biogeochemical cycles combined with recent advances in molecular techniques (e.g., metagenomics and metatranscriptomics) make microbes excellent models to evaluate the consequences of various climate change scenarios on detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. In this review, we highlight the importance of microbial microcosm experiments, coupled with high-resolution molecular biology techniques, to provide a critical experimental framework to start understanding how climate change, anthropogenic pollution, and microbiological interactions may affect marine ecosystems in the future.

  8. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram

  9. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  10. INTERACTIVE CHANGE DETECTION USING HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BASED ON ACTIVE LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  11. How disturbance, competition, and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Liang; Matthew J. Duveneck; Eric J. Gustafson; Josep M. Serra-Diaz; Jonathan R. Thompson

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species' ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change,...

  12. The impact of future forest dynamics on climate: interactive effects of changing vegetation and disturbance regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the temperate forest biome cools the earth’s climate and dampens anthropogenic climate change. However, climate change will substantially alter forest dynamics in the future, affecting the climate regulation function of forests. Increasing natural disturbances can reduce carbon uptake and evaporative cooling, but at the same time increase the albedo of a landscape. Simultaneous changes in vegetation composition can mitigate disturbance impacts, but also influence climate regulation directly (e.g., via albedo changes). As a result of a number of interactive drivers (changes in climate, vegetation, and disturbance) and their simultaneous effects on climate-relevant processes (carbon exchange, albedo, latent heat flux) the future climate regulation function of forests remains highly uncertain. Here we address these complex interactions to assess the effect of future forest dynamics on the climate system. Our specific objectives were (1) to investigate the long-term interactions between changing vegetation composition and disturbance regimes under climate change, (2) to quantify the response of climate regulation to changes in forest dynamics, and (3) to identify the main drivers of the future influence of forests on the climate system. We investigated these issues using the individual-based forest landscape and disturbance model (iLand). Simulations were run over 200 yr for Kalkalpen National Park (Austria), assuming different future climate projections, and incorporating dynamically responding wind and bark beetle disturbances. To consistently assess the net effect on climate the simulated responses of carbon exchange, albedo, and latent heat flux were expressed as contributions to radiative forcing. We found that climate change increased disturbances (+27.7% over 200 yr) and specifically bark beetle activity during the 21st century. However, negative feedbacks from a simultaneously changing tree species composition (+28.0% broadleaved species) decreased

  13. The impact of future forest dynamics on climate: interactive effects of changing vegetation and disturbance regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the temperate forest biome cools the earth's climate and dampens anthropogenic climate change. However, climate change will substantially alter forest dynamics in the future, affecting the climate regulation function of forests. Increasing natural disturbances can reduce carbon uptake and evaporative cooling, but at the same time increase the albedo of a landscape. Simultaneous changes in vegetation composition can mitigate disturbance impacts, but also influence climate regulation directly (e.g., via albedo changes). As a result of a number of interactive drivers (changes in climate, vegetation, and disturbance) and their simultaneous effects on climate-relevant processes (carbon exchange, albedo, latent heat flux) the future climate regulation function of forests remains highly uncertain. Here we address these complex interactions to assess the effect of future forest dynamics on the climate system. Our specific objectives were (1) to investigate the long-term interactions between changing vegetation composition and disturbance regimes under climate change, (2) to quantify the response of climate regulation to changes in forest dynamics, and (3) to identify the main drivers of the future influence of forests on the climate system. We investigated these issues using the individual-based forest landscape and disturbance model (iLand). Simulations were run over 200 yr for Kalkalpen National Park (Austria), assuming different future climate projections, and incorporating dynamically responding wind and bark beetle disturbances. To consistently assess the net effect on climate the simulated responses of carbon exchange, albedo, and latent heat flux were expressed as contributions to radiative forcing. We found that climate change increased disturbances (+27.7% over 200 yr) and specifically bark beetle activity during the 21st century. However, negative feedbacks from a simultaneously changing tree species composition (+28.0% broadleaved species) decreased

  14. Conceptualising the interactive effects of climate change and biological invasions on subarctic freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J; Hayden, Brian; Kahilainen, Kimmo K

    2017-06-01

    Climate change and species invasions represent key threats to global biodiversity. Subarctic freshwaters are sentinels for understanding both stressors because the effects of climate change are disproportionately strong at high latitudes and invasion of temperate species is prevalent. Here, we summarize the environmental effects of climate change and illustrate the ecological responses of freshwater fishes to these effects, spanning individual, population, community and ecosystem levels. Climate change is modifying hydrological cycles across atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic components of subarctic ecosystems, causing increases in ambient water temperature and nutrient availability. These changes affect the individual behavior, habitat use, growth and metabolism, alter population spawning and recruitment dynamics, leading to changes in species abundance and distribution, modify food web structure, trophic interactions and energy flow within communities and change the sources, quantity and quality of energy and nutrients in ecosystems. Increases in temperature and its variability in aquatic environments underpin many ecological responses; however, altered hydrological regimes, increasing nutrient inputs and shortened ice cover are also important drivers of climate change effects and likely contribute to context-dependent responses. Species invasions are a complex aspect of the ecology of climate change because the phenomena of invasion are both an effect and a driver of the ecological consequences of climate change. Using subarctic freshwaters as an example, we illustrate how climate change can alter three distinct aspects of species invasions: (1) the vulnerability of ecosystems to be invaded, (2) the potential for species to spread and invade new habitats, and (3) the subsequent ecological effects of invaders. We identify three fundamental knowledge gaps focused on the need to determine (1) how environmental and landscape characteristics influence the

  15. Climate-chemical interactions and effects of changing atmospheric trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L.; Cess, R.; Hansen, J.; Isaksen, I.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers trace gas-climate effects including the greenhouse effect of polyatomic trace gases, the nature of the radiative-chemical interactions, and radiative-dynamical interactions in the stratosphere, and the role of these effects in governing stratospheric climate change. Special consideration is given to recent developments in the investigations of the role of oceans in governing the transient climate responses, and a time-dependent estimate of the potential trace gas warming from the preindustrial era to the early 21st century. The importance of interacting modeling and observational efforts is emphasized. One of the problems remaining on the observational front is the lack of certainty in current estimates of the rate of growth of CO, O3, and NOx; the primary challenge is the design of a strategy that will minimize the sampling errors.

  16. From Produsers to Shareaholics: Changing Models of Reader Interaction in Women’s Online Magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura García-Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Women’s online magazines have been constantly proliferating and increasingly supplanting print publications. Contributing to their success, these sites offer similar content free of change and significantly greater opportunities for interaction – often in the form of discussion forums. However, these interactive spaces are currently disappearing, being replaced by an ever-escalating emphasis upon social network sites (SNSs. This article critically examines this changing model of reader interaction in women’s online magazines, drawing on a study of 68 interviews with industry insiders, forum user-generated content, and a variety of trade material. The analysis demonstrates how the decision to close the forums and embrace SNSs responds to multiple determinants, including a corporate doctrine of control over users’ discourse and outsourcing new modalities of free consumer labour, constituting a new ideal worker-commodity online: “the shareaholic”. This exercise of power has varying levels of success, and potentialities remain for users to exercise some transformative subversion, for example through what the article theorises as “labour of disruption”. Nonetheless, the emergent SNS-based magazine model of reader interaction poses a serious challenge to ongoing celebrations both in the industry and in some scholarly work about an increasingly democratic and user-led digital media ecosystem.

  17. How a change in the interaction potential affects the p-wave scattering volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, M J; Dalgarno, A

    2012-01-01

    We derive a simple expression for the change in the s-wave scattering length in terms of zero-energy wavefunctions, we generalize it to obtain an expression for the change in the p-wave scattering volume and we use both expressions to derive the first order differential equations of variable phase theory that are satisfied by the closely related accumulated scattering length and volume. We provide numerical demonstrations for the example of a pair of hydrogen atoms interacting via the X 1 Σ + g molecular state. (fast track communication)

  18. Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Brink, Corjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 ) and air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 and PM 2.5 ). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy. - Highlights: • This paper models bottom-up emission control in top-down CGE model. • We analyse interactions between air pollution and climate policies in Europe. • Structural changes induced by stringent air policies may make EU-ETS market obsolete

  19. Preface: Biogeochemistry–ecosystem interaction on changing continental margins in the Anthropocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Liu, K-K.; Emeis, K.-C.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Roman, M.

    and hypercapnia in upwelling systems • Interactions between natural and social sciences for better steward- ship of continental margins. It has long been acknowledged (e.g., Doney, 2010; Liu et al., 2010) that marine ecosystems on continental margins, including... and possibly manage margin ecosystems in a changing world. Effective governance of social–ecological systems on continental margins is key to reducing the pervasive over- exploitation, depletion and destruction of marine resources and http://dx.doi.org/10...

  20. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  1. Estimating the effect of the reorganization of interactions on the adaptability of species to changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Simone; Montero-Castaño, Ana; Saavedra, Serguei

    2018-01-21

    A major challenge in community ecology is to understand how species respond to environmental changes. Previous studies have shown that the reorganization of interactions among co-occurring species can modulate their chances to adapt to novel environmental conditions. Moreover, empirical evidence has shown that these ecological dynamics typically facilitate the persistence of groups of species rather than entire communities. However, so far, we have no systematic methodology to identify those groups of species with the highest or lowest chances to adapt to new environments through a reorganization of their interactions. Yet, this could prove extremely valuable for developing new conservation strategies. Here, we introduce a theoretical framework to estimate the effect of the reorganization of interactions on the adaptability of a group of species, within a community, to novel environmental conditions. We introduce the concept of the adaptation space of a group of species based on a feasibility analysis of a population dynamics model. We define the adaptation space of a group as the set of environmental conditions that can be made compatible with its persistence thorough the reorganization of interactions among species within the group. The larger the adaptation space of a group, the larger its likelihood to adapt to a novel environment. We show that the interactions in the community outside a group can act as structural constraints and be used to quantitatively compare the size of the adaptation space among different groups of species within a community. To test our theoretical framework, we perform a data analysis on several pairs of natural and artificially perturbed ecological communities. Overall, we find that the groups of species present in both control and perturbed communities are among the ones with the largest adaptation space. We believe that the results derived from our framework point out towards new directions to understand and estimate the

  2. Analysis of trophic interactions reveals highly plastic response to climate change in a tri-trophic High-Arctic ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Hoye, Toke T.

    2016-01-01

    As a response to current climate changes, individual species have changed various biological traits, illustrating an inherent phenotypic plasticity. However, as species are embedded in an ecological network characterised by multiple consumer-resource interactions, ecological mismatches are likely...... to arise when interacting species do not respond homogeneously. The approach of biological networks analysis calls for the use of structural equation modelling (SEM), a multidimensional analytical setup that has proven particularly useful for analysing multiple interactions across trophic levels. Here we...

  3. Modern-Day Demographic Processes in Central Europe and Their Potential Interactions with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bański, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of contemporary transformations in the population of Central European countries on climate change, in addition to singling out the primary points of interaction between demographic processes and the climate. In analyzing the interactions between climate and demographics, we can formulate three basic hypotheses regarding the region in question: 1) as a result of current demographic trends in Central Europe, the influence of the region on its climate will probably diminish, 2) the importance of the "climatically displaced" in global migratory movements will increase, and some of those concerned will move to Central Europe, 3) the contribution of the region to global food security will increase. In the last decade most of what comprises the region of Central Europe has reported a decline in population growth and a negative migration balance. As a process, this loss of population may have a positive effect on the environment and the climate. We can expect ongoing climate change to intensify migration processes, particularly from countries outside Europe. Interactions between climate and demographic processes can also be viewed in the context of food security. The global warming most sources foresee for the coming decades is the process most likely to result in spatial polarization of food production in agriculture. Central Europe will then face the challenge of assuring and improving food security, albeit this time on a global scale.

  4. Lipid-protein interaction induced domains: Kinetics and conformational changes in multicomponent vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, K. K.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    The spatio-temporal organization of proteins and the associated morphological changes in membranes are of importance in cell signaling. Several mechanisms that promote the aggregation of proteins at low cell surface concentrations have been investigated in the past. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that the affinity of proteins for specific lipids can hasten their aggregation kinetics. The lipid membrane is modeled as a dynamically triangulated surface with the proteins defined as in-plane fields at the vertices. We show that, even at low protein concentrations, strong lipid-protein interactions can result in large protein clusters indicating a route to lipid mediated signal amplification. At high protein concentrations, the domains form buds similar to that seen in lipid-lipid interaction induced phase separation. Protein interaction induced domain budding is suppressed when proteins act as anisotropic inclusions and exhibit nematic orientational order. The kinetics of protein clustering and resulting conformational changes are shown to be significantly different for the isotropic and anisotropic curvature inducing proteins.

  5. A Perspective on Water Resources in China. Interactions between Climate Change and Soil Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Fulu; Lin, Erda [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, M.; Hayashi, Y. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical resources in China. Climate change and soil degradation will be two major, interrelated environmental challenges faced by managers of water resources in coming decades. In this study, we used a water-balance model and updated databases to assess the interacting impacts of climate change and soil degradation on China's future water resources. We plotted the spatial pattern of changes in actual and potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture deficits, and surface runoff across China in the 2020s using a resolution of 0.5{sup o} latitude and longitude under scenarios based on climate change, soil degradation, and a combination of the two. The results showed that climate change would affect the magnitude and spatial pattern of water resources on a national scale. Some regions in central, southwestern, and northeastern China would become more vulnerable to disastrous drought and floods as a result of soil degradation. Under the combined impacts of climate change and soil degradation, soil moisture deficits would increase most in central, western, and southwestern China; surface runoff would increase most in southeastern China. More detailed process-based models are needed to capture feedback mechanisms more effectively.

  6. Propagation of the state change induced by external forces in local interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianjun; Tokinaga, Shozo

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyses the propagation of the state changes of agents that are induced by external forces applied to a plane. In addition, we propose two models for the behavior of the agents placed on a lattice plane, both of which are affected by local interactions. We first assume that agents are allowed to move to another site to maximise their satisfaction. Second, we utilise a model in which the agents choose activities on each site. The results show that the migration (activity) patterns of agents in both models achieve stability without any external forces. However, when we apply an impulsive external force to the state of the agents, we then observe the propagation of the changes in the agents' states. Using simulation studies, we show the conditions for the propagation of the state changes of the agents. We also show the propagation of the state changes of the agents allocated in scale-free networks and discuss the estimation of the agents' decisions in real state changes. Finally, we discuss the estimation of the agents' decisions in real state temporal changes using economic and social data from Japan and the United States.

  7. Interactions of Mean Climate Change and Climate Variability on Food Security Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alexander C.; McDermid, Sonali; Mavromatis, Theodoros; Hudson, Nicholas; Morales, Monica; Simmons, John; Prabodha, Agalawatte; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahuja, Laj R.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing that climate change will affect agricultural systems both through mean changes and through shifts in climate variability and associated extreme events, we present preliminary analyses of climate impacts from a network of 1137 crop modeling sites contributed to the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP). At each site sensitivity tests were run according to a common protocol, which enables the fitting of crop model emulators across a range of carbon dioxide, temperature, and water (CTW) changes. C3MP can elucidate several aspects of these changes and quantify crop responses across a wide diversity of farming systems. Here we test the hypothesis that climate change and variability interact in three main ways. First, mean climate changes can affect yields across an entire time period. Second, extreme events (when they do occur) may be more sensitive to climate changes than a year with normal climate. Third, mean climate changes can alter the likelihood of climate extremes, leading to more frequent seasons with anomalies outside of the expected conditions for which management was designed. In this way, shifts in climate variability can result in an increase or reduction of mean yield, as extreme climate events tend to have lower yield than years with normal climate.C3MP maize simulations across 126 farms reveal a clear indication and quantification (as response functions) of mean climate impacts on mean yield and clearly show that mean climate changes will directly affect the variability of yield. Yield reductions from increased climate variability are not as clear as crop models tend to be less sensitive to dangers on the cool and wet extremes of climate variability, likely underestimating losses from water-logging, floods, and frosts.

  8. Riboflavin intake and 5-year blood pressure change in Chinese adults: interaction with hypertensive medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Taylor, Anne W; Zhen, Shiqi; Zuo, Hui; Dai, Yue; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    One previous large cross-sectional study across four countries suggests that riboflavin intake may be inversely associated with blood pressure. The aim of this analysis was to investigate a possible association between riboflavin intake and change in blood pressure over 5 years. The study population comprised Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study. Quantitative data relating to riboflavin intake at baseline in 2002 and measurements of blood pressure at baseline and follow-up in 2007 were available for 1,227 individuals. Overall, 97.2% of the participants had inadequate riboflavin intake (below the Estimated Average Requirement). In multivariable analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary patterns, a higher riboflavin intake was inversely associated with change in systolic blood pressure (p = .036). In participants taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, the relationship between riboflavin intake and systolic blood pressure persisted; whereas, in those not taking antihypertensive medication, the diastolic blood pressure was less likely to increase with the increasing intake of riboflavin (p = .031). There was a three-way interaction between antihypertensive medications, body mass index, and riboflavin intake. Among those who were obese and taking antihypertensive medication, a higher riboflavin intake was associated with a smaller increment in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. There are complex interactions between riboflavin intake and blood pressure change that depend on prior antihypertensive use and the presence or absence of obesity.

  9. Interacting Learning Processes during Skill Acquisition: Learning to control with gradually changing system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Nicolas; Giese, Martin A; Ilg, Winfried

    2017-10-16

    There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end. In the second group, subjects had to acquire the skill on the maximum, most difficult gravity level. We hypothesized that the gradual increase in gravity during skill acquisition supports learning despite the necessary adjustments to changes in cart-pole dynamics. We found that the gradual group benefits from the slow increment, although overall improvement was interrupted by the changes in gravity and resulting system dynamics, which caused short-term degradations in performance and timing of actions. In conclusion, our results deliver evidence for an interaction of reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation processes, which indicates the importance of both processes for the development of optimized skill acquisition schedules.

  10. Sequence-dependent rotation axis changes and interaction torque use in overarm throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Venture, Gentiane; Isableu, Brice

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of rotation axes during an overarm throwing task. Participants performed such task and were asked to throw a ball at maximal velocity at a target. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the minimum inertia axis would be exploited during the throwing phases, a time when internal-external rotations of the shoulder are particularly important. A motion capture system was used to evaluate the performance and to compute the potential axes of rotation (minimum inertia axis, shoulder-centre of mass axis and the shoulder-elbow axis). More specifically, we investigated whether a velocity-dependent change in rotational axes can be observed in the different throwing phases and whether the control obeys the principle of minimum inertia resistance. Our results showed that the limbs' rotational axis mainly coincides with the minimum inertia axis during the cocking phase and with the shoulder-elbow axis during the acceleration phase. Besides these rotation axes changes, the use of interaction torque is also sequence-dependent. The sequence-dependent rotation axes changes associated with the use of interaction torque during the acceleration phase could be a key factor in the production of hand velocity at ball release.

  11. Non-von Neumann computing using plasmon particles interacting with phase change materials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Toshiharu

    2016-09-01

    Control of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excited on metal nanostructures has drawn attention for applications in dynamic switching of plasmonic devices. As a reversible active media for LSPR control, chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs) such as GeSbTe (GST) are promising for high-contrast robust plasmonic switching. Owing to the plasticity and the threshold behavior during both amorphization and crystallization of PCMs, PCM-based LSPR switching elements possess a dual functionality of memory and processing. Integration of LSPR switching elements so that they interact with each other will allow us to build non-von-Neumann computing devices. As a specific demonstration, we discuss the implementation of a cellular automata (CA) algorithm into interacting LSPR switching elements. In the model we propose, PCM cells, which can be in one of two states (amorphous and crystalline), interact with each other by being linked by a AuNR, whose LSPR peak wavelength is determined by the phase of PCM cells on the both sides. The CA program proceeds by irradiating with a light pulse train. The local rule set is defined by the temperature rise in the PCM cells induced by the LSPR of the AuNR, which is subject to the intensity and wavelength of the irradiating pulse. We also investigate the possibility of solving a problem analogous to the spin-glass problem by using a coupled dipole system, in which the individual coupling strengths can be modified to optimize the system so that the exact solution can be easily reached. For this algorithm, we propose an implementation based on an idea that coupled plasmon particles can create long-range spatial correlations, and the interaction of this with a phase-change material allows the coupling strength to be modified.

  12. Potential impact of climate-related changes is buffered by differential responses to recruitment and interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Menge, Bruce A.

    2011-08-01

    Detection of ecosystem responsiveness to climatic perturbations can provide insight into climate change consequences. Recent analyses linking phytoplankton abundance and mussel recruitment to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) revealed a paradox. Despite large increases in mussel recruitment beginning in 2000, adult mussel responses were idiosyncratic by site and intertidal zone, with no response at one long-term site, and increases in the low zone (1.5% per year) and decreases in the mid zone (1.3% per year) at the other. What are the mechanisms underlying these differential changes? Species interactions such as facilitation by barnacles and predation are potential determinants of successful mussel colonization. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed patterns of barnacle recruitment, determined if predation rate covaried with the increase in mussel recruitment, and tested facilitation interactions in a field experiment. Neither magnitude nor season of barnacle recruitment changed meaningfully with site or zone from the 1990s to the 2000s. In contrast to the relationship between NPGO and local-scale mussel recruitment, relationships between local-scale patterns of barnacle recruitment and climate indices were weak. Despite differences in rates of prey recruitment and abundance of sea stars in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, and 2007–2008, predation rates were nearly identical in experiments before, during, and after 1999–2000. The facilitation experiment showed that mussels M. trossulus only became abundant when barnacle recruitment was allowed, when abundance of barnacles reached high abundance of ∼50% cover, and when mussel recruitment was sufficiently high. Thus, in the low zone minimal changes in mussel abundance despite sharply increased recruitment rates are consistent with the hypothesis that change in adult mussel cover was buffered by the relative insensitivity of barnacle recruitment to climatic fluctuations, and a resultant lack of change in

  13. Potential impact of climate-related changes is buffered by differential responses to recruitment and interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Menge, Bruce A.; Hacker, Sally D.; Freidenburg, Tess; Lubchenco, Jane; Craig, Ryan; Rilov, Gil; Noble, Mae Marjore; Richmond, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Detection of ecosystem responsiveness to climatic perturbations can provide insight into climate change consequences. Recent analyses linking phytoplankton abundance and mussel recruitment to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) revealed a paradox. Despite large increases in mussel recruitment beginning in 2000, adult mussel responses were idiosyncratic by site and intertidal zone, with no response at one long-term site, and increases in the low zone (1.5% per year) and decreases in the mid zone (1.3% per year) at the other. What are the mechanisms underlying these differential changes? Species interactions such as facilitation by barnacles and predation are potential determinants of successful mussel colonization. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed patterns of barnacle recruitment, determined if predation rate covaried with the increase in mussel recruitment, and tested facilitation interactions in a field experiment. Neither magnitude nor season of barnacle recruitment changed meaningfully with site or zone from the 1990s to the 2000s. In contrast to the relationship between NPGO and local-scale mussel recruitment, relationships between local-scale patterns of barnacle recruitment and climate indices were weak. Despite differences in rates of prey recruitment and abundance of sea stars in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, and 2007–2008, predation rates were nearly identical in experiments before, during, and after 1999–2000. The facilitation experiment showed that mussels M. trossulus only became abundant when barnacle recruitment was allowed, when abundance of barnacles reached high abundance of ∼50% cover, and when mussel recruitment was sufficiently high. Thus, in the low zone minimal changes in mussel abundance despite sharply increased recruitment rates are consistent with the hypothesis that change in adult mussel cover was buffered by the relative insensitivity of barnacle recruitment to climatic fluctuations, and a resultant lack of change in

  14. Interactive effects of genetic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphologic changes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Ham, Byung-Joo; Han, Kyu-Man

    2018-03-10

    The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression. Childhood adversity is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Childhood adversity showed an interaction with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene rs1360780 in brain morphologic changes in patients with depression and in a non-clinical population. Individuals with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met and a history of childhood adversity had reduced volume in the hippocampus and its subfields, amygdala, and PFC and thinner rostral ACC in a study of depressed patients and healthy controls. The S allele of 5-HTTLPR combined with exposure to childhood adversity or a poorer parenting environment was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume and subsequent onset of depression. The FKBP5 gene rs160780 had a significant interaction with childhood adversity in the white matter integrity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. This review identified that imaging genetic studies on childhood adversity may deepen our understanding on the neurobiological background of depression by scrutinizing complicated pathways of genetic factors, early psychosocial environments, and the accompanying morphologic changes in emotion-processing neural circuitry. Copyright

  15. Generation-changing interaction of sneutrinos in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshimo, N.

    2004-01-01

    The measurability of generation mixing is studied on pair production of sneutrinos in e + e - collisions and their subsequent decays into two different charged leptons e and μ with two lighter charginos. The analyses are made systematically in a general framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. The production and decay process depends on the parameters of the chargino sector as well as those of the sneutrino sector. Although generation-changing interactions are severely constrained by radiative charged-lepton decays, sizable regions in the parameter space could still be explored at e + e - colliders in the near future. (orig.)

  16. HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Špalková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

  17. Can role-play with interactive simulations enhance climate change knowledge, affect and intent to act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Fracassi, E. P.; Franck, T.; Kapmeier, F.; Kurker, V.; Jones, A.; Rath, K.

    2017-12-01

    The strong scientific consensus about the reality and risks of anthropogenic climate change stands in stark contrast to widespread confusion and complacency among the public. Many efforts to close that gap, grounded in the information deficit model of risk communication, provide scientific information on climate change through reports and presentations. However, research shows that showing people research does not work: the gap between scientific and public understanding of climate change remains wide. Tools that are rigorously grounded in the science and motivate action on climate change are urgently needed. Here we assess the impact of one such tool, an interactive, role-play simulation, World Climate. Participants take the roles of delegates to the UN climate negotiations and are challenged to create an agreement limiting warming to no more than 2°C. The C-ROADS climate simulation model then provides participants with immediate feedback about the expected impacts of their decisions. Participants use C-ROADS to explore the climate system and use the results to refine their negotiating positions, learning about climate change while experiencing the social dynamics of negotiations and decision-making. Pre- and post-survey results from 21 sessions in eight nations showed significant gains in participants' climate change knowledge, affective engagement, intent to take action, and desire to learn. Contrary to the deficit model, gains in participants' desire to learn more and intention to act were associated with gains in affective engagement, particularly feelings of urgency and hope, but not climate knowledge. Gains were just as strong among participants who oppose government regulation, suggesting the simulation's potential to reach across political divides. Results indicate that simulations like World Climate offer a climate change communication tool that enables people to learn and feel for themselves, which together have the potential to motivate action informed

  18. Analysing change in music therapy interactions of children with communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Neta; Himberg, Tommi

    2016-05-05

    Music therapy has been found to improve communicative behaviours and joint attention in children with autism, but it is unclear what in the music therapy sessions drives those changes. We developed an annotation protocol and tools to accumulate large datasets of music therapy, for analysis of interaction dynamics. Analysis of video recordings of improvisational music therapy sessions focused on simple, unambiguous individual and shared behaviours: movement and facing behaviours, rhythmic activity and musical structures and the relationships between them. To test the feasibility of the protocol, early and late sessions of five client-therapist pairs were annotated and analysed to track changes in behaviours. To assess the reliability and validity of the protocol, inter-rater reliability of the annotation tiers was calculated, and the therapists provided feedback about the relevance of the analyses and results. This small-scale study suggests that there are both similarities and differences in the profiles of client-therapist sessions. For example, all therapists faced the clients most of the time, while the clients did not face back so often. Conversely, only two pairs had an increase in regular pulse from early to late sessions. More broadly, similarity across pairs at a general level is complemented by variation in the details. This perhaps goes some way to reconciling client- and context-specificity on one hand and generalizability on the other. Behavioural characteristics seem to influence each other. For instance, shared rhythmic pulse alternated with mutual facing and the occurrence of shared pulse was found to relate to the musical structure. These observations point towards a framework for looking at change in music therapy that focuses on networks of variables or broader categories. The results suggest that even when starting with simple behaviours, we can trace aspects of interaction and change in music therapy, which are seen as relevant by therapists.

  19. Dynamic changes in the interchromosomal interaction of early histone gene loci during development of sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaya; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Hayashi, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takashi; Awazu, Akinori; Sakamoto, Naoaki

    2017-12-15

    The nuclear positioning and chromatin dynamics of eukaryotic genes are closely related to the regulation of gene expression, but they have not been well examined during early development, which is accompanied by rapid cell cycle progression and dynamic changes in nuclear organization, such as nuclear size and chromatin constitution. In this study, we focused on the early development of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization of gene loci encoding early histones (one of the types of histone in sea urchin). There are two non-allelic early histone gene loci per sea urchin genome. We found that during the morula stage, when the early histone gene expression levels are at their maximum, interchromosomal interactions were often formed between the early histone gene loci on separate chromosomes and that the gene loci were directed to locate to more interior positions. Furthermore, these interactions were associated with the active transcription of the early histone genes. Thus, such dynamic interchromosomal interactions may contribute to the efficient synthesis of early histone mRNA during the morula stage of sea urchin development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Tree mortality from drought, insects, and their interactions in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R.L.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Allen, Craig D.; Aukema, Juliann E.; Bentz, Barbara; Hood, Sharon; Lichstein, Jeremy W.; Macalady, Alison K.; McDowell, Nate G.; Pan, Yude; Raffa, Kenneth; Sala, Anna; Shaw, John D.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Tague, Christina L.; Zeppel, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to drive increased tree mortality through drought, heat stress, and insect attacks, with manifold impacts on forest ecosystems. Yet, climate-induced tree mortality and biotic disturbance agents are largely absent from process-based ecosystem models. Using data sets from the western USA and associated studies, we present a framework for determining the relative contribution of drought stress, insect attack, and their interactions, which is critical for modeling mortality in future climates. We outline a simple approach that identifies the mechanisms associated with two guilds of insects – bark beetles and defoliators – which are responsible for substantial tree mortality. We then discuss cross-biome patterns of insect-driven tree mortality and draw upon available evidence contrasting the prevalence of insect outbreaks in temperate and tropical regions. We conclude with an overview of tools and promising avenues to address major challenges. Ultimately, a multitrophic approach that captures tree physiology, insect populations, and tree–insect interactions will better inform projections of forest ecosystem responses to climate change.

  1. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  2. Whence the fuzziness? Morphological effects in interacting sound changes in Southern British English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Strycharczuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fronting of the high-back /uː/ and /ʊ/, as currently seen in Southern British English (SBE, is a rare opportunity to study two similar sound changes at different stages of their phonetic development: /uː/-fronting is a more advanced change than /ʊ/-fronting. Since the fronting in both vowels is restricted from applying before a following final /l/ (e.g., in words like 'fool 'or 'pull', we can exploit the difference in the phonetic advancement of /uː/ and /ʊ/-fronting to illuminate the nature of ‘fuzzy contrasts’ affecting vowel+/l/ sequences in morphologically complex words. As recent results show that /uː/-fronting is partially limited in 'fool-ing '(but not in monomorphemes like 'hula', we ask whether similar morphological constraints affect /ʊ/ followed by /l/ (e.g., 'bully 'vs. 'pull-ing'. Simultaneously, we consider the question of what phonological generalization best captures the interaction between vowel fronting, /l/-darkening, and morphological structure. We present ultrasound data from 20 speakers of SBE representing two age groups. The data show that morphologically conditioned contrasts are consistent for /uː/+/l/, but variable and limited in size for /ʊ/+/l/. We relate these findings to the debate on morphology-phonetics interactions and the emergence of phonological abstraction.

  3. Probing the mechanical properties, conformational changes, and interactions of nucleic acids with magnetic tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Franziska; Ermann, Niklas; Lipfert, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Nucleic acids are central to the storage and transmission of genetic information. Mechanical properties, along with their sequence, both enable and fundamentally constrain the biological functions of DNA and RNA. For small deformations from the equilibrium conformations, nucleic acids are well described by an isotropic elastic rod model. However, external forces and torsional strains can induce conformational changes, giving rise to a complex force-torque phase diagram. This review focuses on magnetic tweezers as a powerful tool to precisely determine both the elastic parameters and conformational transitions of nucleic acids under external forces and torques at the single-molecule level. We review several variations of magnetic tweezers, in particular conventional magnetic tweezers, freely orbiting magnetic tweezers and magnetic torque tweezers, and discuss their characteristic capabilities. We then describe the elastic rod model for DNA and RNA and discuss conformational changes induced by mechanical stress. The focus lies on the responses to torque and twist, which are crucial in the mechanics and interactions of nucleic acids and can directly be measured using magnetic tweezers. We conclude by highlighting several recent studies of nucleic acid-protein and nucleic acid-small-molecule interactions as further applications of magnetic tweezers and give an outlook of some exciting developments to come. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

  5. Association between FTO variant and change in body weight and its interaction with dietary factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Ängquist, Lars; Hansen, Rikke D

    2012-01-01

    Although FTO is an established obesity-susceptibility locus, it remains unknown whether it influences weight change in adult life and whether diet attenuates this association. Therefore, we investigated the association of FTO-rs9939609 with changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) during 6......-analyses, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with BMI (β (SE), 0.17 (0.08) kg·m(-2)/allele; P = 0.034) and WC (0.47 (0.21) cm/allele; P = 0.026) at baseline, but not with weight change (5.55 (12.5) g·year(-1)/allele; P = 0.66) during follow up. In the CNC-analysis, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with increased risk...... of being a weight-gainer (OR: 1.1; P = 0.045). We observed no interaction between FTO-rs9939609 and dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate, and GI on BMI and WC at baseline or on change in weight and WC. FTO-rs9939609 is associated with BMI and WC at baseline, but association with weight gain is weak...

  6. Bivalve aquaculture-environment interactions in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Comeau, Luc A; Tremblay, Réjean

    2016-12-01

    Coastal embayments are at risk of impacts by climate change drivers such as ocean warming, sea level rise and alteration in precipitation regimes. The response of the ecosystem to these drivers is highly dependent on their magnitude of change, but also on physical characteristics such as bay morphology and river discharge, which play key roles in water residence time and hence estuarine functioning. These considerations are especially relevant for bivalve aquaculture sites, where the cultured biomass can alter ecosystem dynamics. The combination of climate change, physical and aquaculture drivers can result in synergistic/antagonistic and nonlinear processes. A spatially explicit model was constructed to explore effects of the physical environment (bay geomorphic type, freshwater inputs), climate change drivers (sea level, temperature, precipitation) and aquaculture (bivalve species, stock) on ecosystem functioning. A factorial design led to 336 scenarios (48 hydrodynamic × 7 management). Model outcomes suggest that the physical environment controls estuarine functioning given its influence on primary productivity (bottom-up control dominated by riverine nutrients) and horizontal advection with the open ocean (dominated by bay geomorphic type). The intensity of bivalve aquaculture ultimately determines the bivalve-phytoplankton trophic interaction, which can range from a bottom-up control triggered by ammonia excretion to a top-down control via feeding. Results also suggest that temperature is the strongest climate change driver due to its influence on the metabolism of poikilothermic organisms (e.g. zooplankton and bivalves), which ultimately causes a concomitant increase of top-down pressure on phytoplankton. Given the different thermal tolerance of cultured species, temperature is also critical to sort winners from losers, benefiting Crassostrea virginica over Mytilus edulis under the specific conditions tested in this numerical exercise. In general, it is

  7. Nectin-like interactions between poliovirus and its receptor trigger conformational changes associated with cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Filman, David J; Belnap, David M; Cheng, Naiqian; Noel, Roane T; Hogle, James M

    2015-04-01

    Poliovirus infection is initiated by attachment to a receptor on the cell surface called Pvr or CD155. At physiological temperatures, the receptor catalyzes an irreversible expansion of the virus to form an expanded form of the capsid called the 135S particle. This expansion results in the externalization of the myristoylated capsid protein VP4 and the N-terminal extension of the capsid protein VP1, both of which become inserted into the cell membrane. Structures of the expanded forms of poliovirus and of several related viruses have recently been reported. However, until now, it has been unclear how receptor binding triggers viral expansion at physiological temperature. Here, we report poliovirus in complex with an enzymatically partially deglycosylated form of the 3-domain ectodomain of Pvr at a 4-Å resolution, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The interaction of the receptor with the virus in this structure is reminiscent of the interactions of Pvr with its natural ligands. At a low temperature, the receptor induces very few changes in the structure of the virus, with the largest changes occurring within the footprint of the receptor, and in a loop of the internal protein VP4. Changes in the vicinity of the receptor include the displacement of a natural lipid ligand (called "pocket factor"), demonstrating that the loss of this ligand, alone, is not sufficient to induce particle expansion. Finally, analogies with naturally occurring ligand binding in the nectin family suggest which specific structural rearrangements in the virus-receptor complex could help to trigger the irreversible expansion of the capsid. The cell-surface receptor (Pvr) catalyzes a large structural change in the virus that exposes membrane-binding protein chains. We fitted known atomic models of the virus and Pvr into three-dimensional experimental maps of the receptor-virus complex. The molecular interactions we see between poliovirus and its receptor are reminiscent of the nectin

  8. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  9. Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater in flat sedimentary plains can obscure our understanding of carbon and salt cycling and curtail our attempts to sustain soil and water resources under

  10. Changing conditions require a higher level of entrepreneurship by farmers: use of an interactive strategic management tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.; Lakner, D.; Smit, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Changing conditions require a higher level of entrepreneurship by farmers. The method of interactive strategic management (ISM) has been developed to support farmers in developing strategic skills. The method is based on three principles: (1) emphasis is on the entrepreneur; (2) interaction with the

  11. Interaction between neuroanatomical and psychological changes after mindfulness-based training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Santarnecchi

    Full Text Available Several cross-sectional studies have documented neuroanatomical changes in individuals with a long history of meditation, while a few evidences are available about the interaction between neuroanatomical and psychological changes even during brief exposure to meditation. Here we analyzed several morphometric indexes at both cortical and subcortical brain level, as well as multiple psychological dimensions, before and after a brief -8 weeks- Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR training program, in a group of 23 meditation naïve-subjects compared to age-gender matched subjects. We found a significant cortical thickness increase in the right insula and the somatosensory cortex of MBSR trainees, coupled with a significant reduction of several psychological indices related to worry, state anxiety, depression and alexithymia. Most importantly, an interesting correlation between the increase in right insula thickness and the decrease in alexithymia levels during the MBSR training were observed. Moreover, a multivariate pattern classification approach allowed to identify a cluster of regions more responsive to MBSR training across subjects. Taken together, these findings documented the significant impact of a brief MBSR training on brain structures, as well as stressing the idea of MBSR as a valuable tool for alexithymia modulation, also originally providing a plausible neurobiological evidence of a major role of right insula into mediating the observed psychological changes.

  12. Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka; Visser, Marcel E

    2010-07-12

    Current predictions on species responses to climate change strongly rely on projecting altered environmental conditions on species distributions. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that climate change also influences species interactions. We review and synthesize literature information on biotic interactions and use it to argue that the abundance of species and the direction of selection during climate change vary depending on how their trophic interactions become disrupted. Plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground multitrophic level interactions with herbivores, pathogens, symbionts and their enemies. We discuss how these interactions may alter during climate change and the resulting species range shifts. We suggest conceptual analogies between species responses to climate warming and exotic species introduced in new ranges. There are also important differences: the herbivores, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of range-expanding species and their enemies may co-migrate, and the continuous gene flow under climate warming can make adaptation in the expansion zone of range expanders different from that of cross-continental exotic species. We conclude that under climate change, results of altered species interactions may vary, ranging from species becoming rare to disproportionately abundant. Taking these possibilities into account will provide a new perspective on predicting species distribution under climate change.

