WorldWideScience

Sample records for change drinking behavior

  1. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students.

  2. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  3. Enforced water drinking induces changes in burying behavior and social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-González, J A; Hernández-León, M J; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    1996-09-01

    The effect of water deprivation and water intake on experimental anxiety in rats was tested using burying behavior (BB) and social interaction (SI) anxiety paradigms. Two groups of animals were studied: a control group with free access to water, and a 72-h water-deprived experimental group. Anxiety was studied in a water-deprived group or following a 10-min period of ad lib water drinking. An increase in the mean time of defensive burying in animals deprived for 72 h was observed, whereas an important reduction occurred in the levels of burying behavior immediately after the animals were allowed to drink ad lib for 10 min. These results suggest that the observed increase in defensive burying in the water-deprived animals represents an anxiogenic effect, whereas the decrease in this behavior in water-satiated animals is considered an anxiolytic action. The temporal course of reduction in burying behavior, observed after water drinking, revealed that the anxiolytic action lasts 5 min, whereas 15-30 min after drinking, burying behavior levels were similar to those in the control group. In the social interaction experiment a partial anxiogenic/anxiolytic effect of water deprivation and water intake was observed. The adaptive meaning of anxiogenic and anxiolytic changes linked to consummatory behaviors in rats is discussed on the basis of behavioral and biochemical data.

  4. Interventions to reduce college student drinking: State of the evidence for mechanisms of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Kate B

    2015-08-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions. PMID:26164065

  5. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLellan Deborah L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758 were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  6. Changing consumer’s attitude of energy drinks in Thailandmarket”-A case study of Thai consumer behavior toward energy drinks-Master Thesis in Business Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kuptanon, Suratssawadee; Pichittachakul, Thanathorn

    2011-01-01

    Date: 2011-05-25 Program: MIMA-International Marketing Course name: Master Thesis (EFO705) Title: Changing consumer’s attitude of energy drinks in Thailand market. Acase study of Thai consumer behavior toward energy drinks. Authors: Suratssawadee Kuptanon (870113)Thanathorn Pichittachakul (831226) Supervisor: Peter SelegårdProblem: How to change the attitude of Thai young adult consumer regarding toenergy drink? Purpose: To describe and analyze the attitude of Thai young adult consumer thatef...

  7. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  8. Learning about Drinking Water: How Important are the Three Dimensions of Knowledge that Can Change Individual Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fremerey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Clean drinking water, our most important resource, needs comprehensive protection. Due to its ubiquitous availability, the awareness of the importance of clean drinking water has partially vanished. Therefore, sensitizing within this context and improving individual ecological behavior has become an important issue in science curricula. We developed a student-centered guided-learning module based on nine workstations, with the themes: occurrence rates, purification methods, cleaning guidelines, distribution patterns, use and consumption, pollution, problems, types of drinking water and virtual water. One hundred and seventy four ninth to eleventh graders participated in our outreach intervention. All tasks presented via workstations were completed before participants inspected a nearby reed sewage treatment plant and completed hands-on experiments. For empirical analyses, we collected the newly acquired knowledge in three dimensions: system-knowledge, action-related knowledge and effectiveness knowledge, which together are assumed to provide a sufficient basis for conservation behavior. System knowledge directly affects action-related and effectiveness knowledge and these two types of knowledge, in turn, affect directly the ecological behavior. At all three test schedules, the three dimensions of knowledge correlated with each other, especially in both follow-up tests. The relevance of these results for schools is discussed.

  9. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  10. Work experience and drinking behavior: alienation, occupational status, workplace drinking subculture and problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M J; Yang, M S; Kawachi, I

    2001-07-01

    This study explored the association between alienating job conditions and problem drinking within the context of occupational status and workplace drinking subculture. From December 1994 to March 1995, a questionnaire survey was implemented in the manufactory sector in southern Taiwan. Within the questionnaire, any perceived self-estrangement, powerlessness and social isolation that the individual experienced in his work were measured as the alienating job conditions, and any negative physical, psychological and social consequences the individual experienced during the previous month were considered as affecting problem drinking. Of the 1117 subjects, 668 (61.8%) reported imbibing one or more drinks during the preceding month; the average daily alcohol consumption being 0.2+/-0.9 drinks. In addition, 188 (16.8%) subjects reported having experienced drinking-related problems in the preceding month. Workers with low occupational status were more likely to become problem drinkers when they felt comparatively self-estranged in their work. Further, those with a family history including any habitual drinker or those under more encouraging workplace drinking subculture were more likely to have drinking-related problems. For the prevention of problem-related drinking behavior, the workplace should be considered as the focus of our future intervention and management program.

  11. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Kaysen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history, a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01. Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed.

  12. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, pself-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25511723

  13. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies, and Drinking Motives in a Model of College Student Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as i...

  14. Affective decision-making predictive of Chinese adolescent drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Grenard, L Jerry; Stacy, W Alan; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Fu, Xiaolu; Johnson, C Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to address whether affective decision making would serve as a unique neuropsychological marker to predict drinking behaviors among adolescents. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu city, China. In their 10th grade (ages 15-16), these adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-Ordered Pointing Test. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess academic performance and drinking behaviors. At 1-year follow-up, questionnaires were completed to assess drinking behaviors, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to examine four dimensions of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Results indicated that those adolescents who progressed to binge drinking or exhibited consistent binge drinking not only performed poorly on the IGT but also scored significantly higher in urgency compared to those who never or occasionally drank. Moreover, better IGT scores predicted fewer drinking problems and fewer drinks 1 year later after controlling for demographic variables, the previous drinking behaviors, working memory, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that deficits in affective decision making may be important independent determinants of compulsive drinking and potentially addictive behavior in adolescents. PMID:19573273

  15. Young adult veteran perceptions of peers' drinking behavior and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-02-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  16. Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Guillén

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption prevalence in Bolivia is one of the highest in the region and the most degrading practices faced by the society. To apply the changes, social policy makers require objective, accurate, and complete information about the factors that could be considered both guards and risky. Hence, links between socio-demographics, family, personal/behavioral and social variables and youth alcohol use were analyzed in order to know their particular contributions to the explanation of drinking behavior. The study was carried out with a sample of 1,023 young students (13---23 years old, of both sexes (515 male and 508 female recruited from local high schools and university initial undergraduate courses. The results showed strong ties between such variables and adolescent alcohol drinking behavior. The predictive model (linear regression model fitted relatively well including variables such as age, parental monitoring, father---adolescent relationship, peer pressure, antisocial behavior and risk perception. Nevertheless, only social and parental variables proved a good fit with the empirical data when a theoretical model was proposed through a structured equation modeling. Although this model seems to be in good shape, it should be adjusted to a more comprehensive approach to a risk/protection conceptual framework.

  17. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive ...

  18. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  19. The Influence of Alcohol Advertising on Students' Drinking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Peggy J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perceived influence of alcohol advertising in a daily campus newspaper on the drinking behaviors of students. Findings indicated that college students do perceive that their drinking patterns are influenced by alcohol promotions in the campus newspaper and, furthermore, that self-identified binge drinkers were influenced significantly…

  20. Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, J W; Voas, R B

    1996-12-01

    A social-psychological model of underage drinking and driving (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) was tested with data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 706 16-20-year-old drivers from seven western states in the United States. Consistent with the model, a structural equations analysis indicated that DUI and RWDD were primarily predicted by (a) expectancies regarding the physical risks of DUI, (b) normative beliefs about the extent to which friends would disapprove of DUI, (c) control beliefs about the ease or difficulty of avoiding DUI and RWDD and (d) drinking. Expectancies concerning enforcement had a significant effect on RWDD, but not on DUI. Among the background and environmental variables included in the analysis, only night-time driving and age had significant direct effects on DUI and RWDD. Drinking and involvement in risky driving had indirect effects on DUI and RWDD that were mediated through expectancies and normative beliefs. Males, European Americans, Latinos, respondents who drove more frequently and respondents who were less educated held beliefs that were more favorable toward DUI and RWDD, drank more and engaged more frequently in risky driving. As a result, such individuals may be at greater risk for DUI and RWDD. PMID:8997765

  1. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, th...

  2. Drinking behaviors by stress level in Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Young

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the stress level of university students, and to verify the relationships between stress level and drinking behavior. A questionnaire survey was administered to 430 university students in the Gangwon area in Korea from November 5 to November 28, 2008, and data from 391 students were used for the final statistical analysis. The most stressful factor was "Worry about academic achievements" (2.86 by Likert-type 4 point scale). The subjects were divided into two groups, a low stress group (≤ 65.0) and a high stress group (≥ 66.0), by the mean value (65.1) and median value (66.0) of the stress levels. The drinking frequency was not different between the two stress groups, but the amount of alcohol consumption was significantly different (P students reporting drinking "7 glasses or over" was higher in the lower stress group than in the higher stress group. In addition, factor 6, "Lack of learning ability", was negatively correlated with drinking frequency and the amount of alcohol consumption (P stress group showed significantly higher scores on several items in the categories of motives (P stress group. Our results imply that university students at the lower stress level may drink more from social motives in positive drinking environments, while those at the higher stress level may have more problematic-drinking despite their smaller amount of alcohol consumption.

  3. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  4. Alcohol drinking behaviors among Turkish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Erginöz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioral patterns and correlates of regular alcohol drinking in high school students. This cross-sectional study involved the completion of a modified version of "Health Behavior in School Age Children" (HBSC 1997/1998) questionnaire by 4,153 grade 9-11 students from 26 randomly selected high schools in Istanbul. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation test and forward stepwise multiple logistic regression model were used for statistical analyses as appropriate. Overall, 61% of students were experimental drinkers, and 46% of the students were current drinkers. There was a significant difference between female and male students with respect to reporting current alcohol drinking at grade 9 and 11 (p > 0.05 for each comparison). Regular drinking was reported by 6% of students. Male students were more likely than female students to report regular drinking at each grade (p bullying others, being sexually active, playing computer games > or = 4 h/week, exercising or = four evenings with friends, at ease in talking to same gender friends, tiredness in the morning, perceived as good-looking/beautiful, higher educational level of the mother and perceived poor academic achievement. The results of this study showed that alcohol consumption is prevalent among high school students. There is therefore a need for school-based alcohol prevention programs which also deal with family and peer influences on drinking. PMID:15074374

  5. Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behavior among Heavy Drinking College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline followback interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those repor...

  6. Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Behaviors among College Students with Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Christina C.; Curry, John F.; Looney, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. Participants: The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent…

  7. Adolescent binge drinking leads to changes in alcohol drinking, anxiety, and amygdalar corticotropin releasing factor cells in adulthood in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Gilpin

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects

  8. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  9. Current drinking and health-risk behaviors among male high school students in central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichainarong Natchaporn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol drinking is frequently related to behavioral problems, which lead to a number of negative consequences. This study was to evaluate the characteristics of male high school students who drink, the drinking patterns among them, and the associations between current drinking and other health risk behaviors which focused on personal safety, violence-related behaviors, suicide and sexual behaviors. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore current alcohol drinking and health-risk behaviors among male high school students in central Thailand. Five thousand one hundred and eighty four male students were classified into 2 groups according to drinking in the previous 30 days (yes = 631, no = 4,553. Data were collected by self-administered, anonymous questionnaire which consisted of 3 parts: socio-demographic factors, health-risk behaviors and alcohol drinking behavior during the past year from December 2007 to February 2008. Results The results showed that the percent of current drinking was 12.17. Most of them were 15-17 years (50.21%. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational level, residence, cohabitants, grade point average (GPA, having a part time job and having family members with alcohol/drug problems were significantly associated with alcohol drinking (p Conclusions An increased risk of health-risk behaviors, including driving vehicles after drinking, violence-related behaviors, sad feelings and attempted suicide, and sexual behaviors was higher among drinking students that led to significant health problems. Effective intervention strategies (such as a campaign mentioning the adverse health effects and social consequences to the risk groups, and encouraging parental and community efforts to prevent drinking among adolescents should be implemented to prevent underage drinking and adverse consequences.

  10. Rethink your drink... : The bidirectional relation between automatic and controlled processes and the development of drinking behavior in at-risk adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot

    2014-01-01

    Recent theories suggest that behavioral control is a very important aspect in the drinking behavior of adolescents, and differences in the capacity to control one’s own responses are assumed to underlie the escalation from relatively normal drinking patterns to more severe drinking in adults and ado

  11. Anticipating Problem Drinking Risk from Preschoolers' Drinking Behavior: Evidence for a Common Delinquency-Related Diathesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayzer. Roni; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A common diathesis model with precursive patterns of aggression and delinquent behavior from preschool onward is examined whether it anticipates early first drinking (EFD). It was found that EFD and delinquent behavior have a common diathesis that is evident before school entry. It is suggested that interventions should aim at dismantling the…

  12. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  13. A multimethod examination of negative behaviors during couples interactions and problem drinking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Cranford, James A

    2016-08-01

    Models of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are increasingly conceptualizing social and relationship factors as being critical to the understanding of problem drinking. Close relationships involving conflict have been a particular research focus, and partners' expressions of negative emotion are theorized to affect drinking among those with AUD. Although it has long been presumed that behaviors during couples interactions influence drinking-and this assumption has informed many modern treatments for AUD-this hypothesis has not been directly tested. We bring multiple methods to bear on this question, combining laboratory-based behavioral observation with a longitudinal design. Forty-eight individuals with AUD (probands), together with their partners, completed a laboratory-based conflict interaction. Their behavior was coded with the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System. Longitudinal follow-ups of drinking behaviors were completed at 6 and 12 months. Results showed that, above and beyond the proband's own behaviors, partner negative behaviors moderated probands' drinking trajectories, with drinkers whose partners displayed higher levels of hostility at baseline reporting slower declines in frequency of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems over time and higher levels of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems at follow-up. Results emphasize the importance of considering close relationships in the study of AUD and further indicate the utility of combining multiple methods in alcohol research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362489

  14. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  15. Predictive value of readiness, importance, and confidence in ability to change drinking and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual analog scales (VAS are sometimes used to assess change constructs that are often considered critical for change. Aims of Study: 1. To determine the association of readiness to change, importance of changing and confidence in ability to change alcohol and tobacco use at baseline with the risk for drinking (more than 21 drinks per week/6 drinks or more on a single occasion more than once per month and smoking (one or more cigarettes per day six months later. 2. To determine the association of readiness, importance and confidence with alcohol (number of drinks/week, number of binge drinking episodes/month and tobacco (number of cigarettes/day use at six months. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from a multi-substance brief intervention randomized trial. A sample of 461 Swiss young men was analyzed as a prospective cohort. Participants were assessed at baseline and six months later on alcohol and tobacco use, and at baseline on readiness to change, importance of changing and confidence in ability to change constructs, using visual analog scales ranging from 1–10 for drinking and smoking behaviors. Regression models controlling for receipt of brief intervention were employed for each change construct. The lowest level (1–4 of each scale was the reference group that was compared to the medium (5–7 and high (8–10 levels. Results Among the 377 subjects reporting unhealthy alcohol use at baseline, mean (SD readiness, importance and confidence to change drinking scores were 3.9 (3.0, 2.7 (2.2 and 7.2 (3.0, respectively. At follow-up, 108 (29% reported no unhealthy alcohol use. Readiness was not associated with being risk-free at follow-up, but high importance (OR 2.94; 1.15, 7.50 and high confidence (OR 2.88; 1.46, 5.68 were. Among the 255 smokers at baseline, mean readiness, importance and confidence to change smoking scores were 4.6 (2.6, 5.3 (2.6 and 5.9 (2.7, respectively. At follow-up, 13% (33 reported no

  16. Rethink your drink... : The bidirectional relation between automatic and controlled processes and the development of drinking behavior in at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Margot

    2014-01-01

    Recent theories suggest that behavioral control is a very important aspect in the drinking behavior of adolescents, and differences in the capacity to control one’s own responses are assumed to underlie the escalation from relatively normal drinking patterns to more severe drinking in adults and adolescents. The development of the behavioral control coincides together with the maturation of the prefrontal cortex and it is not until late adolescence that these brain areas are fully grown. This...

  17. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark...... aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23) in Denmark and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N=16)....

  18. Behaviors and Attitudes Associated With Low Drinking Water Intake Among US Adults, Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Alyson B.; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Park, Sohyun; Nebeling, Linda; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Water is vital for life, and plain water is a calorie-free option for hydration. Increasing consumption of drinking water is a strategy to reduce energy intake and lose or maintain weight; however, information on the characteristics of consumers who drink water is limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of people who have a low intake of drinking water and to determine associations between their behaviors and attitudes and their intake of water. Methods We anal...

  19. Alcohol policy enforcement and changes in student drinking rates in a statewide public college system: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Sion K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.

  20. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. PMID:25402835

  1. The Influence of Daily Periods on the Drinking Behavior in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim of this study was to determine some aspect of drinking behavior of the cows in 24 hours that were divided into 3 day periods (intervals: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-21:00 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During the experiments, the following drinking behavior aspects were determined: the number of drinkings and the length of drinking periods per 24 hours, in the fibrous-succulents administration order of forages (O1 and succulents-fibrous order (O2. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the daily periods had an influence on the number of drinkings and drinking length, the lowest number of drinkings occurred during the night interval I3 (4.20 and the highest number together with the longest drinking period occurred in the second interval I2 (12.47 and 1062.50 seconds. In both administration order of forages ( O1 and O2 there were a very significant differences (p<0.001 between I1 and I2 in favour of I2, between I1 and I3 in favour of I1 and between I2 and I3 in favour of I2, for number of drinkings periods and for length of drinking periods.