  13. Structural Change of Biomolecules and Application of Synergistic Interaction by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, J. H.; Yang, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    It is expected that motivation and basic technologies for the future R and D plans can be provided from the results of this study. This study has been done to develop fundamentals for radiation applications based on the existing radiation technology, and to establish technical basis for enhancing efficacy of radiation utilization by studying the simultaneous application of ionizing radiation with another factor. Application of radiation technology together with the existing technologies to enhance the physical, chemical, biological characteristics through structural changes of biomolecules will exert a favorable influence on the creation of de novo scientific and industrial values. A theoretical model for the combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor can make it possible to predict a prior the maximum value of synergistic interaction and the conditions for it. Furthermore, the results of this study give a clues for establishment of fundamental theories associated with positive efficacy of radiation applications

  14. Structural Change of Biomolecules and Application of Synergistic Interaction by Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, J. H.; Yang, J. S.

    2008-12-15

    It is expected that motivation and basic technologies for the future R and D plans can be provided from the results of this study. This study has been done to develop fundamentals for radiation applications based on the existing radiation technology, and to establish technical basis for enhancing efficacy of radiation utilization by studying the simultaneous application of ionizing radiation with another factor. Application of radiation technology together with the existing technologies to enhance the physical, chemical, biological characteristics through structural changes of biomolecules will exert a favorable influence on the creation of de novo scientific and industrial values. A theoretical model for the combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor can make it possible to predict a prior the maximum value of synergistic interaction and the conditions for it. Furthermore, the results of this study give a clues for establishment of fundamental theories associated with positive efficacy of radiation applications

  15. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  16. Probing Induced Structural Changes in Biomimetic Bacterial Cell Membrane Interactions with Divalent Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Allison M [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Jubb, Aaron M [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes, formed primarily by the self-assembly of complex mixtures of phospholipids, provide a structured scaffold for compartmentalization and structural processes in living cells. The specific physical properties of phospholipid species present in a given membrane play a key role in mediating these processes. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a zwitterionic lipid present in bacterial, yeast, and mammalian cell membranes, is exceptional. In addition to undergoing the standard lipid polymorphic transition between the gel and liquid-crystalline phase, it can also assume an unusual polymorphic state, the inverse hexagonal phase (HII). Divalent cations are among the factors that drive the formation of the HII phase, wherein the lipid molecules form stacked tubular structures by burying the hydrophilic head groups and exposing the hydrophobic tails to the bulk solvent. Most biological membranes contain a lipid species capable of forming the HII state suggesting that such lipid polymorphic structural states play an important role in structural biological processes such as membrane fusion. In this study, the interactions between Mg2+ and biomimetic bacterial cell membranes composed of PE and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were probed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The lipid phase transitions were examined at varying ratios of PE to PG and upon exposure to physiologically relevant concentrations of Mg2+. An understanding of these basic interactions enhances our understanding of membrane dynamics and how membrane-mediated structural changes may occur in vivo.

  17. Nematodes, exotic earthworms and nitrogen addition: interactions between global change factors lead to cancellation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Long, Jonathan R

    2017-07-01

    Photos from the experiment described in Shao et al. (): (a) the endogeic (i.e. earthworms that typically live in the soil, burrowing horizontally to acquire nutrients) earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus that was added to the plots; (b) P. corethrurus in a quiescence state in response to drought; (c) set-up of the control plots (i.e. no earthworms, ambient nitrogen) used in this experiment. [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com] In Focus: Shao, Y., Zhang, W., Eisenhauer, N., Liu, T., Xiong, Y., Liang, C. & Fu, S. (2017) Nitrogen deposition cancels out exotic earthworm effects on plant-feeding nematode communities. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 708-717. In this issue of Journal of Animal Ecology, Shao et al. () explored how N addition and exotic earthworms interacted to impact on the plant-feeding nematode community. They demonstrate that exotic earthworm presence alone increased the abundance of less harmful plant-feeding nematodes and decreased the abundance of the more harmful plant-feeding nematodes. However, in plots receiving both exotic earthworms and N addition, such earthworm effects on the nematode community were negated. These findings pull focus on the need to simultaneously consider multiple global change factors (e.g. exotic species invasions and N deposition) when making predictions about how such factors might affect above- and below-ground interactions and thereby alter ecosystem function. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  18. Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2004-09-15

    From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

  19. Species-environment interactions changed by introduced herbivores in an oceanic high-mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, Jaume; López-Darias, Marta; Pérez, Antonio J; Nogales, Manuel; Traveset, Anna

    2017-01-05

    Summit areas of oceanic islands constitute some of the most isolated ecosystems on earth, highly vulnerable to climate change and introduced species. Within the unique high-elevation communities of Tenerife (Canary Islands), reproductive success and thus long-term survival of species may depend on environmental suitability as well as threat by introduced herbivores. By experimentally modifying the endemic and vulnerable species Viola cheiranthifolia along its entire altitudinal occurrence range, we studied plant performance, autofertility, pollen limitation and visitation rate and the interactive effect of grazing by non-native rabbits on them. We assessed the grazing effects by recording (1) the proportion of consumed plants and flowers along the gradient, (2) comparing fitness traits of herbivore-excluded plants along the gradient, and (3) comparing fitness traits, autofertility and pollen limitation between plants excluded from herbivores with unexcluded plants at the same locality. Our results showed that V. cheiranthifolia performance is mainly affected by inter-annual and microhabitat variability along the gradient, especially in the lowest edge. Despite the increasingly adverse environmental conditions, the plant showed no pollen limitation with elevation, which is attributed to the increase in autofertility levels (≥ 50% of reproductive output) and decrease in competition for pollinators at higher elevations. Plant fitness is, however, extremely reduced owing to the presence of non-native rabbits in the area (consuming more than 75% of the individuals in some localities), which in turn change plant trait-environment interactions along the gradient. Taken together, these findings indicate that the elevational variation found on plant performance results from the combined action of non-native rabbits with the microhabitat variability, exerting intricate ecological influences that threaten the survival of this violet species. Published by Oxford University

  20. Changes in hyphal morphology and activity of phenoloxidases during interactions between selected ectomycorrhizal fungi and two species of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Patterns of phenoloxidase activity can be used to characterize fungi of different life styles, and changes in phenoloxidase synthesis were suspected to play a role in the interaction between ectomycorrhizal and two species of Trichoderma. Confrontation between the ectomycorrhizal fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria laccata with species of Trichoderma resulted in induction of laccase synthesis, and the laccase enzyme was bound to mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Tyrosinase release was noted only during interaction of L. laccata strains with Trichoderma harzianum and T. virens. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, especially strains of Suillus bovinus and S. luteus, inhibited growth of Trichoderma species and caused morphological changes in its colonies in the zone of interaction. In contrast, hyphal changes occurred less often in the ectomycorrhizal fungi tested. Species of Suillus are suggested to present a different mechanism in their interaction with other fungi than A. muscaria and L. laccata.

  1. The Impact of Institutional Changes on the Vertical Interaction in Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Е. Agamirova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Trade was adopted in Russian Federation in 2009. Its main aim was to protect suppliers because suppliers have significantly less bargaining power than retailers (the weak position of suppliers in the bargaining power due to the difficulty of switching to alternative buyers, i.e., outside options (Dzagurova, Agamirova, 2014. The process of adoption of the law and its further application was accompanied by discussions among economists (Avdasheva, 2012; Radaev, 2009, 2010, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2012; Novikov, 2009. On 15 July 2016, the new version of law “On the Principles of State Regulation of Trade in the Russian Federation” from 28.12.2009 has been enacted. This article analyzes the impact of change in regulation norms on the parties engaged in vertical interaction. In particular, the new law limits the premiums that suppliers pay to retailers for the sale of certain amount of goods and services from 10% to 5%. Besides that, it became a common practice to include promotion, logistics, preparation, processing and packaging in rewards. Also, changes involved extended payment terms reduction. However, new regulation norms can create serious problems for small suppliers whose rights had to be protected. In particular, it happens because of the absence of a classification of such vertical restraints that take into account the motives of the parties involved.

  2. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Mazzei, Renata; André, Gonçalo I; Morais, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species. We hypothesized that the behavioural responses of cleaner fish clients to different social contexts would be underlain by changes in brain AVT and IT levels. We have found that changes in AVT at the level of forebrain and optic tectum are linked with a response to allopatric cleaners (novel or unfamiliar stimuli) while those at cerebellum are associated with the willingness to be cleaned (in response to sympatric cleaners). On the other hand, higher brain IT levels that were solely found in the diencephalon, also in response to allopatric cleaners. Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities.

  3. Probing the interaction of ferrocene containing hyperbranched poly-ester with model plasma protein: Effect on the interaction mechanism and conformational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Fengjuan, E-mail: xfj66@126.com; Gu, Muqing; Liang, Ye; Li, Lanlan; Yu, Xiaolei; Wu, Xiangfeng

    2014-05-01

    Interaction mechanism and conformational change of model plasma protein-bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by ferrocenyl-functionalized hyperbranched polyester (HBPE-Fc) were investigated using cyclicvoltammetry (CV), differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV), fluorescence, UV–vis absorption spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD). Some complicated interactions occurred between BSA and HBPE-Fc and the new redox centers appeared in the BSA/HBPE-Fc complex that changed and hindered the electron transfer of Fe/Fe{sup 2+}. Fluorescence quenching data showed that the fluorescence of BSA was statically quenched by HBPE-Fc, which implied that ground state complex formed between BSA and HBPE-Fc. van der Waals force and hydrogen bond played major roles in the interaction of HBPE-Fc with BSA. The binding constant Ka for HBPE-Fc–protein interaction is in the order of 10{sup 6} at room temperature indicates that there is a strong interaction between HBPE-Fc and BSA. Synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD studies indicated that the interaction of BSA with HBPE-Fc induced conformational changes in BSA with overall decrease in the α-helical structure and increase in β-pleated sheet structure. The molecular model of the interaction between HBPE-Fc and BSA was also presented according to the results in this study. - Highlights: • A novel ferrocenyl-functionalized hyperbranched polymer (HBPE-Fc) with potential anticancer effects. • New redox centers appear in the BSA/HBPE-Fc complex that changed and hindered the electron transfer of Fe/Fe{sup 2+}. • BSA fluorescence was statically quenched by HBPE-Fc. • BSA/HBPE-Fc ground state complex was mainly formed by the hydrogen bonds and van der Waals force. • HBPE-Fc induced conformational changes in BSA with overall decrease in the α-helical structure and increase in β-pleated sheet structure. • The molecular model of the interaction was presented according to the results in this study.

  4. Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland

  5. Dynamic Morphological Changes Induced By GM1 and Protein Interactions on the Surface of Cell-Sized Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Takagi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that are responsible for the morphological changes in the cell membrane in the presence of various stimuli such as osmotic pressure. Lipid rafts are believed to play a crucial role in various cellular processes. It is well established that Ctb (Cholera toxin B subunit recognizes and binds to GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside on the cell surface with high specificity and affinity. Taking advantage of Ctb-GM1 interaction, we examined how Ctb and GM1 molecules affect the dynamic movement of liposomes. GM1 a natural ligand for cholera toxin, was incorporated into liposome and the interaction between fluorescent Ctb and the liposome was analyzed. The interaction plays an important role in determining the various surface interaction phenomena. Incorporation of GM1 into membrane leads to an increase of the line tension leading to either rupture of liposome membrane or change in the morphology of the membrane. This change in morphology was found to be GM1 concentration specific. The interaction between Ctb-GM1 leads to fast and easy rupture or to morphological changes of the liposome. The interactions of Ctb and the glycosyl chain are believed to affect the surface and the curvature of the membrane. Thus, the results are highly beneficial in the study of signal transduction processes.

  6. Fostering Environmental Literacy For A Changing Earth: Interactive and Participatory Outreach Programs at Biosphere 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Huxman, T.; Morehouse, B.

    2008-12-01

    Earth system and ecological sustainability problems are complex outcomes of biological, physical, social, and economic interactions. A common goal of outreach and education programs is to foster a scientifically literate community that possesses the knowledge to contribute to environmental policies and decision making. Uncertainty and variability that is both inherent in Earth system and ecological sciences can confound such goals of improved ecological literacy. Public programs provide an opportunity to engage lay-persons in the scientific method, allowing them to experience science in action and confront these uncertainties face-on. We begin with a definition of scientific literacy that expands its conceptualization of science beyond just a collection of facts and concepts to one that views science as a process to aid understanding of natural phenomena. A process-based scientific literacy allows the public, teachers, and students to assimilate new information, evaluate climate research, and to ultimately make decisions that are informed by science. The Biosphere 2 facility (B2) is uniquely suited for such outreach programs because it allows linking Earth system and ecological science research activities in a large scale controlled environment setting with outreach and education opportunities. A primary outreach goal is to demonstrate science in action to an audience that ranges from K-12 groups to retired citizens. Here we discuss approaches to outreach programs that focus on soil-water-atmosphere-plant interactions and their roles in the impacts and causes of global environmental change. We describe a suite of programs designed to vary the amount of participation a visitor has with the science process (from passive learning to data collection to helping design experiments) to test the hypothesis that active learning fosters increased scientific literacy and the creation of science advocates. We argue that a revised framing of the scientific method with a more

  7. Successional changes in trophic interactions support a mechanistic model of post-fire population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annabel L

    2018-01-01

    Models based on functional traits have limited power in predicting how animal populations respond to disturbance because they do not capture the range of demographic and biological factors that drive population dynamics, including variation in trophic interactions. I tested the hypothesis that successional changes in vegetation structure, which affected invertebrate abundance, would influence growth rates and body condition in the early-successional, insectivorous gecko Nephrurus stellatus. I captured geckos at 17 woodland sites spanning a succession gradient from 2 to 48 years post-fire. Body condition and growth rates were analysed as a function of the best-fitting fire-related predictor (invertebrate abundance or time since fire) with different combinations of the co-variates age, sex and location. Body condition in the whole population was positively affected by increasing invertebrate abundance and, in the adult population, this effect was most pronounced for females. There was strong support for a decline in growth rates in weight with time since fire. The results suggest that increased early-successional invertebrate abundance has filtered through to a higher trophic level with physiological benefits for insectivorous geckos. I integrated the new findings about trophic interactions into a general conceptual model of mechanisms underlying post-fire population dynamics based on a long-term research programme. The model highlights how greater food availability during early succession could drive rapid population growth by contributing to previously reported enhanced reproduction and dispersal. This study provides a framework to understand links between ecological and physiological traits underlying post-fire population dynamics.

  8. Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding human-water interactions is particularly essential in countries where the economy and the people's well-being and income strongly depend on the availability and quality of sufficient water resources. Such a strong dependency on water is existent in Myanmar's Dry Zone located in the central Ayeyarwady River basin. In this area, rainfall is associated with high heterogeneity across space and time. Precipitation amounts in the Dry Zone (500-1000 mm annually) are generally less compared to other regions in Myanmar (up to 4000-6000 mm). Following the Global Climate Risk Index, Myanmar is one of the countries which were most affected by extreme weather events between 1994 and 2013. Severe drought periods e.g in the years 1997-1998, 2010 and 2014 led to crop failures and water shortage in the Dry Zone, where more than 14 mio people predominantly practice agriculture. Due to the high variability of rainfalls, farming is only possible with irrigation, mainly conducted by canal systems from the rivers and groundwater withdrawal. Myanmar is recently facing big challenges which result from comprehensive political and economic reforms since 2011. These may also include increasing water use by new industrial zones and urbanization. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Variability of river runoff and changes in seasonality are expected as a result of climate change. The overarching goal of the study is to understand and increase the knowledge on human-water-climate interactions and to elaborate possible future scenarios for Myanmar's Dry Zone. It is not well studied yet how current and future climate change and increasing human impact will influence the country's abundant water resources including groundwater. Therefore, the first step of this study is to identify the major drivers within the central Ayeyarwady River basin. We are in the process of collecting and analyzing data sets and information including hydrologic and eco

  9. Climate change may affect fish through an interaction of parental and juvenile environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.; McCormick, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Changes to tropical sea surface temperature and plankton communities are expected to occur over the next 100 years due to climate change. There is a limited understanding of how these environmental changes are likely to impact coral reef fishes, especially in terms of population replenishment through the quality of progeny produced. The present study investigated the effect that elevated sea water temperature and changes to food availability may have on the production of offspring by the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Pomacentridae), as well as the performance of progeny in environments of varying food availability. An orthogonal design of three water temperatures and two food availabilities (high and low ration) was used, with water temperatures being the current-day average for the collection location (28.5 °C), +1.5 °C (30.0 °C) and +3.0 °C (31.5 °C), representing likely temperatures by 2100. Generally, an increase in the water temperature for adults resulted in a reduction in the size, weight and amount of yolk possessed by newly hatched offspring. Offspring whose parents were maintained under elevated temperature (30.0 °C high ration) had lower survival than offspring produced by parents at the current-day temperature (28.5 °C high ration) at 15 days post-hatching, but only when juveniles were reared under conditions of low food availability. In contrast, by 30 days post-hatching, the growth and condition of these offspring produced by parents held under elevated temperature (30.0 °C high ration) were the best of all treatment groups in all levels of juvenile food availability. This result illustrates the potential for initial parental effects to be modified by compensatory growth early in life (within 1 month) and that parental effects are not necessarily long lasting. These findings suggest that the performance of juvenile reef fish in future ocean conditions may not only depend on initial parental effects, but the interaction between their

  10. Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation, and interactions with other climate change factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M M; Bornman, J F; Ballaré, C L; Flint, S D; Kulandaivelu, G

    2007-03-01

    , such as diminished growth, acclimation responses of plants to UV-B radiation and interactions of plants with consumer organisms such as insects and plant pathogens. The response to UV-B radiation involves both the initial stimulus by solar radiation and transmission of signals within the plants. Resulting changes in gene expression induced by these signals may have elements in common with those elicited by other environmental factors, and generate overlapping functional (including acclimation) responses. Concurrent responses of terrestrial systems to the combination of enhanced UV-B radiation and other global change factors (increased temperature, CO2, available nitrogen and altered precipitation) are less well understood. Studies of individual plant responses to combinations of factors indicate that plant growth can be augmented by higher CO2 levels, yet many of the effects of UV-B radiation are usually not ameliorated by the elevated CO2. UV-B radiation often increases both plant frost tolerance and survival under extreme high temperature conditions. Conversely, extreme temperatures sometimes influence the UV-B radiation sensitivity of plants directly. Plants that endure water deficit stress effectively are also likely to be tolerant of high UV-B flux. Biologically available nitrogen is exceeding historical levels in many regions due to human activities. Studies show that plants well supplied with nitrogen are generally more sensitive to UV-B radiation. Technical issues concerning the use of biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) have been further elucidated. The BSWFs, which are multiplication factors assigned to different wavelengths giving an indication of their relative biological effectiveness, are critical to the proper conduct and interpretation of experiments in which organisms are exposed to UV radiation, both in the field and in controlled environment facilities. The characteristics of BSWFs vary considerably among different plant processes, such

  11. BISPHENOL A EXPOSURE DURING EARLY DEVELOPMENT INDUCES SEX-SPECIFIC CHANGES IN ADULT ZEBRAFISH SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Hoke, Elizabeth S.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with adverse behavioral effects, although underlying modes of action remain unclear. Because BPA is a suspected xenoestrogen, the objective was to identify sex-based changes in adult zebrafish social behavior developmentally exposed to BPA (0.0, 0.1 or 1 μM) or one of two control compounds (0.1μM 17β-estradiol [E2], and 0.1 μM GSK4716, a synthetic estrogen-related receptor γ ligand). A test chamber was divided lengthwise so each arena held one fish unable to detect the presence of the other fish. A mirror was inserted at one end of each arena; baseline activity levels were determined without mirror. Arenas were divided into 3, computer-generated zones to represent different distances from mirror image. Circadian rhythm patterns were evaluated at 1–3 (= AM) and 5–8 (= PM) hr postprandial. Adult zebrafish were placed into arenas and monitored by digital camera for 5 min. Total distance traveled, % time spent at mirror image, and number of attacks on mirror image were quantified. E2, GSK4716, and all BPA treatments dampened male activity and altered male circadian activity patterns; there was no marked effect on female activity. BPA induced non-monotonic effects (response curve changes direction within range of concentrations examined) on male % time at mirror only in AM. All treatments produced increased % time at the mirror during PM. Male attacks on the mirror were reduced by BPA exposure only during AM. There were sex-specific effects of developmental BPA on social interactions and time-of-day of observation affected results. PMID:25424546

  12. Bidirectional brain-gut interactions and chronic pathological changes after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Elise L; Smith, Allen D; Desai, Neemesh; Cheung, Lumei; Hanscom, Marie; Stoica, Bogdan A; Loane, David J; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Faden, Alan I

    2017-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has complex effects on the gastrointestinal tract that are associated with TBI-related morbidity and mortality. We examined changes in mucosal barrier properties and enteric glial cell response in the gut after experimental TBI in mice, as well as effects of the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) on both gut and brain after injury. Moderate-level TBI was induced in C57BL/6mice by controlled cortical impact (CCI). Mucosal barrier function was assessed by transepithelial resistance, fluorescent-labelled dextran flux, and quantification of tight junction proteins. Enteric glial cell number and activation were measured by Sox10 expression and GFAP reactivity, respectively. Separate groups of mice were challenged with Cr infection during the chronic phase of TBI, and host immune response, barrier integrity, enteric glial cell reactivity, and progression of brain injury and inflammation were assessed. Chronic CCI induced changes in colon morphology, including increased mucosal depth and smooth muscle thickening. At day 28 post-CCI, increased paracellular permeability and decreased claudin-1 mRNA and protein expression were observed in the absence of inflammation in the colon. Colonic glial cell GFAP and Sox10 expression were significantly increased 28days after brain injury. Clearance of Cr and upregulation of Th1/Th17 cytokines in the colon were unaffected by CCI; however, colonic paracellular flux and enteric glial cell GFAP expression were significantly increased. Importantly, Cr infection in chronically-injured mice worsened the brain lesion injury and increased astrocyte- and microglial-mediated inflammation. These experimental studies demonstrate chronic and bidirectional brain-gut interactions after TBI, which may negatively impact late outcomes after brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer

  14. Land-atmosphere interactions and climate change: Recent results and new perspectives (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Davin, E. L.; Greve, P.; Gudmundsson, L.; Guillod, B.; Hirschi, M.; Mittelbach, H.; Mueller, B.; Mystakidis, S.; Orlowsky, B.; Orth, R.; Wilhelm, M.

    2013-12-01

    simulations. Manuscript in preparation. Seneviratne, S.I., D. Lüthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schär, 2006: Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443, 205-209. Seneviratne, S.I., T. Corti, E.L. Davin, M. Hirschi, E.B. Jaeger, I. Lehner, B. Orlowsky, and A.J. Teuling, 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 99, 3-4, 125-161, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004. Seneviratne, S.I., M. Wilhelm, T. Stanelle, B.J.J.M. van den Hurk, S. Hagemann, A. Berg, F. Cheruy, M.E. Higgins, A. Meier, V. Brovkin, M. Claussen, A. Ducharne, J.-L. Dufresne, K.L. Findell, J. Ghattas, D.M. Lawrence, S. Malyshev, M. Rumukainen, and B. Smith, 2013: Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

  15. Variability, interaction and change in the atmosphere-ocean-ecology system of the Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T; Laughton, A S; Flemming, N C

    2005-01-15

    Traditional ideas of intraseasonal and interannual climatic variability in the Western Indian Ocean, dominated by the mean cycle of seasonally reversing monsoon winds, are being replaced by a more complex picture, comprising air-sea interactions and feedbacks; atmosphere-ocean dynamics operating over intrannual to interdecadal time-scales; and climatological and oceanographic boundary condition changes at centennial to millennial time-scales. These forcings, which are mediated by the orography of East Africa and the Asian continent and by seafloor topography (most notably in this area by the banks and shoals of the Mascarene Plateau which interrupts the westward-flowing South Equatorial Current), determine fluxes of water, nutrients and biogeochemical constituents, the essential controls on ocean and shallow-sea productivity and ecosystem health. Better prediction of climatic variability for rain-fed agriculture, and the development of sustainable marine resource use, is of critical importance to the developing countries of this region but requires further basic information gathering and coordinated ocean observation systems.

  16. Plant genotypes affect aboveground and belowground herbivore interactions by changing chemical defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Wenfeng; Siemann, Evan; Wen, Yuanguang; Huang, Wei; Ding, Jianqing

    2016-12-01

    Spatially separated aboveground (AG) and belowground (BG) herbivores are closely linked through shared host plants, and both patterns of AG-BG interactions and plant responses may vary among plant genotypes. We subjected invasive (USA) and native (China) genotypes of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) to herbivory by the AG specialist leaf-rolling weevil Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis and/or the root-feeding larvae of flea beetle Bikasha collaris. We measured leaf damage and leaves rolled by weevils, quantified beetle survival, and analyzed flavonoid and tannin concentrations in leaves and roots. AG and BG herbivores formed negative feedbacks on both native and invasive genotypes. Leaf damage by weevils and the number of beetle larvae emerging as adults were higher on invasive genotypes. Beetles reduced weevil damage and weevils reduced beetle larval emergence more strongly for invasive genotypes. Invasive genotypes had lower leaf and root tannins than native genotypes. BG beetles decreased leaf tannins of native genotypes but increased root tannins of invasive genotypes. AG herbivory increased root flavonoids of invasive genotypes while BG herbivory decreased leaf flavonoids. Invasive genotypes had lower AG and BG herbivore resistance, and negative AG-BG herbivore feedbacks were much stronger for invasive genotypes. Lower tannin concentrations explained overall better AG and BG herbivore performances on invasive genotypes. However, changes in tannins and flavonoids affected AG and BG herbivores differently. These results suggest that divergent selection on chemical production in invasive plants may be critical in regulating herbivore performances and novel AG and BG herbivore communities in new environments.

  17. Monitoring the petroleum bitumen characteristics changes during their interaction with the polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, P. S.; Mishchenko, S. V.; Belyaev, V. P.; Frolov, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The subject of the study is the characteristics (penetration, softening temperature, ductility and elasticity) of a road binder based on petroleum bitumen. The work purpose is to monitor the changes in the characteristics of petroleum bitumen when it interacting with polymers: thermoplastic elastomer, low-density polyethylene, including the adhesive additive presence. To carry out the research a special laboratory facility was designed and manufactured with two blade mixers providing intensive turbulent mixing and the possibility to effect on the transition process of combining the components in a polymer-bitumen binder. To construct a mathematical model of the polymer-bitumen binder characteristics dependence from the composition, methods of statistical experiments planning were used. The possibility of the expensive thermoplastic elastomers replacement with polyethylene is established while maintaining acceptable polymer-bitumen binder quality parameters. The obtained results are proposed for use in road construction. They allow to reduce the roads construction cost with solving the problem of recycling long-term waste packaging from polyethylene.

  18. Atmosphere-vegetation-soil interactions in a climate change context; Impact of changing conditions on engineered transport infrastructure slopes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, A.M.; Hughes, P.N.; Dijkstra, T.A.; Askarinejad, A.; Brenčič, M.; Cui, Y.J.; Diez, J.J.; Firgi, T.; Gajewska, B.; Gentile, F.; Grossi, G.; Jommi, C.; Kehagia, F.; Koda, E.; Maat, Ter H.W.; Lenart, S.; Lourenco, S.; Oliveira, M.; Osinski, P.; Springman, S.M.; Stirling, R.; Toll, D.G.; Beek, Van V.

    2018-01-01

    In assessing the impact of climate change on infrastructure, it is essential to consider the interactions between the atmosphere, vegetation and the near-surface soil. This paper presents an overview of these processes, focusing on recent advances from the literature and those made by members of

  19. Interactive and individual effects of sensory potentiation and region-specific changes in excitability after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, N; Parker, D

    2011-12-29

    While promoting regeneration across lesion sites is a main focus of research into spinal injury, changes also occur in the sublesion spinal cord and its sensory inputs. However, how these varied effects relate to recovery remains largely unknown. Here, we have examined changes in sensory inputs and region-specific changes in spinal cord excitability after spinal cord lesions in the lamprey, a model system for studying regeneration and functional recovery, and related the changes to the degree of locomotor recovery.Proprioceptive responses below lesion sites were potentiated and their rate of adaptation reduced 8-10 weeks after lesioning (i.e. when animals usually showed significant locomotor recovery). These effects were associated with changes in cellular properties that were consistent with an increase in proprioceptor excitability. However, the changes in proprioceptive inputs did not correlate with the degree of locomotor recovery. There were region-specific changes in spinal cord excitability below lesion sites. In isolation, these excitability changes also did not correlate with the degree of locomotor recovery, but in this case, there were significant interactions between the magnitude of stimulation-evoked responses across the lesion site (used to assess the extent of regeneration) and sublesion changes in excitability. These interactions differed in animals that recovered well or poorly, suggesting that the nature of this interaction influenced recovery. These results add to the evidence for diverse changes in the spinal cord after injury, and suggest that regenerated inputs and their interactions with sublesion networks influence the degree of functional recovery. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Separating the role of biotic interactions and climate in determining adaptive response of plants to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiolo, Sara; Van der Putten, Wim H; Tielbörger, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Altered rainfall regimes will greatly affect the response of plant species to climate change. However, little is known about how direct effects of changing precipitation on plant performance may depend on other abiotic factors and biotic interactions. We used reciprocal transplants between climatically very different sites with simultaneous manipulation of soil, plant population origin, and neighbor conditions to evaluate local adaptation and possible adaptive response of four Eastern Mediterranean annual plant species to climate change. The effect of site on plant performance was negligible, but soil origin had a strong effect on fecundity, most likely due to differential water retaining ability. Competition by neighbors strongly reduced fitness. We separated the effects of the abiotic and biotic soil properties on plant performance by repeating the field experiment in a greenhouse under homogenous environmental conditions and including a soil biota manipulation treatment. As in the field, plant performance differed among soil origins and neighbor treatments. Moreover, we found plant species-specific responses to soil biota that may be best explained by the differential sensitivity to negative and positive soil biota effects. Overall, under the conditions of our experiment with two contrasting sites, biotic interactions had a strong effect on plant fitness that interacted with and eventually overrode climate. Because climate and biotic interactions covary, reciprocal transplants and climate gradient studies should consider soil biotic interactions and abiotic conditions when evaluating climate change effects on plant performance.

  1. Integrated modeling of land-use change: the role of coupling, interactions and feedbacks between the human and Earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, E.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Ejaz, Q.; Winchester, N.; Paltsev, S.; Reilly, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Land-use change integrates a large number of components of the human and Earth systems, including climate, energy, water, and land. These complex coupling elements, interactions and feedbacks take place on a variety of space and time scales, thus increasing the complexity of land-use change modeling frameworks. In this study, we aim to identify which coupling elements, interactions and feedbacks are important for modeling land-use change, both at the global and regional level. First, we review the existing land-use change modeling framework used to develop land-use change projections for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. In such framework, land-use change is simulated by Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) and mainly influenced by economic, energy, demographic and policy drivers. IAMs focus on representing the demand for agriculture and forestry goods (crops for food and bioenergy, forest products for construction and bioenergy), the interactions with other sectors of the economy and trade between various regions of the world. Then, we investigate how important various coupling elements and feedbacks with the Earth system are for projections of land-use change at the global and regional level. We focus on the following: i) the climate impacts on land productivity and greenhouse gas emissions, which requires climate change information and coupling to a terrestrial ecosystem model/crop model; ii) the climate and economic impacts on irrigation availability, which requires coupling the LUC modeling framework to a water resources management model and disaggregating rainfed and irrigated croplands; iii) the feedback of land-use change on the global and regional climate system through land-use change emissions and changes in the surface albedo and hydrology, which requires coupling to an Earth system model. Finally, we conclude our study by highlighting the current lack of clarity in how various components of the human and Earth systems are

  2. Directionality of coupling of physiological subsystems: age-related changes of cardiorespiratory interaction during different sleep stages in babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowka, Ralf; Cimponeriu, Laura; Patzak, Andreas; Rosenblum, Michael G

    2003-12-01

    Activity of many physiological subsystems has a well-expressed rhythmic character. Often, a dependency between physiological rhythms is established due to interaction between the corresponding subsystems. Traditional methods of data analysis allow one to quantify the strength of interaction but not the causal interrelation that is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of interaction. Here we present a recently developed method for quantification of coupling direction and apply it to an important problem. Namely, we study the mutual influence of respiratory and cardiovascular rhythms in healthy newborns within the first 6 mo of life in quiet and active sleep. We find an age-related change of the coupling direction: the interaction is nearly symmetric during the first days and becomes practically unidirectional (from respiration to heart rhythm) at the age of 6 mo. Next, we show that the direction of interaction is mainly determined by respiratory frequency. If the latter is less than approximately 0.6 Hz, the interaction occurs dominantly from respiration to heart. With higher respiratory frequencies that only occur at very young ages, the dominating direction is less pronounced or even abolished. The observed dependencies are not related to sleep stage, suggesting that the coupling direction is determined by system-inherent dynamical processes, rather than by functional modulations. The directional analysis may be applied to other interacting narrow band oscillatory systems, e.g., in the central nervous system. Thus it is an important step forward in revealing and understanding causal mechanisms of interactions.

  3. Using Nematostella vectensis to study the interactions between genome, epigenome and bacteria in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fraune

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotype of an animal cannot be explained entirely by its genes. It is now clear that factors other than the genome contribute to the ecology and evolution of animals. Two fundamentally important factors are the associated microbiota and epigenetic regulations. Unlike the genes and regulatory regions of the genome, epigenetics and microbial composition can be rapidly modified, and may thus represent mechanisms for rapid acclimation to a changing environment. At present, the individual functions of epigenetics, microbiomes, and genomic mutations are largely studied in isolation, particularly for species in marine ecosystems. This single variable approach leaves significant questions open for how these mechanisms intersect in the acclimation and adaptation of organisms in different environments. Here, we propose that the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, is a model of choice to investigate the complex interplay between adaptation as well as physiological and molecular plasticity in coastal ecosystems. N. vectensis’ geographic range spans four distinct coastlines, including a wide thermocline along the Atlantic coast of North America. N. vectensis is a particularly powerful invertebrate model for studying genome-environment interactions due to (1 the availability of a well-annotated genome, including preexisting data on genome methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs, (2 an extensive molecular toolkit including well-developed protocols for gene suppression and transgenesis, and (3 the simplicity of culture and experimentation in the laboratory. Taken together, N. vectensis has the tractability to connect the functional relationships between a host animal, microbes, and genome modifications to determine mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation.

  4. Possible contribution of ice-sheet/lithosphere interactions to past glaciological changes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, R. B.; Parizek, B. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Pollard, D.; Stevens, N. T.; Pourpoint, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ice-lithosphere interactions may have influenced the history of ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change. The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) is sensitive to warming, and is likely to be largely removed if subjected to relatively small additional temperature increases. The recent report (Schaefer et al., 2016, Nature) of near-complete GIS removal under modest Pleistocene forcing suggests that GIS sensitivity may be even greater than generally modeled, but lack of major Holocene retreat is more consistent with existing models. As shown by Stevens et al. (2016, JGR), peak lithospheric flexural stresses associated with ice-age GIS cycling are of the same order as dike-driving stresses in plutonic systems, and migrate over ice-age cycles. The full analysis by Stevens et al. suggests the possibility that the onset of cyclic ice-sheet loading allowed deep melt associated with the passage of the Icelandic hot spot beneath Greenland to work up though the crust to or near the base of the ice sheet, helping explain the anomalous geothermal heat fluxes observed at the head of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and elsewhere in the northern part of GIS. If ice-age cycling aided extraction of an existing reservoir of melted rock, then geothermal heat flux would have risen with the onset of extraction and migration, but with a subsequent fall associated with reservoir depletion. Simple parameterized flow-model simulations confirm intuition that a higher geothermal flux makes deglaciation easier, with the northern part of the ice sheet especially important. Large uncertainties remain in quantification, but we suggest the hypothesis that, following the onset of ice-age cycling, deglaciation of the GIS first became easier and then more difficult in response to feedbacks involving the ice sheet and the geological system beneath. In turn, this suggests that evidence of past deglaciation under moderate forcing is consistent with existing ice-sheet models.

  5. Humic substances-part 7: the biogeochemistry of dissolved organic carbon and its interactions with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcal, Petr; Koprivnjak, Jean-François; Molot, Lewis A; Dillon, Peter J

    2009-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter, measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), is an important component of aquatic ecosystems and of the global carbon cycle. It is known that changes in DOC quality and quantity are likely to have ecological repercussions. This review has four goals: (1) to discuss potential mechanisms responsible for recent changes in aquatic DOC concentrations; (2) to provide a comprehensive overview of the interactions between DOC, nutrients, and trace metals in mainly boreal environments; (3) to explore the impact of climate change on DOC and the subsequent effects on nutrients and trace metals; and (4) to explore the potential impact of DOC cycling on climate change. We review recent research on the mechanisms responsible for recent changes in aquatic DOC concentrations, DOC interactions with trace metals, N, and P, and on the possible impacts of climate change on DOC in mainly boreal lakes. We then speculate on how climate change may affect DOC export and in-lake processing and how these changes might alter nutrient and metal export and processing. Furthermore, the potential impacts of changing DOC cycling patterns on climate change are examined. It has been noted that DOC concentrations in lake and stream waters have increased during the last 30 years across much of Europe and North America. The potential reasons for this increase include increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration, climate warming, continued N deposition, decreased sulfate deposition, and hydrological changes due to increased precipitation, droughts, and land use changes. Any change in DOC concentrations and properties in lakes and streams will also impact the acid-base chemistry of these waters and, presumably, the biological, chemical, and photochemical reactions taking place. For example, the interaction of trace metals with DOC may be significantly altered by climate change as organically complexed metals such as Cu, Fe, and Al are released during photo-oxidation of DOC. The

  6. Capacitation dependent changes in the sperm plasma membrane influence porcine gamete interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flesch, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Although the sperm cell was first seen through Van Leeuwenhoek’s microscope in the late seventieth century and despite much effort in the last 40 years in particular, we still do not know a great deal of the sperm cell and its interaction with the oocyte. Mammalian sperm-oocyte interaction is a

  7. The Changes of Energy Interactions between Nucleus Function and Mitochondria Functions Causing Transmutation of Chronic Inflammation into Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovskiy, Michail R

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions induce the mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy according to the first law of thermodynamics in able-bodied cells and changes the mechanisms of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy creating a transition stationary state of ablebodied cells into quasi-stationary pathologic states of acute inflammation transiting then into chronic inflammation and then transmuting into cancer metabolism. The mechanisms' influences of intruding etiologic pathologic agents (microbe, virus, etc.) lead to these changes of energy interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions causing general acute inflammation, then passing into local chronic inflammation, and reversing into cancer metabolism transmutation. Interactions between biochemical processes and biophysical processes of cellular capacitors' operations create a supplementary mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy in the norm and in pathology. Discussion of some scientific works eliminates doubts of the authors of these works.

  8. Progressive and Regressive Developmental Changes in Neural Substrates for Face Processing: Testing Specific Predictions of the Interactive Specialization Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Face processing undergoes a fairly protracted developmental time course but the neural underpinnings are not well understood. Prior fMRI studies have only examined progressive changes (i.e. increases in specialization in certain regions with age), which would be predicted by both the Interactive Specialization (IS) and maturational theories of…

  9. Predicting Day-to-Day Changes in Students' School-Related Affect from Daily Academic Experiences and Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role that everyday academic successes and failures--and the interactions with family members and peers that follow these events--play in predicting day-to-day changes in children's emotional responses to school. Middle school students (N = 101; mean age = 11.62 years) completed daily assessments of their academic…

  10. Effects of changes in life circumstances on interaction and communication in adults with congenital deafblindness and an intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloeming-Wolbrink, K.A.; Janssen, M.J.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Menke, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the first 2 years of the ongoing Project CHANGE, aimed at improving interaction and communication in adults with congenital deafblindness (CDB) and an intellectual disability (ID). Six adults with no history of deafblind education participated in this study. These

  11. Interactive effects of anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and Nr from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes in biodiversity in recent times. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in poleward and elevational range shiftsof flora and fauna, and changes in phenology, particularly ...

  12. Considerations of Socio-Economic and Global Change Effects on Eurasian Steppes Ecosystem and Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Chuluun, T.; Temirbekov, S. S.; Mahowald, N.; Hicke, J.

    2004-12-01

    Dramatic changes occurred in pastoral systems of Eurasia ranging from Mongolia, China and Central Asia for the past decades. Recently, evaluation of the pastoral systems has been conducted in the region. Pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock, exist largely in arid or semi-arid ecosystems where climate is highly variable. Interaction between ecosystems and nomadic land use systems co-shaped them in mutual adaptive ways for hundreds of years, thus making both the Mongolian rangeland ecosystem and nomadic pastoral system resilient and sustainable. Current changes in environmental conditions are affecting land-atmosphere interactions. Regional dust events, changes in hydrological cycle, and land use changes contribute to changing interactions between ecosystem and landscape processes which affect regional climate. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. This set of drivers is orthogonal to the above described climate drivers. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the socio-economic forces.

  13. Large-scale changes in network interactions as a physiological signature of spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Antonello; Ramsey, Lenny; Hacker, Carl L; Callejas, Alicia; Astafiev, Serguei V; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Zinn, Kristi; Rengachary, Jennifer; Snyder, Abraham Z; Carter, Alex R; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2014-12-01

    networks in the right hemisphere; and (iii) increased intrahemispheric connectivity with the basal ganglia. These patterns of functional connectivity:behaviour correlations were stronger in patients with right- as compared to left-hemisphere damage and were independent of lesion volume. Our findings identify large-scale changes in resting state network interactions that are a physiological signature of spatial neglect and may relate to its right hemisphere lateralization. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. How disturbance, competition, and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Duveneck, Matthew J; Gustafson, Eric J; Serra-Diaz, Josep M; Thompson, Jonathan R

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species' ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change, disturbance and competitive interactions to produce range shifts are poorly understood. We used a physiologically based mechanistic landscape model to study these interactions in the northeastern United States. We designed a series of disturbance scenarios to represent varied disturbance regimes in terms of both disturbance extent and intensity. We simulated forest succession by incorporating climate change under a high-emissions future, disturbances, seed dispersal, and competition using the landscape model parameterized with forest inventory data. Tree species range boundary shifts in the next century were quantified as the change in the location of the 5th (the trailing edge) and 95th (the leading edge) percentiles of the spatial distribution of simulated species. Simulated tree species range boundary shifts in New England over the next century were far below (usually change (usually more than 110 km over 100 years) under a high-emissions scenario. Simulated species` ranges shifted northward at both the leading edge (northern boundary) and trailing edge (southern boundary). Disturbances may expedite species' recruitment into new sites, but they had little effect on the velocity of simulated range boundary shifts. Range shifts at the trailing edge tended to be associated with photosynthetic capacity, competitive ability for light and seed dispersal ability, whereas shifts at the leading edge were associated only with photosynthetic capacity and competition for light. This study underscores the importance of understanding the role of interspecific competition and disturbance when studying tree range

  15. Changing of the electron structure of dispersed iron oxide during interaction with amines and borofluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobert, H.; Arnold, D.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of chemisorption on the surface of iron oxide was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy performed on samples of iron oxide finely dispersed in SiO 2 . It was found from Moessbauer spectra that the interaction of the oxide with amines resulted in a reversible electron transition from the amine to the adsorbent. The interaction with BF 3 brought about an irreversible electron transition from iron to boron. (A.K.)

  16. Changes in social interaction over 20 years and the effects of community resources use among community-dwelling elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kumi; Tanaka, Emiko; Wu, Bailiang; Kobayashi, Zyunko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kim, Yeon; Watanabe, Taeko; Okumura, Rika; Ito, Sumio; Anme, Tokie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Recently, social isolation has been reported to be a critical problem among Japanese elderly persons. However, few studies have compared social interaction in the past and the present or investigated its predictive factors. This study aimed to clarify the transitional changes in social interaction over 20 years and explore the factors related to social interaction focusing on the use of community resources.Methods The participants were community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over. A survey was conducted 8 times from 1994 to 2014 in the suburban area of Tobishima, Japan. The Index of Social Interaction Scale was used and each subscale and the total score were calculated. Subsequently, the 2014 scores were compared with the 1994 scores using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to clarify the factors related to social interaction, focusing on the association between the use of community resources (local elderly management center, health care center, health promotion facility, library) in 2011 and social interaction 3 years later. Age, gender, disease, and mobility were also entered into the model as control variables.Results Comparing social interaction in 1994 and 2014, total scores were found to have significantly increased in all age groups. Independence scores significantly increased in the overall group and in females aged 75-84. Curiosity scores also increased in both males and females. These results show that social interaction has increased over 2 decades. In addition, the use of local elderly management and health care centers, and health promotion facilities was associated with total social interaction scores 3 years later.Conclusion The current study clarified changes in social interaction, both comprehensively and for each of its aspects, among community-dwelling elderly adults. Increasing social isolation has been reported in recent years; however, the current study showed that social

  17. Biophysical characterization of the structural change of Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered protein, in the interaction with CK2α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Yuyoung; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Song, Seung Soo; Cha, Sun-Shin; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140) is a nucleolar protein, more than 80% of which is disordered. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Nopp140 (residues 568–596) interacts with protein kinase CK2α, and inhibits the catalytic activity of CK2. Although the region of Nopp140 responsible for the interaction with CK2α was identified, the structural features and the effect of this interaction on the structure of Nopp140 have not been defined due to the difficulty of structural characterization of disordered protein. In this study, the disordered feature of Nopp140 and the effect of CK2α on the structure of Nopp140 were examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The interaction with CK2α was increased conformational rigidity of the CK2α-interacting region of Nopp140 (Nopp140C), suggesting that the disordered and flexible conformation of Nopp140C became more rigid conformation as it binds to CK2α. In addition, site specific spin labeling and EPR analysis confirmed that the residues 574–589 of Nopp140 are critical for binding to CK2α. Similar technical approaches can be applied to analyze the conformational changes in other IDPs during their interactions with binding partners. - Highlights: • Nopp140 is intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). • Conformation of Nopp140 became more rigid conformation due to interaction with CK2α. • smFRET and EPR could be applied to analyze the structural changes of IDPs.

  18. Biophysical characterization of the structural change of Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered protein, in the interaction with CK2α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jung-Hyun [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Kyu [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yuyoung; Jeong, Cherlhyun [Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung Soo [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sun-Shin [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyou-Hoon [Division of Biosystems Research, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yeon-Kyun [Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Yu, Yeon Gyu, E-mail: ygyu@kookmin.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140) is a nucleolar protein, more than 80% of which is disordered. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Nopp140 (residues 568–596) interacts with protein kinase CK2α, and inhibits the catalytic activity of CK2. Although the region of Nopp140 responsible for the interaction with CK2α was identified, the structural features and the effect of this interaction on the structure of Nopp140 have not been defined due to the difficulty of structural characterization of disordered protein. In this study, the disordered feature of Nopp140 and the effect of CK2α on the structure of Nopp140 were examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The interaction with CK2α was increased conformational rigidity of the CK2α-interacting region of Nopp140 (Nopp140C), suggesting that the disordered and flexible conformation of Nopp140C became more rigid conformation as it binds to CK2α. In addition, site specific spin labeling and EPR analysis confirmed that the residues 574–589 of Nopp140 are critical for binding to CK2α. Similar technical approaches can be applied to analyze the conformational changes in other IDPs during their interactions with binding partners. - Highlights: • Nopp140 is intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). • Conformation of Nopp140 became more rigid conformation due to interaction with CK2α. • smFRET and EPR could be applied to analyze the structural changes of IDPs.

  19. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  20. Three Connected Climate Education Interactives: Carbon Cycle, Earth System Energy Flows, and Climate Change Impacts/Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai'i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. Unfortunately the vast majority of the science texts used in schools come from the US mainland and feature contexts that do not relate to the lives of Pacific island students. The curricular materials also tend to be older and to have very weak climate science content, especially with respect to tropical islands and climate change. In collaboration with public broadcast station WGBH, PCEP has developed three climate education interactives that sequentially provide an introduction to key climate change education concepts. The first in the series focuses on the global carbon cycle and connects increased atmospheric CO2 with rising global temperatures. The second analyzes Earth system energy flows to explain the key role of the increased greenhouse effect. The third focuses on four climate change impacts (higher temperatures, rising sea level, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification), and adaptation strategies to increase resiliency of local ecosystems and human systems. While the interactives have a Pacific island visual and text perspective, they are broadly applicable for other education audiences. Learners can use the interactives to engage with the basic science concepts, and then apply the climate change impacts to their own contexts.

  1. How disturbance, competition and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Duveneck, M.; Gustafson, E. J.; Serra-Diaz, J. M.; Thompson, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species' ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change, disturbance and competitive interactions to produce range shifts are poorly understood. We used a physiologically-based mechanistic landscape model to study these interactions in the northeastern United States. We designed a series of disturbance scenarios to represent varied disturbance regimes in terms of both disturbance extent and intensity. We simulated forest succession by incorporating climate change under a high emissions future, disturbances, seed dispersal, and competition using the landscape model parameterized with forest inventory data. Tree species range boundary shifts in the next century were quantified as the change in the location of the 5th (the trailing edge) and 95th (the leading edge) percentiles of the spatial distribution of simulated species. Simulated tree species range boundary shifts in New England over the next century were far below (usually Disturbances may expedite species` recruitment into new sites, but they had little effect on the velocity of simulated range boundary shifts. Range shifts at the trailing edge tended to be associated with photosynthetic capacity, competitive ability for light and seed dispersal ability, whereas shifts at the leading edge were associated only with photosynthetic capacity and competition for light. This study underscores the importance of understanding the role of interspecific competition and disturbance when studying tree range shifts.

  2. Substantial conformational change mediated by charge-triad residues of the death effector domain in protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Twomey

    Full Text Available Protein conformational changes are commonly associated with the formation of protein complexes. The non-catalytic death effector domains (DEDs mediate protein-protein interactions in a variety of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and migration, and glucose metabolism. Here, using NMR residual dipolar coupling (RDC data, we report a conformational change in the DED of the phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 kDa (PEA-15 protein in the complex with a mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2, which is essential in regulating ERK2 cellular distribution and function in cell proliferation and migration. The most significant conformational change in PEA-15 happens at helices α2, α3, and α4, which also possess the highest flexibility among the six-helix bundle of the DED. This crucial conformational change is modulated by the D/E-RxDL charge-triad motif, one of the prominent structural features of DEDs, together with a number of other electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions on the protein surface. Charge-triad motif promotes the optimal orientation of key residues and expands the binding interface to accommodate protein-protein interactions. However, the charge-triad residues are not directly involved in the binding interface between PEA-15 and ERK2.

  3. Stability, Bistability, and Critical Thresholds in Fire-prone Forested Landscapes: How Frequency and Intensity of Disturbance Interact and Influence Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Many aspects of disturbance processes can have large impacts on the composition of plant communities, and associated changes in land cover type in turn have biogeochemical feedbacks to climate. In particular, changes to disturbance regimes can potentially change the number and stability of equilibrial states, and plant community states can differ dramatically in their carbon (C) dynamics, energy balance, and hydrology. Using the Klamath region of northern California as a model system, we present a theoretical analysis of how changes to climate and associated fire dynamics can disrupt high-carbon, long-lived conifer forests and replace them with shrub-chaparral communities that have much lower biomass and are more pyrogenic. Specifically, we develop a tractable model of plant community dynamics, structured by size class, life-history traits, lottery-type competition, and species-specific responses to disturbance. We assess the stability of different states in terms of disturbance frequency and intensity, and quantitatively partition long-term low-density population growth rates into mechanisms that influence critical transitions from stable to bistable behavior. Our findings show how different aspects of disturbance act and interact to control competitive outcomes and stable states, hence ecosystem-atmosphere C exchange. Forests tend to dominate in low frequency and intensity regimes, while shrubs dominate at high fire frequency and intensity. In other regimes, the system is bistable, and the fate of the system depends both on initial conditions and random chance. Importantly, the system can cross a critical threshold where hysteresis prevents easy return to the prior forested state. We conclude that changes in disturbance-recovery dynamics driven by projected climate change can shift this system away from forest dominated in the direction of shrub-dominated landscape. This will result in a large net C release from the landscape, and alter biophysical ecosystem

  4. Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect with flavor-changing neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, E.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the effect that flavor-nondiagonal neutrino interactions with matter have on the resonant ν oscillations. It is shown that, even in the absence of ν mixing in a vacuum, an efficient conversion of the electron neutrinos from the Sun to another ν flavor can result if the strength of this interaction is ∼10 -2 G F . We show how this can be implemented in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity breaking. Here, the L-violating couplings induce neutrino masses, mixings, and the flavor-nondiagonal neutrino interactions that can provide a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-like solution to the solar-neutrino problem even for negligible vacuum mixings

  5. Environmental changes and human work in the region of the Upper Paraná River floodplain: processes and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Tomanik

    Full Text Available The environment and society constitute a complex of elements and interactions. Thus, an understanding of the processes in which the environment and psychosocial elements are involved may not be gained from knowledge of just one isolated variable. Based on such premises, the present paper, which summarizes the results of a series of studies, adopts work relationships as its main focus, but in addition, it has two complementary objectives. One is to present some analyses on the interaction between human actions and the environmental changes that have been taking place in the region of the Upper Paraná River floodplain and in its boundaries. A secondary aim is to show how those two factors have been changing people's working and living conditions and the identity configuration of some of the human groups that live at that site.

  6. Role of Cytokine-Induced Glycosylation Changes in Regulating Cell Interactions and Cell Signaling in Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine H. Dewald

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most important modifications of proteins and lipids, and cell surface glycoconjugates are thought to play important roles in a variety of biological functions including cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, cell immunogenicity and cell signaling. Alterations of glycosylation are observed in number of diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. In that context, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to modulate cell surface glycosylation by regulating the expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrate chains. These changes in cell surface glycosylation are also known to regulate cell signaling and could contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the glycosylation changes induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a particular focus on cancer and cystic fibrosis, and their consequences on cell interactions and signaling.

  7. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Leach, A.; Adams, M.; Vries, de W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Ecosystem services are being impacted by many human induced stresses, one of them being nitrogen (N) deposition and its interactions with other pollutants

  8. Changing learning with new interactive and media-rich instruction environments: virtual labs case study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Camillan

    2003-01-01

    Technology has created a new dimension for visual teaching and learning with web-delivered interactive media. The Virtual Labs Project has embraced this technology with instructional design and evaluation methodologies behind the simPHYSIO suite of simulation-based, online interactive teaching modules in physiology for the Stanford students. In addition, simPHYSIO provides the convenience of anytime web-access and a modular structure that allows for personalization and customization of the learning material. This innovative tool provides a solid delivery and pedagogical backbone that can be applied to developing an interactive simulation-based training tool for the use and management of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) image information system. The disparity in the knowledge between health and IT professionals can be bridged by providing convenient modular teaching tools to fill the gaps in knowledge. An innovative teaching method in the whole PACS is deemed necessary for its successful implementation and operation since it has become widely distributed with many interfaces, components, and customizations. This paper will discuss the techniques for developing an interactive-based teaching tool, a case study of its implementation, and a perspective for applying this approach to an online PACS training tool. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Changing interactions between teachers and socially inhibited kindergarten children: An interpersonal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, D.L.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Thijs, J.T.; Oort, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In a short-term longitudinal intervention study, it was investigated whether a short teacher training in interpersonal theory and the complementarity principle could be used to break negative interaction cycles between teachers and socially inhibited kindergartners. Sixty-five children and their 35

  10. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  11. Student Interests and Attitude Change toward Drug Educators as a Function of Sex and Role Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten-Huston, Annie L.

    1982-01-01

    Focused on recorded tapes and sex-role interaction of 12 sessions on drug abuse. Subjects were 247 seventh-grade males and females. Communicators (males and females) made two presentations with roles rotated according to ex-addict/learned specialist. Results indicated female and male students were influenced most by female specialist…

  12. NGO-Business Interaction for Social Change: Insights from Oxfam’s Private Sector Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesqueira, L.D.L.; Verburg, J.

    2012-01-01

    For over a decade, Oxfam has increasingly interacted with the private sector as a means to address the wicked problem of poverty. For Oxfam, poverty is caused by injustice and is a consequence of people’s inability to materialize their human rights. Such rights-based approach to development shapes

  13. Covering #SAE: A Mobile Reporting Class's Changing Patterns of Interaction on Twitter over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the social network that emerged on Twitter surrounding a mobile reporting class as they covered a national breaking news event. The work introduces pedagogical strategies that enhance students' learning opportunities. Through NodeXL and social network cluster analysis, six groups emerged from the Twitter interactions tied to…

  14. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa...

  15. Change over Time in Police Interactions and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of intervening to change interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and police in order to reduce HIV risk. Using data collected in the context of a HIV prevention intervention that included components to change policing practices (n = 1,680), we examine the association of FSWs’ reports of negative police interactions and HIV risk behaviors and whether these associations varied over time. Results show negative police interactions declined significantly over time. FSWs who had more than one negative police interaction were more likely to experience STI symptoms (AOR 2.97 [95 % CI 2.27–3.89]), inconsistently use condoms with their clients (AOR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.03–1.79]), and accept more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.76–3.21]). Over time, these associations were stable or increased. Even where interventions have reduced the number of police incidents experienced by FSWs, stakeholders in HIV prevention must remain vigilant in challenging these incidents. PMID:25354735

  16. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable...

  17. Modelling interactions and feedback mechanisms between land use change and landscape processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.; Schoorl, J.M.; Verburg, P.H.; Geraedts, L.; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Land use changes and landscape processes are interrelated and influenced by multiple bio-physical and socio-economic driving factors, resulting in a complex, multi-scale system. Consequently in landscapes with active landscape processes such as erosion, land use changes should not be analysed in

  18. The impact of Future Land Use and Land Cover Changes on Atmospheric Chemistry-Climate Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Bouwman, L.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate potential future consequences of land cover and land use changes beyond those for physical climate and the carbon cycle, we present an analysis of large-scale impacts of land cover and land use changes on atmospheric chemistry using the chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy

  19. Interactions of C, N, P and S biogeochemical cycles and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollast, R.; Mackenzie, F.T.

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur are tied to each other through biological productivity and to problems of global environmental change. Both natural changes in the cycles of the elements and interference and distortion of these cycles by human activities (e.g. disturbancies by agricultural, industrial and urbanization activities) will have impacts on ecosystems and human society. (UT)

  20. Lane changing and speed interaction on freeways : An analytical microscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Grebert, V.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of lane changing manoeuvre on the capacity, stability, and breakdown of traffic flows is a crucial issue. In a recent study, four distinct lane change strategies on freeways have been empirically found: (1) Speed Leading; (2) Speed Leading with Overtaking; (3) Lane

  1. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2014-01-01

    and at follow-up about 5 years later were analyzed with multiple linear regression and dietary macronutrient substitution models. Interactions between dietary protein and baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline WC adjusted for BMI (WCBMI ) (divided in tertiles; nine groups total), were analyzed in relation...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  2. Human-polar bear interactions in a changing Arctic: Existing and emerging concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Simac, Kristin; Breck, Stewart; York, Geoff; Wilder, James

    2017-01-01

    The behavior and sociality of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been shaped by evolved preferences for sea ice habitat and preying on marine mammals. However, human behavior is causing changes to the Arctic marine ecosystem through the influence of greenhouse gas emissions that drive long-term change in ecosystem processes and via the presence of in situ stressors associated with increasing human activities. These changes are making it more difficult for polar bears to reliably use their traditional habitats and maintain fitness. Here, we provide an overview of how human activities in the Arctic are likely to change a polar bear’s behavior and to influence their resilience to environmental change. Developing a more thorough understanding of polar bear behavior and their capacity for flexibility in response to anthropogenic disturbances and subsequent mitigations may lead to successful near-term management interventions.

  3. Collaborative Education in Climate Change Sciences and Adaptation through Interactive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of several funded climate change education grants, collaboration between VSU, DSU, and MSU, was established to provide the innovative and cohesive education and research opportunities to underrepresented groups in the climate related sciences. Prior to offering climate change and adaptation related topics to the students, faculty members of the three collaborating institutions participated at a number of faculty training and preparation workshops for teaching climate change sciences (i.e. AMS Diversity Project Workshop, NCAR Faculty-Student Team on Climate Change, NASA-NICE Program). In order to enhance the teaching and student learning on various issues in the Environmental Sciences Programs, Climatology, Climate Change Sciences and Adaptation or related courses were developed at Delaware State University and its partner institutions (Virginia State University and Morgan State University). These courses were prepared to deliver information on physical basis for the earth's climate system and current climate change instruction modules by AMS and historic climate information (NOAA Climate Services, U.S. and World Weather Data, NCAR and NASA Climate Models). By using Global Seminar as a Model, faculty members worked in teams to engage students in videoconferencing on climate change through Contemporary Global Studies and climate courses including Climate Change and Adaptation Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Introduction to Environmental Sciences, Climatology, and Ecology and Adaptation courses. All climate change courses have extensive hands-on practices and research integrated into the student learning experiences. Some of these students have presented their classroom projects during Earth Day, Student Climate Change Symposium, Undergraduate Summer Symposium, and other national conferences.

  4. Prediction of Physical Activity Level Using Processes of Change From the Transtheoretical Model: Experiential, Behavioral, or an Interaction Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Horwath, Caroline; Bernard, Paquito

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare prediction of physical activity (PA) by experiential or behavioral processes of change (POCs) or an interaction between both types of processes. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted using an online questionnaire. A total of 394 participants (244 women, 150 men), with a mean age of 35.12 ± 12.04 years and a mean body mass index of 22.97 ± 4.25 kg/m 2 were included. Participants completed the Processes of Change, Stages of Change questionnaires, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to evaluate self-reported PA level (total, vigorous, and moderate PA). Hierarchical multiple regression models were used to test the prediction of PA level. For both total PA (β = .261; P behavioral POCs were a significant predictor. Regarding moderate PA, only the interaction between experiential and behavioral POCs was a significant predictor (β = .123; P = .017). Our results provide confirmation that behavioral processes are most prominent in PA behavior. Nevertheless, it is of interest to note that the interaction between experiential and behavioral POCs was the only element predicting moderate PA level. Experiential processes were not associated with PA level.

  5. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] i...

  6. Land use change in China: implication for human-environmental interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    cui, Xuefeng

    2013-04-01

    China's land use has undergone significant changes in history due to the continuous transformations caused by natural and human factors. This paper will review the history of land use changes in China during the past 300 years to identify the major transition periods and discuss the implications for environmental management. Population changes are found to be the primary driving factor in cropland expansion and deforestation in history for a long period. In 1950s, after the foundation of the Republic of China, all land use types experience a huge transition showing the determination of socio-economic policies in modern time after agricultural intensifications. Several current environmental policy in China will also be discussed to explore the effect of policy on land use changes.

  7. Threshold responses to interacting global changes in a California grassland ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Christopher [Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Mooney, Harold [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Vitousek, Peter [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Building on the history and infrastructure of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment, we conducted experiments to explore the potential for single and combined global changes to stimulate fundamental type changes in ecosystems that start the experiment as California annual grassland. Using a carefully orchestrated set of seedling introductions, followed by careful study and later removal, the grassland was poised to enable two major kinds of transitions that occur in real life and that have major implications for ecosystem structure, function, and services. These are transitions from grassland to shrubland/forest and grassland to thistle patch. The experiment took place in the context of 4 global change factors – warming, elevated CO2, N deposition, and increased precipitation – in a full-factorial array, present as all possible 1, 2, 3, and 4-factor combinations, with each combination replicated 8 times.

  8. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carriero, G.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Clarke, N.; Matteucci, G.; Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Mikkelsen, J. D.; Fischer, R.; Cudlín, Pavel; Serengil, Y.; Boscaleri, F.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Feng, Z.; Paoletti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2014), s. 197-207 ISSN 2163-0429 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : air pollution * climate change * forests * supersites * COST * FP0903 Action Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Review on Climate Control Chamber studies in studying plant environment interaction under climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Geethalakshmi, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, K.; Lakshmanan, A.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical brief summarizes some of the studies conducted on rice using a climate control chamber and outlines the studies that will be undertaken in the Climate Control Chamber facility that has been established at the Agro Climate Research Center at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. In recent years a numbers of technologies have been developed to study the impact of climate change on agricultural systems. Crop response to climate change could be studied by using a climate ...

  10. Phenology of species interactions in response to climate change: two case studies of plant-pollinator interactions using long-term data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, A. M.; Inouye, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change may alter the temporal overlap among interacting taxa with potential demographic consequences. Evidence of mistimed interactions in response to climate change, especially between plants and pollinators, is mixed, and few long-term datasets exist to test for changes in synchrony. Furthermore, advancements in flowering driven by climate change are especially pronounced at higher latitudes, so that migratory pollinators from lower latitudes may increasingly arrive at breeding grounds after the appearance of floral resources. We explored long-term shifts in phenological synchrony in two plant-pollinator systems:1) syrphid fly and flowering phenology in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA (1992-2011) and 2) hummingbird arrival relative to onset of early-season nectar resources in the Colorado Rocky Mountains (1975-2011) and the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA (1984-2010). We investigated the abiotic cues associated with the phenology of the activity period of syrphid flies and their floral resources, including degree days above freezing, precipitation, and timing of snowmelt as potential explanatory variables. Timing of snowmelt was the best predictor of the onset of flowering and syrphid emergence. Snowmelt was also the best predictor of the end of flowering, while temperature and precipitation best predicted the end of the syrphid period. Both the onset and end of flowering advanced more rapidly than syrphids in response to earlier snowmelt. These different rates of phenological advancement resulted in increased temporal overlap between the flower and syrphid community in years of early snowmelt, because of longer flowering and fly activity periods during these years. If snowmelt continues to advance, temporal overlap between syrphids and their floral resources is therefore likely to increase. This case study shows that the phenology of interacting taxa may respond differently to climate cues, but that this does not necessarily lead to phenological

  11. Identification of CEA-interacting proteins in colon cancer cells and their changes in expression after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byong Chul [Colorectal Cancer Branch, Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Seung Gu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level has been recognized as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, and associated with response of rectal cancer to radiotherapy. This study aimed to identify CEA-interacting proteins in colon cancer cells and observe post-irradiation changes in their expression. CEA expression in colon cancer cells was examined by Western blot analysis. Using an anti-CEA antibody or IgG as a negative control, immunoprecipitation was performed in colon cancer cell lysates. CEA and IgG immunoprecipitates were used for liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Proteins identified in the CEA immunoprecipitates but not in the IgG immunoprecipitates were selected as CEA-interacting proteins. After radiation treatment, changes in expression of CEA-interacting proteins were monitored by Western blot analysis. CEA expression was higher in SNU-81 cells compared with LoVo cells. The membrane localization of CEA limited the immunoprecipitation results and thus the number of CEA-interacting proteins identified. Only the Ras-related protein Rab-6B and lysozyme C were identified as CEA-interacting proteins in LoVo and SNU-81 cells, respectively. Lysozyme C was detected only in SNU-81, and CEA expression was differently regulated in two cell lines; it was down-regulated in LoVo but up-regulated in SNU-81 in radiation dosage-dependent manner. CEA-mediated radiation response appears to vary, depending on the characteristics of individual cancer cells. The lysozyme C and Rab subfamily proteins may play a role in the link between CEA and tumor response to radiation, although further studies are needed to clarify functional roles of the identified proteins.

  12. Identification of CEA-interacting proteins in colon cancer cells and their changes in expression after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byong Chul; Yeo, Seung Gu

    2017-01-01

    The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level has been recognized as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, and associated with response of rectal cancer to radiotherapy. This study aimed to identify CEA-interacting proteins in colon cancer cells and observe post-irradiation changes in their expression. CEA expression in colon cancer cells was examined by Western blot analysis. Using an anti-CEA antibody or IgG as a negative control, immunoprecipitation was performed in colon cancer cell lysates. CEA and IgG immunoprecipitates were used for liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Proteins identified in the CEA immunoprecipitates but not in the IgG immunoprecipitates were selected as CEA-interacting proteins. After radiation treatment, changes in expression of CEA-interacting proteins were monitored by Western blot analysis. CEA expression was higher in SNU-81 cells compared with LoVo cells. The membrane localization of CEA limited the immunoprecipitation results and thus the number of CEA-interacting proteins identified. Only the Ras-related protein Rab-6B and lysozyme C were identified as CEA-interacting proteins in LoVo and SNU-81 cells, respectively. Lysozyme C was detected only in SNU-81, and CEA expression was differently regulated in two cell lines; it was down-regulated in LoVo but up-regulated in SNU-81 in radiation dosage-dependent manner. CEA-mediated radiation response appears to vary, depending on the characteristics of individual cancer cells. The lysozyme C and Rab subfamily proteins may play a role in the link between CEA and tumor response to radiation, although further studies are needed to clarify functional roles of the identified proteins

  13. Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Allergies in the Anthropocene: Abundance, Interaction, and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Kampf, Christopher J; Lucas, Kurt; Lang-Yona, Naama; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Lakey, Pascale S J; Lai, Senchao; Liu, Fobang; Kunert, Anna T; Ziegler, Kira; Shen, Fangxia; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Weber, Bettina; Bellinghausen, Iris; Saloga, Joachim; Weller, Michael G; Duschl, Albert; Schuppan, Detlef; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2017-04-18

    Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, climate change, allergens, adjuvants and the immune system, addressing how these interactions may promote the development of allergies. We reviewed and synthesized key findings from atmospheric, climate, and biomedical research. The current state of knowledge, open questions, and future research perspectives are outlined and discussed. The Anthropocene, as the present era of globally pervasive anthropogenic influence on planet Earth and, thus, on the human environment, is characterized by a strong increase of carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and combustion- or traffic-related particulate matter in the atmosphere. These environmental factors can enhance the abundance and induce chemical modifications of allergens, increase oxidative stress in the human body, and skew the immune system toward allergic reactions. In particular, air pollutants can act as adjuvants and alter the immunogenicity of allergenic proteins, while climate change affects the atmospheric abundance and human exposure to bioaerosols and aeroallergens. To fully understand and effectively mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution and climate change on allergic diseases, several challenges remain to be resolved. Among these are the identification and quantification of immunochemical reaction pathways involving allergens and adjuvants under relevant environmental and physiological conditions.

  14. Analyzing Katana referral hospital as a complex adaptive system: agents, interactions and adaptation to a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemere, Hermès; Ribesse, Nathalie; Marchal, Bruno; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the adaptation of Katana referral hospital in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in a changing environment that is affected for more than a decade by intermittent armed conflicts. His objective is to generate theoretical proposals for addressing differently the analysis of hospitals governance in the aims to assess their performance and how to improve that performance. The methodology applied approach uses a case study using mixed methods ( qualitative and quantitative) for data collection. It uses (1) hospital data to measure the output of hospitals, (2) literature review to identify among others, events and interventions recorded in the history of hospital during the study period and (3) information from individual interviews to validate the interpretation of the results of the previous two sources of data and understand the responsiveness of management team referral hospital during times of change. The study brings four theoretical propositions: (1) Interaction between key agents is a positive force driving adaptation if the actors share a same vision, (2) The strength of the interaction between agents is largely based on the nature of institutional arrangements, which in turn are shaped by the actors themselves, (3) The owner and the management team play a decisive role in the implementation of effective institutional arrangements and establishment of positive interactions between agents, (4) The analysis of recipient population's perception of health services provided allow to better tailor and adapt the health services offer to the population's needs and expectations. Research shows that it isn't enough just to provide support (financial and technical), to manage a hospital for operate and adapt to a changing environment but must still animate, considering that it is a complex adaptive system and that this animation is nothing other than the induction of a positive interaction between agents.

  15. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry “unstable across time” subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities. PMID:25132830

  16. Cognition-emotion interactions: Patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eTrezise

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry unstable across time subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone to account for differences in problem solving abilities.

  17. Climate change: Potential impacts and interactions in wetlands of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia; Kusler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Wetlands exist in a transition zone between aquatic and terrestrial environments which can be altered by subtle changes in hydrology. Twentieth century climate records show that the United States is generally experiencing a trend towards a wetter, warmer climate; some climate models suggest that his trend will continue and possibly intensify over the next 100 years. Wetlands that are most likely to be affected by these and other potential changes (e.g., sea-level rise) associated with atmospheric carbon enrichment include permafrost wetlands, coastal and estuarine wetlands, peatlands, alpine wetlands, and prairie pothote wetlands. Potential impacts range from changes in community structure to changes in ecological function, and from extirpation to enhancement. Wetlands (particularly boreal peatlands) play an important role in the global carbon cycle, generally sequestering carbon in the form of biomass, methane, dissolved organic material and organic sediment. Wetlands that are drained or partially dried can become a net source of methane and carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, serving as a positive biotic feedback to global warming. Policy options for minimizing the adverse impacts of climate change on wetland ecosystems include the reduction of current anthropogenic stresses, allowing for inland migration of coastal wetlands as sea-level rises, active management to preserve wetland hydrology, and a wide range of other management and restoration options.

  18. Complex interactions among climate change, sanitation, and groundwater quality: A case study from Ramotswa, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, B. M.; Altchenko, Y.; Kenabatho, P. K.; Sylvester, S. R.; Villholth, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    With population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change, groundwater is becoming an increasingly important source of drinking water around the world, including southern Africa. This is an investigation into the coupled human and natural system linking climate change, droughts, sanitation, and groundwater quality in Ramotswa, a town in the semi-arid southeastern Botswana. During the recent drought from 2013-2016, water shortages from reservoirs that supply the larger city of Gaborone resulted in curtailed water supply to Ramotswa, forcing people with flush toilets to use pit latrines. Pit latrines have been suspected as the cause of elevated nitrate in the Ramotswa groundwater, which also contributes to the town's drinking water supply. The groundwater pollution paradoxically makes Ramotswa dependent on Gaborone's water, supplied in large part by surface reservoirs, which are vulnerable to drought. Analysis of long-term rainfall records indicates that droughts like the one in 2013-2016 are increasing in likelihood due to climate change. Because of the drought, many more people used pit latrines than under normal conditions. Analysis of the groundwater for nitrate and using caffeine as an indicator, human waste leaching from pit latrines is implicated as the major culprit for the nitrate pollution. The results indicate a critical indirect linkage between climate change, sanitation, groundwater quality and water security in this area of rapid urbanization and population growth. Recommendations are offered for how Ramotswa's water security could be made less vulnerable to climate change.

  19. Conformational change results in loss of enzymatic activity of jack bean urease on its interaction with silver nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuvel, Shobana; Subramanian, Balakumar; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2015-10-01

    Urease is an enzyme produced by microbes such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. Plants also produce this enzyme. Urease action splits urea into ammonia and carbamate. This action is having important implications in agro-chemical, medicinal and environment. Therefore there is always a constant search for new and novel compounds which could inhibit this enzyme. Here we have studied the interaction of jack bean urease (JBU) with silver nanoparticle to analyze the influence of the resultant protein corona formation on the catalytic property of JBU. Several techniques like UV-Vis, gel shift assay and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize this interaction. Urease activity assay suggests that the protein corona formation inhibits the enzymatic action of JBU. The loss of enzymatic action could be either due to the nanoparticle blocking the active site of JBU or a conformational change in the protein. The CD spectra of JBU-AgNP complexes clearly revealed significant changes in the secondary structural composition of the JBU and this could be the reason for the loss of enzymatic activity of JBU. This study revealed an interesting observation, where the interaction of AgNP with JBU resulted destabilization of hexameric nature of JBU which is otherwise highly stable. The results of the present study could be useful in the development of nanoparticle based material for inhibiting the ureolytic activity of ureases in different fields.

  20. Changes in the interaction of resting-state neural networks from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2009-08-01

    This study examined how the mutual interactions of functionally integrated neural networks during resting-state fMRI differed between adolescence and adulthood. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify functionally connected neural networks in 100 healthy participants aged 12-30 years. Hemodynamic timecourses that represented integrated neural network activity were analyzed with tools that quantified system "causal density" estimates, which indexed the proportion of significant Granger causality relationships among system nodes. Mutual influences among networks decreased with age, likely reflecting stronger within-network connectivity and more efficient between-network influences with greater development. Supplemental tests showed that this normative age-related reduction in causal density was accompanied by fewer significant connections to and from each network, regional increases in the strength of functional integration within networks, and age-related reductions in the strength of numerous specific system interactions. The latter included paths between lateral prefrontal-parietal circuits and "default mode" networks. These results contribute to an emerging understanding that activity in widely distributed networks thought to underlie complex cognition influences activity in other networks. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Structural changes and intermolecular interactions of filled ice Ic structure for hydrogen hydrate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S; Hirai, H; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, T

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure experiments of hydrogen hydrate were performed using a diamond anvil cell under conditions of 0.1-44.2 GPa and at room temperature. Also, high pressure Raman studies of solid hydrogen were performed in the pressure range of 0.1-43.7 GPa. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for hydrogen hydrate revealed that a known high-pressure structure, filled ice Ic structure, of hydrogen hydrate transformed to a new high-pressure structure at approximately 35-40 GPa. A comparison of the Raman spectroscopy of a vibron for hydrogen molecules between hydrogen hydrate and solid hydrogen revealed that the extraction of hydrogen molecules from hydrogen hydrate occurred above 20 GPa. Also, the Raman spectra of a roton revealed that the rotation of hydrogen molecules in hydrogen hydrate was suppressed at around 20 GPa and that the rotation recovered under higher pressure. These results indicated that remarkable intermolecular interactions in hydrogen hydrate between neighboring hydrogen molecules and between guest hydrogen molecules and host water molecules might occur. These intermolecular interactions could produce the stability of hydrogen hydrate.

  2. Computational Analysis of Molecular Interaction Networks Underlying Change of HIV-1 Resistance to Selected Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierczak, Marcin; Dramiński, Michał; Koronacki, Jacek; Komorowski, Jan

    2010-12-12

    Despite more than two decades of research, HIV resistance to drugs remains a serious obstacle in developing efficient AIDS treatments. Several computational methods have been developed to predict resistance level from the sequence of viral proteins such as reverse transcriptase (RT) or protease. These methods, while powerful and accurate, give very little insight into the molecular interactions that underly acquisition of drug resistance/hypersusceptibility. Here, we attempt at filling this gap by using our Monte Carlo feature selection and interdependency discovery method (MCFS-ID) to elucidate molecular interaction networks that characterize viral strains with altered drug resistance levels. We analyzed a number of HIV-1 RT sequences annotated with drug resistance level using the MCFS-ID method. This let us expound interdependency networks that characterize change of drug resistance to six selected RT inhibitors: Abacavir, Lamivudine, Stavudine, Zidovudine, Tenofovir and Nevirapine. The networks consider interdependencies at the level of physicochemical properties of mutating amino acids, eg,: polarity. We mapped each network on the 3D structure of RT in attempt to understand the molecular meaning of interacting pairs. The discovered interactions describe several known drug resistance mechanisms and, importantly, some previously unidentified ones. Our approach can be easily applied to a whole range of problems from the domain of protein engineering. A portable Java implementation of our MCFS-ID method is freely available for academic users and can be obtained at: http://www.ipipan.eu/staff/m.draminski/software.htm.

  3. Driver Behavioral Changes through Interactions with an Automatic Brake System for Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper discusses driver's behavioral changes as a result of driver's use of an automatic brake system for preventing a rear-end collision from occurring. Three types of automatic brake systems are investigated in this study. Type 1 brake system applies a strong automatic brake when a collision is very imminent. Type 2 brake system initiates brake operation softly when a rear-end crash may be anticipated. Types 1 and 2 are for avoidance of a collision. Type 3 brake system, on the other hand, applies a strong automatic brake to reduce the damage when a collision can not be avoided. An experiment was conducted with a driving simulator in order to analyze the driver's possible behavioral changes. The results showed that the time headway (THW) during car following phase was reduced by use of an automatic brake system of any type. The inverse of time to collision (TTC), which is an index of the driver's brake timing, increased by use of Type 1 brake system when the deceleration rate of the lead vehicle was relatively low. However, the brake timing did not change when the drivers used Type 2 or 3 brake system. As a whole, dangerous behavioral changes, such as overreliance on a brake system, were not observed for either type of brake system.