  2. The myth of conformity: adolescents and abstention from unhealthy drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Carter; Wallace, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent peer groups with pro-drinking group norms are a well-established source of influence for alcohol initiation and use. However, classic experimental studies of social influence, namely 'minority influence', clearly indicate social situations in which an individual can resist conforming to the group norm. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health ("Add Health"), a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we find evidence that being a non-drinking adolescent does not unilaterally put youth at risk for drinking onset when faced with a friendship network where the majority of friends drink. Our results also show that a non-drinking adolescent with a majority of drinking friends is significantly less likely to initiate alcohol abuse if he or she has a minority of non-drinking friend(s). Furthermore, a drinking adolescent with a majority of friends who drink has a decreased probability of continuing to drink and has overall lower levels of consumption if he or she has a minority of friends who do not drink. Our findings recognize that adolescent in-group friendships are a mix of behavioral profiles and can perhaps help adolescents continue or begin to abstain alcohol use even when in a friendship group supportive of alcohol use.

  3. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  4. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  5. Does education confer a culture of healthy behavior? Smoking and drinking patterns in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, Erik L;

    2011-01-01

    More education is associated with healthier smoking and drinking behaviors. Most analyses of effects of education focus on mean levels. Few studies have compared variance in health-related behaviors at different levels of education or analyzed how education impacts underlying genetic...... drinking. Correlations between shared environmental influences on education and the health behaviors were substantial among the well-educated for smoking in both sexes and drinking in males, reinforcing this notion....... and environmental sources of health-related behaviors. This study explored these influences. In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21,522 members of the Danish Twin Registry, born during 1931-1982, reported smoking and drinking habits. The authors used quantitative genetic models to examine how these behaviors' genetic...

  6. Similarities in drinking behavior of twin's friends: moderation of heritability of alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The N

  7. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  8. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy drinks with alcohol. About 25 percent of college students consume alcohol with energy drinks, and they binge- ... are. Excessive energy drink consumption may disrupt teens’ sleep patterns and may fuel risk-taking behavior. Many energy ...

  9. Drinking group characteristics related to willingness to engage in protective behaviors with the group at nightclubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B

    2016-03-01

    Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol and drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engage in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives of this study were to (a) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group and (b) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Nightclub patrons (N = 215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual- and group-level characteristics were measured in relation to willingness to intervene with peers. Mixed-model regressions were conducted, accounting for nesting by drinking group. Analyses show that participants were willing to intervene with their peers. Groups that knew each other well and had lower expectations for members' drinking were more willing to intervene. Women, younger, and older participants were also more willing to intervene. Findings show that club patrons are willing to intervene with their drinking groups to protect them from harmful consequences of heavy drinking and drug use. Findings indicate characteristics of both individuals and drinking groups that could be targeted in interventions among young adults largely not being reached by college interventions. PMID:26999349

  10. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings. PMID:27280609

  11. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. PMID:22608867

  12. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  13. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link among Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    For this study we examined the association between relationship satisfaction and readiness-to-change alcohol use, as well as the associations between hazardous drinking and readiness-to-change relationship issues in college dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18-25) completed self-report…

  14. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  15. Correlates of Teenage Drinking Behavior in Two Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjepkes, Phyllis Kathleen; Hayden, Davis C.

    A survey of research literature on teenage alcohol use will reveal many variables related to teenage drinking. This study compared these variables in two separate communities to ascertain their global validity. To investigate factors leading to teenage alcohol use, 218 high school seniors from Washington and Iowa were surveyed. Dependent variables…

  16. Alcohol Policy Enforcement and Changes in Student Drinking Rates in a Statewide Public College System: a Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harris Sion K; Sherritt Lon; Van Hook Shari; Wechsler Henry; Knight John R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N o...

  17. Similarities in drinking behavior of twin's friends: moderation of heritability of alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Engels, R. C. M. E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Boomsma, D I; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The Netherlands Twin Register were available for 1,526 twin pairs aged 16-25 years. We categorized the twin pairs as concordant (both report similar alcohol use in their friends) or discordant for the a...

  18. EFFECTS OF BEVERAGE-SPECIFIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON DRINKING BEHAVIORS AMONG URBAN YOUTH*

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic regression tested the effects of beverage-specific use on consequences (e.g., alcohol use in the past month, week, heavy drinking, and ever drunkennes...

  19. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Romanian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nasui Bogdana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period.

  20. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. CONCLUSION: Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of

  1. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.;

    2008-01-01

    a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined...... as waist change in the lowest or highest quintile of waist changes) by polytomous logistic regression, also taking into account amount of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Drinking frequency was inversely associated with changes in waist circumference in women and was unassociated with changes in waist...... drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may...

  2. Exploring Perceptions and Behaviors about Drinking Water in Australia and New Zealand: Is It Risky to Drink Water, When and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crampton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumers in most developed countries, including Australia and New Zealand, presume their drinking water is safe. How social perceptions about drinking water are formed, however, remains inadequately explored in the research literature. This research contributes exploratory insights by examining factors that affect consumer perceptions and behaviors. Individual perceptions of drinking water quality and actions undertaken to mitigate perceived risks were collected during 183 face-to-face interviews conducted at six research sites. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed the majority did not consider drinking water a “risky” activity, trusted water management authorities to manage all safety issues and believed self-evaluation of drinking water’s taste and appearance were sufficient measures to ensure safe consumption. Quantitatively, significant relationships emerged between water quality perceptions and sex, employment status, drinking water treatment and trust in government to provide safe water. Expert advice was rarely sought, even by those who believed drinking tap water posed some health risks. Generational differences emerged in media usage for drinking water advice. Finally, precautionary measures taken at home and abroad often failed to meet national drinking water guidelines. Three major conclusions are drawn: a. broad lack of awareness exists about the most suitable and safe water treatment activities, as well as risks posed; b. health literacy and interest may be improved through greater consumer involvement in watershed management; and c. development of health campaigns that clearly communicate drinking water safety messages in a timely, relevant and easily understandable fashion may help mitigate actual risks and dispel myths.

  3. The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking among undergraduate students: assessing the impact of habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul

    2011-05-01

    The present study sought to apply the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the prediction of binge drinking intentions and behavior among undergraduate students and to test whether habit strength explains additional variance in binge drinking behavior. Undergraduate students (N=137) completed measures of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, perceived control, and intention) and habit strength (Self-Report Habit Index) in relation to binge drinking. Frequency of binge drinking was assessed one month later (n=109). The TPB explained 75% of the variance in binge drinking intentions, with attitude and self-efficacy making significant contributions, and 35% of the variance in binge drinking behavior at one-month follow-up, with only intention making a significant contribution. Habit strength explained additional variance in binge drinking behavior (∆R(2)=.06), although intention remained as a significant predictor. The results suggest that binge drinking among undergraduate students is under the control of both intentional and habitual processes. Interventions to reduce binge drinking should therefore focus on the motivational determinants (e.g., perceived positive and negative consequences) of binge drinking as well as the environmental factors (i.e., contextual cues) that promote binge drinking. PMID:21310540

  4. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference.

  5. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

  6. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: An evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be n...

  7. Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami,Norito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38 or a control group (n=33. The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and a lecture by an ex-alcoholic. The control group received health education regarding smoking. The students. knowledge regarding alcohol, their drinking behavior, and problem drinking (CAGE were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline and at a two-month follow-up. A repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA of those who completed the follow-up indicated the education sessions. significant intervention (group*time effect on the scores related to knowledge of alcohol-related health problems (p=0.035, with a greater increase in the scores of the intervention group at the follow-up. No significant intervention eff ect was observed regarding drinking behavior or problem drinking as measured by CAGE (p>0.05. Alcohol-related education can be considered an effective way to increase awareness of alcohol-related health problems, but less effective for changing drinking the behavior of Japanese junior college students.

  8. Tool-use for drinking water by immature chimpanzees of Mahale: prevalence of an unessential behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Takahisa; Nishie, Hitonaru; Shimada, Masaki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Zamma, Koichiro; Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2006-04-01

    Use of leaves or sticks for drinking water has only rarely been observed during long-term study of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale. Recently, however, we observed 42 episodes of tool-use for drinking water (73 tools and two cases of using "tool-sets") between 1999 and 2004. Interestingly, all of the performers were immature chimpanzees aged from 2 to 10 years. Immature chimpanzees sometimes observed the tool-using performance of others and subsequently reproduced the behavior, while adults usually paid no attention to the performance. This tool-use did not seem to occur out of necessity: (1) chimpanzees often used tools along streams where they could drink water without tools, (2) they used tools for drinking water from tree holes during the wet season when they could easily obtain water from many streams, and (3) the tool-using performance sometimes contained playful aspects. Between-site comparisons revealed that chimpanzees at drier habitats used tools for drinking water more frequently and in a more "conventional" manner. However, some variations could not be explained by ecological conditions. Such variations and the increase in this tool-use in recent years at Mahale strongly suggest that social learning plays an important role in the process of acquiring the behavior. We should note here that such behaviors that lack obvious benefits or necessity can be prevalent in a group. PMID:16228665

  9. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  10. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  11. Getting a grip on drinking behavior: training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Houben; R.W. Wiers; A. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)—the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study investig

  12. Men's Avoidance Coping and Female Partner's Drinking Behavior: A High-Risk Context for Partner Violence?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Amy M.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored whether men's avoidance coping in response to the drinking behavior of their female partner with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) would be associated with higher levels of men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Women with an AUD (n = 109) and their male partners in a U.S. urban area were assessed on men's perpetration of minor and severe violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale, men's avoidance coping using the Spouse Behavior Questionnaire, and men's ...

  13. Mosquitoes drink with a burst in reserve: explaining pumping behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through the proboscis. Experimental observations with synchrotron x-ray imaging indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an occasional, isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is 10 to 30 times larger than in the continuous mode. We have used a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this variation in drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is more energetically efficient, whereas the burst mode creates a large pressure drop across the proboscis, which could potentially be used to clear blockages. Comparisons with pump knock-out configurations demonstrate different functional roles of the pumps in mosquito feeding. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant No. #0938047.

  14. Leaf-folding behavior for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, R

    2001-11-01

    The use of leaves for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, was observed intensively. The natural hollow of a tree, used by chimpanzees, was filled up with fresh water every morning. Seventy episodes of leaf-using behavior by 14 chimpanzees were directly observed and video-recorded. The chimpanzees at Bossou most frequently (70.3%) used a particular kind of leaf, Hybophrynium braunianum as tool material. The chimpanzees folded one or more leaves in the mouth. This technique, "leaf folding", was observed more frequently (57.9 %) than "leaf sponge" or "leaf spoon". Chimpanzees began to perform this behavior at about 2.5 years old. Infant chimpanzees showed more frequent observations of others (especially their mothers) using leaves before trying to drink water with leaves. Both observation and trial and error might be necessary for the acquisition of this tool-use behavior. PMID:24777523

  15. Subtle changes in the flavour and texture of a drink enhance expectations of satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrickerd Keri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of liquid calories has been implicated in the development of obesity and weight gain. Energy-containing drinks are often reported to have a weak satiety value: one explanation for this is that because of their fluid texture they are not expected to have much nutritional value. It is important to consider what features of these drinks can be manipulated to enhance their expected satiety value. Two studies investigated the perception of subtle changes in a drink’s viscosity, and the extent to which thick texture and creamy flavour contribute to the generation of satiety expectations. Participants in the first study rated the sensory characteristics of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In study two, a new set of participants evaluated eight versions of the fruit yogurt drink, which varied in thick texture, creamy flavour and energy content, for sensory and hedonic characteristics and satiety expectations. Results In study one, participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity that were strongly related to the actual viscosity of the drinks. In study two, the thick versions of the drink were expected to be more filling and have a greater expected satiety value, independent of the drink’s actual energy content. A creamy flavour enhanced the extent to which the drink was expected to be filling, but did not affect its expected satiety. Conclusions These results indicate that subtle manipulations of texture and creamy flavour can increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, irrespective of the drink’s energy content. A thicker texture enhanced expectations of satiety to a greater extent than a creamier flavour, and may be one way to improve the anticipated satiating value of energy-containing beverages.

  16. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…

  17. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962975

  18. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alco...

  19. Binge Drinking in youth: evaluation of a test based in the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Luque, Leticia E.; Gómez, Raúl A.; Cortés Tomás, María T.; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Giménez Costa, José A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first stage of the construction of a questionnaire that explores cognitive determinants of binge drinking in young subjetcs (16-25 years old), from Cordoba-Argentina. The test – with hundred ten items – including all cognitive determinants, considered by the Theory of Planning Behavior, proposed by I.Azjen. Exploratory factor analyzes indicate that the intensity scales beliefs have two components; the importance of beliefs items were grouped according to such components. Intern...

  20. Alcohol Expectancies, Perceived Norms and Drinking Behavior among College Students: Examining the Reciprocal Determinism Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first e...

  1. Why Behavior Change is Difficult to Sustain

    OpenAIRE

    Bouton, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioni...

  2. Designing for Different Stages in Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Karapanos, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    The behavior change process is a dynamic journey with different informational and motivational needs across its different stages; yet current technologies for behavior change are static. In our recent deployment of Habito, an activity tracking mobile app, we found individuals "readiness" to behavior change (or the stage of behavior change they were in) to be a strong predictor of adoption. Individuals in the contemplation and preparation stages had an adoption rate of 56%, whereas individuals...

  3. Mosquito drinking with a burst in reserve: explaining behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through a long drinking channel, or proboscis. Experimental observations indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is several orders of magnitude larger than in the continuous mode. We use a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this naturally occurring drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is the more efficient mode in terms of energy expenditure, and the burst mode creates a large pressure difference across the proboscis. We speculate that the mosquito uses this pressure drop to clear blockages in the proboscis. We compared the two-pump system with one-pump configurations, as found in some other insects like butterflies, and show that the two pumps have unique roles in mosquito feeding.

  4. Does Drinking Lead to Sex? Daily Alcohol-Sex Behaviors and Expectancies among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on the links between alcohol use and sexual behavior has used cross-sectional and between-subjects designs. However, a pivotal question is whether sexual behavior is more likely when the same persons drink more heavily than when they do not. A within-person approach was used in the current study to model the links between alcohol use and sex. Participants (51.4% male) were traditionally-aged first-year college students. Multilevel models were conducted for up to 14 days of sexua...

  5. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  6. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents.

  7. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. PMID:26311274

  8. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  9. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevent Underage Drinking. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. ...

  10. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs.

  11. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs. PMID:24937649

  12. Drinking behavior in nursery pigs: determining the accuracy between an automatic water meter versus human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiszberg, A M; Johnson, A K; Sadler, L J; Carroll, J A; Dailey, J W; Krebs, N

    2009-12-01

    Assimilating accurate behavioral events over a long period can be labor-intensive and relatively expensive. If an automatic device could accurately record the duration and frequency for a given behavioral event, it would be a valuable alternative to the traditional use of human observers for behavioral studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy in the time spent at the waterer and the number of visits to the waterer by individually housed nursery pigs between human observers scoring video files using Observer software (OBS) and an automatic water meter Hobo (WM, control) affixed onto the waterline. Eleven PIC USA genotype gilts (22 +/- 2 d of age; 6.5 +/- 1.4 kg of BW) were housed individually in pens with ad libitum access to a corn-based starter ration and one nipple waterer. Behavior was collected on d 0 (day of weaning), 7, and 14 of the trial using 1 color camera positioned over 4 attached pens and a RECO-204 DVR at 1 frame per second. For the OBS method, 2 experienced observers recorded drinking behavior from the video files, which was defined as when the gilt placed her mouth over the nipple waterer. Data were analyzed using nonparametric methods and the general linear model and regression procedures in SAS. The experimental unit was the individual pen housing 1 gilt. The GLM model included the method of observation (WM vs. OBS) and time (24 h) as variables, and the gilt nested within method was used as the error term. Gilts consumed more water (P = 0.04) on d 14 than on d 0. The time of day affected (P < 0.001) the number of visits and the time spent at the waterer regardless of the method. However, the OBS method underestimated (P < 0.001) the number of visits to the waterer (3.48 +/- 0.33 visits/h for OBS vs. 4.94 +/- 0.33 for WM) and overestimated (P < 0.001) the time spent at the waterer (22.6 +/- 1.46 s/h for OBS vs. 13.9 +/- 1.43 for WM) compared with WM. The relationship between the 2 methods for prediction of time

  13. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  14. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...

  15. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  16. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-10-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE.