  4. Interactions of changing climate and shifts in forest composition on stand carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Jyh-Min; Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim Brown

    2006-01-01

    Given that climate influences forest biogeographic distribution, many researchers have created models predicting shifts in tree species range with future climate change scenarios. The objective of this study is to investigate the forest carbon consequences of shifts in stand species composition with current and future climate scenarios using such a model.

  5. Shrub-tree interactions and environmental changes drive treeline dynamics in the Subarctic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grau, O.; Ninot, J.M.; Blanco-Moreno, J.M.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Callaghan, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Treelines have drawn persistent research interest as they can respond markedly to climate. However, the mechanisms that determine tree seedling recruitment and the response of the forest-tundra ecotone to environmental changes remain poorly understood. We hypothesise that treeline tree seedling

  6. Interactions between methane and the nitrogen cycle in light of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Steenbergh, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Next to carbon dioxide, methane is the most important greenhouse gas which predominantly is released from natural wetlands and rice paddies. Climate change predictions indicate enhanced methane emission from global ecosystems under elevated CO2 and temperature. However, the extent of this positive

  7. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E.; Law, Beverly E.

    2013-01-01

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a

  8. Maternal-pup interaction disturbances induce long-lasting changes in the newborn rat pulmonary vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Yulia; Sadeghi, Sina; Pan, Jingyi; Jain, Amish; Fajardo, Andres F; McNamara, Patrick J; Belik, Jaques

    2015-11-15

    The factors accounting for the pathological maintenance of a high pulmonary vascular (PV) resistance postnatally remain elusive, but neonatal stressors may play a role in this process. Cross-fostering in the immediate neonatal period is associated with adult-onset vascular and behavioral changes, likely triggered by early-in-life stressors. In hypothesizing that fostering newborn rats induces long-lasting PV changes, we evaluated them at 14 days of age during adulthood and compared the findings with animals raised by their biological mothers. Fostering resulted in reduced maternal-pup contact time when compared with control newborns. At 2 wk of age, fostered rats exhibited reduced pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation secondary to downregulation of tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency-induced uncoupling. These changes were associated with neonatal onset-increased ANG II receptor type 1 expression, PV remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that persisted into adulthood. The pulmonary arteries of adult-fostered rats exhibited a higher contraction dose response to ANG II and thromboxane A2, the latter of which was abrogated by the oxidant scavenger Tempol. In conclusion, fostering-induced neonatal stress induces long-standing PV changes modulated via the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Reduced arctic tundra productivity linked with landform and climate change interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J.; Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Martin, Philip; McGuire, A. David

    2018-01-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems have experienced unprecedented change associated with climate warming over recent decades. Across the Pan-Arctic, vegetation productivity and surface greenness have trended positively over the period of satellite observation. However, since 2011 these trends have slowed considerably, showing signs of browning in many regions. It is unclear what factors are driving this change and which regions/landforms will be most sensitive to future browning. Here we provide evidence linking decadal patterns in arctic greening and browning with regional climate change and local permafrost-driven landscape heterogeneity. We analyzed the spatial variability of decadal-scale trends in surface greenness across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km²) using the Landsat archive (1999–2014), in combination with novel 30 m classifications of polygonal tundra and regional watersheds, finding landscape heterogeneity and regional climate change to be the most important factors controlling historical greenness trends. Browning was linked to increased temperature and precipitation, with the exception of young landforms (developed following lake drainage), which will likely continue to green. Spatiotemporal model forecasting suggests carbon uptake potential to be reduced in response to warmer and/or wetter climatic conditions, potentially increasing the net loss of carbon to the atmosphere, at a greater degree than previously expected.

  10. Bidirectional brain-gut interactions and chronic pathological changes after traumatic brain injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has complex effects on the gastrointestinal tract that are associated with TBI-related morbidity and mortality. We examined changes in mucosal barrier properties and enteric glial cell response in the gut after experimental TBI in mice, as well as effects of the enteric...

  11. Facing changes and changing faces in adolescence: a new model for investigating adolescent-specific interactions between pubertal, brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes as well as a time for the development of many social-emotional problems. These characteristics raise compelling questions about accompanying neural changes that are unique to this period of development. Here, we propose that studying adolescent-specific changes in face processing and its underlying neural circuitry provides an ideal model for addressing these questions. We also use this model to formulate new hypotheses. Specifically, pubertal hormones are likely to increase motivation to master new peer-oriented developmental tasks, which will in turn, instigate the emergence of new social/affective components of face processing. We also predict that pubertal hormones have a fundamental impact on the re-organization of neural circuitry supporting face processing and propose, in particular, that, the functional connectivity, or temporal synchrony, between regions of the face-processing network will change with the emergence of these new components of face processing in adolescence. Finally, we show how this approach will help reveal why adolescence may be a period of vulnerability in brain development and suggest how it could lead to prevention and intervention strategies that facilitate more adaptive functional interactions between regions within the broader social information processing network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Facing changes and changing faces in adolescence: A new model for investigating adolescent-specific interactions between pubertal, brain and behavioral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes as well as a time for the development of many social-emotional problems. These characteristics raise compelling questions about accompanying neural changes that are unique to this period of development. Here, we propose that studying adolescent-specific changes in face processing and its underlying neural circuitry provides an ideal model for addressing these questions. We also use this model to formulate new hypotheses. Specifically, pubertal hormones are likely to increase motivation to master new peer-oriented developmental tasks, which will in turn, instigate the emergence of new social/affective components of face processing. We also predict that pubertal hormones have a fundamental impact on the reorganization of neural circuitry supporting face processing and propose, in particular, that, the functional connectivity, or temporal synchrony, between regions of the face-processing network will change with the emergence of these new components of face processing in adolescence. Finally, we show how this approach will help reveal why adolescence may be a period of vulnerability in brain development and suggest how it could lead to prevention and intervention strategies that facilitate more adaptive functional interactions between regions within the broader social information processing network. PMID:22483070

  13. Design principles for cancer therapy guided by changes in complexity of protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekry, Sebastian; Tuszynski, Jack A; Rietman, Edward A; Lakka Klement, Giannoula

    2015-05-28

    The ever-increasing expanse of online bioinformatics data is enabling new ways to, not only explore the visualization of these data, but also to apply novel mathematical methods to extract meaningful information for clinically relevant analysis of pathways and treatment decisions. One of the methods used for computing topological characteristics of a space at different spatial resolutions is persistent homology. This concept can also be applied to network theory, and more specifically to protein-protein interaction networks, where the number of rings in an individual cancer network represents a measure of complexity. We observed a linear correlation of R = -0.55 between persistent homology and 5-year survival of patients with a variety of cancers. This relationship was used to predict the proteins within a protein-protein interaction network with the most impact on cancer progression. By re-computing the persistent homology after computationally removing an individual node (protein) from the protein-protein interaction network, we were able to evaluate whether such an inhibition would lead to improvement in patient survival. The power of this approach lied in its ability to identify the effects of inhibition of multiple proteins and in the ability to expose whether the effect of a single inhibition may be amplified by inhibition of other proteins. More importantly, we illustrate specific examples of persistent homology calculations, which correctly predict the survival benefit observed effects in clinical trials using inhibitors of the identified molecular target. We propose that computational approaches such as persistent homology may be used in the future for selection of molecular therapies in clinic. The technique uses a mathematical algorithm to evaluate the node (protein) whose inhibition has the highest potential to reduce network complexity. The greater the drop in persistent homology, the greater reduction in network complexity, and thus a larger

  14. Change of spin-wave spectrum arising from interaction of magnons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorova, L.A.; Smirnov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Variation of the proper frequency of magnons with a definite wave number k=k 1 is observed in the antiferromagnetic crystal CsMnF 3 by exciting the magnons with k=k 2 . Magnon excitation is performed parametrically by microwave pumping. The density of the parametrically excited magnons is of the order of 10 17 cm -3 . The relative variation of the proper frequency (magnon spectrum shift) is approximately 10 -5 . The variation in the proper frequency is recorded and measured on observation of transition processes in a system of parametrically excited magnons. The frequencies of magnons are 10.5 and 17.5 GHz (k 1 approximately k 2 approximately 10 5 cm -1 ) and sample temperature T=1.6 K. The amplitude of four-magnon interaction inducing the spectral shift is determined and found to be T 12 /2π approximately -10 -12 Hzxcm 3

  15. Climate-chemical interactions and effects of changing atmospheric trace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L.; Cess, R.; Hansen, J.; Isaksen, I.; Lacis, A.; Kuhn, W.; Luther, F.; Mahlman, J.; Reck, R.; Schlesinger, M.

    1992-01-01

    The problem concerning the greenhouse effects of human activities has broadened in scope from the CO 2 -climate problem to the trace gas-climate problem. The climate effects of non-CO 2 trace gases are strongly governed by interactions between chemistry, radiation, and dynamics. The authors discuss in detail the nature of the trace gas radiative heating and describe the importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and the stratosphere. They make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends for the period covering the preindustrial era to the present and for the next several decades. Non-CO 2 greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are now adding to the greenhouse effect by an amount comparable to the effect of CO 2 . The rate of decadal increase of the total greenhouse forcing is now 3-6 times greater than the mean rate for the period 1850-1960. Time-dependent calculations with a simplified one-dimensional diffusive ocean model suggest that a surface warming about 0.4-0.8 K should have occurred during 1850 to 1980. For the various trace gas scenarios considered in this study, the equilibrium surface warming for the period 1980 to 2030 ranges from 0.8 to 4.1 K. This wide range in the projected warming is due to the range in the assumed scenario as well as due to the threefold uncertainty in the sensitivity of climate models. For the 180-year period from 1850 to 2030, their analysis suggests a trace gas-induced cumulative equilibrium surface warming in the range of 1.5 to 6.1 K

  16. Energy Choices and Climate Change: A New Interactive Feature on Windows to the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Russell, R. M.; Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.; Henderson, S.; Foster, S. Q.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a new, self-paced online module to foster understanding of how choices made about energy production and energy use affect greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The module, entitled “Energy Choices and Climate Change” is available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), an extensive educational Web site used by over 20 million people each year. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change, emphasizing the climate implications of the choices we make. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” allows users to explore two different scenarios through which they make decisions about energy production or use. In the “Ruler of the World” scenario, the user is given the authority to make decisions about the mix of energy sources that will be used worldwide with the aim of reducing emissions while meeting global energy demand and monitoring costs and societal implications. In “The Joules Family” scenario, the user makes decisions about how to change the way a hypothetical family of four uses energy at home and for transportation with the aim of reducing the family’s carbon emissions and fossil fuel use while keeping costs less than long-term savings. While this module is intended for a general public audience, an associated teacher’s guide provides support for secondary educators using the module with students. Windows to the Universe is a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach. Funding for the Energy Choices and Climate Change online module was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  17. Adapting to a Changing Environment: Modeling the Interaction of Directional Selection and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation constrains the range of many species, making them unable to respond to climate change by moving. For such species to avoid extinction, they must respond with some combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. Haldane's "cost of natural selection" limits the rate of adaptation, but, although modeling has shown that in very large populations long-term adaptation can be maintained at rates substantially faster than Haldane's suggested limit, maintaining large populations is often an impossibility, so phenotypic plasticity may be crucial in enhancing the long-term survival of small populations. The potential importance of plasticity is in "buying time" for populations subject to directional environmental change: if genotypes can encompass a greater environmental range, then populations can maintain high fitness for a longer period of time. Alternatively, plasticity could be detrimental by lessening the effectiveness of natural selection in promoting genetic adaptation. Here, I modeled a directionally changing environment in which a genotype's adaptive phenotypic plasticity is centered around the environment where its fitness is highest. Plasticity broadens environmental tolerance and, provided it is not too costly, is favored by natural selection. However, a paradoxical result of the individually advantageous spread of plasticity is that, unless the adaptive trait is determined by very few loci, the long-term extinction risk of a population increases. This effect reflects a conflict between the short-term individual benefit of plasticity and a long-term detriment to population persistence, adding to the multiple threats facing small populations under conditions of climate change. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The smell of change: warming affects species interactions mediated by chemical information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sentis, Arnaud; Ramon-Portugal, F.; Brodeur, J.; Hemptinne, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2015), s. 3586-3594 ISSN 1354-1013 Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0049 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chemical communication * climate change * insects Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.12932/abstract

  19. The interaction between hippocampal GABA-B and cannabinoid receptors upon spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Alaghmandan-Motlagh, Niyousha; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have postulated functional links between GABA and cannabinoid systems in the hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible interaction between these systems in spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory consolidation in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) of NMRI mice. Assessment of the spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function was carried out in a non-associative task. The experiment comprised mice exposure to an open field containing five objects followed by the examination of their reactivity to object displacement (spatial change) and object substitution (object novelty) after three sessions of habituation. Our results showed that the post-training intraperitoneal administration of the higher dose of ACPA (0.02 mg/kg) impaired both spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions. Meanwhile, the higher dose of GABA-B receptor agonist, baclofen, impaired the spatial change memory by itself. Moreover, the post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of baclofen increased the ACPA effect on spatial change and novelty discrimination memory at a lower and higher dose, respectively. On the other hand, the lower and higher but not mid-level doses of GABA-B receptor antagonist, phaclofen, could reverse memory deficits induced by ACPA. However, phaclofen at its mid-level dose impaired the novelty discrimination memory and whereas the higher dose impaired the spatial change memory. Based on our findings, GABA-B receptors in the CA1 region appear to modulate the ACPA-induced cannabinoid CB1 signaling upon spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions.

  20. Long term mineralogical changes in salt formations due to water and brine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, H.J.; Brewitz, W.

    1996-01-01

    Four very common long term mineralogical changes in salt formations are discussed in the view of the safety considerations for underground repositories. Two of these processes, the 'Hartsalz' and 'Carnallite' dissolution were studied in two scale in situ experiments. The results are presented and compared with the results of the geochemical modelling with the computer code EQ3/6. Furthermore the reactions leading to the formation of the gypsum cap rock on the top of the Zechstein salt formations and to the polyhalitization of anhydrite are discussed. Geological field observations and mineral assemblages agree well with the results of the geochemical modelling employing the Pitzer formalism along with the Harvie, Moller and Weare database. We conclude that once the mechanisms of the chemical reactions are well understood it becomes possible to evaluate realistically whether such processes, when encountered in the repository, are still active or whether they are finished. It also becomes possible to estimate the volume changes associated with the reactions and thus the impact of these reactions on the integrity and the geomechanical stability of the salt formation. The intimate knowledge of the reaction mechanisms of the short and long term changes in the mineralogical assemblages and the associated brine chemistry is a first prerequisite for the correct evaluation of the origin of brines. Thus, it is essential for the correct assessment of the hazards which brine inflows may pose for the safety of a repository in salt formations. (authors). 8 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Supplementary Material for: Potential impact of climate-related changes is buffered by differential responses to recruitment and interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Menge, Bruce A.; Hacker, Sally D.; Freidenburg, Tess; Lubchenco, Jane; Craig, Ryan; Rilov, Gil; Noble, Mae Marjore; Richmond, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Detection of ecosystem responsiveness to climatic perturbations can provide insight into climate change consequences. Recent analyses linking phytoplankton abundance and mussel recruitment to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) revealed a paradox. Despite large increases in mussel recruitment beginning in 2000, adult mussel responses were idiosyncratic by site and intertidal zone, with no response at one long-term site, and increases in the low zone (1.5% per year) and decreases in the mid zone (1.3% per year) at the other. What are the mechanisms underlying these differential changes? Species interactions such as facilitation by barnacles and predation are potential determinants of successful mussel colonization. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed patterns of barnacle recruitment, determined if predation rate covaried with the increase in mussel recruitment, and tested facilitation interactions in a field experiment. Neither magnitude nor season of barnacle recruitment changed meaningfully with site or zone from the 1990s to the 2000s. In contrast to the relationship between NPGO and local-scale mussel recruitment, relationships between local-scale patterns of barnacle recruitment and climate indices were weak. Despite differences in rates of prey recruitment and abundance of sea stars in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, and 2007–2008, predation rates were nearly identical in experiments before, during, and after 1999–2000. The facilitation experiment showed that mussels M. trossulus only became abundant when barnacle recruitment was allowed, when abundance of barnacles reached high abundance of ∼50% cover, and when mussel recruitment was sufficiently high. Thus, in the low zone minimal changes in mussel abundance despite sharply increased recruitment rates are consistent with the hypothesis that change in adult mussel cover was buffered by the relative insensitivity of barnacle recruitment to climatic fluctuations, and a resultant lack of

  2. Effects of interactive patient smartphone support app on drug adherence and lifestyle changes in myocardial infarction patients: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nina; Bodegard, Johan; Jerström, Susanna; Åkesson, Johanna; Brorsson, Hilja; Alfredsson, Joakim; Albertsson, Per A; Karlsson, Jan-Erik; Varenhorst, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Patients with myocardial infarction (MI) seldom reach recommended targets for secondary prevention. This study evaluated a smartphone application ("app") aimed at improving treatment adherence and cardiovascular lifestyle in MI patients. Multicenter, randomized trial. A total of 174 ticagrelor-treated MI patients were randomized to either an interactive patient support tool (active group) or a simplified tool (control group) in addition to usual post-MI care. Primary end point was a composite nonadherence score measuring patient-registered ticagrelor adherence, defined as a combination of adherence failure events (2 missed doses registered in 7-day cycles) and treatment gaps (4 consecutive missed doses). Secondary end points included change in cardiovascular risk factors, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions), and patient device satisfaction (System Usability Scale). Patient mean age was 58 years, 81% were men, and 21% were current smokers. At 6 months, greater patient-registered drug adherence was achieved in the active vs the control group (nonadherence score: 16.6 vs 22.8 [P = .025]). Numerically, the active group was associated with higher degree of smoking cessation, increased physical activity, and change in quality of life; however, this did not reach statistical significance. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher in the active vs the control group (system usability score: 87.3 vs 78.1 [P = .001]). In MI patients, use of an interactive patient support tool improved patient self-reported drug adherence and may be associated with a trend toward improved cardiovascular lifestyle changes and quality of life. Use of a disease-specific interactive patient support tool may be an appreciated, simple, and promising complement to standard secondary prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [CHANGE OF CHARACTER OF INTERSYSTEMIC INTERACTIONS IN NEWBORN RAT PUPS UNDER CONDITIONS OF A DECREASE OF MOTOR ACTIVITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonov, V A; Dmitrieva, L E; Kuznetsov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of slow-wave.rhythmic components of cardiac, respiratory.and motor activity was investigated in newborn rat pups on the first day after birth under normal conditions and after pharmacological depression of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA) produced by injecting myocuran (myanesin) at low (100 mg/pg, i/p) and maximal (235 mg/pg, i/p) dosages. The data obtained allow to infer that in rat pups after birth the intersystemic interactions are realized mainly via slow-wave oscillations of about-one- and many-minute ranges whereas the rhythms of decasecond range do not play a significant role in integrative processes. Injection of miocuran at a dose causing no muscle relaxation and no inhibition of motor activity produces changes of the cardiac and respiratory rhythms as well as a transitory decrease of the magnitude of coordinate relations mediated by the rhythms of about-one- and many-minute ranges. The consequences of muscle relaxant injection were found to be more significant for intersystemic interactions with participation of the respiratory system. An increase of the dosage and, correspondingly, the total inhibition of SPMA is accompanied by reduction of the slow-wave components from the pattern of cardiac and respiratory rhythms. The cardiorespiratory interactions, more expressed in intact rat pups, are reduced in the about-one- and many-minute ranges of modulation whereas in the decasecond range of modulation they are slightly increased. Key words: early ontogenesis, intersystemic interactions, cardiac rhythm, respiration, motor activity, myocuran (myanesin).

  4. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriero, Giulia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Clarke, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    the information from European forest research/monitoring networks; the development of a new concept of forest sites for research and monitoring (Supersites); the identification of the main knowledge gaps; and the definition of priorities for forest adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment...... pollution dynamics into prospects for forest research and monitoring, with focus on the carbon, ozone, nitrogen and water budgets. The aim of this paper is to summarize scientific activities and achievements of MAFor: the creation of a meta-database for highlighting the available data and integrating...

  5. Potential changes in atmospheric chemistry in the decades ahead: Climate and biosphere interactions and feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.

    1991-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a challenging area of research where much knowledge is needed if we are to continue to survive as a species. This paper outlines research needs in the decades ahead in this key area of scientific endeavor. Highlighted are areas of research that are likely to lead to climatic and biospheric impacts and have been given little attention in the past. In particular, the possible organic transformation chemistries that may lead to chemical and physical changes in tropospheric cloud chemistries are highlighted and emphasized as an area where research is needed in the future. 22 refs.

  6. Tiny changes in local order identify the cluster formation threshold in model fluids with competing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Costa, Dino; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2017-06-14

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to carry out a thorough analysis of structural correlations arising in a relatively dense fluid of rigid spherical particles with prototype competing interactions (short-range attractive and long-range repulsive two-Yukawa model). As the attraction strength increases, we show that the local density of the fluid displays a tiny reversal of trend within specific ranges of interparticle distances, whereupon it decreases first and increases afterwards, passing through a local minimum. Particles involved in this trend display, accordingly, distinct behaviours: for a sufficiently weak attraction, they seem to contribute to the long-wave oscillations typically heralding the formation of patterns in such fluids; for a stronger attraction, after the reversal of the local density has occurred, they form an outer shell of neighbours stabilizing the existing aggregation seeds. Following the increment of attraction, precisely in correspondence of the local density reversal, the local peak developed in the structure factor at small wavevectors markedly rises, signalling-in agreement with recent structural criteria-the onset of a clustered state. A detailed cluster analysis of microscopic configurations fully validates this picture.

  7. Cost Function Network-based Design of Protein-Protein Interactions: predicting changes in binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viricel, Clément; de Givry, Simon; Schiex, Thomas; Barbe, Sophie

    2018-02-20

    Accurate and economic methods to predict change in protein binding free energy upon mutation are imperative to accelerate the design of proteins for a wide range of applications. Free energy is defined by enthalpic and entropic contributions. Following the recent progresses of Artificial Intelligence-based algorithms for guaranteed NP-hard energy optimization and partition function computation, it becomes possible to quickly compute minimum energy conformations and to reliably estimate the entropic contribution of side-chains in the change of free energy of large protein interfaces. Using guaranteed Cost Function Network algorithms, Rosetta energy functions and Dunbrack's rotamer library, we developed and assessed EasyE and JayZ, two methods for binding affinity estimation that ignore or include conformational entropic contributions on a large benchmark of binding affinity experimental measures. If both approaches outperform most established tools, we observe that side-chain conformational entropy brings little or no improvement on most systems but becomes crucial in some rare cases. as open-source Python/C ++ code at sourcesup.renater.fr/projects/easy-jayz. thomas.schiex@inra.fr and sophie.barbe@insa-toulouse.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  9. The Mechanisms of Natural Variability and its Interaction with Anthropogenic Climate Change Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallis, Geoffrey K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The project had two main components. The first concerns estimating the climate sensitivity in the presence of forcing uncertainty and natural variability. Climate sensitivity is the increase in the average surface temperature for a given increase in greenhouse gases, for example a doubling of carbon dioxide. We have provided new, probabilistic estimates of climate sensitivity using a simple climate model an the observed warming in the 20th century, in conjunction with ideas in data assimilation and parameter estimation developed in the engineering community. The estimates combine the uncertainty in the anthropogenic aerosols with the uncertainty arising because of natural variability. The second component concerns how the atmospheric circulation itself might change with anthropogenic global warming. We have shown that GCMs robustly predict an increase in the length scale of eddies, and we have also explored the dynamical mechanisms whereby there might be a shift in the latitude of the jet stream associated with anthropogenic warming. Such shifts in the jet might cause large changes in regional climate, potentially larger than the globally-averaged signal itself. We have also shown that the tropopause robustly increases in height with global warming, and that the Hadley Cell expands, and that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is correlated with the polewards movement of the mid-latitude jet.

  10. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on Structural Change and Interfacial Interaction in Rubber Composites Filled with Silica-Kaolin Hybrid Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Guan, J.; Hu, H.; Gao, H.; Zhang, L.

    2016-07-01

    A series of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber/polybutadiene rubber composites was prepared with nanometer silica and micron kaolin by a dry modification process, mechanical compounding, and mold vulcanization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural changes and interfacial interactions in composites. The results showed that the "seesaw" structure was formed particularly with the incorporation of silica particles in the preparation process, which would be beneficial to the dispersibility of fillers in the rubber matrix. The kaolinite platelets were generally arranged in directional alignment. Kaolinite with smaller particle size and low-defect structure was more stable in preparation, but kaolinite with larger particle size and high defect structure tended to change the crystal structure. The composite prepared in this research exhibited excellent mechanical and thermal properties.

  11. Interaction of fisetin with human serum albumin by fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations: binding parameters and conformational changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana; Hillebrand, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between fisetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective flavonoid, and human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by means of fluorescence (steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The formation of a 1:1 complex with a constant of about 10 5 M -1 was evidenced. Foerster's resonance energy transfer and competitive binding with site markers warfarin and ibuprofen were considered and discussed. Changes in the CD band of HSA indicate a decrease in the α-helix content upon binding. An induced CD signal for bound fisetin was observed and rationalized in terms of density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: → Fisetin-BSA system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. → Binding parameters, association constant and number of sites were estimated. → Binding site of fisetin was identified by competitive experiments. → Conformational changes in HSA and fisetin were evidenced by circular dichroism. → TDDFT calculated CD spectra supported the experimental data.

  12. Interaction of fisetin with human serum albumin by fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations: binding parameters and conformational changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania); Hillebrand, Mihaela, E-mail: mihh@gw-chimie.math.unibuc.ro [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-08-15

    The interaction between fisetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective flavonoid, and human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by means of fluorescence (steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The formation of a 1:1 complex with a constant of about 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} was evidenced. Foerster's resonance energy transfer and competitive binding with site markers warfarin and ibuprofen were considered and discussed. Changes in the CD band of HSA indicate a decrease in the {alpha}-helix content upon binding. An induced CD signal for bound fisetin was observed and rationalized in terms of density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: > Fisetin-BSA system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. > Binding parameters, association constant and number of sites were estimated. > Binding site of fisetin was identified by competitive experiments. > Conformational changes in HSA and fisetin were evidenced by circular dichroism. > TDDFT calculated CD spectra supported the experimental data.

  13. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nicole; Guo, Michael; Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-04-12

    Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our

  14. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. Objective This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine

  15. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater–surface runoff interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall–runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, 'Ernies' (control, fully forested and 'Lemon' (54% cleared are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while 'Salmon' (control, fully forested and 'Wights' (100% cleared are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall–runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii a transient stream zone store, (ii a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and

  16. How innovative ICT tools can enhance understanding of interactions between societal, hydrological and environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Borsi, I.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.; Criollo, R.; Mehl, S.; Rossetto, R.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of environmental, physical, and socioeconomic processes alter and are altered by water and by how human can affect water use. For example, a warming climate increases the chance of warm temperatures and lack of precipitation, and when combined with growing population requires understanding of impact on water resources and on all the processes related to the water budget including evapotranspiration. On this foundation, humans add engineered and social systems to control, manage, utilize, and alter our water environment for a variety of uses and through a variety of organizational and individual decisions. Some engineered systems have mixed consequences, for example groundwater helped sustain agriculture during drought periods, but then groundwater levels critically decrease with no chances to recover in some parts of the world. Innovative ICT tools have been demonstrated as a helpful tool for enhancing human understanding of the effect that societal, economical, and policy-based decisions have on the water resources and on the environment in general. Here we apply the new FREEWAT platform to demonstrate the importance of developing ad-hoc database and hydrological models to simulate different scenarios using a participatory approach. Stakeholders have been involved in data collection, database design and model development during the entire project period and discussion between researcher and stakeholders have been fostered during Focus Groups and workshops organized in many countries in Europe and beyond (including case studies in Ukraine and Africa). FREEWAT is an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and related Directives. Fourteen case studies have been considered and

  17. Impact of global changes and biotic interactions on food webs in lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Nicolas

    for irrigation leads to enhanced salinisation in many aquatic systems. A consequent disappearance of higher trophic positions (mostly fish) resulted in reduced food web complexity (paper 2). Human direct and indirect modifications, in addition to climate change, may alter the current biogeographic distribution...... and the functioning of shallow lakes, with particular emphasis on enhanced air temperatures (objective 1), salinisation (objective 2) and species invasions (objective 3). A stable isotope approach and stomach content analyses of fish were used in order to characterise the food web structure, combined with structure......, accordingly, stronger cascading effects on the lower trophic levels could be traced in the Azorean lakes. However, in contrast to expectations, no effect on the trophic position of fish was found, but the shape of the food web structure was more triangular in the (cold) Faroese lakes that were also...

  18. Water dynamics as affected by interaction with biomolecules and change of thermodynamic state: a neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orecchini, A; Paciaroni, A; Petrillo, C; Sebastiani, F; Sacchetti, F; De Francesco, A

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of water as subtly perturbed by both the interaction with biomolecules and the variation of temperature and pressure has been investigated via neutron scattering spectroscopy. A measurement of inelastic neutron scattering devoted to the study of the coherent THz dynamics of water in a water-rich mixture with DNA (hydration level of 1 g DNA/15 g D 2 O) at room temperature is reported. The DNA hydration water coherent dynamics is characterised by the presence of collective modes, whose dispersion relations are similar to those observed in bulk water. These dispersion relations are well described by the interaction model developed in the case of bulk water, and the existence of a fast sound is experimentally demonstrated. The behaviour of the collective water dynamics was complemented by studying the single-particle dynamics of bulk water along the isotherm T = 298 K in the pressure range 0.1-350 MPa by means of incoherent scattering. This experiment is an attempt to simulate the change of the water molecular arrangement due to the interaction with DNA, by increasing the pressure as the presence of the biomolecule produces an increase in the density. An anomaly is found in the behaviour of the relaxation time derived from the quasi-elastic scattering signal, which can be related to the hypothetical second critical point in water. This anomaly and the transition from slow to fast sound take place in the same Q range, thus suggesting that the two phenomena could be related at some microscopic level.

  19. How College Students' Conceptions of Newton's Second and Third Laws Change through Watching Interactive Video Vignettes: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Changing student conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been a topic of research for many years. The purpose of this study was to understand what prompted students to change or not change their incorrect conceptions of Newtons Second or Third Laws in response to an intervention, Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs), designed to…

  20. Phenotypic interactions between tree hosts and invasive forest pathogens in the light of globalization and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host–pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host–tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively. We describe how phenotypic plasticity and plastic responses to environmental shifts may become maladaptive when hosts are faced with novel pathogens. The lack of host–pathogen and environmental coevolution are aligned with two global processes currently driving forest damage: globalization and climate change, respectively. We suggest that globalization and climate change act synergistically, increasing the chances of both genotypic and phenotypic imbalances. Short moves on the same continent are more likely to be in balance than if the move is from another part of the world. We use Gremmeniella abietina outbreaks in Sweden to exemplify how host–pathogen phenotypic interactions can help to predict the impacts of specific invasive and emergent diseases. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080981

  1. Phenotypic interactions between tree hosts and invasive forest pathogens in the light of globalization and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlid, Jan; Oliva, Jonàs

    2016-12-05

    Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host-pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host-tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively. We describe how phenotypic plasticity and plastic responses to environmental shifts may become maladaptive when hosts are faced with novel pathogens. The lack of host-pathogen and environmental coevolution are aligned with two global processes currently driving forest damage: globalization and climate change, respectively. We suggest that globalization and climate change act synergistically, increasing the chances of both genotypic and phenotypic imbalances. Short moves on the same continent are more likely to be in balance than if the move is from another part of the world. We use Gremmeniella abietina outbreaks in Sweden to exemplify how host-pathogen phenotypic interactions can help to predict the impacts of specific invasive and emergent diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Verticillium dahliae-Arabidopsis Interaction Causes Changes in Gene Expression Profiles and Jasmonate Levels on Different Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Scholz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae is a soil-borne vascular pathogen that causes severe wilt symptoms in a wide range of plants. Co-culture of the fungus with Arabidopsis roots for 24 h induces many changes in the gene expression profiles of both partners, even before defense-related phytohormone levels are induced in the plant. Both partners reprogram sugar and amino acid metabolism, activate genes for signal perception and transduction, and induce defense- and stress-responsive genes. Furthermore, analysis of Arabidopsis expression profiles suggests a redirection from growth to defense. After 3 weeks, severe disease symptoms can be detected for wild-type plants while mutants impaired in jasmonate synthesis and perception perform much better. Thus, plant jasmonates have an important influence on the interaction, which is already visible at the mRNA level before hormone changes occur. The plant and fungal genes that rapidly respond to the presence of the partner might be crucial for early recognition steps and the future development of the interaction. Thus they are potential targets for the control of V. dahliae-induced wilt diseases.

  3. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  4. l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, B.; Harnafi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5-13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 AṦ are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li* colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n-->n' changing processes with large cross sections (10-100 AṦ) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔEnn'>103 cm-1). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes.

  5. Disease-toxicant interactions in manganese exposed Huntington disease mice: early changes in striatal neuron morphology and dopamine metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Madison

    Full Text Available YAC128 Huntington's disease (HD transgenic mice accumulate less manganese (Mn in the striatum relative to wild-type (WT littermates. We hypothesized that Mn and mutant Huntingtin (HTT would exhibit gene-environment interactions at the level of neurochemistry and neuronal morphology. Twelve-week-old WT and YAC128 mice were exposed to MnCl(2-4H(2O (50 mg/kg on days 0, 3 and 6. Striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN morphology, as well as levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites (which are known to be sensitive to Mn-exposure, were analyzed at 13 weeks (7 days from initial exposure and 16 weeks (28 days from initial exposure. No genotype-dependent differences in MSN morphology were apparent at 13 weeks. But at 16 weeks, a genotype effect was observed in YAC128 mice, manifested by an absence of the wild-type age-dependent increase in dendritic length and branching complexity. In addition, genotype-exposure interaction effects were observed for dendritic complexity measures as a function of distance from the soma, where only YAC128 mice were sensitive to Mn exposure. Furthermore, striatal DA levels were unaltered at 13 weeks by genotype or Mn exposure, but at 16 weeks, both Mn exposure and the HD genotype were associated with quantitatively similar reductions in DA and its metabolites. Interestingly, Mn exposure of YAC128 mice did not further decrease DA or its metabolites versus YAC128 vehicle exposed or Mn exposed WT mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate Mn-HD disease-toxicant interactions at the onset of striatal dendritic neuropathology in YAC128 mice. Our results identify the earliest pathological change in striatum of YAC128 mice as being between 13 to 16 weeks. Finally, we show that mutant HTT suppresses some Mn-dependent changes, such as decreased DA levels, while it exacerbates others, such as dendritic pathology.

  6. Changing Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions Impact Stream Chemistry and Ecology at the Arctic-Boreal Transition in Western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. C.; Carey, M.; O'Donnell, J.; Sjoberg, Y.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The arctic-boreal transition zone of Alaska is experiencing rapid change related to unprecedented warming and subsequent loss of permafrost. These changes in turn may affect groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem processes. While recent field and modeling studies have improved our understanding of hydrology in watersheds underlain by thawing permafrost, little is known about how these hydrologic shifts will impact bottom-up controls on stream food webs. To address this uncertainty, we are using an integrative experimental design to link GW-SW interactions to stream biogeochemistry and biota in 10 first-order streams in northwest Alaska. These study streams drain watersheds that span several gradients, including elevation, aspect, and vegetation (tundra vs. forest). We have developed a robust, multi-disciplinary data set to characterize GW-SW interactions and to mechanistically link GW-SW dynamics to water quality and the stream ecosystem. Data includes soil hydrology and chemistry; stream discharge, temperature, and inflow rates; water chemistry (including water isotopes, major ions, carbon concentration and isotopes, nutrients and chlorophyll-a), and invertebrate and fish communities. Stream recession curves indicate a decreasing rate later in the summer in some streams, consistent with seasonal thaw in lower elevation and south-facing catchments. Base cation and water isotope chemistry display similar impacts of seasonal thaw and also suggest the dominance of groundwater in many streams. Coupled with estimates of GW-SW exchange at point, reach, and catchment scales, these results will be used to predict how hydrology and water quality are likely to impact fish habitat and growth given continued warming at the arctic-boreal transition.

  7. Biological Interactions and Simulated Climate Change Modulates the Ecophysiological Performance of Colobanthus quitensis in the Antarctic Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Torres-Díaz

    Full Text Available Most climate and environmental change models predict significant increases in temperature and precipitation by the end of the 21st Century, for which the current functional output of certain symbioses may also be altered. In this context we address the following questions: 1 How the expected changes in abiotic factors (temperature, and water differentially affect the ecophysiological performance of the plant Colobanthus quitensis? and 2 Will this environmental change indirectly affect C. quitensis photochemical performance and biomass accumulation by modifying its association with fungal endophytes? Plants of C. quitensis from King George Island in the South Shetland archipelago (62°09' S, and Lagotellerie Island in the Antarctic Peninsula (65°53' S were put under simulated abiotic conditions in growth chambers following predictive models of global climate change (GCC. The indirect effect of GCC on the interaction between C. quitensis and fungal endophytes was assessed in a field experiment carried out in the Antarctica, in which we eliminated endophytes under contemporary conditions and applied experimental watering to simulate increased precipitation input. We measured four proxies of plant performance. First, we found that warming (+W significantly increased plant performance, however its effect tended to be less than watering (+W and combined warming and watering (+T°+W. Second, the presence of fungal endophytes improved plant performance, and its effect was significantly decreased under experimental watering. Our results indicate that both biotic and abiotic factors affect ecophysiological performance, and the directions of these influences will change with climate change. Our findings provide valuable information that will help to predict future population spread and evolution through using ecological niche models under different climatic scenarios.

  8. Biological Interactions and Simulated Climate Change Modulates the Ecophysiological Performance of Colobanthus quitensis in the Antarctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Gallardo-Cerda, Jorge; Lavin, Paris; Oses, Rómulo; Carrasco-Urra, Fernando; Atala, Cristian; Acuña-Rodríguez, Ian S.; Convey, Peter; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    Most climate and environmental change models predict significant increases in temperature and precipitation by the end of the 21st Century, for which the current functional output of certain symbioses may also be altered. In this context we address the following questions: 1) How the expected changes in abiotic factors (temperature, and water) differentially affect the ecophysiological performance of the plant Colobanthus quitensis? and 2) Will this environmental change indirectly affect C. quitensis photochemical performance and biomass accumulation by modifying its association with fungal endophytes? Plants of C. quitensis from King George Island in the South Shetland archipelago (62°09′ S), and Lagotellerie Island in the Antarctic Peninsula (65°53′ S) were put under simulated abiotic conditions in growth chambers following predictive models of global climate change (GCC). The indirect effect of GCC on the interaction between C. quitensis and fungal endophytes was assessed in a field experiment carried out in the Antarctica, in which we eliminated endophytes under contemporary conditions and applied experimental watering to simulate increased precipitation input. We measured four proxies of plant performance. First, we found that warming (+W) significantly increased plant performance, however its effect tended to be less than watering (+W) and combined warming and watering (+T°+W). Second, the presence of fungal endophytes improved plant performance, and its effect was significantly decreased under experimental watering. Our results indicate that both biotic and abiotic factors affect ecophysiological performance, and the directions of these influences will change with climate change. Our findings provide valuable information that will help to predict future population spread and evolution through using ecological niche models under different climatic scenarios. PMID:27776181

  9. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater-surface runoff interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall-runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, "Ernies" (control, fully forested) and "Lemon" (54% cleared) are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while "Salmon" (control, fully forested) and "Wights" (100% cleared) are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall-runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i) immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii) through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i) an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii) a transient stream zone store, (ii) a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv) a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and predicted

  10. [Change of character of intersystemic interactions in newborn rat pups under conditions of a decrease of central influences (urethane anesthesia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S V; Sizonov, V A; Dmitrieva, L E

    2014-01-01

    On newborn rat pups, for the first day after birth, there was studied the character of mutual influences between the slow-wave rhythmical components of the cardiac, respiratory, and motor activities reflecting interactions between the main functional systems of the developing organism. The study was carried out in norm and after pharmacological depression of the spontaneous periodical motor activity (SPMA) performed by narcotization of rat pups with urethane at low (0.5 g/kg, i/p) and maximal (1 g/kg, i/p) doses. Based on the complex of our obtained data, it is possible to conclude that after birth in rat pups the intersystemic interactions are realized mainly by the slow-wave oscillations of the near- and manyminute diapason. The correlational interactions mediated by rhythms of the decasecond diapason do not play essential role in integrative processes. Injection to the animals of urethane producing selective suppression of reaction of consciousness, but not affecting activating influences of reticular formation on cerebral cortex does not cause marked changes of autonomous parameters, but modulates structure and expression of spontaneous periodical motor activity. There occurs an essential decrease of mutual influences between motor and cardiovascular systems. In the case of preservation of motor activity bursts, a tendency for enhancement of correlational relations between the modulating rhythms of motor and somatomotor systems is observed. The cardiorespiratory interactions, more pronounced in intact rat pups in the near- and many-minute modulation diapason, under conditions of urethane, somewhat decrease, whereas the rhythmical components of the decasecond diapason--are weakly enhanced.

  11. Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eHänel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss, which occurs in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS, is an important prerequisite to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. Common workflows for visual analysis are often based on single 2D sections since in 3D visualizations more internally situated structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. The reduction of dimensions from 3D to 2D allows for an holistic view onto internal and external structures, but results in a loss of spatial information. Here, we present an application with two 3D visualization designs to resolve these challenges. First, in addition to the volume changes, the semi-transparent anatomy is displayed with an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation. Second, the principle of importance-driven volume rendering is adapted to give an unrestricted line-of-sight to relevant structures by means of a frustum-like cutout. To strengthen the benefits of the 3D visualization, we decided to provide the application next to standard desktop environments in immersive virtual environments with stereoscopic viewing as well. This improves the depth perception in general and in particular for the second design. Thus, the application presented in this work allows for aneasily comprehensible visual analysis of the extent of brain degeneration and the corresponding affected regions.

  12. Goals, styles, and decisions: changes and interactions during the first year of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galotti, Kathleen M; Clare, Lacey R

    2014-01-01

    First-year undergraduates participated in a short-term longitudinal study of goal setting and decision making over their first 14 months of college. First, students wrote a mission statement, listed their goals for the upcoming year, and filled out several individual difference style measures. In subsequent sessions, students were surveyed about different decisions pertaining to their choice of college major, course selection, housing, and summer plans. At the beginning of their second year, participants were shown their previously listed goals and surveyed about their progress, their satisfaction with their progress, and their retrospective view of their goals. Additionally, participants responded again to the individual difference measures. A moderate degree of stability was found in the individual difference measures, yet there were several significant changes over the year. Goal evaluation scores correlated with specific individual difference measures, and self-reported descriptions of reactions to how specific decisions were made, but not with behavioral measures of decision making.We speculate on ways in which stylistic measures become part of a construction of a more general narrative identity, shaped in significant ways by the college environment that selectively reinforces some analytic habits of mind.

  13. Population responses to environmental change in a tropical ant: the interaction of spatial and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Doug; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette; Philpott, Stacy M

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structure can have a profound, but often underappreciated, effect on the temporal dynamics of ecosystems. Here we report on a counterintuitive increase in the population of a tree-nesting ant, Azteca sericeasur, in response to a drastic reduction in the number of potential nesting sites. This surprising result is comprehensible when viewed in the context of the self-organized spatial dynamics of the ants and their effect on the ants' dispersal-limited natural enemies. Approximately 30% of the trees in the study site, a coffee agroecosystem in southern Mexico, were pruned or felled over a two-year period, and yet the abundance of the ant nests more than doubled over the seven-year study. Throughout the transition, the spatial distribution of the ants maintained a power-law distribution - a signal of spatial self organization - but the local clustering of the nests was reduced post-pruning. A cellular automata model incorporating the changed spatial structure of the ants and the resulting partial escape from antagonists reproduced the observed increase in abundance, highlighting how self-organized spatial dynamics can profoundly influence the responses of ecosystems to perturbations.

  14. Population responses to environmental change in a tropical ant: the interaction of spatial and temporal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Jackson

    Full Text Available Spatial structure can have a profound, but often underappreciated, effect on the temporal dynamics of ecosystems. Here we report on a counterintuitive increase in the population of a tree-nesting ant, Azteca sericeasur, in response to a drastic reduction in the number of potential nesting sites. This surprising result is comprehensible when viewed in the context of the self-organized spatial dynamics of the ants and their effect on the ants' dispersal-limited natural enemies. Approximately 30% of the trees in the study site, a coffee agroecosystem in southern Mexico, were pruned or felled over a two-year period, and yet the abundance of the ant nests more than doubled over the seven-year study. Throughout the transition, the spatial distribution of the ants maintained a power-law distribution - a signal of spatial self organization - but the local clustering of the nests was reduced post-pruning. A cellular automata model incorporating the changed spatial structure of the ants and the resulting partial escape from antagonists reproduced the observed increase in abundance, highlighting how self-organized spatial dynamics can profoundly influence the responses of ecosystems to perturbations.

  15. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a non-native predators on stream-rearing salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Butcher, Don P.; Crown, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory non-native smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and non-native species on stream-rearing salmon, and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin; we compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing Chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of Chinook salmon rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing Chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (2-4-fold increase) and greater abundance of bass. We

  16. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a nonnative predator on stream-rearing salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D; Ruesch, Aaron S; Torgersen, Christian E; Lawler, Joshua J; Butcher, Don P; Crown, Julia K

    2014-06-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use-related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory, nonnative smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams, and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and nonnative species on stream-rearing salmon and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin. We compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of chinook salmon-rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (two- to fourfold increase) and greater abundance of

  17. How College Students' Conceptions of Newton's Second and Third Laws Change Through Watching Interactive Video Vignettes: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Jonathan

    Changing student conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been a topic of research for many years. The purpose of this study was to understand what prompted students to change or not change their incorrect conceptions of Newtons Second or Third Laws in response to an intervention, Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs), designed to overcome them. This study is based on prior research reported in the literature which has found that a curricular framework of elicit, confront, resolve, and reflect (ECRR) is important for changing student conceptions (McDermott, 2001). This framework includes four essential parts such that during an instructional event student conceptions should be elicited, incorrect conceptions confronted, these conflicts resolved, and then students should be prompted to reflect on their learning. Twenty-two undergraduate student participants who completed either or both IVVs were studied to determine whether or not they experienced components of the ECRR framework at multiple points within the IVVs. A fully integrated, mixed methods design was used to address the study purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected iteratively for each participant. Successive data collections were informed by previous data collections. All data were analyzed concurrently. The quantitative strand included a pre/post test that participants took before and after completing a given IVV and was used to measure the effect of each IVV on learning. The qualitative strand included video of each participant completing the IVV as well as an audio-recorded video elicitation interview after the post-test. The qualitative data collection was designed to describe student experiences with each IVV as well as to observe how the ECRR framework was experienced. Collecting and analyzing data using this mixed methods approach helped develop a more complete understanding of how student conceptions of Newtons Second and Third Laws changed through completion of

  18. Fragmentation and thermal risks from climate change interact to affect persistence of native trout in the Colorado River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J; Fausch, Kurt D; Peterson, Douglas P; Hooten, Mevin B

    2013-05-01

    Impending changes in climate will interact with other stressors to threaten aquatic ecosystems and their biota. Native Colorado River cutthroat trout (CRCT; Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) are now relegated to 309 isolated high-elevation (>1700 m) headwater stream fragments in the Upper Colorado River Basin, owing to past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss. Predicted changes in climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and resulting changes in stochastic physical disturbances (i.e., wildfire, debris flow, and channel drying and freezing) could further threaten the remaining CRCT populations. We developed an empirical model to predict stream temperatures at the fragment scale from downscaled climate projections along with geomorphic and landscape variables. We coupled these spatially explicit predictions of stream temperature with a Bayesian Network (BN) model that integrates stochastic risks from fragmentation to project persistence of CRCT populations across the upper Colorado River basin to 2040 and 2080. Overall, none of the populations are at risk from acute mortality resulting from high temperatures during the warmest summer period. In contrast, only 37% of populations have a ≥90% chance of persistence for 70 years (similar to the typical benchmark for conservation), primarily owing to fragmentation. Populations in short stream fragments <7 km long, and those at the lowest elevations, are at the highest risk of extirpation. Therefore, interactions of stochastic disturbances with fragmentation are projected to be greater threats than warming for CRCT populations. The reason for this paradox is that past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss have restricted most CRCT populations to high-elevation stream fragments that are buffered from the potential consequences of warming, but at risk of extirpation from stochastic events. The greatest conservation need is for management to increase fragment lengths to forestall these risks. © 2013

  19. Stream-Groundwater Interaction Buffers Seasonal Changes in Urban Stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    increased to around 0.58 mg N/L, but were still lower than the connected reach, which averaged 0.88 mg N/L. Groundwater discharge rates were measured longitudinally along the creek during a constant rate Rhodamine WT injection and also confirmed qualitatively by longitudinal changes in stream sulfate and δ18O. The buffering capability of groundwater discharge in urban systems has implications for managers trying to mitigate the effects of urbanization on surface water.

  20. Review of scientific linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientific understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due...

  1. Development and Implementation of an Interactive Text Messaging Campaign to Support Behavior Change in a Childhood Obesity Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah; Ferisin, Stephanie; Sharifi, Mona; Steinberg, David; Bennett, Gary; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Horan, Christine; Koziol, Renata; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging is a promising means of intervening on an array of health issues among varied populations, but little has been published about the development of such interventions. The authors describe the development and implementation of an interactive text messaging campaign for parents to support behavior change among children in a childhood obesity randomized controlled trial. The authors invited 160 parents to participate in a text messaging intervention that provided behavior change support in conjunction with health coaching phone calls and mailed materials on behavioral goals. Throughout the 1-year intervention, the authors sent 1-2 text messages per week. The first asked how the child did with a target behavior the day before; parents who replied received an immediate feedback message tailored to their response. The second included a tip about how to work toward a behavioral goal. Baseline surveys indicate that text messaging is a common means of communication for parents, and many are willing to use text messaging to support behavior change for their child. Results at 1 year indicate a high level of engagement with the text messaging intervention, with nearly two thirds responding to 75% or more of the questions they were sent by text.

  2. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  3. A retrospective study on changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after moving to a walkable community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lee, Chanam; Lu, Zhipeng; Mann, George

    2014-12-01

    This study is to examine changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after they moved to a walkable community in Austin, Texas. Retrospective surveys (N=449) were administered in 2013-2014 to collect pre- and post-move data about the outcome variables and relevant personal, social, and physical environmental factors. Walkability of each resident's pre-move community was measured using the Walk Score. T tests were used to examine the pre-post move differences in the outcomes in the whole sample and across sub-groups with different physical activity levels, neighborhood conditions, and neighborhood preferences before the move. After the move, total physical activity increased significantly in the whole sample and all sub-groups except those who were previously sufficiently active; lived in communities with high walkability, social interactions, or neighborhood cohesion; or had moderate preference for walkable neighborhoods. Walking in the community increased in the whole sample and all subgroups except those who were previously sufficiently active, moved from high-walkability communities, or had little to no preference for walkable neighborhoods. Social interactions and neighborhood cohesion increased significantly after the move in the whole sample and all sub-groups. This study explored potential health benefits of a walkable community in promoting physically and socially active lifestyles, especially for populations at higher risk of obesity. The initial result is promising, suggesting the need for more work to further examine the relationships between health and community design using pre-post assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  5. Changes in future air quality, deposition, and aerosol-cloud interactions under future climate and emission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang; Karamchandani, Prakash; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    treatment of GU-WRF/Chem and cannot simulate the impacts of changing climate and emissions with the same level of detailed treatments. This study indicates that effective climate mitigation and emission control strategies are needed to prevent future health impact and ecosystem stress. Further, studies that are used to develop these strategies should use fully coupled models with sophisticated chemical and aerosol-interaction treatments that can provide a more realistic representation of the atmosphere.

  6. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  7. Critical Role of Interdomain Interactions in the Conformational Change and Catalytic Mechanism of Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamogiannos, Athanasios; Maben, Zachary; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Mpakali, Anastasia; Kokkala, Paraskevi; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Stern, Lawrence J; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2017-03-14

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that is important for the generation of antigenic epitopes and major histocompatibility class I-restricted adaptive immune responses. ERAP1 processes a vast variety of different peptides but still shows length and sequence selectivity, although the mechanism behind these properties is poorly understood. X-ray crystallographic analysis has revealed that ERAP1 can assume at least two distinct conformations in which C-terminal domain IV is either proximal or distal to active site domain II. To improve our understanding of the role of this conformational change in the catalytic mechanism of ERAP1, we used site-directed mutagenesis to perturb key salt bridges between domains II and IV. Enzymatic analysis revealed that these mutations, although located away from the catalytic site, greatly reduce the catalytic efficiency and change the allosteric kinetic behavior. The variants were more efficiently activated by small peptides and bound a competitive inhibitor with weaker affinity and faster dissociation kinetics. Molecular dynamics analysis suggested that the mutations affect the conformational distribution of ERAP1, reducing the population of closed states. Small-angle X-ray scattering indicated that both the wild type and the ERAP1 variants are predominantly in an open conformational state in solution. Overall, our findings suggest that electrostatic interactions between domains II and IV in ERAP1 are crucial for driving a conformational change that regulates the structural integrity of the catalytic site. The extent of domain opening in ERAP1 probably underlies its specialization for antigenic peptide precursors and should be taken into account in inhibitor development efforts.

  8. Alteration of host-pathogen interactions in the wake of climate change - Increasing risk for shellfish associated infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, Bodil E; Baden, Susanne P

    2018-02-01

    The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Communicating Ocean Acidification and Climate Change to Public Audiences Using Scientific Data, Interactive Exploration Tools, and Visual Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Rossiter, A.; Spitzer, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploratorium, a hands-on science museum, explores local environmental conditions of San Francisco Bay to connect audiences to the larger global implications of ocean acidification and climate change. The work is centered in the Fisher Bay Observatory at Pier 15, a glass-walled gallery sited for explorations of urban San Francisco and the Bay. Interactive exhibits, high-resolution data visualizations, and mediated activities and conversations communicate to public audiences the impacts of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ocean. Through a 10-year education partnership with NOAA and two environmental literacy grants funded by its Office of Education, the Exploratorium has been part of two distinct but complementary strategies to increase climate literacy beyond traditional classroom settings. We will discuss two projects that address the ways complex scientific information can be transformed into learning opportunities for the public, providing information citizens can use for decision-making in their personal lives and their communities. The Visualizing Change project developed "visual narratives" that combine scientific visualizations and other images with story telling about the science and potential solutions of climate impacts on the ocean. The narratives were designed to engage curiosity and provide the public with hopeful and useful information to stimulate solutions-oriented behavior rather than to communicate despair about climate change. Training workshops for aquarium and museum docents prepare informal educators to use the narratives and help them frame productive conversations with the pubic. The Carbon Networks project, led by the Exploratorium, uses local and Pacific Rim data to explore the current state of climate change and ocean acidification. The Exploratorium collects and displays local ocean and atmosphere data as a member of the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System and as an observing station for NOAA's Pacific

  10. Interactions between nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, and climate change determine the contemporary carbon balance of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Zaehle, S.; Hughes, J.; Viovy, N.; Chen, Y.; Jung, M.; Heumann, B. W.; Ramankutty, N.; Heimann, M.; Jones, C.

    2010-09-01

    European ecosystems are thought to take up large amounts of carbon, but neither the rate nor the contributions of the underlying processes are well known. In the second half of the 20th century, carbon dioxide concentrations have risen by more that 100 ppm, atmospheric nitrogen deposition has more than doubled, and European mean temperatures were increasing by 0.02 °C yr-1. The extents of forest and grasslands have increased with the respective rates of 5800 km2 yr-1 and 1100 km2 yr-1 as agricultural land has been abandoned at a rate of 7000 km2 yr-1. In this study, we analyze the responses of European land ecosystems to the aforementioned environmental changes using results from four process-based ecosystem models: BIOME-BGC, JULES, ORCHIDEE, and O-CN. The models suggest that European ecosystems sequester carbon at a rate of 56 TgC yr-1 (mean of four models for 1951-2000) with strong interannual variability (±88 TgC yr-1, average across models) and substantial inter-model uncertainty (±39 TgC yr-1). Decadal budgets suggest that there has been a continuous increase in the mean net carbon storage of ecosystems from 85 TgC yr-1 in 1980s to 108 TgC yr-1 in 1990s, and to 114 TgC yr-1 in 2000-2007. The physiological effect of rising CO2 in combination with nitrogen deposition and forest re-growth have been identified as the important explanatory factors for this net carbon storage. Changes in the growth of woody vegetation are suggested as an important contributor to the European carbon sink. Simulated ecosystem responses were more consistent for the two models accounting for terrestrial carbon-nitrogen dynamics than for the two models which only accounted for carbon cycling and the effects of land cover change. Studies of the interactions of carbon-nitrogen dynamics with land use changes are needed to further improve the quantitative understanding of the driving forces of the European land carbon balance.

  11. Interactions between nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, and climate change determine the contemporary carbon balance of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Churkina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available European ecosystems are thought to take up large amounts of carbon, but neither the rate nor the contributions of the underlying processes are well known. In the second half of the 20th century, carbon dioxide concentrations have risen by more that 100 ppm, atmospheric nitrogen deposition has more than doubled, and European mean temperatures were increasing by 0.02 °C yr−1. The extents of forest and grasslands have increased with the respective rates of 5800 km2 yr−1 and 1100 km2 yr−1 as agricultural land has been abandoned at a rate of 7000 km2 yr−1. In this study, we analyze the responses of European land ecosystems to the aforementioned environmental changes using results from four process-based ecosystem models: BIOME-BGC, JULES, ORCHIDEE, and O-CN. The models suggest that European ecosystems sequester carbon at a rate of 56 TgC yr−1 (mean of four models for 1951–2000 with strong interannual variability (±88 TgC yr−1, average across models and substantial inter-model uncertainty (±39 TgC yr−1. Decadal budgets suggest that there has been a continuous increase in the mean net carbon storage of ecosystems from 85 TgC yr−1 in 1980s to 108 TgC yr−1 in 1990s, and to 114 TgC yr−1 in 2000–2007. The physiological effect of rising CO2 in combination with nitrogen deposition and forest re-growth have been identified as the important explanatory factors for this net carbon storage. Changes in the growth of woody vegetation are suggested as an important contributor to the European carbon sink. Simulated ecosystem responses were more consistent for the two models accounting for terrestrial carbon-nitrogen dynamics than for the two models which only accounted for carbon cycling and the effects of land cover change. Studies of the interactions of carbon-nitrogen dynamics with

  12. Long-term dynamics emerging in floodplains and deltas from the interactions between hydrology and society in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-05-01

    Economic losses and fatalities associated to flood events have increased dramatically over the past decades. This situation might worsen in the near future because of rapid urbanization of many floodplains and deltas, along with enhancement of flood water levels as a result of human interventions, climate variability or sea level rise. To explore future dynamics, we developed a novel approach, which takes into account the dynamic nature of flood risk by an explicit treatment of the interactions and feedbacks between the hydrological and social components of flood risk (i.e. probability of flooding, and potential adverse consequences). In particular, we developed a socio-hydrological model that allows considering how the frequency and magnitude of flooding shapes the evolution of societies, while, at the same time, dynamic societies shape the frequency and magnitude of flooding. We then use this model to simulate long-term dynamics of different types of societies under hydrological change, e.g. increasing flood frequency. Based on the study of long-term dynamics of different floodplains and deltas around the world (e.g. Netherlands, Bangladesh), we identify two main typologies of flood-shaped societies: i) techno-societies, which "fight floods", and typically deal with risk by building and strengthening flood protection structures, such as levees or dikes; and ii) green-societies, which "lives with floods", and mainly cope with risk via adaptation measures, such as resettling out of flood prone areas. The outcomes of this study are relevant for the management of deltas and floodplains as they allow a comparison of long-term dynamics between diverse types of societies in terms of robustness to hydrological change.

  13. Research on changes of nitrate by interactions with metals under the wastes disposal environment containing TRU nuclide. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ryutaro; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Imakita, Tsuyoshi; Tateishi, Tsuyoshi

    2004-02-01

    In TRU wastes, wastes containing nitrate ion as salt exist. In the disposal site environment, this nitrate ion changes into nitrite ion, ammonia, etc., and possibly affects disposal site environmental changes or nuclide migration parameters. In the present research, evaluation was carried out on the chemical interaction between nitrate ion and carbon steel, which is primary reducing agent, under the low-oxygen conditions simulating a disposal site. (1) In the electrochemical test, test data were generated in order to supplement influence parameters required for improvement of the accuracy of the nitrate reaction model (NEON). As the results, it was found that the influence of potential and pH is remarkable, also that of initial nitrate concentration is significant, while the temperature is not remarkable to the nitrate and nitrite reaction themselves. Besides, it was found that the difference in the surface condition of the electrodes is not remarkable. (2) Several long-term reaction tests were carried out to assume the effects of important parameters on the nitrate behavior with carbon steel under low-oxygen high-alkaline type simulated groundwater conditions using glass sealed apparatus (ampoule tests). As the results, it was found that initial nitrate ion concentration and temperature causes the increase of hydrogen generation as well as ammonia generation, while it was found that the difference of carbon steel composition doesn't affect significantly. (3) The parameter fitting NEON was reexamined to improve accuracy, gathering data of electrochemical tests and ampoule tests conducted in 2003 and 2000 through 2002. In addition by comparing the calculation results with experimental results, applicability of NEON was investigated. (4) Implementation of NEON to the mass transfer calculation code was carried out in order to enable the calculation of the nitrate ion behavior including incomings and outgoings of substance to and from the system, resulting in the

  14. Looking at Organizational Change Through the Construction and Reconstruction of the Underpinning Values of the Organization Through Interactions Among Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli dos Santos Leitão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper attempts to understand how the stakeholders in an organization - which strives to achieve goals that are sometimes in conflict - construct and reconstruct (through their interactions their beliefs (values related to organizational competition and habits of action (practices. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative single case study was conducted at a tax consulting firm in the service sector in Brazil, with ongoing organizational change. The firm seeks to find an even balance between fostering human and social development and financial earnings. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted with the founder, employees, customers and suppliers, in addition to nonparticipant observation, naturally occurring discussions, and documents. Findings – The analysis of the discursive materials showed that organizational practices reflect values formed over several years through the paradoxical tension between the world views of the founder on how the business world actually is and how it should be. The value of “coherence between what is said and what is done” permeated several reflexivity practices, when decisions were taken and the reasons underpinning them were discussed by management and employees, in pursuit of the goals initially proposed. Practical implications – This research contributes to wider-ranging reflections on the competitive world of organizations dealing with the challenges that face them, extending beyond social responsibility. It also illustrates that reflexivity may be particularly helpful in other forprofit organizations, particularly those focused on social innovation. Originality/value – This study promotes a discussion of change as a continuous process, grounded on a differentiated approach to organizational values, highlighting the emerging characteristics of organizational becoming.

  15. Structural changes induced by lattice-electron interactions: SiO2 stishovite and FeTiO3 ilmenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takamitsu

    2005-09-01

    The bright source and highly collimated beam of synchrotron radiation offers many advantages for single-crystal structure analysis under non-ambient conditions. The structure changes induced by the lattice-electron interaction under high pressure have been investigated using a diamond anvil pressure cell. The pressure dependence of electron density distributions around atoms is elucidated by a single-crystal diffraction study using deformation electron density analysis and the maximum entropy method. In order to understand the bonding electrons under pressure, diffraction intensity measurements of FeTiO3 ilmenite and gamma-SiO2 stishovite single crystals at high pressures were made using synchrotron radiation. Both diffraction studies describe the electron density distribution including bonding electrons and provide the effective charge of the cations. In both cases the valence electrons are more localized around the cations with increasing pressure. This is consistent with molecular orbital calculations, proving that the bonding electron density becomes smaller with pressure. The thermal displacement parameters of both samples are reduced with increasing pressure.

  16. Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21. century simulations with interactive carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, L.R.; Brovkin, V.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.; Arora, V.K.; Cadule, P.; Noblet-Ducoudre, N. de; Kato, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-geophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO 2 simulations for the 21. century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC), contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, Identification of robust impacts (LUCID) project. Over the period 2006-2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO 2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between -0.47 and 0.10 K). Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO 2 -fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly) and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC. (authors)

  17. Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Boysen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogeophysical (BGP and biogeochemical (BGC effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC, contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID project. Over the period 2006–2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between −0.47 and 0.10 K. Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.

  18. HVDC-System-Interaction Assessment through Line-Flow Change-Distribution Factor and Transient-Stability Analysis at Planning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Hwang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the recent projects for new transmission line have considered the high-voltage direct current (HVDC system, owing to the many advantages of the direct current (DC system. The most noteworthy advantage is that a cable can serve as a substitute for the overhead transmission line in residential areas; therefore, the HVDC system application is increasing, and as the number of DC systems in the power system increases, the interaction assessment regarding the HVDC system gains importance. An index named multi-infeed interaction factor (MIIF is commonly used to estimate the interaction between power converters; however, the HVDC system is composed of two converters and a transmission line. The MIIF represents the interaction between the rectifiers and inverters, but not for the whole system. In this work, a method to assess the interaction of the whole system was therefore studied. To decide on the location of the new HVDC transmission system at the planning stage, in consideration of the interaction of the existing DC system, the line flow change distribution factor, according to the HVDC-transmission capacity change, was examined. Also, a power system transient -stability analysis was performed with different HVDC system locations, depending on the distribution factor. The simulation results indicate that when the factor is higher, two HVDC systems have a stronger interaction and are less stable in the transient state.

  19. Impacts of Interactive Stratospheric Chemistry on Antarctic and Southern Ocean Climate Change in the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Vikhliaev, Yury V.; Newman, Paul A.; Pawson, Steven; Perlwitz, Judith; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2016-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion plays a major role in driving climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. To date, many climate models prescribe the stratospheric ozone layer's evolution using monthly and zonally averaged ozone fields. However, the prescribed ozone underestimates Antarctic ozone depletion and lacks zonal asymmetries. In this study we investigate the impact of using interactive stratospheric chemistry instead of prescribed ozone on climate change simulations of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. Two sets of 1960-2010 ensemble transient simulations are conducted with the coupled ocean version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5: one with interactive stratospheric chemistry and the other with prescribed ozone derived from the same interactive simulations. The model's climatology is evaluated using observations and reanalysis. Comparison of the 1979-2010 climate trends between these two simulations reveals that interactive chemistry has important effects on climate change not only in the Antarctic stratosphere, troposphere, and surface, but also in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice. Interactive chemistry causes stronger Antarctic lower stratosphere cooling and circumpolar westerly acceleration during November-December-January. It enhances stratosphere-troposphere coupling and leads to significantly larger tropospheric and surface westerly changes. The significantly stronger surface wind stress trends cause larger increases of the Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation, leading to year-round stronger ocean warming near the surface and enhanced Antarctic sea ice decrease.

  20. Changes in the mechanical environment of stenotic arteries during interaction with stents: computational assessment of parametric stent designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Stadler, Michael; Gasser, Thomas C

    2005-02-01

    Clinical studies have identified factors such as the stent design and the deployment technique that are one cause for the success or failure of angioplasty treatments. In addition, the success rate may also depend on the stenosis type. Hence, for a particular stenotic artery, the optimal intervention can only be identified by studying the influence of factors such as stent type, strut thickness, geometry of the stent cell, and stent-artery radial mismatch with the wall. We propose a methodology that allows a set of stent parameters to be varied, with the aim of evaluating the difference in the mechanical environment within the wall before and after angioplasty with stenting. Novel scalar quantities attempt to characterize the wall changes inform of the contact pressure caused by the stent struts, and the stresses within the individual components of the wall caused by the stent. These quantities are derived numerically and serve as indicators, which allow the determination of the correct size and type of the stent for each individual stenosis. In addition, the luminal change due to angioplasty may be computed as well. The methodology is demonstrated by using a full three-dimensional geometrical model of a postmortem specimen of a human iliac artery with a stenosis using imaging data. To describe the material behavior of the artery, we considered mechanical data of eight different vascular tissues, which formed the stenosis. The constitutive models for the tissue components capture the typical anisotropic, nonlinear and dissipative characteristics under supra-physiological loading conditions. Three-dimensional stent models were parametrized in such a way as to enable new designs to be generated simply with regard to variations in their geometric structure. For the three-dimensional stent-artery interaction we use a contact algorithm based on smooth contact surfaces of at least C-continuity, which prevents numerical problems known from standard facet-based contact

  1. Changes in rainfall amount and frequency do not affect the outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa and its neighbouring grasses in two semiarid communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the net outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa, our target plant, and different herbaceous neighbours in response to changes in the magnitude and frequency of rainfall events during three years. The experiment was conducted in natural and anthropogenic grasslands dominated by a perennial stress-tolerator and ruderal annual species, respectively. In spite of the neutral or positive effects of neighbours on water availability, neighbouring plants reduced the performance of Retama juveniles, suggesting competition for resources other than water. The negative effects of grasses on the photochemical efficiency of Retama juveniles decreased with higher water availabilities or heavier irrigation pulses, depending on the grassland studied; however, these effects did not extent to the survival and growth of Retama juveniles. Our findings show the prevalence of competitive interactions among the studied plants, regardless of the water availability and its temporal pattern. These results suggest that positive interactions may not prevail under harsher conditions when shade-intolerant species are involved. This study could be used to further refine our predictions of how plant-plant interactions will respond to changes in rainfall, either natural or increased by the ongoing climatic change, in ecosystems where grass-shrubs interactions are prevalent. PMID:25914429

  2. Changes in rainfall amount and frequency do not affect the outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa and its neighbouring grasses in two semiarid communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the net outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa , our target plant, and different herbaceous neighbours in response to changes in the magnitude and frequency of rainfall events during three years. The experiment was conducted in natural and anthropogenic grasslands dominated by a perennial stress-tolerator and ruderal annual species, respectively. In spite of the neutral or positive effects of neighbours on water availability, neighbouring plants reduced the performance of Retama juveniles, suggesting competition for resources other than water. The negative effects of grasses on the photochemical efficiency of Retama juveniles decreased with higher water availabilities or heavier irrigation pulses, depending on the grassland studied; however, these effects did not extent to the survival and growth of Retama juveniles. Our findings show the prevalence of competitive interactions among the studied plants, regardless of the water availability and its temporal pattern. These results suggest that positive interactions may not prevail under harsher conditions when shade-intolerant species are involved. This study could be used to further refine our predictions of how plant-plant interactions will respond to changes in rainfall, either natural or increased by the ongoing climatic change, in ecosystems where grass-shrubs interactions are prevalent.

  3. Interactions of landscape disturbances and climate change dictate ecological pattern and process: spatial modeling of wildfire, insect, and disease dynamics under future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane, Robert E.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Wu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    ContextInteractions among disturbances, climate, and vegetation influence landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. Climate changes, exotic invasions, beetle outbreaks, altered fire regimes, and human activities may interact to produce landscapes that appear and function beyond historical analogs.ObjectivesWe used the mechanistic ecosystem-fire process model FireBGCv2 to model interactions of wildland fire, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) under current and future climates, across three diverse study areas.MethodsWe assessed changes in tree basal area as a measure of landscape response over a 300-year simulation period for the Crown of the Continent in north-central Montana, East Fork of the Bitterroot River in western Montana, and Yellowstone Central Plateau in western Wyoming, USA.ResultsInteracting disturbances reduced overall basal area via increased tree mortality of host species. Wildfire decreased basal area more than beetles or rust, and disturbance interactions modeled under future climate significantly altered landscape basal area as compared with no-disturbance and current climate scenarios. Responses varied among landscapes depending on species composition, sensitivity to fire, and pathogen and beetle suitability and susceptibility.ConclusionsUnderstanding disturbance interactions is critical for managing landscapes because forest responses to wildfires, pathogens, and beetle attacks may offset or exacerbate climate influences, with consequences for wildlife, carbon, and biodiversity.

  4. Plant interactions with changes in coverage of biological soil crusts and water regime in Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuqin; Pan, Xu; Cui, Qingguo; Hu, Yukun; Ye, Xuehua; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Plant interactions greatly affect plant community structure. Dryland ecosystems are characterized by low amounts of unpredictable precipitation as well as by often having biological soil crusts (BSCs) on the soil surface. In dryland plant communities, plants interact mostly as they compete for water resources, and the direction and intensity of plant interaction varies as a function of the temporal fluctuation in water availability. Since BSCs influence water redistribution to some extent, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the intensity and direction of plant interactions in a dryland plant community can be modified by BSCs. In the experiment, 14 combinations of four plant species (Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Chloris virgata and Setaria viridis) were subjected to three levels of coverage of BSCs and three levels of water supply. The results show that: 1) BSCs affected plant interaction intensity for the four plant species: a 100% coverage of BSCs significantly reduced the intensity of competition between neighboring plants, while it was highest with a 50% coverage of BSCs in combination with the target species of A. sphaerocephala and C. virgata; 2) effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant interactions were modified by water regime when the target species were C. virgata and S. viridis; 3) plant interactions were species-specific. In conclusion, the percent coverage of BSCs affected plant interactions, and the effects were species-specific and could be modified by water regimes. Further studies should focus on effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant-soil hydrological processes.

  5. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment interactions. ...

  6. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Klaus J. Puettmann; J. Renée Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Summary1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment to better understand options for managing forests under climate change. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (δ...

  7. Game changing - tracing the positions, strategies and interaction modes of the German Länder towards the (ever expanding?) European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how the positions, strategies and modes of interaction of the German Länder have changed over time in response to the process of Europeanization. By applying the method of process tracing within a theoretical framework of rational choice institutionalism, the article...... resulted in a more sceptical attitude of the Länder towards (the perceived ever expanding) European Union....

  8. A review of scientifc linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirusha Thambiran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientifc understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

  9. A 667 year record of coseismic and interseismic Coulomb stress changes in central Italy reveals the role of fault interaction in controlling irregular earthquake recurrence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmore, L. N. J.; Faure Walker, J. P.; Roberts, G. P.; Sammonds, P. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Cowie, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    Current studies of fault interaction lack sufficiently long earthquake records and measurements of fault slip rates over multiple seismic cycles to fully investigate the effects of interseismic loading and coseismic stress changes on the surrounding fault network. We model elastic interactions between 97 faults from 30 earthquakes since 1349 A.D. in central Italy to investigate the relative importance of co-seismic stress changes versus interseismic stress accumulation for earthquake occurrence and fault interaction. This region has an exceptionally long, 667 year record of historical earthquakes and detailed constraints on the locations and slip rates of its active normal faults. Of 21 earthquakes since 1654, 20 events occurred on faults where combined coseismic and interseismic loading stresses were positive even though 20% of all faults are in "stress shadows" at any one time. Furthermore, the Coulomb stress on the faults that experience earthquakes is statistically different from a random sequence of earthquakes in the region. We show how coseismic Coulomb stress changes can alter earthquake interevent times by 103 years, and fault length controls the intensity of this effect. Static Coulomb stress changes cause greater interevent perturbations on shorter faults in areas characterized by lower strain (or slip) rates. The exceptional duration and number of earthquakes we model enable us to demonstrate the importance of combining long earthquake records with detailed knowledge of fault geometries, slip rates, and kinematics to understand the impact of stress changes in complex networks of active faults.

  10. The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E; Lakka, T A

    2010-01-01

    /L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the 1-year change......Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect...... of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS...

  11. Geochemistry of sediment moisture in the Badain Jaran desert: Implications of recent environmental changes and water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Li; Edmunds, W. Mike; Lu, Zunli; Ma, Jinzhu

    2015-01-01

    Unsaturated zone pore water has the potential to record history of recharge, palaeoenvironment, pollution movement and water-rock interaction as it percolates through and moves towards the water table. In this study, two 6-m cores from the Badain Jaran desert (NW China) were collected to explore this potential using directly extracted moisture. Pore waters in these unsaturated zone sediments (1–5% moisture by wet weight) were directly extracted using immiscible liquid displacement and then analysed for major anions, cations and trace elements. Results show enrichment in pore water chemistry in the top 1–2 m where strong temperature and moisture fluxes occur. The enrichment in cations relative to chloride is primarily due to silicate mineral dissolution during infiltration. High nitrate and low iron concentrations indicate the overall oxidizing environment, which allows the mobility of oxyanions, such as uranium, arsenic and chromium. The trace elements show enrichment in the upper zone of fluctuation where chemical gradients are strong, but with lesser reaction lower in the profile. The calculated groundwater recharge rates using the chloride mass balance are negligible in this arid region between 1.5 and 3.0 mm/year. The modern rainfall infiltration signature contrasts with that of the underlying groundwater body, which has a distant, regional recharge signature. This reconnaissance study demonstrates the potential for a new geochemical approach to studying geochemical processes in the unsaturated sediments in semi-arid environments due to both natural and human influences. The use of directly extracted water, rather than extraction by dilution (elutriation), facilitates an improved understanding of hydrological and geochemical processes in the unsaturated zone and into the capillary fringe at the water table, because it avoids potential chemical changes induced during elutriation. - Highlights: • A new geochemical approach for the unsaturated zone study

  12. Interaction between Cities and Climate Change: Modelling Urban Morphology and Local Urban Planning Scenarios from Open Datasets across European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bart; Stevens, Catherine; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Cities are characterised by a large spatiotemporal diversity of local climates induced by a superposition of various factors and processes interacting at global and regional scales but also at the micro level such as the urban heat island effect. As urban areas are known as 'hot spots' prone to climate and its variability over time leading to changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves, it is of crucial importance to capture the spatial heterogeneity resulting from variations in land use land cover (LULC) and urban morphology in an effective way to drive local urban climate simulations. The first part of the study conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission focusses on the extraction of land surface parameters linked to urban morphology characteristics from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with openly accessible European datasets such as the degree of soil sealing and disaggregated population densities from the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). While it has been demonstrated that good correlations can be found between those datasets and the planar and frontal area indices, the present work has expanded the research to other urban morphology parameters including the average and variation of the building height and the sky view factor. Correlations up to 80% have been achieved depending on the considered parameter and the specific urban area including the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Moreover, the transferability of the established relations has been investigated across the various cities. Secondly, a flexible and scalable approach as a function of the required the level of detail has been elaborated to update the various morphology parameters in case of integration with urban planning data to analyse the local impact of future land use scenarios

  13. Lipid bilayers driven to a wrong lane in molecular dynamics simulations by subtle changes in long-range electrostatic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patra, M.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Hyvönen, M.T.; Falck, E.; Vattulainen, I.