  17. Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

    2002-01-01

    Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes. PMID:12379053

  18. From In-Session Behaviors to Drinking Outcomes: A Causal Chain for Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Martin, Tim; Houck, Jon M.; Christopher, Paulette J.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Client speech in favor of change within motivational interviewing sessions has been linked to treatment outcomes, but a causal chain has not yet been demonstrated. Using a sequential behavioral coding system for client speech, the authors found that, at both the session and utterance levels, specific therapist behaviors predict client change talk.…

  19. [Association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse: a study in Japanese college freshmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya; Wada, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the prevalence of risky drinking and the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse among college freshmen. A total of 376 college freshmen (126 boys and 248 girls) in a Japanese university participated in the study. The subjects were asked to complete self-administered, anonymous questionnaires during their class. The number of participants who had used drugs was small. The following 2 items for substance abuse were included in the questionnaires: (1) those who had drug using peers who used drugs and (2) those who had been persuaded to use drugs by their peers. On the basis of the responses, the participants were classified into 3 groups: (1) high-risk group (HRG), which accounted for 1.4% of the subjects and comprised those who answered "yes" to both the above-mentioned two items; (2) risk group (RG), which accounted for 7.4% and comprised participants who answered "yes" to one of the two items; and (3) control group (CG), which accounted for 91.2% and comprised those who did not answer "yes" to either of the two items. Bivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse. The results of our study indicated that 87.0% of the participants reported lifetime alcohol use, and 69.4% reported the consumption of alcohol during the past 30 days. Of the former group, 21.4% had engaged in binge drinking, 8.6% had experienced alcohol-related harassment, 9.5% had experienced alcohol-induced blackouts, and 82.0% had experienced drinking alcohol with peers without adults. There were significant associations between risk groups of substance abuse and risky drinking such as binge drinking (p = 0.001), alcohol-induced blackouts (p = 0.020), alcohol-related harassment (p = 0.012), alcohol consumption during the past 30 days (p = 0.047). However, lifetime alcohol use (p = 0.264) and experience of drinking alcohol with peers without adults (p = 0

  20. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury. PMID:24628011

  1. Drinking-Induced Plasma Vasopressin and Norepinephrine Changes in Dehydrated Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, John E.; Keil, Lanny C.

    1996-01-01

    After 24-h water deprivation, five men (23-41 yr; 78 +/- 3.6 kg) consumed, within 4.0-6.2 min, 12 mL/kg of one of six fluid formulations (16.5 C) once a week over a period of 6 weeks: water, hypotonic saline (0.045% Na(+)), isotopic saline (0.36%, Na(+)), hypertonic glucose 9 7%, glucose), and two commercial mildly hypertonic 9.7% carbohydrate drinks. Blood samples were drawn 5 min before and: 3, 9, 15, 30, and 70 min after completion of drinking. Ingestion induced no significant change in plasma Na(+), K(+), osmotic, or protein concentrations, blood pressure; or heart rate. Plasma volume (PV) was increases (P isotonic saline and the two commercial drinks. Ingestion induced a decrease in plasma AVP (PAVP) at 3 min, which was maximal (P isotonic saline, this prompt response was followed by a long lasting inhibition of PAVP. There was no change in PRA, plasma aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, or epinephrine, but an increase in plasma norepinephrine occurred immediately after ingestion, which suggests, like that for PAVP depression, a drinking-stimulate neural mechanism.

  2. Consumer behavior changing: methods of evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaile-Sarkane, Elīna; Andersone, Ieva

    2009-01-01

    The article is devoted to methods of analyses of consumer buying behavior as well as to evaluation of most important factors what influences consumer behavior. This research aims at investigations about the changes in consumer behavior caused by globalization and development of information technologies; it helps to understand the specific factors what should be taken into account in evaluation of consumer behavior. The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualita...

  3. Stream Processing Algorithms that model behavior changes

    OpenAIRE

    Capponi, Agostino; Chandy, Mani

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms that fuse information in multiple event streams to update models that represent system behavior. System behaviors vary over time; for example, an information network varies from heavily loaded to lightly loaded conditions; patterns of incidence of disease change at the onset of pandemics; file access patterns change from proper usage to improper use that may signify insider threat. The models that represent behavior must be updated frequently to adapt to chan...

  4. Does Changing Behavioral Intentions Engender Behavior Change? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous theories in social and health psychology assume that intentions cause behaviors. However, most tests of the intention- behavior relation involve correlational studies that preclude causal inferences. In order to determine whether changes in behavioral intention engender behavior change, participants should be assigned randomly to a…

  5. ANKRD7 and CYTL1 are novel risk genes for alcohol drinking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang-ding; YAN Han; LIU Xiao-gang; LEI Shu-feng; LI Xi; NING Ling-ling; ZHU Xue-zhen; Shawn Levy; Henry R.Kranzler; Lindsay A.Farrer; Joel Gelernter; XIONG Dong-hai; Robert R.Recker; DENG Hong-wen; YANG Tie-lin; PEI Yu-fang; GUO Yan-fang; LI Jian; YANG Fang; PAN Feng; TAN Li-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder characterized by impaired control over drinking.It is determined by both genetic and environmental factors.The recent approach of genome-wide association study (GWAS)is a powerful tool for identifying complex disease-associated susceptibility alleles,however,a few GWASs have been conducted for AD,and their results are largely inconsistent.The present study aimed to screen the loci associated with alcohol-related phenotypes using GWAS technology.Methods A genome-wide association study with the behavior of regular alcohol drinking and alcohol consumption was performed to identify susceptibility genes associated with AD,using the Affymetrix 500K SNP array in an initial sample consisting of 904 unrelated Caucasian subjects.Then,the initial results in GWAS were replicated in three independent samples:1972 Caucasians in 593 nuclear families,761 unrelated Caucasian subjects,and 2955 unrelated Chinese Hans.Results Several genes were associated with the alcohol-related phenotypes at the genome-wide significance level,with the ankyrin repeat domain 7 gene (ANKRD7) showing the strongest statistical evidence for regular alcohol drinking and suggestive statistical evidence for alcohol consumption.In addition,certain haplotypes within the ANKRD7 and cytokine-like1 (CYTL 1) genes were significantly associated with regular drinking behavior,such as one ANKRD7 block composed of the SNPs rs6466686-rs4295599-rs12531086 (P =6.51 ×10-8).The association of alcohol consumption was successfully replicated with rs4295599 in ANKRD7 gene in independent Caucasian nuclear families and independent unrelated Chinese Hans,and with rs16836497 in CYTL1 gene in independent unrelated Caucasians.Meta-analyses based on both the GWAS and replication samples further supported the observed significant associations between the ANKRD7or CYTL 1 gene and alcohol consumption.Conclusion The evidence suggests that ANKRD7 and CYTL1 genes may play an

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire; Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink c...

  7. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wakana Momino; Têmis Maria Félix; Alberto Mantovani Abeche; Denise Isabel Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer Scheibler; Christina Chambers; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Renato Zamora Flores; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well a...

  8. University Binge Drinking Patterns and Changes in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Undergraduates in a Hong Kong University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…

  9. Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2013-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking is a risk that attracts many developing adolescents and teens. Many want to try alcohol, but often do not fully recognize its effects on their health and behavior. Other reasons young ...

  11. Binge Drinking in youth: evaluation of a test based in the theory of planned behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Leticia E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first stage of the construction of a questionnaire that explores cognitive determinants of binge drinking in young subjetcs (16-25 years old, from Cordoba-Argentina. The test – with hundred ten items – including all cognitive determinants, considered by the Theory of Planning Behavior, proposed by I.Azjen. Exploratory factor analyzes indicate that the intensity scales beliefs have two components; the importance of beliefs items were grouped according to such components. Internal consistency coefficient’s (Cronbach's Alpha range between .61 and .94. The correlation element-total of all items is greater than .30. We suggest the creation of new items associated with perceived control and studies related to subjective norm and normative beliefs.

  12. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  13. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  14. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  15. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuou...

  16. Ipv6 Change Threats Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Firas Najjar; Homam El-Taj

    2015-01-01

    IPv4 address pool is already exhausted; therefore, the change to use IPv6 is eventually necessary to give us a massive address pool. Although IPv6 was built with security in mind, extensive research must be done before deploying IPv6 to ensure the protection of security and privacy. This paper firstly presents the differences between the old and new IP versions (IPv4 and IPv6), and how these differences will affect the attacks, then the paper will show how the attacks on IPv4 and IPv6 will re...

  17. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  18. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of concur......Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...... of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  19. Risk behaviors and drug use: a latent class analysis of heavy episodic drinking in first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiauzzi, Emil; Dasmahapatra, Pronabesh; Black, Ryan A

    2013-12-01

    Examining individual characteristics may not yield an understanding of the complex array of factors that affect college student alcohol use. Utilizing a latent class analysis, the present study investigated an alcohol and drug use database of first-year college students at 89 U.S. colleges and universities (N = 21,945). These data were collected between December, 2010 and September, 2011. This study identified: (1) classes based on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related behaviors, and past-year use of illegal drugs and nonmedical use of prescriptions medications (NMUPM); (2) demographic covariates of these classes; and (3) differential social norms awareness, perceived harmfulness of illegal drugs and NMUPM, and protective strategies. Four classes were identified: (1) Low Risk Drinking/Low Prevalence Drug Use (Class 1); (2) Lower Intake Drinking/Moderate Prevalence Drug Use (Class 2); (3) Moderate Risk Drinking/Moderate Prevalence Drug Use (Class 3); and (4) High Risk Drinking/High Prevalence Drug Use (Class 4). Classes differed in self-reported typical week drinking, estimated peak blood alcohol content over the past 2 weeks, high-risk alcohol use, negative alcohol-related consequences, driving under the influence or riding with drinking drivers, alcohol-related protective behaviors, and past-year substance use. Of particular interest was the identification of a latent class (Class 2) composed primarily of females with a relatively low alcohol intake, but with a high probability of past-year other substance use. This group reported negative alcohol-related consequences despite their relatively low intake. To our knowledge, this is the first latent class analysis of college student alcohol use that includes a drug use indicator and compares social norms awareness, harmfulness perceptions, and alcohol-related protective behaviors between classes.

  20. A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report focuses on drinking by college students. Rather than debating how many drink how much, the Task Force that prepared the report concentrated on the consequences of drinking. Data from many sources are used to show the effects of drinking and to develop a series of recommendations for college, researchers, and the National Institute of…

  1. Correlations Between Polymorphisms of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Genes, as Well as Drinking Behavior and Pancreatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-xian Zhang; Yong-mei Qin; Li-ke Guo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between drinking behavior combined with polymorphisms of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genes and pancreatic cancer. Methods The genetic polymorphisms of EC-SOD and ALDH2 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism in the peripheral blood leukocytes obtained from 680 pancreatic cancer cases and 680 non-cancer controls. Subsequently the frequency of genotype was compared between the pancreatic cancer patients and the healthy controls.The relationship of drinking with pancreatic cancer was analyzed. Results The frequencies of EC-SOD (C/G) and ALDH2 variant genotypes were 37.35% and 68.82%respectively in the pancreatic cancer cases, and were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (21.03% and 44.56%, all P Conclusion EC-SOD (C/G), ALDH2 variant genotypes and drinking might be the risk factors of pancreatic cancer.

  2. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Huchting, Karie K.; Lac, Andrew; HUMMER, JUSTIN F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher than Greeks on conformity reason for drinking. Tests of independent correlations indicated the magnitude of the past behavior to intention link was c...

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling. Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index, using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8.RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities. METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling). Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test) and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index), using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8). RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities for

  5. Changing Perceptions and Changing Behavior in Customer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Peter; Franses, Philip Hans; Donkers, Bas

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe formulate a theoretical model in which we postulate that if a customers' behavior is perceived as not optimal, customers will adjust this behavior based on their current satisfaction and payment equity. Furthermore, customers will also include new experiences. In our empirical study we particularly investigate customer referrals and the amount of services purchased. Our results show positive effects of current satisfaction and payment equity on referrals, while also changes in ...

  6. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Cryptosporidium concentrations as estimated by the meta-analysis, but when DWIs were influenced by agricultural runoff or wildlife, there was a poor relationship. Average recovery values were available for 6 out of 22 Cryptosporidium concentration data sets and concomitant analysis demonstrated no changes in trends, with and without correction. Nevertheless, recovery assays performed along with every oocyst count would have enhanced the precision of this work. Based on our findings, the use of annual averages of E. coli concentrations as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium concentrations can result in an inaccurate estimate of the Cryptosporidium risk for agriculture impacted drinking water intakes or for intakes with more distant wastewater sources. Studies of upstream fecal pollution sources are recommended for drinking water suppliers to improve their interpretation of source water quality data.

  7. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Dreibelbis; Anne Kroeger; Kamal Hossain; Mohini Venkatesh; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing ...

  8. College Students' Drinking and Posting About Alcohol: Forwarding a Model of Motivations, Behaviors, and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey K

    2016-06-01

    College drinking continues to remain a public health problem that has been exacerbated by alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNSs). Although existing research has linked alcohol consumption, alcohol posts, and adverse consequences to one another, comprehensive explanations for these associations have been largely unexplored. Thus, we reasoned that students' personal motivations (i.e., espousing an alcohol identity, needing entertainment, and adhering to social norms) influence their behaviors (i.e., alcohol consumption and alcohol-related posting on SNSs), which can lead to alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 364 undergraduate students and found general support for our model. In particular, espousing an alcohol identity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting, needing entertainment predicted alcohol consumption but not alcohol-related SNS posting, and adhering to social norms predicted alcohol-related SNS posting but not alcohol consumption. In turn, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting predicted alcohol problems. It is surprising that alcohol-related SNS posting was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems than alcohol consumption. We discuss the findings within their applied applications for college student health. PMID:27186824

  9. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  10. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Houben; C. Nederkoorn; R.W. Wiers; A. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking s

  11. Molecular hydrogen in drinking water protects against neurodegenerative changes induced by traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Dohi

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI in its various forms has emerged as a major problem for modern society. Acute TBI can transform into a chronic condition and be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, probably through induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined the ability of the antioxidant molecular hydrogen given in drinking water (molecular hydrogen water; mHW to alter the acute changes induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI, a commonly used experimental model of TBI. We found that mHW reversed CCI-induced edema by about half, completely blocked pathological tau expression, accentuated an early increase seen in several cytokines but attenuated that increase by day 7, reversed changes seen in the protein levels of aquaporin-4, HIF-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, but not for amyloid beta peptide 1-40 or 1-42. Treatment with mHW also reversed the increase seen 4 h after CCI in gene expression related to oxidation/carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine release, leukocyte or cell migration, cytokine transport, ATP and nucleotide binding. Finally, we found that mHW preserved or increased ATP levels and propose a new mechanism for mHW, that of ATP production through the Jagendorf reaction. These results show that molecular hydrogen given in drinking water reverses many of the sequelae of CCI and suggests that it could be an easily administered, highly effective treatment for TBI.

  12. Molecular hydrogen in drinking water protects against neurodegenerative changes induced by traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Kenji; Kraemer, Brian C; Erickson, Michelle A; McMillan, Pamela J; Kovac, Andrej; Flachbartova, Zuzana; Hansen, Kim M; Shah, Gul N; Sheibani, Nader; Salameh, Therese; Banks, William A

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in its various forms has emerged as a major problem for modern society. Acute TBI can transform into a chronic condition and be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, probably through induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined the ability of the antioxidant molecular hydrogen given in drinking water (molecular hydrogen water; mHW) to alter the acute changes induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI), a commonly used experimental model of TBI. We found that mHW reversed CCI-induced edema by about half, completely blocked pathological tau expression, accentuated an early increase seen in several cytokines but attenuated that increase by day 7, reversed changes seen in the protein levels of aquaporin-4, HIF-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, but not for amyloid beta peptide 1-40 or 1-42. Treatment with mHW also reversed the increase seen 4 h after CCI in gene expression related to oxidation/carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine release, leukocyte or cell migration, cytokine transport, ATP and nucleotide binding. Finally, we found that mHW preserved or increased ATP levels and propose a new mechanism for mHW, that of ATP production through the Jagendorf reaction. These results show that molecular hydrogen given in drinking water reverses many of the sequelae of CCI and suggests that it could be an easily administered, highly effective treatment for TBI. PMID:25251220

  13. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N = 326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean,...

  14. Soteropolitano Consumer Behavior: An Approach to Quantitative Analysis of Groups of Reference and Attributes Influencing the Purchase of Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ferreira Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE (2010, the Northeast region of Brazil configured as the lowest per capita consumers of soda as compared to other regions in the country; and the state of Bahia was in 6TH place among the northeastern states. Thus, Salvador (Bahia is in the ranking of the capitals that least consumes this kind of drink. In a literature review, Souki, Christino, and Pereira (2005, show that, despite the economic importance of the industry of soft drinks in Brazil, there are rarely scientific incursions on the behavior of consumers of these products, leaving us with little information about this theme. From that, the present study was developed with the objective of understanding and characterizing the behavior of consumer purchasing “soteropolitano” of soft drinks, identifying their consumption habits and decisions that are taken at the time of purchase of the product, the reference groups, and the attributes considered important in their purchase decision. For both, a descriptive survey was carried out, with quantitative variables, totaling 429 personal interviews in different neighborhoods of Salvador, in places with a large flow of people, such as educational institutions and public spaces. It was found that most of the interviewees choose which soft drink to buy based on their experiences. We did observe a mild influence of characteristics of groups on the decision to purchase the product. However, in relation to the attributes of the soft drink, it was found that the flavor, the brand, and price are the attributes considered most decisive by interviewees in their purchase decision.

  15. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  16. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: edclotfelter@amherst.edu; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  17. Changes in retail food and drink distribution in Argentina 2001-2003: Towards new territory horizontalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Di Nucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the main changes in the distribution of food and drinks in Argentina, which began with the economic, political and social crisis in 2001. The territory used by some of the social actors involved, such as businesses of different sizes (supermarkets and neighborhood stores and people (consumers, will no longer respond exclusively to a global order or to territorial verticalities. Many of these new tendencies will be led by local norms connected with territorial horizontalities. The most important of these changes is the fact that consumption has become oriented towards: sales, smaller packaging, second and third brands, supermarkets' own brands, new shopping frequencies, a combination of several distribution channels with the so-called "back-to-the-neighborhood" phenomenon, and single-item shopping.