    2004-01-01

    We provide compelling evidence that different treatments of electrostatic interactions in molecular dynamics simulations may dramatically affect dynamic properties of lipid bilayers. To this end, we consider a fully hydrated pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer through 50-ns molecular

  14. Changes in oxidative enzyme activity during interspecific mycelial interactions involving the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiscox, J.; Baldrian, Petr; Rogers, H. J.; Boddy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2010), s. 562-571 ISSN 1087-1845 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Interactions * Basidiomycetes * Trametes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.333, year: 2010

  15. Transcriptomic profiling of interacting nasal staphylococci species reveals global changes in gene and non-coding RNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Grith Miriam Maigaard; Sazinas, Pavelas; Kofod, Ditte

    2018-01-01

    Interspecies interactions between bacterial pathogens and the commensal microbiota can influence disease outcome. In the nasal cavities, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to be a determining factor for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and biofilm formation. However, the interaction...... between S. epidermidis and S. aureus has mainly been described by phenotypic analysis, and little is known about how this interaction modulates gene expression.This study aimed to determine the interactome of nasal S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates to understand the molecular effect of interaction...... also identified putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and, interestingly, detected a putative ncRNA transcribed antisense to esp, the serine protease of S. epidermidis, that has previously been shown to inhibit nasal colonization of S. aureus. In our study, the gene encoding Esp and the antisense nc...

  16. A spatial socio-ecosystem approach to analyse human-environment interactions on climate change adaptation for water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Mojtahed, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Global climate and socio-economic drivers determine the future patterns of the allocation and the trade of resources and commodities in all markets. The agricultural sector is an emblematic case in which natural (e.g. climate), social (e.g. demography) and economic (e.g. the market) drivers of change interact, determining the evolution of social and ecological systems (or simply socio-ecosystems; SES) over time. In order to analyse the dynamics and possible future evolutions of SES, the combination of local complex systems and global drivers and trends require the development of multiscale approaches. At global level, climatic general circulation models (CGM) and computable general equilibrium or partial equilibrium models have been used for many years to explore the effects of global trends and generate future climate and socio-economic scenarios. Al local level, the inherent complexity of SESs and their spatial and temporal variabilities require different modelling approaches of physical/environmental sub-systems (e.g. field scale crop modelling, GIS-based models, etc.) and of human agency decision makers (e.g. agent based models). Global and local models have different assumption, limitations, constrains, etc., but in some cases integration is possible and several attempts are in progress to couple different models within the so-called Integrated Assessment Models. This work explores an innovative proposal to integrate the global and local approaches, where agent-based models (ABM) are used to simulate spatial (i.e. grid-based) and temporal dynamics of land and water resource use spatial and temporal dynamics, under the effect of global drivers. We focus in particular on how global change may affect land-use allocation at the local to regional level, under the influence of limited natural resources, land and water in particular. We specifically explore how constrains and competition for natural resources may induce non-linearities and discontinuities in socio

  17. Plant interactions with changes in coverage of biological soil crusts and water regime in Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Gao

    Full Text Available Plant interactions greatly affect plant community structure. Dryland ecosystems are characterized by low amounts of unpredictable precipitation as well as by often having biological soil crusts (BSCs on the soil surface. In dryland plant communities, plants interact mostly as they compete for water resources, and the direction and intensity of plant interaction varies as a function of the temporal fluctuation in water availability. Since BSCs influence water redistribution to some extent, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the intensity and direction of plant interactions in a dryland plant community can be modified by BSCs. In the experiment, 14 combinations of four plant species (Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Chloris virgata and Setaria viridis were subjected to three levels of coverage of BSCs and three levels of water supply. The results show that: 1 BSCs affected plant interaction intensity for the four plant species: a 100% coverage of BSCs significantly reduced the intensity of competition between neighboring plants, while it was highest with a 50% coverage of BSCs in combination with the target species of A. sphaerocephala and C. virgata; 2 effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant interactions were modified by water regime when the target species were C. virgata and S. viridis; 3 plant interactions were species-specific. In conclusion, the percent coverage of BSCs affected plant interactions, and the effects were species-specific and could be modified by water regimes. Further studies should focus on effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant-soil hydrological processes.

  18. Interactions of predominant insects and diseases with climate change in Douglas-fir forests of Western Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated shifts associated with global climate change, and these patterns will likely continue due to continuing changes in environmental conditions. Tree growth is controlled by the physiological constraints o...

  19. Interactions of predominant insects and diseases with climate change in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Beedlow, Peter A; Shaw, David C; Woodruff, David R; Lee, E Henry; Cline, Steven P; Comeleo, Randy L

    2018-02-01

    Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated changes, such as increasing severity of droughts and insect outbreaks. We review the major insects and pathogens affecting the disturbance regime for coastal Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon and Washington State, USA, and ask how future climate changes may influence their role in disturbance ecology. Although the physiological constraints of light, temperature, and moisture largely control tree growth, episodic and chronic disturbances interacting with biological factors have substantial impacts on the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems in this region. Understanding insect and disease interactions is critical to predicting forest response to climate change and the consequences for ecosystem services, such as timber, clean water, fish and wildlife. We focused on future predictions for warmer wetter winters, hotter drier summers, and elevated atmospheric CO 2 to hypothesize the response of Douglas-fir forests to the major insects and diseases influencing this forest type: Douglas-fir beetle, Swiss needle cast, black stain root disease, and laminated root rot. We hypothesize that 1) Douglas-fir beetle and black stain root disease could become more prevalent with increasing, fire, temperature stress, and moisture stress, 2) future impacts of Swiss needle cast are difficult to predict due to uncertainties in May-July leaf wetness, but warmer winters could contribute to intensification at higher elevations, and 3) laminated root rot will be influenced primarily by forest management, rather than climatic change. Furthermore, these biotic disturbance agents interact in complex ways that are poorly understood. Consequently, to inform management decisions, insect and disease influences on disturbance regimes must be characterized specifically by forest type and region in order to accurately capture these interactions in light of future climate-mediated changes.

  20. Development of Motivate4Change Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol: An Interactive Technology Physical Activity and Medication Adherence Promotion Program for Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterom-Calo, Rony; Te Velde, Saskia J; Stut, Wim; Brug, Johannes

    2015-07-20

    It is important that heart failure (HF) patients adhere to their medication regimen and engage in physical activity. Evidence shows that adherence to these HF self-management behaviors can be improved with appropriate interventions. To further promote medication adherence and physical activity among HF patients, we developed an intervention for hospitalized HF patients. The intervention mapping protocol was applied in the development of the intervention. This entailed performing a needs assessment, defining change objectives, selecting determinants and strategies, and developing the materials. The resulting intervention, Motivate4Change, makes use of interactive technology and provides HF patients with personalized feedback and advice. Specific change objectives were defined. The relevant behavioral determinants for the physical activity program were practical knowledge on physical activity performance and self-efficacy for, and perceived benefits of, physical activity. For medication-taking, the selected determinants were practical knowledge on medication-taking, perceived barriers to medication-taking, beliefs about the necessity and harm regarding the medication prescribed, and beliefs about overprescribing and harm of medication in general. The change objectives and behavior change determinants were translated in feedback and advice strategies in an interactive technology program that included tailored feedback and advice, and role models in videos in which the behaviors and overcoming barriers were demonstrated. Relevant stakeholders were involved in the interventions development process. The intervention was pretested among HF patients and adjustments were made accordingly. The interactive technology physical activity and medication adherence promotion program for hospitalized HF patients was systematically developed using the intervention mapping protocol and was based on the available theory and evidence regarding HF self-management behavior change. The

  1. AGE assessment of interactions between climate change policy instruments and pre-existing taxes: the case of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissema, W.W.; Dellink, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computable general equilibrium model for Ireland to investigate the impact of climate policy on the Irish economy, taking special notice of interactions with the existing tax structure. To this end, we extend the model with a detailed representation of the tax system using separate

  2. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    protein intake and ΔBW or ΔWC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses. RESULTS: When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ΔBW (41...

  3. [Changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of serum albumin in interactions with ligands of various structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinus, F P; Braver-Chernobul'skaia, B S; Luĭk, A I; Boldeskul, A E; Velichko, A N

    1984-01-01

    High affinity interactions between blood serum albumin and five substances of various chemical structure, exhibiting distinct physiological activity, were accompanied by alterations in the protein tertiary structure, while the albumin secondary structure was involved in conformational transformation after less effective affinity binding.

  4. Does Fidelity of Implementation Account for Changes in Teacher-Child Interactions in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Banking Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Williford, Amanda; Whittaker, Jessica; DeCoster, Jamie; Alamos, Pilar

    2018-01-01

    This study examined fidelity of implementation in a randomized trial of Banking Time, a classroom-based intervention intended to improve children's behavior, specifically for those at risk for developing externalizing behavior problems, through improving the quality of teacher-child interactions. The study sample comes from a randomized controlled…

  5. When small changes matter: the role of cross-scale interactions between habitat and ecological connectivity in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Lohrer, Andrew M; Chiaroni, Luca D

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between the diversity of local communities and the degree of connectivity between them has the potential to influence local recovery rates and thus profoundly affect community dynamics in the face of the cumulative impacts that occur across regions. Although such complex interactions have been modeled, field experiments in natural ecosystems to investigate the importance of interactions between local and regional processes are rare, especially so in coastal marine seafloor habitats subjected to many types of disturbance. We conducted a defaunation experiment at eight subtidal sites, incorporating manipulation of habitat structure, to test the relative importance of local habitat features and colonist supply in influencing macrobenthic community recovery rate. Our sites varied in community composition, habitat characteristics, and hydrodynamic conditions, and we conducted the experiment in two phases, exposing defaunated plots to colonists during periods of either high or low larval colonist supply. In both phases of the experiment, five months after disturbance, we were able to develop models that explained a large proportion of variation in community recovery rate between sites. Our results emphasize that the connectivity to the regional species pool influences recovery rate, and although local habitat effects were important, the strength of these effects was affected by broader-scale site characteristics and connectivity. Empirical evidence that cross-scale interactions are important in disturbance-recovery dynamics emphasizes the complex dynamics underlying seafloor community responses to cumulative disturbance.

  6. Genetic differentiation and plasticity interact along temperature and precipitation gradients to determine plant performance under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Hadincová, Věroslava; Skálová, Hana; Vandvik, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2017), s. 1358-1373 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07795S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : clonal growth * genotype x environment interaction * local adaptation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.813, year: 2016

  7. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent-child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent-child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent-child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent-child positive engagement were associated with less parent-child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent-child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent-child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior.

  8. Fisher's fundamental theorem of inclusive fitness and the change in fitness due to natural selection when conspecifics interact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is fundamental to evolution by natural selection, both in animals and plants. Here, I investigate the consequences of such interactions for response in fitness due to natural selection. I provide quantitative genetic expressions for heritable variance and response in

  9. Species interactions and response time to climate change: ice-cover and terrestrial run-off shaping Arctic char and brown trout competitive asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, A. G.; Palm Helland, I.; Jonsson, B.; Forseth, T.; Foldvik, A.; Hessen, D. O.; Hendrichsen, D. K.; Berg, O. K.; Ulvan, E.; Ugedal, O.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a growing recognition that single species responses to climate change often mainly are driven by interaction with other organisms and single species studies therefore not are sufficient to recognize and project ecological climate change impacts. Here, we study how performance, relative abundance and the distribution of two common Arctic and sub-Arctic freshwater fishes (brown trout and Arctic char) are driven by competitive interactions. The interactions are modified both by direct climatic effects on temperature and ice-cover, and indirectly through climate forcing of terrestrial vegetation pattern and associated carbon and nutrient run-off. We first use laboratory studies to show that Arctic char, which is the world's most northernmost distributed freshwater fish, outperform trout under low light levels and also have comparable higher growth efficiency. Corresponding to this, a combination of time series and time-for-space analyses show that ice-cover duration and carbon and nutrient load mediated by catchment vegetation properties strongly affected the outcome of the competition and likely drive the species distribution pattern through competitive exclusion. In brief, while shorter ice-cover period and decreased carbon load favored brown trout, increased ice-cover period and increased carbon load favored Arctic char. Length of ice-covered period and export of allochthonous material from catchments are major, but contrasting, climatic drivers of competitive interaction between these two freshwater lake top-predators. While projected climate change lead to decreased ice-cover, corresponding increase in forest and shrub cover amplify carbon and nutrient run-off. Although a likely outcome of future Arctic and sub-arctic climate scenarios are retractions of the Arctic char distribution area caused by competitive exclusion, the main drivers will act on different time scales. While ice-cover will change instantaneously with increasing temperature

  10. DNA Methylation Variants at HIF3A Locus, B-Vitamin Intake, and Long-term Weight Change: Gene-Diet Interactions in Two U.S. Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Qibin; Xu, Min; Ley, Sylvia H; Li, Yanping; Kang, Jae H; Wiggs, Janey; Pasquale, Louis R; Chan, Andrew T; Rimm, Eric B; Hunter, David J; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2015-09-01

    The first epigenome-wide association study of BMI identified DNA methylation at an HIF3A locus associated with BMI. We tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation variants are associated with BMI according to intake of B vitamins. In two large cohorts, we found significant interactions between the DNA methylation-associated HIF3A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3826795 and intake of B vitamins on 10-year changes in BMI. The association between rs3826795 and BMI changes consistently increased across the tertiles of total vitamin B2 and B12 intake (all P for interaction vitamin B2 intake and -0.10 (SE 0.06), -0.01 (SE 0.06), and 0.10 (SE 0.07) within subgroups defined by increasing tertiles of total vitamin B12 intake. In two independent cohorts, a DNA methylation variant in HIF3A was associated with BMI changes through interactions with total or supplemental vitamin B2, vitamin B12, and folate. These findings suggest a potential causal relation between DNA methylation and adiposity. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  12. How assistive technology changes the brain: the critical role of hippocampal-striatal interactions during cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies found structural changes of the brain during cognitive training. These changes may be important when assistive technologies are used, for example, to boost memory and navigation abilities in patients with neurocognitive disorders. In this study, we show that extensive training with a platformer game simulating navigation and real-life spatial abilities, patients with Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairmant exhibit an increased volume of the caudate nucleus in contrast to healthy individuals who display increased hippocampal volumes. These results raise the possibility that cognitive training and assistive technology may induce compensatory changes of brain structure in memory disorders.

  13. Cascade-Driven Series with Narrower Multifractal Spectra Than Their Surrogates: Standard Deviation of Multipliers Changes Interactions across Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Taek Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifractal (or singularity spectra widths w allow diagnosing cascade structure through comparing original series’ widths wOrig to surrogate series’ widths wSurr. However, interpretations of 0interactions using white-noise multipliers. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA and Chhabra and Jensen’s method provided two estimates of wOrig for 200 simulated series at each value 0.1≤σ≤1.1 incrementing by 0.05. Increasing σ draws wOrig away from wSurrinteractions more diverse than in cascades with wSurr

  14. The interaction of land-use legacies and hurricane disturbance in subtropical wet forest: twenty-one years of change

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, James Aaron; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Thompson, Jill; Nytch, Christopher J.; Uriarte, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance shapes plant communities over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. How natural and anthropogenic disturbance interact to shape ecological communities is highly variable and begs a greater understanding. We used five censuses spanning the years 1990–2011 from the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP) in northeast Puerto Rico to investigate the interplay of human land-use legacies dating to the early 20th century and two recent hurricanes (Hugo, 1989 and Georges, 1998...

  15. Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Solar UV Radiation, and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycling: Interactions and Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment...

  16. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  17. Looking for Broken TAD Boundaries and Changes on DNA Interactions: Clinical Guide to 3D Chromatin Change Analysis in Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements and Chromothripsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauy, Kevin; Gatinois, Vincent; Guignard, Thomas; Sati, Satish; Puechberty, Jacques; Gaillard, Jean Baptiste; Schneider, Anouck; Pellestor, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Apparition of next-generation sequencing (NGS) was a breakthrough on knowledge of genome structure. Bioinformatic tools are a key point to analyze this huge amount of data from NGS and characterize the three-dimensional organization of chromosomes. This chapter describes usage of different browsers to explore publicly available online data and to search for possible 3D chromatin changes involved during complex chromosomal rearrangements as chromothripsis. Their pathogenic impact on clinical phenotype and gene misexpression can also be evaluated with annotated databases.

  18. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2005-06-01

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  19. Coaching for health and lifestyle change: Theory and guidelines for interacting and reflecting with women about their challenges and aspirations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard; Andersen, Vinnie

    2018-01-01

    was to support women in their attempts to remain physically active and to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle. The main objective of this article is to take a close look at the best way to achieve this – not by telling the women what to do or by pushing them towards specific goals, but by inviting them...... into a space of common reflection and joint action. In that sense, the interaction (not intervention) will take its point of departure in a broad, collaboratively inspired approach that is broader in focus than widespread interventions, which are often exclusively based on motivational interviewing. The goal...

  20. How family interactions about lifestyle changes affect adolescents' possibilities for maintaining weight loss after a weight loss intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Vamosi, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    -loss programme. Three rounds of semi-structured interviews stretching over 5 years (2010-2015) were transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using Kvale and Brinkmann's framework for working with qualitative research interviews. FINDINGS: Five years after the intervention ended, we found that a family's interactions...... support is crucial if adolescents are to benefit from weight-loss intervention. DESIGN: Qualitative research interviews with families who participated in a weight-loss programme. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 families selected among participants in a 1-year multidisciplinary family-based weight...

  1. Medical students' learning orientation regarding interracial interactions affects preparedness to care for minority patients: a report from Medical Student CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana J; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke A; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel R; Hou, Yuefeng; Nelson, David B; Perry, Sylvia P; Phelan, Sean M; Yeazel, Mark W; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-29

    There is a paucity of evidence on how to train medical students to provide equitable, high quality care to racial and ethnic minority patients. We test the hypothesis that medical schools' ability to foster a learning orientation toward interracial interactions (i.e., that students can improve their ability to successfully interact with people of another race and learn from their mistakes), will contribute to white medical students' readiness to care for racial minority patients. We then test the hypothesis that white medical students who perceive their medical school environment as supporting a learning orientation will benefit more from disparities training. Prospective observational study involving web-based questionnaires administered during first (2010) and last (2014) semesters of medical school to 2394 white medical students from a stratified, random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. Analysis used data from students' last semester to build mixed effects hierarchical models in order to assess the effects of medical school interracial learning orientation, calculated at both the school and individual (student) level, on key dependent measures. School differences in learning orientation explained part of the school difference in readiness to care for minority patients. However, individual differences in learning orientation accounted for individual differences in readiness, even after controlling for school-level learning orientation. Individual differences in learning orientation significantly moderated the effect of disparities training on white students' readiness to care for minority patients. Specifically, white medical students who perceived a high level of learning orientation in their medical schools regarding interracial interactions benefited more from training to address disparities. Coursework aimed at reducing healthcare disparities and improving the care of racial minority patients was only effective when white medical students perceived their

  2. Monitoring methods and prediction of ground waters quality changes in the interaction region of Mine and Power Plant 'Belchatow'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltyk, W.; Owczarczyk, A.; Walendziak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Polish law regulations regarding the environmental waters (surface and ground) monitoring have been cited in the report. Also basic analytical methods for water quality control, commonly used in hydrogeology, and environment protection, have been described. All the presented methods have been used for investigations of the influence of Lignite Strip Mine 'Belchatow' on river water quality in the upper Warta basin, which are the main receivers of waters from the strip drainage system. The main physico-chemical features as well as micro and macro components and environmental isotope concentrations were measured in the surface and ground waters in the hypothetical strip interaction region. It has been found that the outfall of mine pumped waters to the Widawka river do not spoil water quality, which preserves the first class of purity in the course between Ruszczyn up to the Warta river. The forecast of the salinity increase for ground waters pumped by the protection barrier of salt deposit Debina have been worked out for water table altitude +50.0 m below the sea level (state in December 2000). The range of the wet ash deposit interaction on water quality pumped by the 'Belchatow' Mine drainage system have been determined and evaluated. (author)

  3. Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States: current understanding and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark Fenn; Steven McNulty; Fengming Yuan; Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles Driscoll; Tom Meixner

    2013-01-01

    A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have...

  4. Conceiving Human Interaction by Visualising Depth Data of Head Pose Changes and Emotion Recognition via Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Stergiou, A.G.; Vidakis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Affective computing in general and human activity and intention analysis in particular comprise a rapidly-growing field of research. Head pose and emotion changes present serious challenges when applied to player’s training and ludology experience in serious games, or analysis of customer

  5. Gender and Age Effects Interact in Preschoolers' Help-Seeking: Evidence for Differential Responses to Changes in Task Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging…

  6. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Junior A; Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R; Price, David T; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change") were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  7. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A Tremblay

    Full Text Available Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change" were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus, a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5. However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of

  8. Commentary on "spectral characterization of the binding and conformational changes of serum albumins upon interaction with an anticancer drug, anastrozole".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Filiz

    2015-03-05

    The manuscript by R. Punith and J. Seetharamappa (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.201202.038) presents the interaction between serum albumin from human (HAS) and from bovine (BSA) with a drug called Anastrozole (AZ). The drug is on the market for treating patients with breast cancer after surgery and for metastasis in women. The study utilizes various spectroscopic techniques such as; fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence measurements, FTIR, CD and UV. Although there are some relatively minor comments on the paper, the main point that needs to be reviewed by the authors is the result of FTIR measurements. Based on the data provided in the text (there is no figure), the protein sample is not in its native state, which makes the data inconvenient to be used in drawing conclusions. Authors are kindly requested to take another look at the FTIR experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A new method to study the change of miRNA-mRNA interactions due to environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Francesca; Aushev, Vasily N; Gopalakrishnan, Kalpana; Kappil, Maya; W Khin, Nyan; Chen, Jia; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wang, Pei

    2017-07-15

    Integrative approaches characterizing the interactions among different types of biological molecules have been demonstrated to be useful for revealing informative biological mechanisms. One such example is the interaction between microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA), whose deregulation may be sensitive to environmental insult leading to altered phenotypes. The goal of this work is to develop an effective data integration method to characterize deregulation between miRNA and mRNA due to environmental toxicant exposures. We will use data from an animal experiment designed to investigate the effect of low-dose environmental chemical exposure on normal mammary gland development in rats to motivate and evaluate the proposed method. We propose a new network approach-integrative Joint Random Forest (iJRF), which characterizes the regulatory system between miRNAs and mRNAs using a network model. iJRF is designed to work under the high-dimension low-sample-size regime, and can borrow information across different treatment conditions to achieve more accurate network inference. It also effectively takes into account prior information of miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships from existing databases. When iJRF is applied to the data from the environmental chemical exposure study, we detected a few important miRNAs that regulated a large number of mRNAs in the control group but not in the exposed groups, suggesting the disruption of miRNA activity due to chemical exposure. Effects of chemical exposure on two affected miRNAs were further validated using breast cancer human cell lines. R package iJRF is available at CRAN. pei.wang@mssm.edu or susan.teitelbaum@mssm.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Conceiving Human Interaction by Visualising Depth Data of Head Pose Changes and Emotion Recognition via Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Kalliatakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Affective computing in general and human activity and intention analysis in particular comprise a rapidly-growing field of research. Head pose and emotion changes present serious challenges when applied to player’s training and ludology experience in serious games, or analysis of customer satisfaction regarding broadcast and web services, or monitoring a driver’s attention. Given the increasing prominence and utility of depth sensors, it is now feasible to perform large-scale collection of three-dimensional (3D data for subsequent analysis. Discriminative random regression forests were selected in order to rapidly and accurately estimate head pose changes in an unconstrained environment. In order to complete the secondary process of recognising four universal dominant facial expressions (happiness, anger, sadness and surprise, emotion recognition via facial expressions (ERFE was adopted. After that, a lightweight data exchange format (JavaScript Object Notation (JSON is employed, in order to manipulate the data extracted from the two aforementioned settings. Motivated by the need to generate comprehensible visual representations from different sets of data, in this paper, we introduce a system capable of monitoring human activity through head pose and emotion changes, utilising an affordable 3D sensing technology (Microsoft Kinect sensor.

  11. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  12. The Future of Freshwater Macrophytes in a Changing World: Dissolved Organic Carbon Quantity and Quality and Its Interactions With Macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne E. Reitsema

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems are confronted with the effects of climate change. One of the major changes is an increased concentration of aquatic carbon. Macrophytes are important in the aquatic carbon cycle and play as primary producers a crucial role in carbon storage in aquatic systems. However, macrophytes are affected by increasing carbon concentrations. The focus of this review lies on dissolved organic carbon (DOC, one of the most abundant forms of carbon in aquatic ecosystems which has many effects on macrophytes. DOC concentrations are rising; the exact cause of this increase is not known, although it is hypothesized that climate change is one of the drivers. The quality of DOC is also changing; for example, in urban areas DOC composition is different from the composition in natural watersheds, resulting in DOC that is more resistant to photo-degradation. Plants can benefit from DOC as it attenuates UV-B radiation, it binds potentially harmful heavy metals and provides CO2 as it breaks down. Yet plant growth can also be impaired under high DOC concentrations, especially by humic substances (HS. HS turn the water brown and attenuate light, which limits macrophyte photosynthesis at greater depths. This leads to lower macrophyte abundance and lower species diversity. HS form a wide class of chemicals with many different functional groups and they therefore have the ability to interfere with many biochemical processes that occur in freshwater organisms. Few studies have looked into the direct effects of HS on macrophytes, but there is evidence that HS can interfere with photosynthesis by entering macrophyte cells and causing damage. DOC can also affect reactivity of heavy metals, water and sediment chemistry. This indirectly affects macrophytes too, so they are exposed to multiple stressors that may have contradictive effects. Finally, macrophytes can affect DOC quality and quantity as they produce DOC themselves and provide a substrate to

  13. Large wood, sediment, and flow regimes: Their interactions and temporal changes caused by human impacts in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Futoshi; Seo, Jung Il; Akasaka, Takumi; Swanson, Frederick J.

    2017-02-01

    Water, sediment, and large wood (LW) are the three key components of dynamic river-floodplain ecosystems. We examined variations in sediment and LW discharge with respect to precipitation, the presence of dams, land and river use change, and related channel incision and forest expansion on gravel bars and floodplains across Japan. The results indicated that unit sediment discharge and unit LW discharge were smaller in southern Japan where precipitation intensity is generally much greater. Effective precipitation, an index that takes current and antecedent precipitation into account, was a strong predictor of discharge in small watersheds, but not in larger watersheds. However, precipitation intensities related to unit sediment discharge in intermediate and large watersheds were smaller than those associated with unit LW discharge, which we attribute to differences in particle shape and size and also transport mechanisms. The relationship between river flow and discharge of sediment and LW lead us to posit that discharges of these components are supply limited in southern Japan and transport limited in northern Japan. The cross-sectional mean low-flow bed elevation of gravel-bed and sand-bed rivers in Japan decreased by 0.71 and 0.74 m on average, respectively, over the period 1960-2000. Forest expansion on bars and floodplains has been prominent since the 1990s, and trees apparently began to colonize gravel bars 10 to 20 years after riverbed degradation began. Forest recovery in headwater basins, dam construction, gravel mining, and channelization over the past half century are likely the dominant factors that significantly reduced downstream sediment delivery, thereby promoting channel incision and forest expansion. Changes in rivers and floodplains associated with channel incision and forest expansion alter the assemblages of aquatic and terrestrial organisms in riverine landscapes of Japan, and climate change may contribute to this change by intensified

  14. In Search of the E. coli Compounds that Change the Antibiotic Production Pattern of Streptomyces coelicolor During Inter-species Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavituna, Ferda; Luti, Khalid Jaber Kadhum; Gu, Lixing

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the interaction between E.coli and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) for the increased production of undecylprodigiosin and identify the E. coli actives mediating this inter-species interaction. The antibiotics of interest were the red-pigmented undecylprodigiosin and blue-pigmented actinorhodin. Pure cultures of S. coelicolor in a defined medium produced higher concentrations of actinorhodin compared to those of undecylprodigiosin. The latter however, is more important due to its immunosuppressive and antitumor properties. As a strategy to increase undecylprodigiosin production, we added separately, live cells and heat-killed cells of E. coli C600, and the cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture to S. coelicolor cultures in shake flasks. The interaction with live cells of E. coli altered the antibiotic production pattern and undecylprodigiosin production was enhanced by 3.5-fold compared to the pure cultures of S. coelicolor and actinorhodin decreased by 15-fold. The heat-killed cells of E. coli however, had no effect on antibiotic production. In all cases, growth and glucose consumption of S. coelicolor remained almost the same as those observed in the pure culture indicating that the changes in antibiotic production were not due to nutritional stress. Results with cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture indicated that the interaction between S. coelicolor and E. coli was mediated via diffusible molecule(s). Using a set of extraction procedures and agar-well diffusion bioassays, we isolated and preliminarily identified a class of compounds. For the preliminary verification, we added the compound which was the common chemical structural moiety in this class of compounds to the pure S. coelicolor cultures. We observed similar effects on antibiotic production as with the live E. coli cells and their supernatant indicating that this class of compounds secreted by E. coli indeed could act as actives during interspecies

  15. Changes of antioxidant potential of pasta fortified with parsley (Petroselinum Crispum mill.) leaves in the light of protein-phenolics interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Pasta is considered as an effective carrier of prohealth ingredients in food fortification. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of antioxidant potential of wheat pasta affected by fortification with powdered parsley leaves. A special attention was paid to effectiveness of fortification in the light of proteinphenolic interactions. To improve antioxidant activity of pasta, part of wheat flour was replaced with powdered parsley leaves from 1% to 4% (w/w). The total phenolics content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using in vitro assays - abilities to scavenge free radicals (ABTS) and to reduce iron (III) (FRAP). Predicted phenolic contents and antioxidant activity were calculated. To determine the protein-phenolics interactions SE-HPLC and SDS-PAGE techniques were used. Fortification of pasta had a positive effect on its phenolic contents and antioxidant properties. The highest phenolics level and antioxidant activity of pasta were obtained by supplementation with 4% of parsley leaves. However, in most cases experimental values were significantly lower than those predicted. The protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE differed significantly among control and enriched pasta. Furthermore, the addition of parsley leaves to pasta resulted in increase of peaks areas obtained by SE-HPLC. Results indicate the occurrence of the protein-phenolics interactions in fortified pasta. Overall, the effectiveness of fortification and consequently biological effect is limited by many factors including interactions between phenolics and pasta proteins. In the light of this results the study of potential interaction of bioactive supplements with food matrix should be taken into account during designing new functional food products.

  16. Gene–arsenic interaction in longitudinal changes of blood pressure: Findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Karagas, Margaret R. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Jiang, Jieying; Wu, Fen; Liu, Mengling [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Newman, Jonathan D. [The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Argos, Maria; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Eunus, Mahbub; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and mounting evidence indicates that toxicant exposures can profoundly impact on CVD risk. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that arsenic (As) exposure is positively related to increases in blood pressure (BP), a primary CVD risk factor. However, evidence of whether genetic susceptibility can modify the association between As and BP is lacking. In this study, we used mixed effect models adjusted for potential confounders to examine the interaction between As exposure from well water and potential genetic modifiers on longitudinal change in BP over approximately 7 years of follow-up in 1137 subjects selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in Bangladesh. Genotyping was conducted for 235 SNPs in 18 genes related to As metabolism, oxidative stress and endothelial function. We observed interactions between 44 SNPs with well water As for one or more BP outcome measures (systolic, diastolic, or pulse pressure (PP)) over the course of follow-up. The interaction between CYBA rs3794624 and well water As on annual PP remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons (FDR-adjusted p for interaction = 0.05). Among individuals with the rs3794624 variant genotype, well water As was associated with a 2.23 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.14–3.32) greater annual increase in PP, while among those with the wild type, well water As was associated with a 0.13 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.02–0.23) greater annual increase in PP. Our results suggest that genetic variability may contribute to As-associated increases in BP over time. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with blood pressure increases over time. • Genetic polymorphisms may modify the association between As and blood pressure. • An interaction between CYBA rs3794624 and well As increased annual pulse pressure. • Genetic variants may contribute to As-related blood

  17. Temporal dynamics of groundwater-surface water interaction under the effects of climate change: A case study in the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal Chandra; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W.; Hirshfield, Faye; Paul, Siddhartho Shekhar

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction plays a vital role in the functioning of riparian ecosystem, as well as sustainable water resources management. In this study, temporal dynamics of GW-SW interaction were investigated under climate change. A case study was chosen for a study area along the Kiskatinaw River in Mainstem sub-watershed of the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, British Columbia, Canada. A physically based and distributed GW-SW interaction model, Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), was used. Two different greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (i.e., A2: heterogeneous world with self-reliance and preservation of local identities, and B1: more integrated and environmental friendly world) of SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) from Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used for climate change study for 2020-2040. The simulation results showed that climate change influences significantly the temporal patterns of GW-SW interaction by generating variable temporal mean groundwater contributions to streamflow. Due to precipitation variability, these contributions varied monthly, seasonally, and annually. The mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to be 74.5% (σ = 2%) and 75.6% (σ = 3%), respectively. As compared to that during the base modeling period (2007-2011), the mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to decrease by 5.5% and 4.4%, respectively, due to the increased precipitation (on average 6.7% in the A2 and 4.8% in the B1 scenarios) and temperature (on average 0.83 °C in the A2 and 0.64 °C in the B1 scenarios). The results obtained from this study will provide useful information in the long-term seasonal and annual water extractions from the river for future water supply, as well as for evaluating the ecological conditions of the

  18. Understanding the interactions between Social Capital, climate change, and community resilience in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Blomberg, B.; Kolker, A.; Nguyen, U.; Page, C. M.; Sherchan, S. P.; Tobias, V. D.; Wu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities in the Gulf of Mexico are facing new and complex challenges as their physical environment is altered by climate warming and sea level rise. To effectively prepare for environmental changes, coastal communities must build resilience in both physical structures and social structures. One measure of social structure resilience is how much social capital a community possesses. Social capital is defined as the connections among individuals which result in networks with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups. Social capital exists in three levels; bonding, bridging and linking. Bonding social capital is a measure of the strength of relationships amongst members of a network who are similar in some form. Bridging social capital is a measure of relationships amongst people who are dissimilar in some way, such as age, education, or race/ethnicity. Finally Linking social capital measures the extent to which individuals build relationships with institutions and individuals who have relative power over them (e.g local government, educational institutions). Using census and American Community Survey data, we calculated a Social Capital index value for bonding, bridging and linking for 60 Gulf of Mexico coastal counties for the years 2000, and 2010 to 2015. To investigate the impact of social capital on community resilience we coupled social capital index values with physical datasets of land-use/land cover, sea level change, climate, elevation and surface water quality for each coastal county in each year. Preliminary results indicate that in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties, increased bonding social capital results in decreased population change. In addition, we observed a multi-year time lag in the effect of increased bridging social capital on population stability, potentially suggesting key linkages between the physical and social environment in this complex coupled-natural human system. This

  19. The role of light for fish-zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions during winter in shallow lakes - a climate change perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramm, Mette Elisabeth; Lassen, Majbritt Kjeldahl; Liboriussen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    in the life history of copepods. The strength of the fish effect on zooplankton biomass diminished with declining light and the effect of light was strongest in the presence of fish. 4. When fish were present, reduced light led to a shift from rotifers to calanoid copepods in the clear lake and from rotifers...... in winter light conditions are needed in order to have a significant effect on the plankton community. The change in light occurring when such plankton communities move northwards in response to global warming will mostly be of modest importance for this lake type, at least for the rest of this century...

  20. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Knowledge Gaps, Planned Observations to Address Them, and Implications for Global Climate Change Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The stratocumulus "climate radiators" are critical to the regional and global climate system. They interact with dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and are mixed into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. As emphasized in the latest IPCC report, the global representation of these aerosol-cloud interaction processes in climate models is one of the largest uncertainty in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling, and describe planned field campaigns in the region. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the following four synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: 1) ORACLES (Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their interactions), a five-year investigation between 2015 and 2019 with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP), recently funded by the NASA Earth-Venture Suborbital Program, 2) CLARIFY-2016 (Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing: Year 2016), a comprehensive observational and modeling programme funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and supported by the UK Met Office. 3) LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds), a funded

  1. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: Prospective changes following first depression onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R.; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors’ roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every three months over the course of two years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of stress sensitization and generation processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression. PMID:25123081

  2. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  3. Interfacial Interactions and Nano structure Changes in DPPG/HD Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, P.; Sun, R.; Hao, Ch.; Wang, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, P.; Li, Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Lung surfactant (LS) plays a crucial role in regulating surface tension during normal respiration cycles by decreasing the work associated with lung expansion and therefore decreases the metabolic energy consumed. Monolayer surfactant films composed of a mixture of phospholipids and spreading additives are of optional utility for applications in lung surfactant-based therapies. A simple, minimal model of such a lung surfactant system, composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DPPG) and hexadecanol (HD), was prepared, and the surface pressure-area π-A) isotherms and nano structure characteristics of the binary mixture were investigated at the air/water interface using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Based on the regular solution theory, the miscibility and stability of the two components in the monolayer were analyzed in terms of compression modulusC_s"-1) , excess Gibbs free energy (δG"π_exc) , activity coefficients (γ), and interaction parameterζ. The results of this paper provide valuable insight into basic thermodynamics and nano structure of mixed DPPG/HD monolayers; it is helpful to understand the thermodynamic behavior of HD as spreading additive in LS monolayer with a view toward characterizing potential improvements to LS performance brought about by addition of HD to lung phospholipids

  4. Motor and verbal perspective taking in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Changes in social interaction with people and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenka, Breanna E; Gillam, Sandra L; Hartzheim, Daphne; Gillam, Ronald B

    2017-07-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have difficulty communicating with others nonverbally, via mechanisms such as hand gestures, eye contact and facial expression. Individuals with ASD also have marked deficits in planning future actions (Hughes, 1996), which might contribute to impairments in non-verbal communication. Perspective taking is typically assessed using verbal scenarios whereby the participant imagines how an actor would interact in a social situation (e.g., Sally Anne task; Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985). The current project evaluated motor perspective taking in five children with ASD (8-11 years old) as they participated in a narrative intervention program over the course of about 16 weeks. The goal of the motor perspective-taking task was to facilitate the action of an experimenter either hammering with a tool or putting it away. Initially, children with ASD facilitated the experimenter's action less than neurotypical control children. As the narrative intervention progressed, children with ASD exhibited increased motor facilitation that paralleled their increased use of mental state and causal language, indicating a link between verbal and motor perspective taking. Motoric perspective taking provides an additional way to assess understanding and communication in children with ASD and may be a valuable tool for both early assessment and diagnosis of children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Robust driver heartbeat estimation: A q-Hurst exponent based automatic sensor change with interactive multi-model EKF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrazic, Sacha

    2015-08-01

    Preventing car accidents by monitoring the driver's physiological parameters is of high importance. However, existing measurement methods are not robust to driver's body movements. In this paper, a system that estimates the heartbeat from the seat embedded piezoelectric sensors, and that is robust to strong body movements is presented. Multifractal q-Hurst exponents are used within a classifier to predict the most probable best sensor signal to be used in an Interactive Multi-Model Extended Kalman Filter pulsation estimation procedure. The car vibration noise is reduced using an autoregressive exogenous model to predict the noise on sensors. The performance of the proposed system was evaluated on real driving data up to 100 km/h and with slaloms at high speed. It is shown that this method improves by 36.7% the pulsation estimation under strong body movement compared to static sensor pulsation estimation and appears to provide reliable pulsation variability information for top-level analysis of drowsiness or other conditions.