  18. Occurrence and behaviors of fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC components in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems and their applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyang; Hur, Jin; Zhuang, Wane

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescence excitation emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) is a powerful tool for characterizing dissolved organic matter (DOM), and it is applied in a rapidly growing number of studies on drinking water and wastewater treatments. This paper presents an overview of recent findings about the occurrence and behavior of PARAFAC components in drinking water and wastewater treatments, as well as their feasibility for assessing the treatment performance and water quality including disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBPs FPs). A variety of humic-like, protein-like, and unique (e.g., pyrene-like) fluorescent components have been identified, providing valuable insights into the chemical composition of DOM and the effects of various treatment processes in engineered systems. Coagulation/flocculation-clarification preferentially removes humic-like components, and additional treatments such as biological activated carbon filtration, anion exchange, and UV irradiation can further remove DOM from drinking water. In contrast, biological treatments are more effective for protein-like components in wastewater treatments. PARAFAC components have been proven to be valuable as surrogates for conventional water quality parameter, to track the changes of organic matter quantity and quality in drinking water and wastewater treatments. They are also feasible for assessing formations of trihalomethanes and other DBPs and evaluating treatment system performance. Further studies of EEM-PARAFAC for assessing the effects of the raw water quality and variable treatment conditions on the removal of DOM, and the formation potentials of various emerging DBPs, are essential for optimizing the treatment processes to ensure treated water quality.

  19. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  20. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  1. [Smoking behavior and alcohol drinking in students in a rural area of East Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, R; Zirm, E; Uischner, C

    2001-06-01

    The present investigation ("Torgau Study") provides epidemiological information on a target population which in the past has hardly been in the focus of health promotion activities: the subgroup of children and adolescents of rural regions in Eastern Germany. A total survey was conducted that encompassed all classes from grade 6 to 10 of all schools in the district of Torgau (Saxony). Together, 5,925 students in the age range 12 to 16 years participated in this study (participation rate: 81.3%). The results provide a differentiated picture of their smoking behavior and alcohol use broken down by gender, school-type and grade. With respect to smoking the data show that the prevalence of regular smokers (i.e., daily smokers) in grade 10 is 41% in the Mittelschule (the school-type with a stronger vocational orientation) and 29% in the Gymnasium (the school-type with a university-preparatory curriculum). 51.9% of all students report that at least one parent smokes. There is a highly significant association between smoking status of the parents and smoking status of their children. The analysis of reasons for smoking highlight the stepwise transition into nicotine dependency from a psychological perspective. Most of the adolescents (about 80%) know about the dangers of passive smoking. However, with increasing age this knowledge loses its subjective relevance because dissonance-reducing strategies are applied ("doesn't matter"-attitude). Among girls, even in grade 10, there are almost no daily alcohol consumers (less than 1%); among boys in grade 10 the rate of daily alcohol users is about 8%. The rate of those 10th graders who consume alcoholic beverages at least once a week is however 30.6% (girls: 18.7%; boys: 44.2%). The longer the alcohol experience the more specific become the social and emotional motives for drinking. Altogether, the results suggest that efforts to prevent substance misuse in the rural regions of Eastern Germany are as necessary as in other

  2. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  3. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action. PMID:15635933

  4. Effects of Climate Change on Drinking Water Distribution Network Integrity: Predicting Pipe Failure Resulting from Differential Soil Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.; Van Daal, K.; Van Thienen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may result in lowering of ground water levels and consolidation of the soil. The resulting (differential) settlements, associated with soil property transitions, may damage underground pipe infrastructure, such as drinking water distribution sys- tems. The work presented here offers a

  5. An Event-Level Analysis of Drinking Behaviors in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anne Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that alcohol use is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States and results in approximately 79,000 deaths annually. College students are at particular risk of alcohol-related consequences due to their heavy drinking tendencies, with multiple studies indicating over 40%…

  6. Response inhibition moderates the relationship between implicit associations and drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Houben; R.W. Wiers

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contemporary dual-process models of alcohol abuse propose that alcohol abuse develops because of dysfunctions in the impulsive system, which generates automatic impulses to drink alcohol, and disruptions in the reflective system, which becomes unable to inhibit the influence of these aut

  7. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  8. Behavior Changes May Be First Signs of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Behavior Changes May Be First Signs of Alzheimer's Researchers have developed a checklist to help spot ... Certain behavior changes may be a harbinger of Alzheimer's disease, and researchers say they've developed a ...

  9. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associat...

  10. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  11. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation of GABAergic neuroactive steroids influences ethanol sensitivity and drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, A. Leslie; Porcu, Patrizia; Boyd, Kevin N.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leads to élévations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neuroactive steroids that enhance GABA neurotransmission and restore homeostasis following stress. This régulation of the HPA axis maintains healthy brain function and protects against neuropsychiatrie disease. Ethanol sensitivity is influenced by élévations in neuroactive steroids that enhance the GABAergic effects of ethanol, and mayprevent excessive drinking in rodents and hu...

  12. Protective behavioral strategies when drinking alcohol and their relationship to negative alcohol-related consequences in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P; Taylor, Kari K; Damann, Krista M; Page, Jennifer C; Mowry, Emily S; Cimini, M Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Prior research has examined a number of individual characteristics (e.g., gender, family connectedness) that protect individuals from engaging in heavy drinking and experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, but less is known about specific behavioral strategies that might also serve as protective factors. In this study, 556 undergraduate students completed the National College Health Assessment (American College Health Association, 2000) and answered questions regarding the use of specific protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences. Results indicated that less frequent use of PBS was related to a greater likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, even after accounting for the effects of gender and alcohol consumption. These results suggest that PBS may be an important component of both prevention and treatment programs for college students. PMID:15631613

  13. Evaluating the impact of getting to outcomes-underage drinking on prevention capacity and alcohol merchant attitudes and selling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Ebener, Patricia; Burkhart, Q; Osilla, Karen Chan; Imm, Pamela; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Patricia Ann

    2014-08-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem facing US communities. Several environmental alcohol prevention (EAP) strategies (laws, regulations, responsible beverage service training and practices) successfully address underage drinking. Communities, however, face challenges carrying out these EAP strategies effectively. This small-scale, 3-year, randomized controlled trial assessed whether providing prevention coalitions with Getting To Outcomes-Underage Drinking (GTO-UD), a tool kit and implementation support intervention, helped improve implementation of two common EAP strategies, responsible beverage service training (RBS) and compliance checks. Three coalitions in South Carolina and their RBS and compliance check programs received the 16-month GTO-UD intervention, including the GTO-UD manual, training, and onsite technical assistance, while another three in South Carolina maintained routine operations. The measures, collected at baseline and after the intervention, were a structured interview assessing how well coalitions carried out their work and a survey of merchant attitudes and practices in the six counties served by the participating coalitions. Over time, the quality of some RBS and compliance check activities improved more in GTO-UD coalitions than in the control sites. No changes in merchant practices or attitudes significantly differed between the GTO-UD and control groups, although merchants in the GTO-UD counties did significantly improve on refusing sales to minors while control merchants did not.

  14. Voluntary fluid intake and palatability change with two-drink availability during cycling training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Scaglioni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how voluntary drinking is affected by the simultaneous presence of two different beverages (plain water and a sports drink compared to the availability of just one beverage at a time. Methods: Twenty recreational cyclists and triathletes (22.8 ± 6.9 years old were recruited. Subjects completed three laboratory sessions each (DB=23°C, RH=70% in randomly assigned order, with at least one week between sessions: one session, only water available (WAonly; another session, only sports drink (SDonly; and another session, both beverages (BOTH. Drinking was ad libitum. Each exercise session lasted 100 min.: a 20 min. warm-up, followed by eight 5-min. high-intensity intervals (85-95% HRmax alternating with 2.5 min. recovery time (60-70% HRmax and a final 20 min. recovery (60-70% HRmax. Fluid ingestion was measured each 20 min. Taste scores for both fluids (W and SD and body weight were also measured before and after each exercise session. Results: No significant differences were found for total fluid ingestion when comparing BOTH and SDonly (846.1 ñ 382.7 vs. 827.9 ñ 365.6 mL, respectively, p > 0.05. However, subjects consumed less water (WAonly, 633.4 ñ 400.5 mL compared with the other two conditions (p = 0.009. Subjects drank more sports drink than plain water during the BOTH condition (659.2 ñ 349.8 vs 186.9 ñ 128.0, p < 0.0005. Voluntary drinking was not enough to prevent a minor but statistically significant (p < 0.003 average reduction in body mass (voluntary dehydration of 0.5% BM for all experimental conditions. Sensory tests showed a preference for the sports drink flavor (7.49±1.1 vs. water (5.41±1.5 (p<0.0005. Conclusions: Sports drink enhances voluntary fluid intake more than when only water is available. Ad libitum drinking was greater when a sports drink was available. Sensory scores obtained support this preference for a sports drink vs. water.

  15. From mother to child: orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and changes of drinking behaviour during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Witt, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barbot, Alexis; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Brühl, Rüdiger; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a common time for initiation of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Importantly, the neuro-anatomical foundation for later alcohol-related problems may already manifest pre-natally, particularly due to smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In this context, cortical gyrification is an interesting marker of neuronal development but has not been investigated as a risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. On magnetic resonance imaging scans of 595 14-year-old adolescents from the IMAGEN sample, we computed whole-brain mean curvature indices to predict change in alcohol-related problems over the following 2 years. Change of alcohol use-related problems was significantly predicted from mean curvature in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Less gyrification of OFC was associated with an increase in alcohol use-related problems over the next 2 years. Moreover, lower gyrification in left OFC was related to pre-natal alcohol exposure, whereas maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect. Current alcohol use-related problems of the biological mother had no effect on offsprings' OFC gyrification or drinking behaviour. The data support the idea that alcohol consumption during pregnancy mediates the development of neuro-anatomical phenotypes, which in turn constitute a risk factor for increasing problems due to alcohol consumption in a vulnerable stage of life. Maternal smoking during pregnancy or current maternal alcohol/nicotine consumption had no significant effect. The OFC mediates behaviours known to be disturbed in addiction, namely impulse control and reward processing. The results stress the importance of pre-natal alcohol exposure for later increases in alcohol use-related problems, mediated by structural brain characteristics. PMID:25913102

  16. Binge-like ingestion of a combination of an energy drink and alcohol leads to cognitive deficits and motivational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2015-09-01

    The combination of alcohol with an energy drink (ED) is believed to contribute to risky alcohol-drinking behaviors, such as binge drinking. However, the long-term effects on cognition and reward function that are caused by the repeated binge-like ingestion of alcohol and EDs are still poorly known. The present study examined the effects of a history of repeated exposure to alcohol and/or an ED on short-term memory and alcohol-seeking behavior. Male Wistar rats were given daily intragastric administration of alcohol (3.4g/kg) combined or not with an ED (10.71ml/kg) for 6 consecutive days. The rats were tested for locomotion 15min after the first intragastric treatment. Short-term memory was assessed in the novel object recognition and social discrimination tests 2-3days after the last intragastric administration. The rewarding effect of alcohol was tested 1-3weeks following the last intragastric administration in a conditioned place preference paradigm. The acute binge-like ingestion of alcohol decreased locomotor activity, whereas the combination of alcohol and an ED increased locomotion in the first minutes of assessment. Alcohol exposure produced cognitive deficits in both the object recognition and social discrimination tests, and adding the ED to the alcohol solution did not modify these effects. The combination of alcohol and the ED increased alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. Thus, a history of binge-like alcohol exposure combined with the ED caused subsequent cognitive deficits and increased alcohol seeking behavior, and such behavioral effects might contribute to the progression to alcohol abuse disorders.

  17. Predictors of post-treatment smoking and drinking behavior of head and neck cancer survivors: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulrike; Inhestern, Johanna; Burger, Ulrike; Singer, Susanne; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2016-10-01

    Predictors for smoking and alcohol drinking behavior were investigated in head and neck cancer survivors (HNCS) with survivorship of ≥6 months. 165 HNCS registered in a regional cancer registry and treated 2005-2014 were included. Patients completed a survey including the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Smoking and drinking cessation rates were 51 and 13 %, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that male patients [odds ratio (OR) 35.4; confidence interval (CI) 7.5-168.1; p alcohol consumption. Male, young, and single smoking and/or drinking HNCS should be stimulated to take part in smoking and/or alcohol drinking cessation programs. PMID:26874733

  18. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68-45.71mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00-1.06mg-year), medium (1.37-3.55mg-year), and high (4.26-48.13mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity.

  19. Alcohol drinking behaviors among inhabitants in Shenzhen%深圳居民饮酒行为现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 王俊; 尚庆刚; 周继昌; 黄彩; 陈忠伟; 王志军; 卓志鹏; 刘小立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine alcohol drinking behavior among residents in Shenzhen and to provide basis for development of intervention strategy. Methods A total of 718 residents from three districts were included and 647 valid questionnaires were collected. Results The overall current drinking rate in the residents was 15.46% (100) and 25.96% (74) for the male,7. 18% (26) for the female. The residents aged 45 to 59 years had the highest drinking rate. The rates of starting drinking at age of younger than 18 years was 9.00% in the current drinkers. There were 27. 03% of male and 38.46% of female current drinkers taking alcohol at least once a day. Beer was the first choice for 37% of the current drinkers. The average intake of alcohol for the current drinkers was 18. 84 g per day(22.46 g for male and 8. 17 g for female). Of those who drank,22. 00% were heavy drinkers(24. 32% for male and 15. 38% for female). Conclusion The alcohol drinking is common among young people and the current drinking rate is high among certain populations in Shenzhen city.%目的 了解广东省深圳市居民饮酒行为现况,为相关部门开展健康教育和行为干预提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段随机整群抽样方法抽取深圳市3个区647名居民进行调查.结果 本次调查显示深圳市居民的现在饮酒率为15.46%(100人),男性现在饮酒率为25.96%(74人),高于女性的7.18%(26人);45~59岁组饮酒率最高为24.44%(33人);现在饮酒者中<18岁开始饮酒者每天或几乎每天饮酒;饮酒主要类型依次为啤酒(37.00%)、白酒(24.00%)、其他酒类(21.00%)和果酒(18.00%);酒类消费中平均每天酒精消费量为18.84 g,其中男性为22.49 g,女性为8.17g.酒类消费者中过量饮酒比例为22.00%(22人),其中男性为24.32%(18人),女性为15.38%(4人).结论 深圳市居民总体饮酒率不高,但是饮酒行为有年轻化趋势,并且在某些人群中饮酒率较高.

  20. An investigation of illegal direction change behavior of road users using behavioral models

    OpenAIRE

    TRINH, Tu Anh; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Illegal direction change is accounted the highest ratio for road accident causes in Hochiminh City, Vietnam. Illegal direction change is examined through separate behavioral models such theory of planned behavior, health belief model and integrated behavior model. Integrated behavior model including health belief model, theory of planned behavior variables and extended socio-cognitive variables is identified to be one of the best model (with the highest percentage of total variance) that ...

  1. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Wei, Yudan [Department of Community Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon 31207, GA (United States); Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Sun, Dianjun, E-mail: hrbmusdj@163.com [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China)

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  2. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dreibelbis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%, increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  3. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  4. Changes in Biofilm Community Structure Associated with Monochloramine-treated Drinking Water Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monochloramine is increasingly used as a drinking water disinfectant because it forms lower levels of traditional disinfectant by-products compared to free-chlorine disinfection treatment. The use of monochloramine has been shown to increase ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the pr...

  5. Emotionally Up and Down, Behaviorally to and fro: Drinking Motives Mediate the Synergistic Effects of Urgency and Emotional Instability on Alcohol Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of "Diagnostic…

  6. 某医学院学生饮酒行为调查%INVESTIGATION ON THE ALCOHOL DRINKING BEHAVIORS AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗东; 唐欢; 陈卫中; 彭晓莉

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解大学生饮酒现状及其影响因素. [方法]采用分层整群抽样法,随机抽取某高校学生,进行匿名问卷调查. [结果]该医学院学生总饮酒率为55.9%;男生群体饮酒率为74.49%,女生群体饮酒率为45.73%,男生群体饮酒率高于女生(P<0.05);调查显示较多家庭(77.6%)对孩子饮酒保持中立态度,73.7%的学生在18岁以前就有了饮酒经历;学生饮酒行为主要发生在朋友同学聚会、过节和庆祝活动.朋友同学聚会中常遇到逼酒、劝酒等情形,此时比平常情况饮酒更多. [结论]在该医学院大学生群体中饮酒已经成了普遍行为,不文明饮酒现象普遍存在,饮酒行为需正确的指导.%[Objective] To understand the status of college students' drinking alcohol and its influencing factors. [Methods] A stratified cluster sampling method was conducted. Medical students were randomly selected to carry out an anony mous questionnaire. [Results] According to the research, the total rate of the medical students' drinking rate was 55.9%, drinking rate of boys was 74.49%, and of girls was 45.73% , which was lower than the rate of boy groups (P < 0.05); The sur vey showed that more families (77.6%) maintained a neutral attitude to children drinking, 73.7% of students in the age of 18 had a drinking experience; Students drinking occurred mainly on parties and holidays' celebrations. In friends gathering, stu dents were urged to drink frequently and drank more than usual on that condition. [Conclusion] Drinking in the medical col lege students has become prevalent, and uncivilized drinking behavior is common, so it's important for students to have a good drinking behavior.

  7. Changing Perceptions and Changing Behavior in Customer Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe formulate a theoretical model in which we postulate that if a customers' behavior is perceived as not optimal, customers will adjust this behavior based on their current satisfaction and payment equity. Furthermore, customers will also include new experiences. In our empirical study w

  8. Adolescent drinking in Spain: Family relationship quality, rules, communication, and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez San Segundo, Miriam; Ferrer Cascales, Rosario Isabel; Smith, Erin R.; Albaladejo Blázquez, Natalia; Paul B. Perrin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent alcohol use in Spain and family relationship quality, parental rules, sources of information about substances, and family behaviors. A sample of 565 students in Alicante, Spain completed measures of these constructs. After controlling for age and type of school, family relationship quality explained 3.7% of the variance in adolescents' alcohol use, family rules explained 7.0%, sources of information 2.8%, and parental behaviors 2.6%. A compr...

  9. Changes in Illegal Behavior During Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiah Haffejee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging adulthood marks a critical developmental juncture during which some individuals disengage from the illegal behavior of their adolescence while others continue to use substances and commit crimes. While risk factors for delinquency during adolescence are well studied, factors that influence persisting or desisting from illegal activities during emerging adulthood have not been fully explored. This mixed methods study utilizes a sample of college students aged 18-25 (N=74 and examines factors differentiating those who abstained from illegal behaviors, desisted from illegal behaviors, and persisted in illegal behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated peers offending and hours spent studying predicted desisting and peers offending predicted persisting (compared to the abstaining group. Three qualitative themes: family and peer bonds, morals and values, and fear of consequences further explained factors influencing emerging adults’ persisting and desisting choices. Implications for social work practice are explored.

  10. Counseling and Behavior Change in Pediatric Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.

    2011-01-01

    To effectively intervene with overweight and obese youth, it is imperative that primary care providers and behavioral interventionists work in concert to help families implement healthy behaviors across socioenvironmental domains (i.e., family/home, peer, community). As health care providers are often the first line of intervention for families, one critical component to implementing the socioenvironmental approach is to infuse intervention strategies into the primary care setting. In this pa...

  11. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  12. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  13. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-02

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  14. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J. D. Stookey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI, energy expenditure (EE, fat oxidation (FO and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  15. Changing Classroom Behavior: A Manual for Precision Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.; Wiesen, Allen E.

    The discussion of Precision Teaching, attempting to integrate humanism and behaviorism (what we know as educators and as behavioral scientists), provides both specific guidelines for teachers concerning positive classroom behavior change, and general directions in which education must go to remain relevant. The concept of Precision Teaching is…

  16. Theory as a Foundation for Behavior Change in Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will highlight the benefits of designing Games for Health (i.e., games created to change health behavior) using informed by behavioral and communication theories. The need to include choice, link adoption of new behavior to personal values, and build confidence in ability to succes...

  17. Impact of Developing Teacher Commitment to Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    A study examined the effects of one aspect of trainer behavior on teachers' classroom behavioral change. The trainer behavior studied was elicitation of trainee public commitment. Seventeen teachers participated in a series of workshops from the Stallings' Effective Use of Time program. These workshops were team led by teacher, principal, and…

  18. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2016-09-15

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4(+) removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4(+) loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4(+) removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4(+) removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4(+) removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4(+) removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4(+). Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified. PMID:27295615

  19. National Study of Behavioral and Life Changes since September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2004-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorism poses a continuous threat to those living in the United States. A substantial number of people may have experienced behavioral and life changes since the attacks, with possible implications for public health. This study investigated behavioral and life changes American people have…

  20. Educational Decentralization and Behavior Change Needs in Indonesia. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph

    This working paper examines behavior change as a key element in creating an enabling environment to sustain educational reform in Indonesia. It recommends elevating the importance of a formalized behavior change framework and methodology so that future plans for educational reform in Indonesia will include social marketing as a planned…

  1. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    OpenAIRE

    Singh S

    2011-01-01

    Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work follow...

  2. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...

  3. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  4. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  5. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  6. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  7. Transitions in First-Year College Student Drinking Behaviors: Does Pre-College Drinking Moderate the Effects of Parent- and Peer-Based Intervention Components?

    OpenAIRE

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Ray, Anne E.; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used Latent Transition Analysis (LTA) to examine a stage-sequential model of alcohol use among a sample of high-risk matriculating college students (N = 1275). Measures of alcohol use were collected via web-administered surveys during the summer before entering college and followed-up during the fall semester of college. Seven indicators of alcohol use were used in the LTA models, including temporal measures of typical drinking throughout the week. The results indicated that four l...

  8. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced. PMID:27180911

  9. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced.

  10. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciencia" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M Sanchez

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  11. The Impact of a Tailgating Policy on Students' Drinking Behavior and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster-Aaland, Laura K.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, a midwestern public university changed its tailgating policy from one that did not allow alcohol consumption to one that did. Objective, Participants, and Methods: The authors surveyed students before and after the policy change to measure consumption, problems, perceptions of peer consumption, and reported game attendance.…

  12. Effects of mixing on drinking and competitive behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2006-01-01

    Group housing provides increased access to space and social interactions for calves while reducing labor costs for producers. However, group housing necessarily requires that calves be mixed and no research to date has addressed the effects of mixing on behavior of milk-fed dairy calves. The objective of this study was to monitor the feeding and competitive behavior of individual dairy calves (n = 8) after introduction into an established group of older calves fed ad libitum by a computer-controlled milk feeder. Milk feeding was monitored for 2 d before introduction into the new group and both milk feeding and competitive behaviors were monitored for 4 d after mixing. Mean (+/- SE) milk consumption before mixing was 9.7 +/- 0.7 kg/d, dropped slightly on the day of mixing to 8.6 +/- 0.6 kg/d, but increased on d 1 to 3 after mixing to 11.1 +/- 0.3 kg/d. Calves visited the feeder less frequently on the day of mixing (6.0 +/- 1.8 visits/d) than on either the days before mixing (20.3 +/- 2.5 visits/d) or the days after mixing (25.3 +/- 6.9 visits/ d). The mean duration of feeder visits and mean milk consumption per visit increased from 4 min 15 s +/- 21 s and 0.53 +/- 0.06 kg per visit before mixing to 8 min 17 s +/- 1 min 28 s and 1.87 +/- 0.51 kg per visit on the day of mixing. Competitive displacements from the milk-feeding stall were rare. In summary, feeding behavior of young calves is altered on the day of mixing, but calves are able to maintain milk intake when using a milk feeder fitted with a stall that prevents calves from displacing one another.

  13. Abstinence following Alcohol Drinking Produces Depression-Like Behavior and Reduced Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Jennie R; Schroeder, Jason P.; Nixon, Kimberly; Besheer, Joyce; Crews, Fulton T.; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism and depression show high degrees of comorbidity. Clinical evidence also indicates that depression that emerges during abstinence from chronic alcohol use has a greater negative impact on relapse than pre-existing depression. Although no single neurobiological mechanism can account for the behavioral pathologies associated with these devastating disorders, converging evidence suggests that aspects of both alcoholism and depression are linked to reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis...

  14. 坪山新区中学生饮酒行为现况分析%Investigation and Analysis on Drinking Behaviors of Pingshan Middle School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄想灵; 邹崇杰; 胡晓莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of middle school students Pingshan drinking behavior, so as to make drink-ing related policy basis. Methods Of high school in August 2015 of Pingshan to junior high school, in August 2014, con-ducted a questionnaire survey of 2386 students of secondary occupation technical school. Results The result was the drink-ing rate, recent drinking rate comparison between different gender and school differences (P < 0.05); excessive drinking, drinking alcohol and occasionally women, often drunk probability is lower than that of males, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Secondary vocational technical school students were higher than the drinking behavior of the he institutions, sig-nificant difference (P<0.05);boys drink from the hotel, store a higher proportion of women drink from the hotel occupation school, shops and the proportion of friends treat higher than other colleges, significant difference (P< 0.05). Conclusion The Pingshan for drinking among middle school students in common, the need to increase publicity and education Efforts to establish education, school education, family intervention mechanism and related health institutions, reduce the student drinking rate as much as possible.%目的:探讨坪山新区中学生饮酒行为现状,进而为制定饮酒相关政策做依据。方法在2014年8月—2015年8月对坪山新区初中、高中、中专职业技术学校的2386名学生进行问卷调查。结果曾饮酒率、近期饮酒率在不同性别和学校之间比较,差异具有统计学意义(P﹤0.05);女性过量饮酒、偶尔饮酒、经常饮酒以及醉酒概率均低于男生,差异具有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。中职技校学生的各饮酒行为发生率均高于其他院校,差异具有统计学意义(P﹤0.05);男生喝酒来源于饭店、商店的比例高于女性,职业中学喝酒来源于饭店、商店以及朋友请客的比例高于其他院校

  15. 大学生孤独感与饮酒行为的关系研究%The research of Loneliness Relationship with drinking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦耀阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨大学生孤独感与饮酒之间的关系,为大学生心理健康教育提供依据.方法 采用UCLA孤独量表(第三版)和饮酒问卷(ADS)对450名在校大学生进行调查.结果 大学生的孤独感和饮酒行为分别在性别、年级、家庭经济状况、是否独生子女上存在显著差异(P<0.05,P<0.001);大学生孤独感与饮酒行为呈显著正相关(r =0.44,P<0.01);回归分析表明,大学生的孤独感对其饮酒行为具有显著的预测作用(F=60.073,P<0.001).结论 孤独感对大学生的饮酒行为具有预测作用,可以通过降低孤独感来减少其饮酒行为.%Objective To explore the relationship between drinking and loneliness in college students. Methods 450 college students were investigated with Alcohol Drinking Scale (ADS) and UCLA Loneliness Scale-3rd edition.Results The loneliness and drinking pattern of college students showed significant differences in gender, grade, family economic status, being only-child or not (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). There was significant positive correlation between loneliness and drinking behavior in college students (r =0. 44,P <0.01). Regression analysis found that the loneliness played a significant role in predicting the drinking behavior in college students (F =60. 073 ,P <0.001). Conclusion The loneliness can predict the drinking behavior in college students. So, the drinking behavior can be reduced by improving their feeling of loneliness.

  16. Underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse messages: are humorous responsible drinking campaign messages effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse advertisements. The authors conducted a posttest-only control group experiment with 91 teenagers and college-aged participants. For underage moderate drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans (e.g., "Don't drink") increased participants' perceived risk of excessive drinking and increased a level of intention to change their drinking behavior. However, for underage binge drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans lowered participants' risk perception of excessive drinking and intention to change their drinking behavior.

  17. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  18. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  19. Simulated climate change impact on summer dissolved organic carbon release from peat and surface vegetation: implications for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R; Brazier, Richard E; Verhoef, Anne; Freeman, Chris; Clark, Joanna M

    2014-12-15

    Uncertainty regarding changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality has created interest in managing peatlands for their ecosystem services such as drinking water provision. The evidence base for such interventions is, however, sometimes contradictory. We performed a laboratory climate manipulation using a factorial design on two dominant peatland vegetation types (Calluna vulgaris and Sphagnum Spp.) and a peat soil collected from a drinking water catchment in Exmoor National Park, UK. Temperature and rainfall were set to represent baseline and future conditions under the UKCP09 2080s high emissions scenario for July and August. DOC leachate then underwent standard water treatment of coagulation/flocculation before chlorination. C. vulgaris leached more DOC than Sphagnum Spp. (7.17 versus 3.00 mg g(-1)) with higher specific ultraviolet (SUVA) values and a greater sensitivity to climate, leaching more DOC under simulated future conditions. The peat soil leached less DOC (0.37 mg g(-1)) than the vegetation and was less sensitive to climate. Differences in coagulation removal efficiency between the DOC sources appears to be driven by relative solubilisation of protein-like DOC, observed through the fluorescence peak C/T. Post-coagulation only differences between vegetation types were detected for the regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), suggesting climate change influence at this scale can be removed via coagulation. Our results suggest current biodiversity restoration programmes to encourage Sphagnum Spp. will result in lower DOC concentrations and SUVA values, particularly with warmer and drier summers. PMID:25262551

  20. Posterior cingulate cortex: adapting behavior to a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John M; Heilbronner, Sarah R; Barack, David L; Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends on current needs, behavioral flexibility and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex - a key node in the default network - is known to vary with learning, memory, reward and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior.

  1. Social cognitive determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerksen, Shawna E; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and low fat food consumption (LFC) and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted FVC and LFC. Self-efficacy significantly predicted LFC. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  2. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  3. Perceived Sexual Benefits of Alcohol Use among Recent High School Graduates: Longitudinal Associations with Drinking Behavior and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In this research study of 153 college-bound students, perceived sexual benefits of alcohol use were associated with greater drinking and related consequences during the senior year of high school and freshman year of college. Perceived benefits predicted drinking outcomes during fall after adjustment for gender, sensation seeking, parental…

  4. A three year outcome evaluation of a theory based drink driving education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, M; Schonfeld, C; Ballard, R; Schofield, F; Najman, J; Siskind, V

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the impact of a "drink driving education program" taught to grade ten high school students. The program which involves twelve lessons uses strategies based on the Ajzen and Madden theory of planned behavior. Students were trained to use alternatives to drink driving and passenger behaviors. One thousand seven hundred and seventy-four students who had been taught the program in randomly assigned control and intervention schools were followed up three years later. There had been a major reduction in drink driving behaviors in both intervention and control students. In addition to this cohort change there was a trend toward reduced drink driving in the intervention group and a significant reduction in passenger behavior in this group. Readiness to use alternatives suggested that the major impact of the program was on students who were experimenting with the behavior at the time the program was taught. The program seems to have optimized concurrent social attitude and behavior change. PMID:8952213

  5. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Arnold, David H; Baker, Courtney N

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers' (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children's behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents' own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757

  6. Can Big Pharma Behavior Change to Benefit Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Professors Rosenberg and Chu will discuss how the behavior of large pharmaceutical companies can sometimes compromise the needs of patients. The behavior includes strategies for lobbying Congress, exploiting patent law, targeting large consumer markets, creating demand from patients, and influencing physicians. In some cases, this behavior has created ethical and legal problems. The talk will conclude with a discussion of possible ways to encourage changes that will benefit patients.

  7. Cytogenetic changes induced by the different types of drinking water in one HCC high incidence area of P. R of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A lot of epidemiological survey on the kinds of risk factors caused by the high incidence of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Fusui county,P. R. Of China has been done,especially on relation ship between the different types of drinking water and the mortality of HCC. But the mechanism is no clear. In our study,we sampled the common type of drinking water (pond water,shallow well water,tap water) in Fusui county and did series of cytogenetic determinations such as Chromosomal aberration (CA),Micronuclei (MN) and Sister chromatid exchange (SCE). The changes of CA,MN and SCE related to types of drinking water were observed. There were linear correlation between the concentration of water sample and these changes. The results suggests that one of the reason for the high incidence of HCC in Fusui county may be the presence of mutagen and/or carcinogen existed in the drinking water. The dissimilarity of the different types of drinking water is due to different concentrations of mutagens and/or carcinogens. In brief, the results confirmed the theory of type of drinking water corresponding to incidence rate of HCC proposed by Delong Su on cytogenetics

  8. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  9. Determinants of Students' Interracial Behavior and Opinion Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Martin; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of interracial behavior and opinion change among black and white high school students in Indianapolis. Factors such as personal aggressiveness, initial racial attitudes, and opportunities for interracial contact within and prior to school are analyzed in terms of their influence on negative and positive interracial behavior.…

  10. Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geshi, Masayo; Hirokawa, Kumi; TANIGUCHI, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38) or a control group (n=33). The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and ...

  11. Can you say no? Examining the relationship between drinking refusal self-efficacy and protective behavioral strategy use on alcohol outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ehret, Phillip J.; Ghaidarov, Tehniat M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary research has demonstrated reductions in alcohol-related harm associated with increased use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and higher levels of drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE). To extend research that has evaluated these protective factors independently of one another, the present study examined the interactive effects of PBS use and DRSE in predicting alcohol outcomes. Participants were 1084 college students (63% female) who completed online surveys. Two hierarchi...

  12. Investors Behavior under Changing Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Daviou, Agustin; Paraschiv, Florentina

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reaction of the S&P 500 returns to changes in implied volatility given by the VIX index, using a daily data sample from 1990 to 2012. We found that in normal regimes increases (declines) in the expected market volatility result in lower (higher) subsequent stock market returns. Thus, investors enter into selling positions upon a perception of increased risk for their equity investments, while they enter into long positions when they perceive an improved environment for...