  6. Re-Structuring of Marine Communities Exposed to Environmental Change: A Global Study on the Interactive Effects of Species and Functional Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Alexandridis, Nicolaos; Thomason, Jeremy C.; Cifuentes, Mauricio; Costello, Mark J.; da Gama, Bernardo A. P.; Hillock, Kristina; Hobday, Alistair J.; Kaufmann, Manfred J.; Keller, Stefanie; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Krüger, Ina; Lauterbach, Lars; Antunes, Bruno L.; Molis, Markus; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Nyström, Julia; bin Radzi, Zulkamal; Stockhausen, Björn; Thiel, Martin; Vance, Thomas; Weseloh, Annika; Whittle, Mark; Wiesmann, Lisa; Wunderer, Laura; Yamakita, Takehisa; Lenz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Species richness is the most commonly used but controversial biodiversity metric in studies on aspects of community stability such as structural composition or productivity. The apparent ambiguity of theoretical and experimental findings may in part be due to experimental shortcomings and/or heterogeneity of scales and methods in earlier studies. This has led to an urgent call for improved and more realistic experiments. In a series of experiments replicated at a global scale we translocated several hundred marine hard bottom communities to new environments simulating a rapid but moderate environmental change. Subsequently, we measured their rate of compositional change (re-structuring) which in the great majority of cases represented a compositional convergence towards local communities. Re-structuring is driven by mortality of community components (original species) and establishment of new species in the changed environmental context. The rate of this re-structuring was then related to various system properties. We show that availability of free substratum relates negatively while taxon richness relates positively to structural persistence (i.e., no or slow re-structuring). Thus, when faced with environmental change, taxon-rich communities retain their original composition longer than taxon-poor communities. The effect of taxon richness, however, interacts with another aspect of diversity, functional richness. Indeed, taxon richness relates positively to persistence in functionally depauperate communities, but not in functionally diverse communities. The interaction between taxonomic and functional diversity with regard to the behaviour of communities exposed to environmental stress may help understand some of the seemingly contrasting findings of past research. PMID:21611170

  7. The CHANGE program: comparing an interactive vs. prescriptive approach to self-management among university students with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erin S; Irwin, Jennifer D; Morrow, Don; Battram, Danielle S; Melling, C W James

    2013-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of 2 self-management (SM) approaches on obesity via a 12-week telephone-based intervention. An interactive motivational interviewing administered via Co-Active Life Coaching (MI-via-CALC) and a structured lifestyle treatment following the LEARN Program for Weight Management were compared. A secondary purpose was to explore the experiences of participants qualitatively. University students 18-24 years of age with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (n = 45) were randomized to either the: 1) MI-via-CALC condition that involved working with a certified Co-Active coach to achieve personal goals through dialogue, or 2) LEARN Program that entailed learning from a trained specialist who provided scripted, education-based lessons pertaining to lifestyle, exercise, attitudes, relationships and nutrition. Food consumption patterns, anthropometric and lipid profiles were examined at baseline, mid- and immediately posttreatment, and 3 and 6 months after the program. A semistructured questionnaire was completed at all follow-ups. Analyses revealed a significant time effect for weight (p = 0.01) with the LEARN group decreasing more (M = -7.76 lb) than the MI-VIA-CALC group (M = -2.5 lb) between baseline and week 12. MI-via-CALC participants decreased caloric intake more (M = -662.76) than LEARN participants (M = -105.5) during this same period. The MI-via-CALC group focused on self-understanding, and self-responsibility as primary outcomes of their experience; the LEARN group stressed their appreciation of practical knowledge gained. Both conditions seem similarly effective and are warranted as SM treatments. The best fit and unique contributions of each approach should be considered when working with this population. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of interactive transport and scavenging of smoke on the calculated temperature change resulting from large amounts of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Walton, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    Several theoretical studies with numerical models have shown that substantial land-surface cooling can occur if very large amounts (approx. 100 x 10 12 = 100 Tg) of highly absorbing sooty-particles are injected high into the troposphere and spread instantaneously around the hemisphere (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al. 1984; MacCracken, 1983). A preliminary step beyond these initial calculations has been made by interactively coupling the two-layer, three-dimensional Oregon State University general circulation model (GCM) to the three-dimensional GRANTOUR trace species model developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GCM simulation includes treatment of tropospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effect of soot on solar radiation. The GRANTOUR simulation includes treatment of particle transport and scavenging by precipitation, although no satisfactory verification of the scavenging algorithm has yet been possible. We have considered the climatic effects of 150 Tg (i.e., the 100 Mt urban war scenario from Turco et al., 1983) and of 15 Tg of smoke from urban fires over North America and Eurasia. Starting with a perpetual July atmospheric situation, calculation of the climatic effects as 150 Tg of smoke are spread slowly by the winds, rather than instantaneously dispersed as in previous calculations, leads to some regions of greater cooling under the denser parts of the smoke plumes and some regions of less severe cooling where smoke arrival is delayed. As for the previous calculations, mid-latitude decreases of land surface air temperature for the 150 Tg injection are greater than 15 0 C after a few weeks. For a 15 Tg injection, however, cooling of more than several degrees centigrade only occurs in limited regions under the dense smoke plumes present in the first few weeks after the injection. 10 references, 9 figures

  9. Patterns of change in early childhood aggressive-disruptive behavior: gender differences in predictions from early coercive and affectionate mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, S A; Bates, J E; Dodge, K A; Pettit, G S

    1996-10-01

    The present study focused on mother-child interaction predictors of initial levels and change in child aggressive and disruptive behavior at school from kindergarten to third grade. Aggression-disruption was measured via annual reports from teachers and peers. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify 8 separate child aggression trajectories, 4 for each gender: high initial levels with increases in aggression, high initial levels with decrease in aggression, low initial levels with increases in aggression, and low initial levels with decreases in aggression. Mother-child interaction measures of coercion and nonaffection collected prior to kindergarten were predictive of initial levels of aggression-disruption in kindergarten in both boys and girls. However, boys and girls differed in how coercion and nonaffection predicted change in aggression-disruption across elementary school years. For boys, high coercion and nonaffection were particularly associated with the high-increasing-aggression trajectory, but for girls, high levels of coercion and nonaffection were associated with the high-decreasing-aggression trajectory. This difference is discussed in the context of Patterson et al.'s coercion training theory, and the need for gender-specific theories of aggressive development is noted.

  10. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely well known that annual temperatures over Europe warm at a rate of between 0.1 0C decade-1 and 0.4 0C decade-1. And most of Europe gets wetter in the winter season between +1% and +4% decade-1. In summer there is a strong gradient of change between northern Europe (wetting of up to +2% decade-1) and southern Europe (drying of up to 5% decade-1). The droughts and the floods were experienced at Hungary in the early eighties as well as today. So among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field potato production. The crop is demanding indicator plant of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status. This publication gives the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North-Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotypes: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depths: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and powdered technological magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to

  12. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  13. The Diaper Change Play: Validation of a New Observational Assessment Tool for Early Triadic Family Interactions in the First Month Postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Rime

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of family relations, observed during mother–father–infant triadic interactions, has been shown to be an important contributor to child social and affective development, beyond the quality of dyadic mother–child, father–child, and marital relationships. Triadic interactions have been well described in families with 3 month olds and older children using the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP. Little is known about the development of mother–father–baby interactions in the very 1st weeks postpartum, mostly because no specific observational setting or particular instrument had been designed to cover this age yet. To fill this gap, we adapted the LTP to create a new observational setting, namely the Diaper Change Play (DCP. Interactions are assessed using the Family Alliance Assessment Scales for DCP (FAAS-DCP. We present the validation of the DCP and its coding system, the FAAS-DCP. The three validation studies presented here (44 mother–father–child–triads involve a sample of parents with 3-week-old infants recruited in two maternity wards (n = 32 and n = 12 in Switzerland. Infants from both sites were all healthy according to their APGAR scores, weight at birth, and scores on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS, which was additionally conducted on the twelve infants recruited in one of the maternity ward. Results showed that the “FAAS – DCP” coding system has good psychometric properties, with a good internal consistency and a satisfying reliability among the three independent raters. Finally, the “FAAS-DCP” scores on the interactive dimensions are comparable to the similar dimensions in the FAAS-LTP. The results showed that there is no statistically significant difference on scores between the “FAAS-DCP” and the “FAAS,” which is consistent with previous studies underlying stability in triadic interaction patterns from pregnancy to 18 months. These first results indicated that the DCP is a promising

  14. Age-related changes in the hippocampus (loss of synaptophysin and glial-synaptic interaction) are modified by systemic treatment with an NCAM-derived peptide, FGL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Bunmi; Rezaie, Payam; Gabbott, Paul L; Davies, Heather; Colyer, Frances; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina; Stewart, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Altered synaptic morphology, progressive loss of synapses and glial (astrocyte and microglial) cell activation are considered as characteristic hallmarks of aging. Recent evidence suggests that there is a concomitant age-related decrease in expression of the presynaptic protein, synaptophysin, and the neuronal glycoprotein CD200, which, by interacting with its receptor, plays a role in maintaining microglia in a quiescent state. These age-related changes may be indicative of reduced neuroglial support of synapses. FG Loop (FGL) peptide synthesized from the second fibronectin type III module of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has previously been shown to attenuate age-related glial cell activation, and to 'restore' cognitive function in aged rats. The mechanisms by which FGL exerts these neuroprotective effects remain unclear, but could involve regulation of CD200, modifying glial-synaptic interactions (affecting neuroglial 'support' at synapses), or impacting directly on synaptic function. Light and electron microscopic (EM) analyses were undertaken to investigate whether systemic treatment with FGL (i) alters CD200, synaptophysin (presynaptic) and PSD-95 (postsynaptic) immunohistochemical expression levels, (ii) affects synaptic number, or (iii) exerts any effects on glial-synaptic interactions within young (4 month-old) and aged (22 month-old) rat hippocampus. Treatment with FGL attenuated the age-related loss of synaptophysin immunoreactivity (-ir) within CA3 and hilus (with no major effect on PSD-95-ir), and of CD200-ir specifically in the CA3 region. Ultrastructural morphometric analyses showed that FGL treatment (i) prevented age-related loss in astrocyte-synaptic contacts, (ii) reduced microglia-synaptic contacts in the CA3 stratum radiatum, but (iii) had no effect on the mean number of synapses in this region. These data suggest that FGL mediates its neuroprotective effects by regulating glial-synaptic interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Effects of postural changes of the upper limb on reflex transmission in the lower limb. Cervicolumbar reflex interactions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwaide, P J; Figiel, C; Richelle, C

    1977-06-01

    The influence of passive changes in upper limb position on the excitability of three myotatic arc reflexes (soleus, quadriceps, and biceps femoris) of the lower limb has been explored on 42 volunteers. The results indicate that the excitability of the three myotatic arcs can be influenced at a distance by postural modifications of the upper limb. When the ipsilateral upper limb is forwards or the contralateral backwards, a facilitation of both soleus and quadriceps tendon reflexes is observed while the biceps femoris reflexes are reduced. This pattern of facilitation and inhibition is reversed when the ipsilateral upper limb is backwards or the contralateral forwards. The facilitations as well as inhibitions of proximal myotatic arc reflexes are quantitatively more marked than that of the soleus reflex. Facilitation and inhibition are not linearly related to the angle of the arm with the trunk. Effects begin at a considerable angle, become maximal at 45 degrees, and progressively disappear for greater values. It is suggested that the distinct pattern of facilitation and inhibition which is exerted in reciprocal fashion on extensor and flexor motor nuclei might depend on the long propriospinal neurones connecting cervical and lumbar enlargements.

  16. Impact of global climate change on ecosystem-level interactions among sympatric plants from all three photosynthetic pathways. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1997-12-17

    The proposed research will determine biochemical and physiological responses to variations in environmental factors for plants of all three photosynthetic pathways under competitive situations in the field. These responses will be used to predict the effects of global climatic change on an ecosystem in the northwestern Sonoran Desert where the C{sub 3} subshrub Encelia farinosa, the C{sub 4} bunchgrass Hilaria rigida, and the CAM succulent Agave deserti are co-dominants. These perennials are relatively short with overlapping shallow roots facilitating the experimental measurements as well as leading to competition for soil water. Net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods measured in the laboratory will be analyzed using an environmental productivity index (EPI) that can incorporate simultaneous effects of soil water, air temperature, and light. Based on EPI, net CO{sub 2} uptake and hence plant productivity will be predicted for the three species in the field under various treatments. Activity of the two CO{sub 2} fixation enzymes, Rubisco and PEPCase, will be determined for these various environmental conditions; also, partitioning of carbon to various organs will be measured based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling and dry weight analysis. Thus, enzymatic and partitioning controls on competition among sympatric model plants representing all three photosynthetic pathways will be investigated.

  17. In vivo confirmation of hydration-induced changes in human-skin thickness, roughness and interaction with the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Agnieszka K; Adlhart, Christian; Spano, Fabrizio; Rotaru, Gelu-Marius; Derler, Siegfried; Zhai, Lina; Spencer, Nicholas D; Rossi, René M

    2016-09-15

    The skin properties, structure, and performance can be influenced by many internal and external factors, such as age, gender, lifestyle, skin diseases, and a hydration level that can vary in relation to the environment. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the multifaceted influence of water on human skin through a combination of in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and images of volar-forearm skin captured with the laser scanning confocal microscopy. By means of this pilot study, the authors have both qualitatively and quantitatively studied the influence of changing the depth-dependent hydration level of the stratum corneum (SC) on the real contact area, surface roughness, and the dimensions of the primary lines and presented a new method for characterizing the contact area for different states of the skin. The hydration level of the skin and the thickness of the SC increased significantly due to uptake of moisture derived from liquid water or, to a much lesser extent, from humidity present in the environment. Hydrated skin was smoother and exhibited higher real contact area values. The highest rates of water uptake were observed for the upper few micrometers of skin and for short exposure times.

  18. Meaningful main effects or intriguing interactions? Examining the influences of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations on cognitive processing and conceptual change when learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gina M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing and conceptual change when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, I manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with individuals' epistemic beliefs to facilitate or constrain learning. In accordance with definitions from Royce's (1983) framework of psychological epistemology, texts were developed to present Newtonian concepts in either a rational or a metaphorical format. Seventy-five undergraduate students completed questionnaires designed to measure their epistemic beliefs and their misconceptions about Newton's laws of motion. Participants then read the first of two instructional texts (in either a rational or metaphorical format), and were asked to think aloud while reading. After reading the text, participants completed a recall task and a post-test of selected items regarding Newtonian concepts. These steps were repeated with a second instructional text (in either a rational or metaphorical format, depending on which format was assigned previously). Participants' think-aloud sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then blindly coded, and their recalls were scored for total number of correctly recalled ideas from the text. Changes in misconceptions were analyzed by examining changes in participants' responses to selected questions about Newtonian concepts from pretest to posttest. Results revealed that when individuals' epistemic beliefs were congruent with the knowledge representations in their assigned texts, they performed better on both online measures of learning (e.g., use of processing strategies) and offline products of learning (e.g., text recall, changes in misconceptions) than when their epistemic beliefs were incongruent with the knowledge representations. These results have implications for how

  19. Conversation therapy with people with aphasia and conversation partners using video feedback: a group and case series investigation of changes in interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Best

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversation therapies employing video for feedback and to facilitate outcome measurement are increasingly used with people with post-stroke aphasia and their conversation partners; however the evidence base for change in everyday interaction remains limited. We investigated the effect of Better Conversations with Aphasia, an intervention that is freely available online (https:// extend.ucl.ac.uk/. Eight people with chronic agrammatic aphasia, and their regular conversation partners participated in the tailored 8 week program involving significant video feedback. We explored changes in (i conversation facilitators (such as multi-modal turns by people with aphasia and (ii conversation barriers (such as use of test questions by conversation partners. The outcome of intervention was evaluated directly by measuring change in video-recorded everyday conversations. The study employed a pre-post design with multiple 5 minute samples of conversation before and after intervention, scored by trained raters blind to the point of data collection. Group level analysis showed no significant increase in conversation facilitators. There was, however, a significant reduction in the number of conversation barriers. The case series data revealed variability in conversation behaviors across occasions for the same dyad and between different dyads. Specifically, post-intervention there was a significant increase in facilitator behaviors for two dyads, a decrease for one and no significant change for five dyads. There was a significant decrease in barrier behaviors for five dyads and no significant change for three dyads. The reduction in barrier behaviors was considerable; on average change from over 8 to fewer than 3 barrier behaviors in 5 minutes conversation. The pre-post design has the limitation of no comparison group. However, change occurs in targeted conversational behaviors and in people with chronic aphasia and their partners. The findings suggest change

  20. Atomic interactions at the (100) diamond surface and the impact of surface and interface changes on the electronic transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferme, Wim

    Centuries and centuries already, diamond is a material that speaks to ones imagination. Till the 18th century it was only mined in India, after it was also found in Brazil and South-Africa. But along the fascinating properties of diamond, it is also a very interesting material for industry. After the discovery at the end of the 18th century that diamond consists of carbon, it took until the 50's of the previous century before research groups from Russia, Japan and the USA were able to reproduce the growth process of diamond. In 1989 it was discovered that the surface of intrinsic, insulation diamond can be made conductive by hydrogenating the surface. It was clear that not only hydrogen at the surface but also the so called "adsorbates" were responsible for this conductivity. It was still not completely clear what was the influence of other species (like oxygen) on the mechanism of surface conductivity and therefore in this thesis the influence of oxygen on the electronic transport properties of atomically flat diamond are researched. Besides the growth of atomically flat diamond with the use of CVD (chemical vapour deposition) en the study of the grown surfaces with characterising techniques such as AFM (atomic force microscopy) and STM (scanning tunnelling microscopy), the study of the surface treatment with plasma techniques is the main topic of this thesis. The influence of oxygen on the surface conductivity is studied and with the ToF (Time-of-Flight) technique the transport properties of the freestanding diamond are examined. With a short laserflash, electrons and holes are created at the diamond/aluminium interface and due to an electric field (up to 500V) the charge carriers are translated to the back contact. In this way the influence of the surface and the changes at the aluminum contacts is studied leading to very interesting results.

  1. Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Mellor, Karolina E; Paul, Shom N; Lawson, Mark J; Mackey, Aaron J; Timko, Michael P

    2012-08-17

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi)) and late (13 dpi) stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible) interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301-SG4z), multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots following successful and unsuccessful

  2. NH2- in a cold ion trap with He buffer gas: Ab initio quantum modeling of the interaction potential and of state-changing multichannel dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Mario; Yurtsever, Ersin; Wester, Roland; Gianturco, Franco A.

    2018-05-01

    We present an extensive range of accurate ab initio calculations, which map in detail the spatial electronic potential energy surface that describes the interaction between the molecular anion NH2 - (1A1) in its ground electronic state and the He atom. The time-independent close-coupling method is employed to generate the corresponding rotationally inelastic cross sections, and then the state-changing rates over a range of temperatures from 10 to 30 K, which is expected to realistically represent the experimental trapping conditions for this ion in a radio frequency ion trap filled with helium buffer gas. The overall evolutionary kinetics of the rotational level population involving the molecular anion in the cold trap is also modelled during a photodetachment experiment and analyzed using the computed rates. The present results clearly indicate the possibility of selectively detecting differences in behavior between the ortho- and para-anions undergoing photodetachment in the trap.

  3. Science-policy interaction in the global greenhouse. Institutional design and institutional performance in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, Tora

    1999-08-01

    This paper explores the science-policy interaction and the extent to which and how institutional arrangements may be used as instruments for enhancing the effectiveness of the dialog. The first part develops the theory. The point of departure of the analysis is the internal dynamics of science and politics in their pure forms and the nature of the dynamics that are generated when these two distinct systems of behaviour meet. On this basis, then, the question of which functions the institutional apparatus should be able to serve in order to enhance the effectiveness of science-policy dialogue is addressed. This approach is then applied to an empirical case study of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from its establishment in 1988 to the provision of the Second IPCC Assessment Report in 1995. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Ginsenoside Re protects against phencyclidine-induced behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction via interactive modulation of glutathione peroxidase-1 and NADPH oxidase in the dorsolateral cortex of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, The-Vinh; Shin, Eun-Joo; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Ko, Sung Kwon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Yu Jeung; Toriumi, Kazuya; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2017-12-01

    We investigated whether ginsenoside Re (Re) modulates phencyclidine (PCP)-induced sociability deficits and recognition memory impairments to extend our recent finding. We examined the role of GPx-1 gene in the pharmacological activity of Re against mitochondrial dysfunction induced by PCP in the dorsolateral cortex of mice. Since mitochondrial oxidative stress activates NADPH oxidase (PHOX), we applied PHOX inhibitor apocynin for evaluating interactive modulation between GPx-1 and PHOX against PCP neurotoxicity. Sociability deficits and recognition memory impairments induced by PCP were more pronounced in GPx-1 knockout (KO) than in wild type (WT) mice. PCP-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and membrane translocation of p47phox were more evident in GPx-1 KO than in WT. Re treatment significantly attenuated PCP-induced neurotoxic changes. Re also significantly attenuated PCP-induced sociability deficits and recognition memory impairments. The attenuation by Re was comparable to that by apocynin. The attenuation was more obvious in GPx-1 KO than in WT. Importantly, apocynin did not show any additional positive effects on the neuroprotective activity of Re, indicating that PHOX is a molecular target for therapeutic activity of Re. Our results suggest that Re requires interactive modulation between GPx activity and PHOX (p47phox) to exhibit neuroprotective potentials against PCP insult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  6. Qualitative and quantitative changes in detrital reservoir rocks caused by CO2-brine-rock interactions during first injection phases (Utrillas sandstones, northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrezueta, E.; Ordóñez-Casado, B.; Quintana, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and interpret qualitative and quantitative changes at rock matrix scale of lower-upper Cretaceous sandstones exposed to supercritical (SC) CO2 and brine. The effects of experimental injection of CO2-rich brine during the first injection phases were studied at rock matrix scale, in a potential deep sedimentary reservoir in northern Spain (Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin).Experimental CO2-rich brine was exposed to sandstone in a reactor chamber under realistic conditions of deep saline formations (P ≈ 7.8 MPa, T ≈ 38 °C and 24 h exposure time). After the experiment, exposed and non-exposed equivalent sample sets were compared with the aim of assessing possible changes due to the effect of the CO2-rich brine exposure. Optical microscopy (OpM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aided by optical image analysis (OIA) were used to compare the rock samples and get qualitative and quantitative information about mineralogy, texture and pore network distribution. Complementary chemical analyses were performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data. Brine composition was also analyzed before and after the experiment.The petrographic study of contiguous sandstone samples (more external area of sample blocks) before and after CO2-rich brine injection indicates an evolution of the pore network (porosity increase ≈ 2 %). It is probable that these measured pore changes could be due to intergranular quartz matrix detachment and partial removal from the rock sample, considering them as the early features produced by the CO2-rich brine. Nevertheless, the whole rock and brine chemical analyses after interaction with CO2-rich brine do not present important changes in the mineralogical and chemical configuration of the rock with respect to initial conditions, ruling out relevant precipitation or dissolution at these early stages to rock-block scale. These results

  7. Novel molecular changes induced by Nrg1 hypomorphism and Nrg1-cannabinoid interaction in adolescence: a hippocampal proteomic study in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrah R Spencer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuregulin 1 (NRG1 is linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and cannabis dependence. Mice that are hypomorphic for Nrg1 (Nrg1 HET mice display schizophrenia-relevant behavioural phenotypes and aberrant expression of serotonin and glutamate receptors. Nrg1 HET mice also display idiosyncratic responses to the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC. To gain traction on the molecular pathways disrupted by Nrg1 hypomorphism and Nrg1-cannabinoid interactions we conducted a proteomic study. Adolescent wildtype (WT and Nrg1 HET mice were exposed to repeated injections of vehicle or THC and their hippocampi were submitted to 2D gel proteomics. Comparison of WT and Nrg1 HET mice identified proteins linked to molecular changes in schizophrenia that have not been previously associated with Nrg1. These proteins are involved in vesicular release of neurotransmitters such as SNARE proteins; enzymes impacting serotonergic neurotransmission, and; proteins affecting growth factor expression. Nrg1 HET mice treated with THC expressed a distinct protein expression signature compared to WT mice. Replicating prior findings, THC caused proteomic changes in WT mice suggestive of greater oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. We have previously observed that THC selectively increased hippocampal NMDA receptor binding of adolescent Nrg1 HET mice. Here we observed outcomes consistent with heightened NMDA-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission. This included differential expression of proteins involved in NMDA receptor trafficking to the synaptic membrane; lipid raft stabilization of synaptic NMDA receptors; and homeostatic responses to dampen excitotoxicity. These findings uncover for the first time novel proteins altered in response to Nrg1 hypomorphism and Nrg1-cannabinoid interactions that improves our molecular understanding of Nrg1 signaling and Nrg1-mediated genetic vulnerability to the neurobehavioural effects

  8. LandCaRe DSS--an interactive decision support system for climate change impact assessment and the analysis of potential agricultural land use adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenkel, Karl-Otto; Berg, Michael; Mirschel, Wilfried; Wieland, Ralf; Nendel, Claas; Köstner, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support system LandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously

  9. Changing the Shape of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård

    , og som repræsenterer et bidrag i sig selv. Form-forandrende grænseflader kan kort beskrives som grænseflader, der er i stand til at ændre deres fysiske form, ved hjælp af digitalt kontrollerede aktuatorer. Form-forandrende grænseflader fokuserer på at blande de dynamiske kvaliteter fra den digitale...

  10. Interactions between protein molecules and the virus removal membrane surface: Effects of immunoglobulin G adsorption and conformational changes on filter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Ryo; Ito, Hidemi; Hirohara, Makoto; Chang, Ryongsok; Hongo-Hirasaki, Tomoko; Hayashi, Tomohiro

    2018-03-01

    Membrane fouling commonly occurs in all filter types during virus filtration in protein-based biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Mechanisms of decline in virus filter performance due to membrane fouling were investigated using a cellulose-based virus filter as a model membrane. Filter performance was critically dependent on solution conditions; specifically, ionic strength. To understand the interaction between immunoglobulin G (IgG) and cellulose, sensors coated with cellulose were fabricated for surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance with energy dissipation measurements. The primary cause of flux decline appeared to be irreversible IgG adsorption on the surface of the virus filter membrane. In particular, post-adsorption conformational changes in the IgG molecules promoted further irreversible IgG adsorption, a finding that could not be adequately explained by DLVO theory. Analyses of adsorption and desorption and conformational changes in IgG molecules on cellulose surfaces mimicking cellulose-based virus removal membranes provide an effective approach for identifying ways of optimizing solution conditions to maximize virus filter performance. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:379-386, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: emergent influences of genomics, modelling and host-microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Timm, Collin M; Walker, Anthony P; Gu, Lianhong; Muchero, Wellington; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shaw, A Jonathan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Warren, Jeffrey M; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands harbour more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum are important components of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this review, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this group of keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon and nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant-microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modelling techniques. We highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analysis of the flow with phase change and chemical reaction with the particle interaction method. Report under the contract between JNC and Toshiba Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Horie, Hideki; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2001-02-01

    The numerical thermohydraulic analysis of a LMFR component should involve its whole boundary in order to evaluate the effect of chemical reaction within it. Therefore, it becomes difficult mainly due to computing time to adopt microscopic approach for the chemical reaction directly. Thus, the thermohydraulic code is required to model the chemically reactive fluid dynamics with constitutive correlations. The reaction rate depends on the binary contact areas between components such as continuous liquids, droplets, solid particles, and bubbles. The contact areas change sharply according to the interface state between components. Since no experiments to study the jet flow with sodium-water chemical reaction have been done, the goal of this study is to obtain the knowledge of flow regimes and contact areas by analyzing the fluid dynamics of multi-phase and reactive components mechanistically with the particle interaction method. In this fiscal year, following works were performed: 1) Development and coding of the interfacial area model, 2) Development and coding of the phase change model, 3) Verification of the fundamental functions of the models, and 4) Literature investigation of the related experiments. (author)

  13. Paracrine interactions between LNCaP prostate cancer cells and bioengineered bone in 3D in vitro culture reflect molecular changes during bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Shirly; Taubenberger, Anna V; Lehman, Melanie L; Clements, Judith A; Nelson, Colleen C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-06-01

    As microenvironmental factors such as three-dimensionality and cell-matrix interactions are increasingly being acknowledged by cancer biologists, more complex 3D in vitro models are being developed to study tumorigenesis and cancer progression. To better understand the pathophysiology of bone metastasis, we have established and validated a 3D indirect co-culture model to investigate the paracrine interactions between prostate cancer (PCa) cells and human osteoblasts. Co-culture of the human PCa, LNCaP cells embedded within polyethylene glycol hydrogels with human osteoblasts in the form of a tissue engineered bone construct (TEB), resulted in reduced proliferation of LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells in both monoculture and co-culture were responsive to the androgen analog, R1881, as indicated by an increase in the expression (mRNA and/or protein induction) of androgen-regulated genes including prostate specific antigen and fatty acid synthase. Microarray gene expression analysis further revealed an up-regulation of bone markers and other genes associated with skeletal and vasculature development and a significant activation of transforming growth factor β1 downstream genes in LNCaP cells after co-culture with TEB. LNCaP cells co-cultured with TEB also unexpectedly showed similar changes in classical androgen-responsive genes under androgen-deprived conditions not seen in LNCaP monocultures. The molecular changes of LNCaP cells after co-culturing with TEBs suggest that osteoblasts exert a paracrine effect that may promote osteomimicry and modulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Taken together, we have presented a novel 3D in vitro model that allows the study of cellular and molecular changes occurring in PCa cells and osteoblasts that are relevant to metastatic colonization of bone. This unique in vitro model could also facilitate cancer biologists to dissect specific biological hypotheses via extensive genomic or proteomic assessments to

  14. A missing piece of the puzzle in climate change hotspots: Near-surface turbulent interactions controlling ET-soil moisture coupling in semiarid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Gianotti, Daniel J.; Rigden, Angela J.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Kirchner, James W.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Being located in the transitional zone between dry and wet climate areas, semiarid ecosystems (and their associated ecohydrological processes) play a critical role in controlling climate change and global warming. Land evapotranspiration (ET), which is a central process in the climate system and a nexus of the water, energy and carbon cycles, typically accounts for up to 95% of the water budget in semiarid areas. Thus, the manner in which ET is partitioned into soil evaporation and plant transpiration in these settings is of practical importance for water and carbon cycling and their feedbacks to the climate system. ET (and its partitioning) in these regions is primarily controlled by surface soil moisture which varies episodically under stochastic precipitation inputs. Important as the ET-soil moisture relationship is, it remains empirical, and physical mechanisms governing its nature and dynamics are underexplored. Thus, the objective of this study is twofold: (1) to provide observational evidence for the influence of surface cover conditions on ET-soil moisture coupling in semiarid regions using soil moisture data from NASA's SMAP satellite mission combined with independent observationally based ET estimates, and (2) to develop a relatively simple mechanistic modeling platform improving our physical understanding of interactions between micro and macroscale processes controlling ET and its partitioning in partially vegetated areas. To this end, we invoked concepts from recent progress in mechanistic modeling of turbulent energy flux exchange in bluff-rough regions, and developed a physically based ET model that explicitly accounts for how vegetation-induced turbulence in the near-surface region influences soil drying and thus ET rates and dynamics. Model predictions revealed nonlinearities in the strength of the ET-soil moisture relationship (i.e., ∂ET/∂θ) as vegetation cover fraction increases, accounted for by the nonlinearity of surface

  15. A proposal for a pharmacokinetic interaction significance classification system (PISCS) based on predicted drug exposure changes and its potential application to alert classifications in product labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaka, Akihiro; Kusama, Makiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the major causes of adverse events in pharmacotherapy, and systematic prediction of the clinical relevance of DDIs is an issue of significant clinical importance. In a previous study, total exposure changes of many substrate drugs of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 caused by coadministration of inhibitor drugs were successfully predicted by using in vivo information. In order to exploit these predictions in daily pharmacotherapy, the clinical significance of the pharmacokinetic changes needs to be carefully evaluated. The aim of the present study was to construct a pharmacokinetic interaction significance classification system (PISCS) in which the clinical significance of DDIs was considered with pharmacokinetic changes in a systematic manner. Furthermore, the classifications proposed by PISCS were compared in a detailed manner with current alert classifications in the product labelling or the summary of product characteristics used in Japan, the US and the UK. A matrix table was composed by stratifying two basic parameters of the prediction: the contribution ratio of CYP3A4 to the oral clearance of substrates (CR), and the inhibition ratio of inhibitors (IR). The total exposure increase was estimated for each cell in the table by associating CR and IR values, and the cells were categorized into nine zones according to the magnitude of the exposure increase. Then, correspondences between the DDI significance and the zones were determined for each drug group considering the observed exposure changes and the current classification in the product labelling. Substrate drugs of CYP3A4 selected from three therapeutic groups, i.e. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), calcium-channel antagonists/blockers (CCBs) and benzodiazepines (BZPs), were analysed as representative examples. The product labelling descriptions of drugs in Japan, US and UK were obtained from the websites of each regulatory body. Among 220

  16. Change in cap rock porosity triggered by pressure and temperature dependent CO2–water–rock interactions in CO2 storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hemme

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage in deep geological formations is a method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Supercritical CO2 is injected into a reservoir and dissolves in the brine. Under the impact of pressure and temperature (P–T the aqueous species of the CO2-acidified brine diffuse through the cap rock where they trigger CO2–water–rock interactions. These geochemical reactions result in mineral dissolution and precipitation along the CO2 migration path and are responsible for a change in porosity and therefore for the sealing capacity of the cap rock. This study focuses on the diffusive mass transport of CO2 along a gradient of decreasing P–T conditions. The process is retraced with a one-dimensional hydrogeochemical reactive mass transport model. The semi-generic hydrogeochemical model is based on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics. Based on a broad variety of scenarios, including different initial mineralogical, chemical and physical parameters, the hydrogeochemical parameters that are most sensitive for safe long-term CO2 storage are identified. The results demonstrate that P–T conditions have the strongest effect on the change in porosity and the effect of both is stronger at high P–T conditions because the solubility of the mineral phases involved depends on P–T conditions. Furthermore, modeling results indicate that the change in porosity depends strongly on the initial mineralogical composition of the reservoir and cap rock as well as on the brine compositions. Nevertheless, a wide range of conditions for safe CO2 storage is identified.

  17. Proton NMR studies of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors: evidence for pH-dependent conformational change and His25-Tyr27 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Lin, C L; Gong, Y X; VanderVelde, D; Hahn, K

    1992-01-28

    A pH-dependent His25-Tyr27 interaction was demonstrated in the case of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors (CMTI-I and CMTI-III) by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. pH titration, line widths, peak shapes, deuterium exchange kinetics, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) were employed to characterize a conformational change involving Tyr27, which was shown to be triggered by deprotonation of His25 around pH 6. A hydrogen bond is proposed to be formed between N epsilon of His25 and OH of Tyr27, as a distance between the atoms, His25 N epsilon and Tyr27 OH, of 3.02 A is consistent with a model built with NOE-derived distance constraints. Both the X-ray [Bode, W., Greyling, J.H., Huber, R., Otlewski, J., & Wilusz, T. (1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 282-292] and NMR [Holak, T.A., Gondol, D., Otlewski, J., & Wilusz, T. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 210, 635-648] structures of CMTI-I at low pH (4.7-5.3) rule out such an interaction between the two aromatic rings, as the ring planes are oriented about 10 A away from each other. The presently characterized relative orientations of His25 and Tyr27 are of functional significance, as these residues make contact with the enzyme in the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor were functionally relevant only in the pH range 6-8. The pKa of His25 was determined and found to be influenced by Glu9/Lys substitution and by the hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond between Arg5 and Ile6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The interaction between land use change, sediment fluxes and carbon dynamics: evaluating an integrated soil-landscape model at the millennial time-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoms, Samuel; Van Oost, Kristof; Vanacker, Veerle

    2015-04-01

    Soil-landscape modelling has received growing attention as it allows us to evaluate the interaction between earth surface and soil bio-physical processes. At the landscape scale, human-induced land use change has altered the balance between soil erosion and production, and largely modified sediment fluxes. Intensification in soil redistribution rates affects the interaction between soil chemical, physical and biological processes at the landscape scale. Here, we evaluate the SPEROS-LT model, a spatially explicit 3D model combining a dynamic representation of land use, soil erosion and deposition and the soil carbon cycle. We assess the impact of millennial-scale human-induced land use change on sediment fluxes and carbon dynamics in the Dijle catchement (central Belgium). The watershed has undergone a 3000 years continuous human-induced alteration of the vegetation covers for agricultural characterized by Our study is based on land use reconstructions for the last 3000 years, including massive deforestation for agriculture in Roman Times and the Middle Ages followed by urbanization in the last 150 years. Land use reconstructions rely on simple land use allocation rules based on slope gradients. SPEROS-LT is parametrized for erosion rates against available figures in the literature by changing the transport capacity and the transfer coefficient which defines the amount of flux transferred between different land uses. Carbon content profiles at steady state (i.e. without influence of erosion or deposition) are calibrated for each land use and for the first upper meter of soil by comparing modeled profiles to an averaged observed profiles in stable areas of the pedologic region. We present a model sensitivity analysis and a full validation of the predicted soil carbon storage (horizontally, i.e. in space, and vertically, i.e. with depth) using a large database of observational data. The results indicate (i) a good agreement of the erosion rates. Speros LT modeled

  19. The dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea will benefit from future climate change: The interactive effects of ocean acidification, warming and high irradiance on photophysiology and hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Guanyong; Wang, Hong; Si, Ranran; Guan, Wanchun

    2017-09-01

    Due to global climate change, marine phytoplankton will likely experience low pH (ocean acidification), high temperatures and high irradiance in the future. Here, this work report the results of a batch culture experiment conducted to study the interactive effects of elevated CO 2 , increased temperature and high irradiance on the harmful dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea, isolated at Dongtou Island, Eastern China Sea. The A. sanguinea cells were acclimated in high CO 2 condition for about three months before testing the responses of cells to a full factorial matrix experimentation during a 7-day period. This study measured the variation in physiological parameters and hemolytic activity in 8 treatments, representing full factorial combinations of 2 levels each of exposure to CO 2 (400 and 1000μatm), temperature (20 and 28°C) and irradiance (50 and 200μmol photons m -2 s -1 ). Sustained growth of A. sanguinea occurred in all treatments, but high CO 2 (HC) stimulated faster growth than low CO 2 (LC). The pigments (chlorophyll a and carotenoid) decreased in all HC treatments. The quantum yield (F v /F m ) declined slightly in all high-temperature (HT) treatments. High irradiance (HL) induced the accumulation of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UV abc ) irrespective of temperature and CO 2 . The hemolytic activity in the LC treatments, however, declined when exposed to HT and HL, but HC alleviated the adverse effects of HT and HL on hemolytic activity. All HC and HL conditions and the combinations of high temperature*high light (HTHL) and high CO 2 *high temperature*high light (HCHTHL) positively affected the growth in comparison to the low CO 2 *low temperature*low light (LCLTLL) treatment. High temperature (HT), high light (HL) and a combination of HT*HL, however, negatively impacted hemolytic activity. CO 2 was the main factor that affected the growth and hemolytic activity. There were no significant interactive effects of CO 2 *temperature*irradiance on growth

  20. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratios on Dynamic Profile Changes and Interactions of Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites in Holstein Heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of global ruminal microbiota and metabolites under extensive feeding conditions is a prerequisite for optimizing rumen function and improving ruminant feed efficiency. Furthermore, the gap between the information on the ruminal microbiota and metabolites needs to be bridged. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios (F:C on changes and interactions of ruminal microbiota and metabolites. Four diets with different F:C (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 were limit-fed to 24 Holstein heifers, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing and gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry were used to investigate the profile changes of the ruminal microbes and metabolites, and the interaction between them. The predominant bacterial phyla in the rumen were Bacteroidetes (57.2 ± 2.6% and Firmicutes (26.8 ± 1.6%, and the predominant anaerobic fungi were Neocallimastigomycota (64.3 ± 3.8% and Ascomycota (22.6 ± 2.4%. In total, 44, 9, 25, and 2 genera, respectively, were identified as the core rumen bacteria, ciliate protozoa, anaerobic fungi, and archaea communities across all samples. An increased concentrate level linearly decreased the relative abundance of cellulolytic bacteria and ciliates, namely Fibrobacter, Succinimonas, Polyplastron, and Ostracodinium (q < 0.05, and linearly increased the relative abundance of Entodinium (q = 0.04, which is a non-fibrous carbohydrate degrader. Dietary F:C had no effect on the communities of anaerobic fungi and archaea. Rumen metabolomics analysis revealed that ruminal amino acids, lipids, organic acids, and carbohydrates were altered significantly by altering the dietary F:C. With increasing dietary concentrate levels, the proportions of propionate and butyrate linearly increased in the rumen (P ≤ 0.01. Correlation analysis revealed that there was some utilization relationship or productive association between candidate metabolites and

  1. Development of an interactive exploratory web-based modelling platform for informed decision-making and knowledgeable responses to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, I.; Harrison, P.; Cojocaru, G.