  13. Behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa cells during floc storage in drinking water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Xiao, Hongdi; Jin, Yan; Li, Xiuqing; Hu, Wenrong; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the different behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa in the sludges formed by AlCl3, FeCl3, and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) coagulants during storage. Results show that the viability of Microcystis aeruginosa in PAFC sludge was stronger than that of cells in either AlCl3 or FeCl3 sludge after the same storage time, while the cells’ viability in the latter two systems stayed at almost the same level. In AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges high concentrations of Al and Fe were toxic to Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas in PAFC sludge low levels of Al showed little toxic effect on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and moderate amounts of Fe were beneficial to growth. The lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa in AlCl3 sludge was more serious than that in PAFC sludge, for the same storage time. Although the cell viability in FeCl3 sludge was low (similar to AlCl3 sludge), the Microcystis aeruginosa cells remained basically intact after 10 d storage (similar to PAFC sludge). The maintenance of cellular integrity in FeCl3 sludge might be due to the large floc size and high density, which had a protective effect for Microcystis aeruginosa. PMID:27713525

  14. Behavior Change Techniques Used to Promote Walking and Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Emma L.; Baker, Graham; Mutrie, Nanette; Ogilvie, David; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Powell, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evidence on the effectiveness of walking and cycling interventions is mixed. This may be partly attributable to differences in intervention content, such as the cognitive and behavioral techniques (BCTs) used. Adopting a taxonomy of BCTs, this systematic review addressed two questions: (a) What are the behavior change techniques used in walking and cycling interventions targeted at adults? (b) What characterizes interventions that appear to be associated with changes in walking and...

  15. Motivation to Change as a Mediator for the Longitudinal Relationships of Gender and Alcohol Severity With One-Year Drinking Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Jeon; Ounpraseuth, Songthip; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether motivation to change mediated the relationships between gender and baseline alcohol severity with drinking outcome at 12-month follow-up in a longitudinal community sample. Method: Data were from baseline and 12-month interviews from the Rural Alcohol Study, a probability sample of rural and urban at-risk drinkers (N = 733) from six southern states. At-risk drinkers were identified through a telephone-screening interview. Measures of motivation (problem recognition and taking action) were the resultant two factors derived from the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Items on social consequences of drinking measured alcohol severity. Structural equation models examined relationships between baseline alcohol severity and motivation with drinks per drinking day at 12 months. Results: We identified significant, direct paths between drinking at 12 months and alcohol severity and taking action with an unstandardized estimate of 0.116 (p < .05), alcohol severity and problem recognition (0.423, p < .01), and each of the two “motivation” latent constructs—problem recognition (1.846, p < .01) and taking action (-0.660, p < .01). Finally, the combined direct and negative effect of gender on alcohol consumption at 12-month follow-up was statistically significant, with an unstandardized estimate of -0.970 (p < .01). Conclusions: The current study offers evidence for motivation to change as a viable mechanism through which alcohol severity is associated with subsequent drinking outcomes. More research is needed to further explore the persistence of motivation to change on drinking outcomes over time. PMID:22456256

  16. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  17. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future. PMID:27656152

  18. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01). In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  19. Maintenance of health behavior change in preventive cardiology. Internalization and self-regulation of new behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellg, Albert J

    2003-01-01

    Long-term health behavior maintenance remains a challenge for patients and health behavior interventionists. Resource-intensive systems of external reinforcement and behavioral cues can support behavior maintenance; an alternative approach is to promote patient internalization and self-regulation of health behaviors. Based in part on organismic internalization theory, self-determination theory, and the experience of patients successful at maintaining health behaviors, the health behavior internalization model (HBIM) is proposed to describe motivational factors associated with internalization processes and hypothesizes that integrated internalization may be associated with long-term health behavior maintenance. The HBIM identifies four self-needs (ownership, self-determination, security, and support) and four behavior-related needs (preference, context, competence, and coping) as motivating health behavior internalization. Behavior change strategies promoting integrated internalization are identified from self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and transtheoretical model interventions. Other health behavior change constructs are reviewed in relation to internalization processes, and potential limits to the model are discussed.

  20. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie M

    2016-05-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and (c) playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis (see Freedman 2015, in this issue, for a thorough description of these strategies). This article outlines three additional strategies that the author believes will position behavior analysis as a "contemporary science of what works in behavior change." These new strategies are (a) creating a cohesive, easily understandable framework; (b) personally communicating a more contemporary, sophisticated message; and PMID:27606183

  1. Caregiver perspectives of memory and behavior changes in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia C; Dunbar, Sandra B; Aycock, Dawn M; Courtney, Elizabeth; Wolf, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    Post-stroke memory and behavior changes (MBC) are associated with negative outcomes for stroke survivors and caregivers. This article describes the types of MBC that occur most frequently and caregivers' responses to these behaviors. Data were obtained through in-person interviews and administration of questionnaires to 132 caregivers of first-time stroke survivors 3-9 months after stroke. MBC were measured with a modified version of a Memory and Behavior Problems checklist. On average, caregivers reported 7.7 +/- 3.6 (range 0-17) behaviors. Common stroke survivor MBC included appearing sad or depressed, interrupting the caregiver, and being restless or agitated. These MBC were distressing to caregivers. Caregivers may not recognize some MBC as potential symptoms of depression. In addition, caregiver misunderstanding of the amount of control survivors may have over some behaviors has implications for rehabilitation and caregivers' responses to these changes. PMID:16422042

  2. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-12-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  3. Repeated Predictable Stress Causes Resilience against Colitis-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY, a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  4. Influence of activated drinking-water treatment waste on binary cement-based composite behavior: Characterization and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Frías Rojas, Moisés; Vigil de la Villa, R.; I. Soto; García, R; Baloa, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants regularly dispose of large volumes of industrial sludge in landfill sites, which often has negative environmental consequences. The calcination products of these kaolinite-based sludges have properties that could make them appropriate supplementary cementing materials in the production of blended binary cements. This research analyses the pozzolanic and thermodynamic properties of a Venezuelan drinking water sludge activated at 600 C for 2 h and...

  5. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  6. [Cognitive changes in decision making process underlying prosocial behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, K; Takagi, O

    1987-08-01

    Using a method of monitoring information acquisition, 76 subjects were instructed to simulate the information search process in which they selected a behavior from available behavioral alternatives which were expected to occur in a situation where donating behavior was needed. In order to measure the cognitive changes, they were asked to rate the importance of behavioral attributes both before and after the decision task. After the decision task, they were asked to rate the inner states. (1) Defensive cognitive changes were found which increased the importance of behavioral costs and decreased the importance of personal moral obligation feelings. This pattern of changes was consistent with the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (2) The defensive cognitive changes were related to the information search strategies. This pattern of relationship partly confirmed the prediction derived from the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (3) The result that the cognitive changes were not related to the inner states was inconsistent with the model of either Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark (1981, 1982) or Schwartz & Howard (1981, 1982, 1984). An alternative model was proposed and discussed.

  7. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  8. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.;

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...... with regard to the functional dimension. Beer and spirits are the alcoholic drinks and tea, water, and juice the non-alcoholic drinks that are related to high scores on the self-expression dimension. Water and juice are the drinks scoring highest on functionality, being mainly related to health, availability......, and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other...

  9. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P

    2015-08-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual's behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone-behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated with

  10. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  11. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Bönigk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  12. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  13. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  14. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them. PMID:11883324

  15. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9. Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1. Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation

  16. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ... on Substance Abuse. Alcohol use by youth and adolescents: a pediatric concern. Pediatrics. 2010;125:1078-1087. ...

  17. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C;

    2016-01-01

    soft drink intake and the annual change (Δ) in body weight (BW), WC, or waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMI) and possible interactions with the GRSs were examined with the use of linear regression analyses and meta-analyses. RESULTS: For each soft drink serving per day, soft drink consumption...... was significantly associated with a higher ΔBW of 0.07 kg/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13 kg/y; P = 0.020) but not with the ΔWC or ΔWCBMI In analyses of the ΔBW, we showed an interaction only with the GRSWC (per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: -0.06 kg/y; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02 kg/y; P = 0.006). In analyses...... of the ΔWC, we showed interactions only with the GRSBMI and GRSComplete [per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.09 cm/y; P = 0.001) and 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 cm/y; P = 0.001), respectively]. Nearly identical results were observed in analyses of the ΔWCBMI...

  18. 31B. Health Coaching: Empowering Patients for Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Linda; Morriss, Blaire

    2013-01-01

    Focus Area: Supporting Behavioral Change Up to half of all premature deaths in the United States are caused by unhealthy lifestyle choices (smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity). The seven “modifiable” chronic diseases (cancer, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, pulmonary conditions, and mental disorders) cost $270 billion annually to treat. Patients who are trying to make lifestyle changes often feel overwhelmed and discouraged. As a result, admonishment and education alone ar...

  19. Camera on Vessel: A Camera-Based System to Measure Change in Water Volume in a Drinking Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Ayoola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A major problem related to chronic health is patients’ “compliance” with new lifestyle changes, medical prescriptions, recommendations, or restrictions. Heart-failure and hemodialysis patients are usually placed on fluid restrictions due to their hemodynamic status. A holistic approach to managing fluid imbalance will incorporate the monitoring of salt-water intake, body-fluid retention, and fluid excretion in order to provide effective intervention at an early stage. Such an approach creates a need to develop a smart device that can monitor the drinking activities of the patient. This paper employs an empirical approach to infer the real water level in a conically shapped glass and the volume difference due to changes in water level. The method uses a low-resolution miniaturized camera to obtain images using an Arduino microcontroller. The images are processed in MATLAB. Conventional segmentation techniques (such as a Sobel filter to obtain a binary image are applied to extract the level gradient, and an ellipsoidal fitting helps to estimate the size of the cup. The fitting (using least-squares criterion between derived measurements in pixel and the real measurements shows a low covariance between the estimated measurement and the mean. The correlation between the estimated results to ground truth produced a variation of 3% from the mean.

  20. Acute effects of ingesting a commercial thermogenic drink on changes in energy expenditure and markers of lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the acute effects of ingesting a thermogenic drink (Celsius, Delray Beach, FL (TD on changes in metabolism and lipolysis. Methods Healthy college-aged male (23.2 ± 4.0 y, 177.2 ± 6.1 cm, 81.7 ± 11.3 kg, 22.8 ± 7.3 % fat; n = 30 and female (23.4 ± 3.1 y, 165.6 ± 8.7 cm, 62.1 ± 9.9 kg, 28.3 ± 7.4 % fat; n = 30 participants were matched according to height and weight to consume 336 ml of the TD or a non-caloric, non-caffeinated placebo (PLA. After a 12 h fast, participants reported for pre-consumption measures of height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, glycerol and free-fatty acid (FFA concentrations. REE and RER were determined at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption. Serum glycerol and FFA concentrations were determined at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min post-consumption. Results When compared to PLA, TD significantly increased REE at 60, 120 and 180 min (p Conclusion Acute TD ingestion significantly increased REE, FFA and glycerol appearance. If sustained, these changes may help to promote weight loss and improve body composition; however, these findings are currently unknown as are the general safety and efficacy of prolonged consumption.

  1. Reduction of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after one month of drinking Aronia melanocarpa berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Mirko; Ignjatović, Đurđica; Tovilović-Kovačević, Gordana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Ranković, Slavica; Popović, Tamara; Glibetić, Marija

    2016-07-13

    The treatment of mood and anxiety disorders by nutraceuticals is gaining growing awareness. Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Black chokeberry) and their extracts, exceptionally abundant in diverse phenolic compounds, have become famous for the highest in vitro antioxidant activity among fruits and notable health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective). This study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of month-long unlimited consumption of Aronia master juice (AJ) and/or juice reconstruct without polyphenols (RJ), in young male rats. AJ was initially evaluated for its content of phenolic compounds by spectrophotometric assays and HPLC-DAD. Rats that were supplied with three various water concentrations of AJ and RJ, respectively: 20% + 0% (ARO group), 5% + 15% (RAJ) and 0 + 20% (PLC), were compared with those which consumed only water (CTL). Daily drinking of AJ solution was significantly elevated from the second or third week onward, which was most expressed in the ARO group. Only this group displayed behavioral variations, manifested by certain hyperactivity in open field tests and prominent reductions of anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. The ARO rats also expressed an alleviation of depression-like behavior in forced swimming tests. These findings demonstrate the beneficial behavioral effects of the one-month-long free drinking of phenolic-rich AJ in rats (>20 ml per kg b. mass daily) that may be recognized as stimulating, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like. The in vitro assays suggested that MAO-A/MAO-B inhibitions by the phenolic compounds of AJ might be the possible in vivo mechanisms for such behavioral actions. PMID:27273205

  2. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  3. Hemiballismus, Hyperphagia, and Behavioral Changes following Subthalamic Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of subthalamic nucleus (STN which is a part of the basal ganglia system is not clear, but it is hypothesized that this component might be involved in action selection. Unilateral damage to STN, which can commonly occur due to the small vessel stroke mainly, causes hemiballismus and sometimes hemichorea-hemiballismus. This paper deals with a 60-year-old patient with sudden onset of abnormal movements in his right limbs. He had increased appetite and hyperphagia and also developed mood and behavioral changes (aggressiveness, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes obscene speech. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct area in left subthalamus. In our case, hemiballismus is caused by infarction in left subthalamic area. Occurrence of irritability, anxiety, and some behavioral changes such as aggressiveness and obscene speech can be explained by impairment of STN role in nonmotor behavior and cognitive function as a result of infarct.

  4. The Limiting Behavior for Observations That Change with Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyun WANG; Zhengyan LIN

    2007-01-01

    Consider a system where units have random magnitude entering according to a homogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, while in the system, a unit's magnitude may change with time. In this paper, the authors obtain some results for the limiting behavior of the sum process of all unit magnitudes present in the system at time t.

  5. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  6. Developing Individualized Behavior Change Goals with Clients: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Richard G.; Uhlemann, Max R.

    This document reviews 10 specific and sequential steps which have emerged as being particularly effective in assisting clients in developing individualized behavior change goals in psychotherapy. The therapist and client typically work through these steps together near the beginning of treatment, but only after the client has had the opportunity…

  7. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  8. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  9. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members. PMID:26247206

  10. Carrots and sticks fail to change behavior in cocaine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersche, K.D.; Gillan, C.M.; Jones, P.S.; Williams, G.B.; Ward, L.H.E.; Luijten, M.; Wit, S. de; Sahakian, B.J.; Bullmore, E.T.; Robbins, T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem that is particularly difficult to treat. Without medically proven pharmacological treatments, interventions to change the maladaptive behavior of addicted individuals mainly rely on psychosocial approaches. Here we report on impairments in cocaine-a

  11. Behavior Change after Adventure Education Courses: Do Work Colleagues Notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, a mixed-method approach is used to examine the extent and type of changes in workplace attitudes and behavior, as self-reported by soldiers who had participated in 6- to 10-day "Experiential Leadership Development Activities" (ELDAs) delivered by the New Zealand Army Leadership Centre. Observations made by workplace…

  12. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  13. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  14. Watershed Outreach Professionals' Behavior Change Practices, Challenges, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…

  15. Teahouses and the Tea Art: A Study on the Current Trend of Tea Culture in China and the Changes in Tea Drinking Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    he subject of this thesis is tradition and the current trend of tea culture in China. In order to answer the following three questions whether the current tea culture phenomena can be called tradition or not; what are the changes in tea cultural tradition and what are the new features of the current trend of tea culture; what are the endogenous and exogenous factors which influenced the change in the tea drinking tradition , I did literature research from ancient tea classics and historic...

  16. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. PMID:25936272

  17. Empiric validation of a process for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; MacKinnon, David P; Ranby, Krista W; Kuehl, Kerry S; Moe, Esther L

    2016-09-01

    Most behavior change trials focus on outcomes rather than deconstructing how those outcomes related to programmatic theoretical underpinnings and intervention components. In this report, the process of change is compared for three evidence-based programs' that shared theories, intervention elements and potential mediating variables. Each investigation was a randomized trial that assessed pre- and post- intervention variables using survey constructs with established reliability. Each also used mediation analyses to define relationships. The findings were combined using a pattern matching approach. Surprisingly, knowledge was a significant mediator in each program (a and b path effects [ptheory and processes of an effective intervention. Combined findings also demonstrate a means to substantiate process aspects and theoretical models to advance understanding of behavior change. PMID:27528533

  18. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072

  19. Age-Related Changes in Demand–Withdraw Communication Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Sarah R.; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand–withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands’ and wives’ demand–w...

  20. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior. PMID:26327939

  1. Big changes in prevention of legionellae. New Drinking Water legislation; Grote veranderingen voor Legionellapreventie. Nieuwe Drinkwaterwetgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Blom, E. [Uneto-VNI, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    In the Netherlands, July 1st 2011, the new potable water legislation came into force. This resulted in major changes in Legionella prevention at priority installations. But this is not the only impact on the installation sector and building owners and users. For materials, more stringent requirements came into force, also for the use of grey water. Potable water companies have a legal obligation to deliver a certain amount of water under a certain pressure. [Dutch] Per I juli 2011 is de nieuwe Drinkwaterwetgeving in werking getreden. Dit heeft grote veranderingen meegebracht voor de Legionellapreventie bij prioritaire installaties. Maar dit is niet het enige dat impact heeft op de installatiesector en gebouweigenaren en gebruikers. Er gelden strengere eisen voor materiaalgebruik, net als bij de toepassing van huishoudwater. Drinkwaterbedrijven krijgen een wettelijke verplichting om altijd een bepaalde hoeveelheid water te leveren onder een bepaalde druk.

  2. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  3. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Holloman Christopher; Caine-Bish Natalie; Ha Eun-Jeong; Lowry-Gordon Karen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation ...