    2013-12-01

    Informed decision-making and knowledgeable responses to global climate change impacts on natural resources and ecosystem services requires access to information resources that are credible, accurate, easy to understand, and appropriate. Too often stakeholders are limited to restricted scientific outputs produced by inaccessible models, generated from a limited number of scenario simulations chosen arbitrarily by researchers. This paper describes the outcomes of the CLIMSAVE project (www.climsave.eu), which has attempted to democratise climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability modelling, through developing the public domain interactive exploratory web-based CLIMSAVE Integrated Assessment (IA) Platform. The CLIMSAVE Integrated Assessment (IA) Platform aims to enable a wide range of stakeholders to improve their understanding surrounding impacts, adaptation responses and vulnerability of natural resources and ecosystem services under uncertain futures across Europe. The CLIMSAVE IA Platform contain linked simulation models (of the urban, water, agriculture, forestry, biodiversity and other sectors), IPCC AR4 climate scenarios and CLIMSAVE socio-economic scenarios, enabling users to select their inputs (climate and socioeconomic), rapidly run the models across Europe using their input settings and view their selected Impact (before, or after, adaptation) and Vulnerability (Figure 1) indicators. The CLIMSAVE IA Platform has been designed to promote both cognitive accessibility - the ease of understanding - and practical accessibility - the ease of application. Based upon partner and CLIMSAVE international experts' experience, examination of other participatory model interfaces and potential user requirements, we describe the design concepts and functionality that were identified, incorporated into the prototype CLIMSAVE IA Platform and further refined based on stakeholder feedback. The CLIMSAVE IA Platform is designed to facilitate a two-way iterative process

  2. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  3. Interactions of aquatic animals with the ORPC OCGen® in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring behavior change and assessing the probability of encounter with a deployed MHK device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). School of Marine Sciences; Staines, Garrett [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viehman, Haley [Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada); Shen, Haixue [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Altenritter, Megan [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Commercial viability of the marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry is contingent on numerous and diverse factors. A major factor is the effects deployed devices have on animals. This factor is multi-faceted since it is dependent on the availability of appropriate scientific approaches to detect these effects. One of the animal groups with overlapping distributions of MHK devices are fishes. As such, individual fish behavior is likely to be influenced by the presence and operation of MHK devices. Depending on the scale of deployment there are implications for changes to essential fish habitat and effects that can be explored during deployment of a single device yet most changes are likely to be realized when multiple devices are deployed over large areas. It is not only important to document these effects and examine the need for mitigation, but also determine whether the methods involved can be used within the economic constraints of this nascent industry. The results presented in this report benefit the MHK industry by providing transferrable environmental monitoring approaches for MHK projects, specifically related to the interactions between static and dynamic tidal turbines and fish. In addition, some of the data can be used to generalize conditions (e.g., the temporal periodicity of fish presence in tidal regions and probability of fish encountering a device) at other MHK sites with similar physical conditions and fish assemblages. Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) deployed and tested a prototype OCGen® tidal module in Cobscook Bay, Maine, in the summer of 2014. University of Maine researchers proposed an approach to inform other researchers, regulators, and industry members of the effects of this deployment on fish. While the approach was specifically applied to the OCGen® module, results are applicable to other pilot projects and inform future array deployments. Research funded under this grant allowed us to quantify fish presence as well as

  4. Proton NMR studies of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors: Evidence for pH-dependent conformational change and his25 - try27 interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthi, R.; Chanlan Sun Lin; Yuxi Gong (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States)); VanderVelde, D. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States)); Hahn, K. (Univ. of Colorado, Denver (United States))

    1992-01-28

    A pH-dependent His25-Tyr27 interaction was demonstrated in the case of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors (CMTI-I and CMTI-III) by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. pH titration, line widths, peak shapes, deuterium exchange kinetics, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) were employed to characterize a conformational change involving Tyr27, which was shown to be triggered by deprotonation of His25 around pH 6. A hydrogen bond is proposed to be formed between N{sub {epsilon}} of His25 and OH of Tyr27, as a distance between the atoms, His25 N{epsilon} and Tyr25 OH, of 3.02 {angstrom} is consistent with a model built with NOE-derived distance constraints. The presently characterized relative orientations of His25 and Tyr27 are of functional significance, as these residues make contact with the enzyme in the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor were functionally relevant only in the pH range 6-8. The pK{sub a} of His25 was determined and found to be influenced by Glu9/Lys substitution and by the hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond between Arg5 and Ile6. As these sites are located far (>10 {angstrom}) from His25, the results point out conformational changes that are propagated to a distant site in the protein molecule.

  5. Diet Quality and Change in Blood Lipids during 16 Years of Follow-up and Their Interaction with Genetic Risk for Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonestedt, Emily; Hellstrand, Sophie; Drake, Isabel; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Ericson, Ulrika; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Persson, Margaretha M; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2016-05-09

    A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46-68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up.

  6. Interactive effects of climate change with nutrients, mercury, and freshwater acidification on key taxa in the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Evers, David C.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horan, Jeffrey; Jones, Jess W.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Marshall, Harold G.; Milliken, Andrew; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schmerfeld, John J.; Sparling, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative LCC (NA LCC) is a public–private partnership that provides information to support conservation decisions that may be affected by global climate change (GCC) and other threats. The NA LCC region extends from southeast Virginia to the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Within this region, the US National Climate Assessment documented increases in air temperature, total precipitation, frequency of heavy precipitation events, and rising sea level, and predicted more drastic changes. Here, we synthesize literature on the effects of GCC interacting with selected contaminant, nutrient, and environmental processes to adversely affect natural resources within this region. Using a case study approach, we focused on 3 stressors with sufficient NA LCC region-specific information for an informed discussion. We describe GCC interactions with a contaminant (Hg) and 2 complex environmental phenomena—freshwater acidification and eutrophication. We also prepared taxa case studies on GCC- and GCC-contaminant/nutrient/process effects on amphibians and freshwater mussels. Several avian species of high conservation concern have blood Hg concentrations that have been associated with reduced nesting success. Freshwater acidification has adversely affected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Adirondacks and other areas of the region that are slowly recovering due to decreased emissions of N and sulfur oxides. Eutrophication in many estuaries within the region is projected to increase from greater storm runoff and less denitrification in riparian wetlands. Estuarine hypoxia may be exacerbated by increased stratification. Elevated water temperature favors algal species that produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). In several of the region's estuaries, HABs have been associated with bird die-offs. In the NA LCC region, amphibian populations appear to be declining. Some species may be adversely affected by GCC through higher temperatures

  7. The changing and its interaction of determining serum gastrin levels and helicobacter pylori test during chronic atrophic gastritis into gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Weijuan; Yang Yongqing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the changing and its interaction of determining serum gastrin levels and Helicobacter pylori test during chronic atrophic gastritis into gastric cancer. Methods: RIA and 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) determined the Gs levels and Hp infection rate in 63 rate cases (first visit) patients, 48 cases (after one year return visit) patients, 35 cases (after three year return visit) patients and 30 cases (after five years return visit) patients with CAG 90 cases patients with gastric cancer (and different position) and 61 cases normal controls. They all were done study compared. Results: Serum Gs levels in 63 cases (first visit) patients, 48 cases (after one year return visit) patients, 35 cases (after three year return visit) patients and 30 cases (after five years return visit) patient with CAG were significantly higher (t=4.716, 5.218, 5.624, 6.179, 6.5772, all P 0.05). Serum Gs levels in 90 cases with gastric cancer (and different position) was significantly higher (t=4.221, P<0.05; t=4.436, P<0.01) than 61 cases normal controls and the highest serum Gs level was found in cancer of cardia and fundus. And Hp infection rate was 88.8%. Conclusion: The early diagnosis on gastric cancer was very important by determining serum Gs and Hp infection rate. (authors)

  8. Potential for adaptive evolution at species range margins: contrasting interactions between red coral populations and their environment in a changing ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Aurelle, Didier; Bensoussan, Nathaniel; Marschal, Christian; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2015-03-01

    Studying population-by-environment interactions (PEIs) at species range margins offers the opportunity to characterize the responses of populations facing an extreme regime of selection, as expected due to global change. Nevertheless, the importance of these marginal populations as putative reservoirs of adaptive genetic variation has scarcely been considered in conservation biology. This is particularly true in marine ecosystems for which the deep refugia hypothesis proposes that disturbed shallow and marginal populations of a given species can be replenished by mesophotic ones. This hypothesis therefore assumes that identical PEIs exist between populations, neglecting the potential for adaptation at species range margins. Here, we combine reciprocal transplant and common garden experiments with population genetics analyses to decipher the PEIs in the red coral, Corallium rubrum. Our analyses reveal partially contrasting PEIs between shallow and mesophotic populations separated by approximately one hundred meters, suggesting that red coral populations may potentially be locally adapted to their environment. Based on the effective population size and connectivity analyses, we posit that genetic drift may be more important than gene flow in the adaptation of the red coral. We further investigate how adaptive divergence could impact population viability in the context of warming and demonstrate differential phenotypic buffering capacities against thermal stress. Our study questions the relevance of the deep refugia hypothesis and highlights the conservation value of marginal populations as a putative reservoir of adaptive genetic polymorphism.

  9. Correlated charge changing interactions and K x-ray emission in ion-atom collisions. Progress report, August 15, 1983-March 15, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, E.M.; Tanis, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    Correlations between K x-ray emission and charge-changing interactions have been investigated for highly charged vanadium and sulfur ions incident on gas targets under single collision conditions. From measurements of K x-rays coincident with single electron capture, significant new evidence was obtained for the existence of resonant-transfer-and-excitation (RTE) in 180 to 460 MeV V 19+ 20+ 21+ + He collisions and 70 to 160 MeV S 13+ + He collisions. The RTE process, which proceeds via an inverse Auger transition, is qualitatively analogous to dielectronic recombination. For both vanadium and sulfur, the cross section for coincidences between K x rays and capture showed strong resonant behavior. Of particular significance is the observation that for V + He all three charge states exhibited two maxima in the coincidence cross section. Calculations show that these maxima are correlated to intermediate states in the RTE process for which the excited and captured electrons have principal quantum numbers n = 2,2 and n = 2, greater than or equal to 3, respectively. In these same experiments, coincidences between K x-rays and ions which lose an electron were also measured, as well as cross sections for total K x-ray production and total electron capture and loss

  10. Amplitude by peak interaction but no evidence of auditory mismatch response deficits to frequency change in preschool age children with FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabella, Danielle M; Flynn, Lucinda; Peters, Amanda; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-05-24

    Prior studies indicate that the auditory mismatch response is sensitive to early alterations in brain development in multiple developmental disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to impact early auditory processing. The current study hypothesized alterations in the mismatch response in young children with FASD. Participants in this study were 9 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and 17 control children (Control) aged 3 to 6 years. Participants underwent MEG and structural MRI scans separately. We compared groups on neurophysiological Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses to auditory stimuli measured using the auditory oddball paradigm. Frequent (1000 Hz) and rare (1200Hz) tones were presented at 72 dB. There was no significant group difference in MMN response latency or amplitude represented by the peak located ~200 ms after stimulus presentation in the difference timecourse between frequent and infrequent tones. Examining the timecourses to the frequent and infrequent tones separately, RM-ANOVA with condition (frequent vs. rare), peak (N100m and N200m), and hemisphere as within-subject factors and diagnosis and sex as the between-subject factors showed a significant interaction of peak by diagnosis (p = 0.001), with a pattern of decreased amplitude from N100m to N200m in Control children and the opposite pattern in children with FASD. However, no significant difference was found with the simple effects comparisons. No group differences were found in the response latencies of the rare auditory evoked fields (AEFs). The results indicate that there was no detectable effect of alcohol exposure on the amplitude or latency of the MMNm response to simple tones modulated by frequency change in preschool-age children with FASD. However, while discrimination abilities to simple tones may be intact, early auditory sensory processing revealed by the interaction between N100m and N200m amplitude indicates that auditory sensory processing may be altered in

  11. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ogée, Jérôme; Noormets, Asko; Jouangy, Julien; Gavazzi, Michael; Treasure, Emrys; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve G; King, John S

    2012-06-01

    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the process-based model MuSICA, this study indicated that HR can mitigate the effects of soil drying and had important implications for carbon uptake potential and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), especially when N fertilization is considered. At the coastal site (C), characterized by deep organic soil, HR increased dry season tree transpiration (T) by up to 40%, and such an increase affected NEE through major changes in gross primary productivity (GPP). Deep-rooted trees did not necessarily translate into a large volume of HR unless soil texture allowed large water potential gradients to occur, as was the case at the sandy site (S). At the Piedmont site (P) characterized by a shallow clay-loam soil, HR was low but not negligible, representing up to 10% of T. In the absence of HR, it was predicted that at the C, S and P sites, annual GPP would have been diminished by 19, 7 and 9%, respectively. Under future climate conditions HR was predicted to be reduced by up to 25% at the C site, reducing the resilience of trees to precipitation deficits. The effect of HR on T and GPP was predicted to diminish under future conditions by 12 and 6% at the C and P sites, respectively. Under future conditions, T was predicted to stay the same at the P site, but to be marginally reduced at the C site and slightly increased at the S site. Future conditions and N fertilization would decrease T by 25% at the C site, by 15% at the P site and by 8% at the S site. At the C and S sites, GPP was estimated to increase by 18% and by >70% under future conditions, respectively, with little effect of N fertilization. At the P site, future

  12. On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone

  13. Microplastics cause neurotoxicity, oxidative damage and energy-related changes and interact with the bioaccumulation of mercury in the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Branco, Vasco; Figueiredo, Neusa; Carvalho, Felix; Carvalho, Cristina; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is a global paradigm that raises concern in relation to environmental and human health. This study investigated toxic effects of microplastics and mercury in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine fish widely used as food for humans. A short-term (96 h) laboratory bioassay was done by exposing juvenile fish to microplastics (0.26 and 0.69 mg/L), mercury (0.010 and 0.016 mg/L) and binary mixtures of the two substances using the same concentrations, through test media. Microplastics alone and mercury alone caused neurotoxicity through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, increased lipid oxidation (LPO) in brain and muscle, and changed the activities of the energy-related enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). All the mixtures caused significant inhibition of brain AChE activity (64-76%), and significant increase of LPO levels in brain (2.9-3.4 fold) and muscle (2.2-2.9 fold) but not in a concentration-dependent manner; mixtures containing low and high concentrations of microplastics caused different effects on IDH and LDH activity. Mercury was found to accumulate in the brain and muscle, with bioaccumulation factors of 4-7 and 25-40, respectively. Moreover, in the analysis of mercury concentrations in both tissues, a significant interaction between mercury and microplastics was found. The decay of mercury in the water increased with microplastics concentration, and was higher in the presence of fish than in their absence. Overall, these results indicate that: microplastics influence the bioaccumulation of mercury by D. labrax juveniles; microplastics, mercury and their mixtures (ppb range concentrations) cause neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and damage, and changes in the activities of energy-related enzymes in juveniles of this species; mixtures with the lowest and highest concentrations of their components induced different effects on some biomarkers. These findings and other published

  14. Age-Related Changes in BOLD Activation Pattern in Phonemic Fluency Paradigm: An Investigation of Activation, Functional Connectivity and Psychophysiological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Christian; Garcia-Ramos, Camille; Nair, Veena A; Meier, Timothy B; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with decline of cognitive functions. However, even before those declines become noticeable, the neural architecture underlying those mechanisms has undergone considerable restructuring and reorganization. During performance of a cognitive task, not only have the task-relevant networks demonstrated reorganization with aging, which occurs primarily by recruitment of additional areas to preserve performance, but the task-irrelevant network of the "default-mode" network (DMN), which is normally deactivated during task performance, has also consistently shown reduction of this deactivation with aging. Here, we revisited those age-related changes in task-relevant (i.e., language system) and task-irrelevant (i.e., DMN) systems with a language production paradigm in terms of task-induced activation/deactivation, functional connectivity, and context-dependent correlations between the two systems. Our task fMRI data demonstrated a late increase in cortical recruitment in terms of extent of activation, only observable in our older healthy adult group, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, with recruitment of the contralateral hemisphere, but also other regions from the network previously underutilized. Our middle-aged individuals, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, presented lower levels of activation intensity and connectivity strength, with no recruitment of additional regions, possibly reflecting an initial, uncompensated, network decline. In contrast, the DMN presented a gradual decrease in deactivation intensity and deactivation extent (i.e., low in the middle-aged, and lower in the old) and similar gradual reduction of functional connectivity within the network, with no compensation. The patterns of age-related changes in the task-relevant system and DMN are incongruent with the previously suggested notion of anti-correlation of the two systems. The context-dependent correlation by psycho-physiological interaction

  15. Interactions between cannabidiol and Δ9-THC following acute and repeated dosing: Rebound hyperactivity, sensorimotor gating and epigenetic and neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stephanie M; Zhou, Cilla; Clarke, David J; Chohan, Tariq W; Bahceci, Dilara; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2017-02-01

    The evidence base for the use of medical cannabis preparations containing specific ratios of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is limited. While there is abundant data on acute interactions between CBD and THC, few studies have assessed the impact of their repeated co-administration. We previously reported that CBD inhibited or potentiated the acute effects of THC dependent on the measure being examined at a 1:1 CBD:THC dose ratio. Further, CBD decreased THC effects on brain regions involved in memory, anxiety and body temperature regulation. Here we extend on these finding by examining over 15 days of treatment whether CBD modulated the repeated effects of THC on behaviour and neuroadaption markers in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. After acute locomotor suppression, repeated THC caused rebound locomotor hyperactivity that was modestly inhibited by CBD. CBD also slightly reduced the acute effects of THC on sensorimotor gating. These subtle effects were found at a 1:1 CBD:THC dose ratio but were not accentuated by a 5:1 dose ratio. CBD did not alter the trajectory of enduring THC-induced anxiety nor tolerance to the pharmacological effects of THC. There was no evidence of CBD potentiating the behavioural effects of THC. However we demonstrated for the first time that repeated co-administration of CBD and THC increased histone 3 acetylation (H3K9/14ac) in the VTA and ΔFosB expression in the nucleus accumbens. These changes suggest that while CBD may have protective effects acutely, its long-term molecular actions on the brain are more complex and may be supradditive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. A Key Marine Diazotroph in a Changing Ocean: The Interacting Effects of Temperature, CO2 and Light on the Growth of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias G Boatman

    Full Text Available Trichodesmium is a globally important marine diazotroph that accounts for approximately 60 - 80% of marine biological N2 fixation and as such plays a key role in marine N and C cycles. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of how the growth rate of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 was directly affected by the combined interactions of temperature, pCO2 and light intensity. Our key findings were: low pCO2 affected the lower temperature tolerance limit (Tmin but had no effect on the optimum temperature (Topt at which growth was maximal or the maximum temperature tolerance limit (Tmax; low pCO2 had a greater effect on the thermal niche width than low-light; the effect of pCO2 on growth rate was more pronounced at suboptimal temperatures than at supraoptimal temperatures; temperature and light had a stronger effect on the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm than did CO2; and at Topt, the maximum growth rate increased with increasing CO2, but the initial slope of the growth-irradiance curve was not affected by CO2. In the context of environmental change, our results suggest that the (i nutrient replete growth rate of Trichodesmium IMS101 would have been severely limited by low pCO2 at the last glacial maximum (LGM, (ii future increases in pCO2 will increase growth rates in areas where temperature ranges between Tmin to Topt, but will have negligible effect at temperatures between Topt and Tmax, (iii areal increase of warm surface waters (> 18°C has allowed the geographic range to increase significantly from the LGM to present and that the range will continue to expand to higher latitudes with continued warming, but (iv continued global warming may exclude Trichodesmium spp. from some tropical regions by 2100 where temperature exceeds Topt.

  17. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  18. Protein-protein interactions as a proxy to monitor conformational changes and activation states of the tomato resistance protein I-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasik-Shreepaathy, E.; Vossen, J.H.; Tameling, W.I.L.; de Vroomen, M.J.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Takken, F.L.W.

    2012-01-01

    Plant resistance proteins (R) are involved in pathogen recognition and subsequent initiation of defence responses. Their activity is regulated by inter- and intramolecular interactions. In a yeast two-hybrid screen two clones (I2I-1 and I2I-2) specifically interacting with I-2, a Fusarium oxysporum

  19. Zinc-Associated Variant in SLC30A8 Gene Interacts With Gestational Weight Gain on Postpartum Glycemic Changes: A Longitudinal Study in Women With Prior Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiange; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Huang, Tao; Li, Weiqin; Zheng, Yan; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Nan; Hu, Gang; Qi, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Zinc transporter 8 genetic variant SLC30A8 has been associated with postpartum risk of type 2 diabetes among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Gestational weight gain is one of the strongest risk factors for postpartum hyperglycemia. We assessed the interaction between type 2 diabetes-associated SLC30A8 rs13266634 and gestational weight gain on 1-5 years of postpartum glycemic changes in 1,071 women with prior GDM in a longitudinal study. Compared with gestation of 26-30 weeks, postpartum levels of fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test 2-h glucose, and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) increased across rs13266634 TT, CT, and CC genotypes in women with excessive gestational weight gain, whereas opposite genetic associations were found in women with inadequate or adequate gestational weight gain. Postpartum changes in fasting glucose per additional copy of the C allele were -0.18, -0.04, and 0.12 mmol/L in women with inadequate, adequate, and excessive gestational weight gain, respectively (P for interaction = 0.002). We also found similar interactions for changes in 2-h glucose and HbA 1c (P for interaction = 0.003 and 0.005, respectively). Our data indicate that gestational weight gain may modify SLC30A8 variant on long-term glycemic changes, highlighting the importance of gestational weight control in the prevention of postpartum hyperglycemia in women with GDM. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas - Urban Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and well-being are and will be affected by climate change, both directly through changes in extreme weather events and indirectly through weather-induced changes in human and natural systems. Populations are vulnerable to these changes in varying degrees, depending ...

  1. Collocated Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Fischer, Joel; Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    interactions. Yet, new challenges abound as people wear and carry more devices than ever, creating fragmented device ecologies at work, and changing the ways we socialise with each other. In this workshop we seek to start a dialogue to look back as well as forward, review best practices, discuss and design......In the 25 years since Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein proposed the time-space taxonomy, research in the ‘same time, same place’ quadrant has diversified, perhaps even fragmented. This one-day workshop will bring together researchers with diverse, yet convergent interests in tabletop, surface, mobile...

  2. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P pollution, combined local dry season + La Nina and combined local dry season + El Nino were the most significant predictors of incident hematologic malignancy. These findings highlight the importance of aging, pollution, the dry season, El Nino and La Nina as related to global warming as determinants of hematologic malignancies among African patients from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Cancer registries in DRC and other African countries will provide more robust database for future researches on

  3. Transformations in Venezuela Online Journalism in the New Century. Interactivity and Changes in Routines Face the Challenge of not Succumbing in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Orejuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Characterized journalism online from analysis of interactivity through online versions of two major Venezuelan newspapers: El Nacional and El Universal. The study addressed the following variables: interactivity (selective and communicative and journalistic routines. The most important theoretical basis supporting the work is based on the principles of Rost (2006 and Albornoz (2007 among many others. The methodology corresponded to basic research exploratory and descriptive level, which employed as instruments Interactive Analysis Resource Analysis Update type and questionnaire applied to media journalists. The main conclusions were that the media studied privileged tools and applications for interactivity by selection with its users, thus hindering the realization of dialogue. In addition, routines online journalists are so changeable, many must learn on the fly, which results in a constant professional empiricism.

  4. Historical and projected carbon balance of mature black spruce ecosystems across north america: The role of carbon-nitrogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clein, Joy S.; McGuire, A.D.; Zhang, X.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Melillo, J.M.; Wofsy, S.C.; Jarvis, P.G.; Massheder, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) interactions on sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in black spruce ecosystems across North America was evaluated with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) by applying parameterizations of the model in which C-N dynamics were either coupled or uncoupled. First, the performance of the parameterizations, which were developed for the dynamics of black spruce ecosystems at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research site in Alaska, were evaluated by simulating C dynamics at eddy correlation tower sites in the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) for black spruce ecosystems in the northern study area (northern site) and the southern study area (southern site) with local climate data. We compared simulated monthly growing season (May to September) estimates of gross primary production (GPP), total ecosystem respiration (RESP), and net ecosystem production (NEP) from 1994 to 1997 to available field-based estimates at both sites. At the northern site, monthly growing season estimates of GPP and RESP for the coupled and uncoupled simulations were highly correlated with the field-based estimates (coupled: R2= 0.77, 0.88 for GPP and RESP; uncoupled: R2 = 0.67, 0.92 for GPP and RESP). Although the simulated seasonal pattern of NEP generally matched the field-based data, the correlations between field-based and simulated monthly growing season NEP were lower (R2 = 0.40, 0.00 for coupled and uncoupled simulations, respectively) in comparison to the correlations between field-based and simulated GPP and RESP. The annual NEP simulated by the coupled parameterization fell within the uncertainty of field-based estimates in two of three years. On the other hand, annual NEP simulated by the uncoupled parameterization only fell within the field-based uncertainty in one of three years. At the southern site, simulated NEP generally matched field-based NEP estimates, and the correlation between monthly growing season field-based and

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance line shifts and line shape changes due to heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions of nitroxide free radicals in liquids 8. Further experimental and theoretical efforts to separate the effects of the two interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav

    2012-03-22

    The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to

  6. Neanderthal and Anatomically Modern Human interaction with Abrupt Late Pleistocene Environments - the data is finally good enough to talk about climate change!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockley, Simon; Schreve, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The timing and nature of the appearance of Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) in Europe, their interaction with, and eventual morphological replacement of Neanderthals (despite some shared genetic heritage) has been a matter of intense debate within archaeology for a generation. This period, often termed the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition occurs in the latter part of Marine Isotope Stage Three and in recent decades archaeological interest has been complemented by the input of palaeoclimate scientists, over the role of abrupt climate change in this process. This was due to the recognition from ice core and marine proxy archives, in particular, of periods if intense cooling, correlated to the marine record of Heinrich ice rafted debris layers from the Atlantic. As a result of these collaborations between the archaeological and palaeoenvironmental communities various drivers have been proposed for the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic Transition that include: (1) resource competition between two species occupying similar niches; (2) the impact of repeated cycles of Heinrich event cooling, leading to the decline and eventual disappearance of the Neanderthal populations, leaving a new region open for AMH exploitation; and (3) catastrophic impacts of large volcanic eruptions on Neanderthal populations. Attempts to address the above hypotheses have been dogged by the chronological precision available for a number of key archives. The accuracy of many of the radiocarbon ages that underpin the chronology for both Neanderthal and AMH archaeological sites has been questioned1. This has been exacerbated by uncertainties over the influence of variability in the radiocarbon marine reservoir effect on marine palaeoclimate records and a marine dominated radiocarbon calibration curve. Additionally, the counting uncertainties of the master Greenland palaeoclimate archives are also large by this time, meaning palaeoclimate interpretation can be equivocal. However, several research

  7. In silico analysis reveals sequential interactions and protein conformational changes during the binding of chemokine CXCL-8 to its receptor CXCR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Wen Liou

    Full Text Available Chemokine CXCL-8 plays a central role in human immune response by binding to and activate its cognate receptor CXCR1, a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family. The full-length structure of CXCR1 is modeled by combining the structures of previous NMR experiments with those from homology modeling. Molecular docking is performed to search favorable binding sites of monomeric and dimeric CXCL-8 with CXCR1 and a mutated form of it. The receptor-ligand complex is embedded into a lipid bilayer and used in multi ns molecular dynamics (MD simulations. A multi-steps binding mode is proposed: (i the N-loop of CXCL-8 initially binds to the N-terminal domain of receptor CXCR1 driven predominantly by electrostatic interactions; (ii hydrophobic interactions allow the N-terminal Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR motif of CXCL-8 to move closer to the extracellular loops of CXCR1; (iii electrostatic interactions finally dominate the interaction between the N-terminal ELR motif of CXCL-8 and the EC-loops of CXCR1. Mutation of CXCR1 abrogates this mode of binding. The detailed binding process may help to facilitate the discovery of agonists and antagonists for rational drug design.

  8. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol changes the transition kinetics and subunit interactions in the small bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitake, B.; Spelbrink, R.E.J.; Anishkin, A.; Killian, J.A.; de Kruijff, B.; Sukharev, S.

    2007-01-01

    2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE), a low-dielectric solvent, has recently been used as a promising tool to probe the strength of intersubunit interactions in membrane proteins. An analysis of inner membrane proteins of Escherichia coli has identified several SDS-resistant protein complexes that separate

  9. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  10. Monitoring groundwater-surface water interaction using time-series and time-frequency analysis of transient three-dimensional electrical resistivity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Elwaseif, Mehrez

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse resistivity imaging is increasingly used to monitor hydrologic processes. Compared to conventional hydrologic measurements, surface time-lapse resistivity provides superior spatial coverage in two or three dimensions, potentially high-resolution information in time, and information in the absence of wells. However, interpretation of time-lapse electrical tomograms is complicated by the ever-increasing size and complexity of long-term, three-dimensional (3-D) time series conductivity data sets. Here we use 3-D surface time-lapse electrical imaging to monitor subsurface electrical conductivity variations associated with stage-driven groundwater-surface water interactions along a stretch of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 near Richland, Washington, USA. We reduce the resulting 3-D conductivity time series using both time-series and time-frequency analyses to isolate a paleochannel causing enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions. Correlation analysis on the time-lapse imaging results concisely represents enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions within the paleochannel, and provides information concerning groundwater flow velocities. Time-frequency analysis using the Stockwell (S) transform provides additional information by identifying the stage periodicities driving groundwater-surface water interactions due to upstream dam operations, and identifying segments in time-frequency space when these interactions are most active. These results provide new insight into the distribution and timing of river water intrusion into the Hanford 300 Area, which has a governing influence on the behavior of a uranium plume left over from historical nuclear fuel processing operations.

  11. Effectiveness of small-group interactive education vs. lecture-based information-only programs on motivation to change and lifestyle behaviours. A prospective controlled trial of rehabilitation inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Andrea; Ströbl, Veronika; Ellgring, Heiner; Faller, Hermann

    2011-02-01

    Although patient education may promote motivation to change health behaviours, the most effective method has not yet been determined. This prospective, controlled trial compared an interactive, patient-oriented group program with lectures providing only information. We evaluated motivational stages of change and self-reported behaviours in three domains (sports, diet, relaxation) at four times up to one year (60% complete data) among 753 German rehabilitation inpatients (mean age 50 years, 52% male) with orthopaedic (59%) or cardiologic disorders (10%) or diabetes mellitus (31%). We found improvements between baseline and follow up regarding each outcome (pmotivation regarding diet (pdiets both after 3 months (p=0.013) and 12 months (p=0.047), more relaxation behaviours (p=.029) after 3 months and higher motivation for sports after 12 months (p=.08). The superior effectiveness of the interactive group was only partly confirmed. This short, 5-session interactive program may not be superior to lectures to induce major sustainable changes in motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction between forest biodiversity and people's use of forest resources in Roviana, Solomon Islands: implications for biocultural conservation under socioeconomic changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Furusawa, Takuro; Sirikolo, Myknee Qusa; Sasaoka, Masatoshi; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2014-01-01

    [Background]In Solomon Islands, forests have provided people with ecological services while being affected by human use and protection. This study used a quantitative ethnobotanical analysis to explore the society–forest interaction and its transformation in Roviana, Solomon Islands. We compared local plant and land uses between a rural village and urbanized village. Special attention was paid to how local people depend on biodiversity and how traditional human modifications of forest contrib...

  13. Effects of a chronic lead intoxication on the pathophysiological changes in the digestive system and interactions of lead with trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dobrakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead compounds are still the most dangerous poisons. The effects of lead intoxication occur mainly as a result of environmental exposure through lead paints, dust, soil, potable water. Pathophysiology of lead poisoning is still poorly understood, especially gastrointestinal and hepatological aspects. In consequence, the aim of the paper is to present the most important data concerning the effects of chronic lead exposure on the digestive system and the interactions between lead and selected trace elements.

  14. Interaction of HSP20 with a viral RdRp changes its sub-cellular localization and distribution pattern in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xiang, Cong-Ying; Yang, Jian; Chen, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Heng-Mu

    2015-09-11

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) perform a fundamental role in protecting cells against a wide array of stresses but their biological function during viral infection remains unknown. Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes a severe disease of rice in Eastern Asia. OsHSP20 and its homologue (NbHSP20) were used as baits in yeast two-hybrid (YTH) assays to screen an RSV cDNA library and were found to interact with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RSV. Interactions were confirmed by pull-down and BiFC assays. Further analysis showed that the N-terminus (residues 1-296) of the RdRp was crucial for the interaction between the HSP20s and viral RdRp and responsible for the alteration of the sub-cellular localization and distribution pattern of HSP20s in protoplasts of rice and epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. This is the first report that a plant virus or a viral protein alters the expression pattern or sub-cellular distribution of sHSPs.

  15. 'You just change the channel if you don't like what you're going to hear': gamblers' attitudes towards, and interactions with, social marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; Lewis, Sophie; Westberg, Kate

    2015-02-01

    To investigate how gamblers interact with, and respond to, downstream social marketing campaigns that focus on the risks and harms of problem gambling and/or encourage help seeking. Qualitative study of 100 gamblers with a range of gambling behaviours (from non-problem to problem gambling). We used a Social Constructivist approach. Our constant comparative method of data interpretation focused on how participants' experiences and interactions with gambling influenced their opinions towards, and interactions with social marketing campaigns. Three key themes emerged from the narratives. (i) Participants felt that campaigns were heavily skewed towards encouraging individuals to take personal responsibility for their gambling behaviours or were targeted towards those with severe gambling problems. (ii) Participants described the difficulty for campaigns to achieve 'cut through' because of the overwhelming volume of positive messages about the benefits of gambling that were given by the gambling industry. (iii) Some participants described that dominant discourses about personal responsibility prevented them from seeking help and reinforced perceptions of stigma. Social marketing campaigns have an important role to play in the prevention of gambling risk behaviours and the promotion of help seeking. Social marketers should explore how to more effectively target campaigns to different audience segments, understand the role of environmental factors in undermining the uptake of social marketing strategies and anticipate the potential unforeseen consequences of social marketing strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Effects of changing rate and direction of interaural phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S

    1983-10-01

    We used the binaural beat stimulus to study the interaural phase sensitivity of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons in the cat. The binaural beat, produced by delivering tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, generates continuous and graded changes in interaural phase. Over 90% of the cells that exhibit a sensitivity to changes in the interaural delay also show a sensitivity to interaural phase disparities with the binaural beat. Cells respond with a burst of impulses with each complete cycle of the beat frequency. The period histogram obtained by binning the poststimulus time histogram on the beat frequency gives a measure of the interaural phase sensitivity of the cell. In general, there is good correspondence in the shapes of the period histograms generated from binaural beats and the interaural phase curves derived from interaural delays and in the mean interaural phase angle calculated from them. The magnitude of the beat frequency determines the rate of change of interaural phase and the sign determines the direction of phase change. While most cells respond in a phase-locked manner up to beat frequencies of 10 Hz, there are some cells tht will phase lock up to 80 Hz. Beat frequency and mean interaural phase angle are linearly related for most cells. Most cells respond equally in the two directions of phase change and with different rates of change, at least up to 10 Hz. However, some IC cells exhibit marked sensitivity to the speed of phase change, either responding more vigorously at low beat frequencies or at high beat frequencies. In addition, other cells demonstrate a clear directional sensitivity. The cells that show sensitivity to the direction and speed of phase changes would be expected to demonstrate a sensitivity to moving sound sources in the free field. Changes in the mean interaural phase of the binaural beat period histograms are used to determine the effects of changes in average and interaural intensity on the phase sensitivity

  17. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Calculation of the kinetics of heating and structural changes in the cartilaginous tissue under the action of laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol', E. N.; Kitai, M. S.

    1998-07-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the calculation of the temperature fields and determination of the size of a zone with structural changes in the cartilaginous tissue. The model is based on a simultaneous analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes and it takes into account the bulk absorption of laser radiation by the tissue, surface evaporation of water, and temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients. It is assumed that under the influence of a phase transition between free and bound water, caused by heating of the cartilage to 70°C, the proteoglycans of the cartilage matrix become mobile and, as a result of such mass transfer, structural changes are induced in the cartilaginous tissue causing relaxation of stresses or denaturation. It is shown that the maximum temperature is then reached not on the irradiated surface but at some distance from it, and that the size of the zones of structural changes (denaturation depth) depends strongly on the energy density of the laser radiation and its wavelength, on the duration of the irradiation, and on the cartilage thickness. This model makes it possible to calculate the temperature fields and the depth of structural changes in laser-induced relaxation of stresses and changes in the shape of the cartilaginous tissue.

  18. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  19. Object individuation is invariant to attentional diffusion: Changes in the size of the attended region do not interact with object-substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Edwards, Mark

    2016-12-01

    When the human brain is confronted with complex and dynamic visual scenes, two pivotal processes are at play: visual attention (the process of selecting certain aspects of the scene for privileged processing) and object individuation (determining what information belongs to a continuing object over time versus what represents two or more distinct objects). Here we examined whether these processes are independent or whether they interact. Object-substitution masking (OSM) has been used as a tool to examine such questions, however, there is controversy surrounding whether OSM reflects object individuation versus substitution processes. The object-individuation account is agnostic regarding the role of attention, whereas object-substitution theory stipulates a pivotal role for attention. There have been attempts to investigate the role of attention in OSM, but they have been subject to alternative explanations. Here, therefore, we manipulated the size of the attended region, a pure and uncontaminated attentional manipulation, and examined the impact on OSM. Across three experiments, there was no interaction. This refutes the object-substitution theory of OSM. This, in turn, tell us that object-individuation is invariant the distribution of attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries - towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...

  1. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries – towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...

  2. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment int...

  3. An Examination of the Science Curriculum As It Reflects Social/Industrial Change: A Proposal for Curriculum Involving Social Interactions and Utilitarian Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Thomas Scott

    Chapter I of this master's thesis examines aspects of the changing lifestyle that was inaugerated by the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions. Chapter II picks up the transition in general schooling that accompanied the revolutions. Chapter III traces the role of the evolving science curricula in this transition. Chapter IV presents proposals…

  4. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  5. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Jérôme Ogée; Asko Noormets; Julien Jouangy; Michael Gavazzi; Emrys Treasure; Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; John S. King

    2012-01-01

    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the...

  6. Artful Teaching and Learning: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach at Midtown West School. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Sam; Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." Established in 1989, Midtown West is a New York City public elementary school serving approximately 350 students from kindergarten through grade five. With the support of Tony Alvarado,…

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gases: the importance of land base interactions between forests, agriculture, and residential development in the face of changes in bioenergy and carbon prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Darius Adams; Bruce. McCarl

    2009-01-01

    The forest sector can contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, while also providing other environmental, economic, and social benefits. Policy tools for climate change mitigation include carbon-related payment programs as well as laws and programs to impede the loss of agricultural and forest lands to development. Policy makers will base their expectations...