  4. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Holloman, Christopher; Lowry-Gordon, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to...

  5. Dispositional drinking motives: associations with appraised alcohol effects and alcohol consumption in an ecological momentary assessment investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Cooper, M Lynne; Wood, Phillip K; Sher, Kenneth J; Shiffman, Saul; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol use can be understood as a strategic behavior, such that people choose to drink based on the anticipated affective changes produced by drinking relative to those produced by alternative behaviors. This study investigated whether people who report drinking for specific reasons via the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) actually experience the alcohol effects they purportedly seek. As a secondary goal, we examined relations between drinking motives and indices of the amount of alcohol consumed. Data were drawn from 3,272 drinking episodes logged by 393 community-recruited drinkers during a 21-day Ecological Momentary Assessment investigation. After accounting for selected covariates, DMQ-R enhancement motives uniquely predicted real-time reports of enhanced drinking pleasure. DMQ-R coping motives were associated with reports of increased drinking-contingent relief and punishment. Enhancement motives uniquely predicted consuming more drinks per episode and higher peak intra-episode estimated blood alcohol concentration. The findings extend the evidence for the validity of the DMQ-R motive scores by demonstrating that internal drinking motives (enhancement and coping) are related to the experienced outcomes of drinking in the manner anticipated by theory.

  6. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. ...

  7. Age-Related Changes in Demand-Withdraw Communication Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Sarah R; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    Demand-withdraw communication is a set of conflict-related behaviors in which one partner blames or pressures while the other partner withdraws or avoids. The present study examined age-related changes in these behaviors longitudinally over the course of later life stages. One hundred twenty-seven middle-aged and older long-term married couples were observed at 3 time points across 13 years as they engaged in a conversation about an area of relationship conflict. Husbands' and wives' demand-withdraw behaviors (i.e., blame, pressure, withdrawal, avoidance) were objectively rated by trained coders at each time point. Data were analyzed using dyad-level latent growth curve models in a structural equation modeling framework. For both husbands and wives, the results showed a longitudinal pattern of increasing avoidance behavior over time and stability in all other demand and withdraw behaviors. This study supports the notion that there is an important developmental shift in the way that conflict is handled in later life. PMID:23913982

  8. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer ...

  9. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  10. Reform from Below: Behavioral and Institutional Change in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Haggard; Marcus Noland

    2009-01-01

    The state is often conceptualized as playing an enabling role in a country's economic development--providing public goods, such as the legal protection of property rights, while the political economy of reform is conceived in terms of bargaining over policy among elites or special interest groups. We document a case that turns this perspective on its head: efficiency-enhancing institutional and behavioral changes arising not out of a conscious, top-down program of reform, but rather as uninte...

  11. Collapsibility and Volume Change Behavior of Unsaturated Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalan A. Aziz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering development is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual soil exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, makes conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil not so relevant. Ignorance or lack of understanding of the geotechnical behavior of soil in the partially or unsaturated state has caused a lot of damages to infrastructures, buildings and other structures. For instance, the collapsibility and volume change of partially saturated soils in connection with the drying or wetting causes a lot of damage in foundation, roads and other structures. It is also observed that many shallow slope failures involve a slumping (collapse type of failure. As such, the development of extended soil mechanics, which embraces the soil in the unsaturated state or subjected to soil suction, is essential. This study examines the collapsibility and volume change behavior specifically of an unsaturated residual soil under various levels of applied matric suction (ua-uw and net mean stress (σ-ua in a predetermined stress path. The volume change of the soil is found to be sensitive to both the applied matric suction and net mean stress. The soil is found to exhibit a collapsibility behavior upon a reduction in applied matric suction at constant net mean stress.

  12. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  13. Modern drinks and liquid food and the change of the industry%现代饮料和液体食品行业的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信溪

    2004-01-01

    New-type drinks bring relaxation and treat to the consumers. In addition, new-type drinks meet the desire of the consumers, the vitamin content is raised in the drinks. In the future years, the new-type drinks products are bound to bring a further innovation to the drinks industry.

  14. Changes in health risk behaviors of elementary school students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003: results from the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that children's behaviors have long-term effects on later life. Hence it is important to monitor the development of health risk behaviors in childhood. This study examined the changes in health risk behaviors in fourth- to sixth-grade students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003. Methods The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution (CABLE study collected data from 1,820 students from 2001 to 2003 (students were 9 or 10 years old in 2001. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the aggregation of health risk behaviors. A linear growth curve model was used to determine whether health risk behaviors changed over time. Results Of the 13 behaviors, staying up late and eating snacks late at night were the most prevalent (82.3% of subjects in 2001, 81.8% in 2002, 88.5% in 2003 and second most prevalent (68.7%, 67.4%, 71.6% behaviors, respectively, from 2001 to 2003. The three least prevalent health risk behaviors were chewing betel nut (1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2%, smoking (1.4%, 1.0%, 0.8%, and drinking alcohol (8.5%, 6.0%, 5.2%. The frequencies of swearing and staying up late showed the greatest significant increases with time. On the other hand, suppressing urination and drinking alcohol decreased over time. Using exploratory factor analysis, we aggregated the health risk behaviors into three categories: unhealthy habits, aggressive behaviors, and substance use. Although students did not display high levels of aggressive behavior or experimentation with substances, the development of these behaviors in a small proportion of students should not be ignored. The results of the linear growth curve model indicated that unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased over time. However, substance use slightly decreased over time. Conclusion We found that some health risk behaviors increased with time while others did not. Unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased, whereas

  15. [Self-assessment questionnaire of alcoholic craving (ECCA Questionnaire: Behavior and Cognition in Relation to Alcohol: French translation and validation of the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chignon, J M; Jacquesy, L; Mennad, M; Terki, A; Huttin, F; Martin, P; Chabannes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, neurobiological and neuropsychological hypotheses suggest that the dimension of alcohol craving includes the concept of both obsessive thoughts about alcohol use and compulsive behaviors toward drinking. Anton et al. (1995) developed a 14 items self-rating scale, the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) which includes items for assessing three dimensions: global, and the obsessive and the compulsive subdimensions. In this study, we included 156 patients, 105 men and 51 women, who met DSM IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence. The mean age of our population was 39.1 +/- 11.2 years without difference between sexes. We did not found any correlation between the CAGE score and the OCDS total score or the obsessive and compulsive subscores (respectively, r = .15, r = .10 et r = .18). Moreover, we did not found any correlation between OCDS scores and mean daily alcohol consumption (r = .18, r = .16, r = .19). This could indicate that the dimension measured by the scale was somewhat independent of actual drinking. As such, it might act as an independent measure of the "state of illness" for alcohol-dependent patients. The test-retest correlation for the OCDS total score was .95 and the obsessive and compulsive subscales test-retest correlations were .93 and .89 respectively. The internal consistency of the items of the OCDS was high (alpha = .89). Principal component analysis had identified in the french version of the OCDS, three factors accounting for 63.5% of the total variance. These results indicate that the french version of the OCDS seems to validly measure a dimension of alcohol dependence. The ease of administration, reliability, and concurrent validity of the OCDS makes it particularly useful as an outcome measurement tool for various clinical therapeutic protocols in alcoholism. PMID:9850816

  16. MedlinePlus: Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Cross-sectional Study. Article: Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in... Underage Drinking -- see more articles Find an Expert Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) ...

  17. Does genomic risk information motivate people to change their behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrikson, Nora B; Bowen, Deborah; Burke, Wylie

    2009-01-01

    The recent flood of information about new gene variants associated with chronic disease risk from genome-wide association studies has understandably led to enthusiasm that genetic discoveries could reduce disease burdens and increase the availability of direct-to-consumer tests offering risk information. However, we suggest caution: if it is to be any benefit to health, genetic risk information needs to prompt individuals to pursue risk-reduction behaviors, yet early evidence suggests that genetic risk may not be an effective motivator of behavior change. It is not clear how genetic information will inform risk-based behavioral intervention, or what harms might occur. Research is needed that examines the behavioral consequences of genetic risk knowledge in the context of other motivators and social conditions, as well as research that determines the subgroups of people most likely to be motivated, in order to inform policy decisions about emerging genetic susceptibility tests. Without such research, it will not be possible to determine the appropriate health care uses for such tests, the impact on health care resources from consumer-initiated testing, or the criteria for truthful advertising of direct-to-consumer tests. PMID:19341508

  18. Pathways to adulthood and changes in health-promoting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frech, Adrianne

    2014-03-01

    The transition to adulthood in the US has become increasingly diverse over the last fifty years, leaving young adults without a normative pathway to adulthood. Using Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=7803), I draw from a cumulative advantages/disadvantages (CAD) perspective to examine the relationships between union formation, parenthood, college attendance, full-time employment, home-leaving, and changes in health-promoting behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. I find that men and women who marry, cohabit, or attend college during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood report fewer losses in healthy behaviors over time. When the sample is divided into mutually exclusive "pathways to adulthood", two higher-risk groups emerge for both men and women: single parents and those transitioning into fulltime work without attending college or forming families. These groups experience greater losses in healthy behaviors over time even after adjusting for family of origin characteristics and may be at long-term risk for persistently low engagement in health-promoting behaviors. PMID:24796877

  19. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose-response curves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Raghda A M; El Gayar, Nesreen H; Georgy, Sonia S; Hamza, May

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose-response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose-response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose-response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the 'change in mechanical threshold'-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations.

  20. Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Alix Peterson; Zinman, Jonathan; Van Dusen, Eric; Pariente, William; Null, Clair; Miguel, Edward; Kremer, Michael; Karlan, Dean S; Hornbeck, Richard; Giné, Xavier; Duflo, Esther; Devoto, Florencia; Crepon, Bruno; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2011-02-01

    Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances and then measured subsequent use of a related product with data that does not rely on subjects' self-reports. In the three health experiments, we find that being surveyed increases use of water treatment products and take-up of medical insurance. Frequent surveys on reported diarrhea also led to biased estimates of the impact of improved source water quality. In two microlending studies, we do not find an effect of being surveyed on borrowing behavior. The results suggest that limited attention could play an important but context-dependent role in consumer choice, with the implication that researchers should reconsider whether, how, and how much to survey their subjects. PMID:21245314

  1. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...

  2. Autism-Like Behavior and Epigenetic Changes Associated with Autism as Consequences of In Utero Exposure to Environmental Pollutants in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise S. Hill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to heavy metals increases autism-like behavioral phenotypes in adult animals and induces epigenetic changes in genes that have roles in the etiology of autism. Mouse dams were treated with cadmium, lead, arsenate, manganese, and mercury via drinking water from gestational days (E 1–10. Valproic acid (VPA injected intraperitoneally once on (E 8.5 served as a positive control. Young male offspring were tested for behavioral deficits using four standardized behavioral assays. In this study, in utero exposure to heavy metals resulted in multiple behavioral abnormalities that persisted into adulthood. VPA and manganese induced changes in perseverative/impulsive behavior and social dominance behavior, arsenic caused changes only in perseverative/impulsive behavior, and lead induced abnormalities in social interaction in comparison to the control animals. Brain samples from Mn, Pb, and VPA treated and control animals were evaluated for changes in CpG island methylation in promoter regions and associated changes in gene expression. The Chd7 gene, essential for neural crest cell migration and patterning, was found to be hypomethylated in each experimental animal tested compared to water-treated controls. Furthermore, distinct patterns of CpG island methylation yielded novel candidate genes for further investigation.

  3. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  4. Tapping Into Motivations for Drinking Among Youth: Normative Beliefs About Alcohol Use Among Underage Drinkers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padon, Alisa A; Rimal, Rajiv N; Jernigan, David; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William

    2016-10-01

    Social norms affect human behavior, and underage drinking is no exception. Using the theory of normative social behavior, this study tested the proposition that the association between perceptions about the prevalence of drinking (descriptive norms) and underage drinking is strengthened when perceived pressures to conform (injunctive norms) and beliefs about the benefits of drinking (outcome expectations) are high. This proposition was tested on a nationally representative sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20 (N = 1,031) in relation to their alcohol consumption, expanding on research with college-age youth. On average, males and females reported drinking 23 and 18 drinks per month, respectively. The main effect of descriptive norms (β = .10, p < .01) on alcohol consumption was modified by interactions with injunctive norms (β = .11, p < .01), benefit to self (β = .12, p < .001), and benefit to others (β = .10, p < .01). Underage drinkers are most vulnerable to excessive drinking if they believe that most others drink, that they themselves are expected to drink, and that drinking confers several benefits. Norms-based interventions to reduce youth alcohol use need to focus on changing not only descriptive norms but also injunctive norms and outcome expectations. PMID:27668832

  5. Perinatal caffeine, acting on maternal adenosine A(1 receptors, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Björklund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are lingering concerns about caffeine consumption during pregnancy or the early postnatal period, partly because there may be long-lasting behavioral changes after caffeine exposure early in life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that pregnant wild type (WT mice given modest doses of caffeine (0.3 g/l in drinking water gave birth to offspring that as adults exhibited increased locomotor activity in an open field. The offspring also responded to cocaine challenge with greater locomotor activity than mice not perinatally exposed to caffeine. We performed the same behavioral experiments on mice heterozygous for adenosine A(1 receptor gene (A(1RHz. In these mice signaling via adenosine A(1 receptors is reduced to about the same degree as after modest consumption of caffeine. A(1RHz mice had a behavioral profile similar to WT mice perinatally exposed to caffeine. Furthermore, it appeared that the mother's genotype, not offspring's, was critical for behavioral changes in adult offspring. Thus, if the mother partially lacked A(1 receptors the offspring displayed more hyperactivity and responded more strongly to cocaine stimulation as adults than did mice of a WT mother, regardless of their genotype. This indicates that long-term behavioral alterations in the offspring result from the maternal effect of caffeine, and not a direct effect on fetus. WT offspring from WT mother but having a A(1R Hz grandmother preserved higher locomotor response to cocaine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that perinatal caffeine, by acting on adenosine A(1 receptors in the mother, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in the offspring that even manifest themselves in the second generation.

  6. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

  7. Order is needed to promote linear or quantum changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors: a reaction to 'A chaotic view of behavior change' by Resnicow and Vaughan.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Drs. Ken Resnicow and Roger Vaughan published a thought-provoking paper in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (IJBNPA). They argue that the most often used social-cognition theories in behavioral nutrition and physical activity are of limited use. These models describe behavior change as a linear event, while Resnicow and Vaughan posit that behavior change is more likely to occur in quantum leaps that are impossible to predict. They intr...

  8. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  9. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...... is used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  10. Is nursing preceptor behavior changed by attending a preceptor class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Phyllis Hart

    2016-01-01

    Nursing preceptors initiate new staff to the professional environment. To be successful, preceptors must be willing and knowledgeable in their role, both clinically and as an instructor. This study evaluated the effects of a 4-hour preceptor class to change preceptor behavior. Twenty-seven class participants commented on the class and their goals, and 18 completed a follow-up survey 2 months later. Among those 18, 90% had achieved at least one of their goals. One barrier to achieving planned changes was having the opportunity to precept over the time period. Participants indicated that improved listening skills, application of content, and team building all supported their improvement as a preceptor. PMID:27365870

  11. Is nursing preceptor behavior changed by attending a preceptor class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Pamela G; Tipton, Phyllis Hart

    2016-07-01

    Nursing preceptors initiate new staff to the professional environment. To be successful, preceptors must be willing and knowledgeable in their role, both clinically and as an instructor. This study evaluated the effects of a 4-hour preceptor class to change preceptor behavior. Twenty-seven class participants commented on the class and their goals, and 18 completed a follow-up survey 2 months later. Among those 18, 90% had achieved at least one of their goals. One barrier to achieving planned changes was having the opportunity to precept over the time period. Participants indicated that improved listening skills, application of content, and team building all supported their improvement as a preceptor. PMID:27365870

  12. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis....... The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children's educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  13. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    relation between family structure changes and children's outcomes. Children who have experienced family structure changes during childhood seem to have worse educational outcomes and a higher propensity to being hospitalized and convicted of a crime. The children in the dataset experience up to 13 family...... decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral and health outcomes and investigate both the selection and causation explanations. For the estimations I use a Danish administrative register dataset with the full population of children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985. I find a clear negative...

  14. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  15. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  16. Snacking behavior in adolescence: the influence of peer group members and school availability of snacks and soft drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Frequent high caloric intake (snacking) induces overweight. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of social and physical environmental factors on the snacking behavior of adolescents. Design: cross-sectional population based study Method: Snacking behavior of individuals and th

  17. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  18. Impact of Perceived Second-Hand Consequences Related to Alcohol Use on College Students' Drinking Behavior Intent: A Test of Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trockel, Mickey; Wall, Andrew; Reis, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to determine the impact of a group discussion about second-hand consequences of alcohol use on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Results reveal that intervention group participants reported intent to limit themselves to fewer drinks per drinking occasion and fewer drinks per week.…

  19. Mobile applications for chronic disease self-management : building a bridge for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lähdesmäki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the biggest challenges in the future of healthcare is the rising prevalence of chronic, non-communicable diseases. In high-income countries seven out of ten leading risk factors of death are caused by the way people eat, drink or move. Health behavior patterns are considered to account for 40 % of early mortality. If nothing changes, from 2011 until 2030 the cost of chronic disease in the whole world may reach 47 trillion dollars. It is clear that chronic disease care needs to change. Today people with chronic disease spend less than 0,1 % of their time yearly in direct contact with healthcare and guidance. The rest of the time they are under the influence of family, colleagues, acquaintances, media and all the conflicting information from them. Digital elements are emerging in healthcare. Some of these digital elements emerging are mobile applications. Of all the people in Finland, 70 % own a smartphone. These devices are often in the proximity of their owner; in a pocket or a purse, making them easy and fast to use for various purposes. This is why they can also prove to be useful tools for personal healthcare and chronic disease self-management support, for example for recording diet and exercise related values as well as various disease specific values like blood glucose or blood pressure measurements. They also enable two-way interaction with healthcare professionals and patients in their everyday life. This requires well designed applications that affect the patient’s health behavior and are tempting to use. According to research, this is not always the case. Aim The aim of this thesis study was to find out how multipurpose mobile applications intended for chronic disease self-management implement known behavior change techniques in order to change behavior, and to find out how they utilize known gamification features in order to maintain the change. The purpose of this study was to create a new, multidisciplinary

  20. The First Drinking Simulator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current Thermal cycling units fail to simulate the drinking behaviors, and oral balancing temperature. They cannot also simulate other oral conditions such as drink coloring, and chemicals like tea, coffee, carbonated and noncarbonated, citrus juices as well as alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks and also saliva and milk itself. The main objective of this study is to introduce the designing and manufacturing the first Drinking Simulator Unit (DSU that reproduces the thermal, color and chemicalcycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions uniquely. Methods: The invented system generally has two parts: the hardware and the software parts. The hardware consists of the mechanical and electronic parts. The software part is responsible for controlling the heating and cooling systems, electric valves, the pumps, and automatic filling systems of tanks as well as the sensors of the machine. Results: DSU is the first unit can reproduce the thermal, color and chemical cycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions. Different kinds of colored and acidic drinks and also other chemical materials such as bleaching substances as well as detergents and antiseptics used for dentistry, industrial and medical purposes can be tested by DSU. DSU has also to be considered as an appliance performing in-vitro researches on dental structures. Conclusion: The invented system can greatly improve and validate the results of such researches.  

  1. The lung mechanical behavior change with 100% oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hsuan-Tso

    In medicine, delivery of hyperbaric oxygen to the lung is necessary and quite common to use for critical care. However, it is known that too much oxygen, under different conditions, can be toxic. For example, at an oxygen fraction of 50% at normal atmospheric pressure, the alveoli will show damage after long periods of exposure (several hours). Prolonged or high oxygen concentrations (up to 50%) can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes, the collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment, and seizures. Oxygen toxicity is managed by reducing the exposure to elevated oxygen levels. The possible mechanisms of oxygen toxicity are not fully understood, but the two main hypotheses in literature are direct point out cellular damage or surfactant dysfunction. Most previous studies have focused on long-term (greater than 4 hours) exposure and the effects on lung. Very little is known regarding the short-term effects of oxygen on lung. In this study, we choose to investigate short-term (five tidal volume) changes in lung under oxygen. To test this, we measured any sensitive mechanical behavior change in the lung using indentation. In the experiments, we measured excised mammalian lungs inflated with air or 100% oxygen, to different pressure (4, 12, 25cmH2O) and different indenter displacement (1, 2, 3mm). Our results show the lung becomes stiffer even when exposed to oxygen in the short term. In addition, inflating air again, the lung mechanical property shows some reversible behavior. This phenomenon is more obvious at low inflation pressure than in high pressure after exposure oxygen. We suggest that pulmonary surfactant plays an important role in the observed change. Also, we can say that the exposure time for oxygen toxicity to occur could be shorted that previously thought short-term. This conclusion is important to understand and accommodate oxygen toxicity in the lung.

  2. Changes in the renal handling of urea in sheep on a low protein diet exposed to saline drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Meintjes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous trials have demonstrated that sheep on a low protein diet and free access to water, and sheep dosed with boluses of NaCl intraruminally also with free access to water, showed decreases in urea loss via the urine compared to control animals. We monitored urea excretion in sheep on a relatively poor protein diet when they were exposed to saline drinking water, i.e. they were unable to vary their intake of NaCl:water. Sheep on isotonic saline drinking water (phase 3 excreted significantly more urea via the urine (284 mM/day compared to phase 1 when they were on non-saline drinking water (urea excretion = 230 mM/day and phase 2 when they were on half isotonic saline drinking water (urea excretion = 244 mM/day.This finding was explained by the high glomerular filtration rate (GFR 91.9 ℓ/day, compared to 82.4 ℓ/day (phase 1 and 77.9 ℓ/day (phase 2, together with a significantly raised fractional excretion of urea (FEurea (51.1 % during this phase, and was in spite of the significantly lower plasma concentrations of urea in phase 3 compared to phase 1. The FEurea probably results from the osmotic diuresis caused by the salt. There were indications of a raised plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH concentration and this would have opposed urea loss, as ADH promotes urea reabsorption. However, this ADH effect was probably counteracted to some extent by a low plasma angiotensin II concentration, for which again there were indications, inhibiting urea reabsorption during the phases of salt loading. As atrial natriuretic peptide both increases GFR and decrease sodium reabsorption from the tubule, it was probably instrumental in causing the increase in GFR and the increase in the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa.

  3. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  4. It’s five o’clock somewhere: An examination of the association between happy hour drinking and negative consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Julie Marie; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to understand which young adults’ drinking behaviors change in the presence of happy hour specials, the ways in which they change, and whether a link exists between happy hour drinking behavior and negative outcomes. Methods Using data collected from bar-going respondents (n = 1,423) within a print survey administered to a general college sample (n = 2,349), we identify significant differences in changes in happy hour behavior between demographic groups using χ2 tes...

  5. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  6. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: A Stage-based Approach to Behavior Change and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Bensley; Nelda Mercer; Brusk, John J.; Ric Underhile; Jason Rivas; Judith Anderson; Deanne Kelleher; Melissa Lupella; de Jager, André C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here at the point of stage-specific information ...

  7. Integrating behavior change theory into geriatric case management practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguidanos, S

    2001-01-01

    Case management practices have continued to grow despite a lack of clear evidence of their efficacy. With the expanding segment of the elderly population, there is a critical need to develop and identify programs that will address the many needs of the aging. Geriatric Case Management has been the avenue selected by many health care providers to address these issues, focusing on maintaining health status and improving linkages with medical and community resources. Studies testing the effectiveness of these models have failed to demonstrate their effectiveness in reducing depression, reducing acute care service use, and improving or maintaining health status. The Geriatric Case Management models presented in these lack an evidence-based, theoretical framework that provides definition and direction for case management practice. This article introduces behavior change theories as a method of structuring and delineating the case management intervention. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed and methods of integrating these theories into practice are discussed. PMID:11878076

  8. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  9. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user’s individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals’ motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article’s approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster. PMID:21852981

  10. Evaluation of guanfacine as a potential medication for alcohol use disorder in long-term drinking rats: behavioral and electrophysiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Ida; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Wirf, Malin; Nylander, Erik; Nyström, Erica; Jardemark, Kent; Steensland, Pia

    2015-03-13

    One of the main treatment challenges in alcohol use disorder (AUD) is the high rate of craving in combination with decreased cognitive functioning including impaired decision making and impulse control that often lead to relapse. Recent studies show that guanfacine, an α-2-adrenoceptor agonist and FDA-approved ADHD medication, attenuates stress-induced relapse of several drugs of abuse including alcohol. Here we evaluated guanfacine's effects on voluntary alcohol intake, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), alcohol seeking behavior, and cue/priming-induced reinstatement in Wistar rats that had voluntarily consumed alcohol for at least 2 months before treatment. In addition, guanfacine's ability to regulate glutamatergic neurotransmission was evaluated through electrophysiological recordings in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) slices prepared from long-term drinking rats (and alcohol-naive controls) that had received three daily guanfacine (0.6 mg/kg/day) or vehicle injections in vivo. Guanfacine decreased alcohol intake in high, but not low, alcohol-consuming rats and the effects were generally more long lasting than that of the AUD medication naltrexone. Repeated guanfacine treatment induced a long-lasting decrease in alcohol intake, persistent up to five drinking sessions after the last injection. In addition, guanfacine attenuated the ADE as well as alcohol seeking and cue/priming-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Finally, subchronic guanfacine treatment normalized an alcohol-induced dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in the mPFC. These results support previous studies showing that guanfacine has the ability to improve prefrontal connectivity through modulation of the glutamatergic system. Together with the fact that guanfacine appears to be clinically safe, these results merit evaluation of guanfacine's clinical efficacy in AUD individuals.

  11. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Background Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru’s soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Methods Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per...

  12. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  13. Hazardously Drinking Women Leaving Jail: Time to First Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Jennifer G.; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated time to first drink in women being released from jail to determine predictors of early relapse among women with hazardous drinking and HIV risk behaviors. Between February 2004 and June 2007, 245 participants were recruited from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Following the baseline assessment, participants were randomized to a motivational intervention group or to a control condition. Follow-up assessments at 1, 3, and 6 months were completed for 210 particip...

  14. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  15. Gamification: What It Is and Why It Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers

    OpenAIRE

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria...

  16. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding. PMID:25463964

  17. Tracking changes in the optical properties and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter during drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, E E; Kothawala, D N; Tranvik, L J; Gonsior, M; Schmitt-Kopplin, P; Köhler, S J

    2015-11-15

    Absorbance, 3D fluorescence and ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) were used to explain patterns in the removal of chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM) at the molecular level during drinking water production at four large drinking water treatment plants in Sweden. When dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was low, shifts in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition could not be detected with commonly used DOC-normalized parameters (e.g. specific UV254 absorbance - SUVA), but was clearly observed by using differential absorbance and fluorescence or ESI-FT-ICR-MS. In addition, we took a novel approach by identifying how optical parameters were correlated to the elemental composition of DOM by using rank correlation to connect optical properties to chemical formulas assigned to mass peaks from FT-ICR-MS analyses. Coagulation treatment selectively removed FDOM at longer emission wavelengths (450-600 nm), which significantly correlated with chemical formulas containing oxidized carbon (average carbon oxidation state ≥ 0), low hydrogen to carbon ratios (H/C: average ± SD = 0.83 ± 0.13), and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups (O/C = 0.62 ± 0.10). Slow sand filtration was less efficient in removing DOM, yet selectively targeted FDOM at shorter emission wavelengths (between 300 and 450 nm), which commonly represents algal rather than terrestrial sources. This shorter wavelength FDOM correlated with chemical formulas containing reduced carbon (average carbon oxidation state ≤ 0), with relatively few carbon-carbon double bonds (H/C = 1.32 ± 0.16) and less oxygen per carbon (O/C = 0.43 ± 0.10) than those removed during coagulation. By coupling optical approaches with FT-ICR-MS to characterize DOM, we were for the first time able to confirm the molecular composition of absorbing and fluorescing DOM selectively targeted during drinking

  18. Another Test of the Effect of Group Composition on Member Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixenstine, V. Edwin; Abascal, Juan

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of personal warmth and success modeling on behavior change among females experiencing assertion deficits. Results indicated both confederate warmth and success modeling influenced the level of assertion change behavior reported by group members. Attributions for influence to effect change and change performance are discussed.…

  19. What Can I Drink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minimal calories and carbohydrate. What to Avoid Avoid sugary drinks like regular soda, fruit punch, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sweet tea, and other sugary drinks. These will raise blood glucose and can provide ...

  20. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  1. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issues, so an alternative could be a trusted friend or older sibling who is easy to talk to. Drinking too much can be the result of social pressures, and sometimes it helps to know there ... for help. A supportive friend or adult could help you to avoid pressure ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  3. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  4. Consumer Behavior – A Consequence of Economic and Social Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Elena; Dârzan Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behavior is part of the economic behavior, being observed from a multidimensional and interdisciplinary perspective. Being a consumer is a quality given, in the first place, by the parties involved in the economic activity; the behavior is analyzed from a micro and macroeconomic perspective – behavior oriented towards satisfying individual needs. According to the current economic trends and also as a consequence of the globalization of the markets, the following question arises: a pe...

  5. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  6. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  7. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  8. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Swim, Janet K.; Brittany Bloodhart

    2013-01-01

    Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping train...

  9. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: A Stage-based Approach to Behavior Change and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Bensley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here — at the point of stage-specific information — that behavioral intent in moving toward more active stages of change occurs. The eHealth Behavior Management Model is applied in three demonstration projects that focus on behavior management issues: parent-child nutrition education among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; asthma management among university staff and students; and human immunodeficiency virus prevention among South African women. Preliminary results have found the eHealth Behavior Management Model to be promising as a model for Internet-based behavior change programming. Further application and evaluation among other behavior and disease management issues are needed.

  10. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Atrazine via the Drinking Water Causes Specific Behavioral Deficits and Selectively Alters Monoaminergic Systems in C57BL/6 Mouse Dams, Juvenile and Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Saritha; Ye, Xiaoqin; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams’ cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams. PMID:24913803

  11. Behavioral changes in neonatal swine after an 8-hour rest during prolonged transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2012-09-01

    Long distance transportation of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa) is increasingly common in the united states and may result in delayed eating, drinking, or normal social behaviors. A potential solution is a mid-journey rest (lairage). The objective of this study was to determine if a lairage altered behavior after a 16-h transport. Pigs that weighed approximately 18 kg each (n = 894) were housed in 16 pens with 8 pens per treatment. Lairaged pigs were transported for 8 h and given an 8-h rest with food and water, whereas control pigs were transported continuously for 16 h. The heaviest, the lightest, and 2 average-BW pigs relative to the average weight of the pen were observed by video recording for 24 h immediately before and after transport, and during d 6 and 13 after transport. Postures (lying, sitting, and standing) were recorded using 10-min-interval scan sampling, and behavioral categories included inactivity, activities (eating, drinking, alert, manipulating pen, rooting, and walking) and social interactions (aggression, belly nosing, playing, tail biting, and positive social behaviors). In both treatments, sitting occurred most before transport (P pigs initiated more (P = 0.05) play than continuously transported pigs, but no differences (P = 0.84) were seen in receipt of play behavior. Pigs that were to be transported for 16 h continuously walked less pre-transport, walked more post-transport (treatment × time interaction; P = 0.02), and drank less pre-transport, but drank more on all days post-transport compared with the lairage group (treatment × time interaction; P = 0.001). This study indicated that extended transport without lairage alters some swine behaviors relevant to production (water consumption) and demonstrated that a long-duration transport, regardless of the mid-journey lairage treatment, affects a number of behaviors up to 13 d after transportation. PMID:22966080

  12. Concordance between Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire and IPAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low rate of physical activity (PA participation is observed worldwide. The identification of feasible and reliable instruments able to accurately measuring PA and help in the development of interventions to promote PA are necessary. This study aimed to analyze the concordance between the Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire (SBCQ and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ long-version in assessing adult leisure-time physical activity (LTPA. A total of 1.588 adults completed the IPAQ to assess LTPA and the participants who performed more than 10 min/week were classified in active individuals. Using the SBCQ, active individuals were those classified in the action or maintenance stage and inactive individuals were those classified in the precontemplation, contemplation or preparation stage. The concordance between SBCQ and IPAQ was found to be 0.80. Separated by gender, it was observed a concordance between the two instruments of 0.82 for women, and 0.77 for men. Regarding age group, it was found to be 0.81 for young and middle-aged adults, and 0.77 for older people. The SBCQ presented a very good concordance with IPAQ to assess LTPA.

  13. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  14. Are There Differential Effects of Price and Policy on College Students' Drinking Intensity?

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Williams; Frank J. Chaloupka; Henry Wechsler

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates whether college students' response to alcohol price and policies differ according to their drinking intensity. Individual level data on drinking behavior, price paid per drink, and college alcohol policies come from the student and administrator components of the 1997 and 1999 waves of the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) College Alcohol Study (CAS). Students drinking behavior is classified on the basis of the number of drinks they typically consume on a drinking...

  15. Impact of Leader’s Change-Promoting Behavior on Readiness for Change: A Mediating Role of Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahnawaz Adil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the leader’s change-promoting behavior on employee’s readiness for change and whether the organizational culture mediates this relationship. A sample of 205 responses is drawn from employees having junior or senior level of managerial responsibilities in Karachi. The method of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses is employed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The structural equation modeling method was then applied to examine the theoretical framework with the help of seven frequently reported goodness-of-fit indices. The results indicate that leader’s change-promoting behavior has a significant positive impact on change readiness and the organizational culture partially mediates the positive relationship between the leader’s change-promoting behavior and change readiness. The present study supports the theory of one of the six conceptual formations of change readiness that it is reflected as employee’s capacity to change. Therefore, managers should clearly advocate the desired change with the help of their own change-prompting behavior as well as establishing a trusting culture in their organization. Future studies may ascertain the impact of employees’ readiness for change in their commitment to change in the context of Pakistan which could further lead to passive or active change-related behaviors.

  16. Cognitive changes in cardiovascular patients following a tailored behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, FJ; Dijkstra, A; de Haes, JCJM; Legemate, DA; Smets, EMA

    2005-01-01

    Background. Action aimed at changing smoking behavior to prevent cardiovascular patients from further impairing their health is advisable. Cognitive behavioral interventions can be effective in this regard since they attempt to influence cognitive determinants that presumably lead to smoking cessati

  17. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  18. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boleda, Ma Rosa [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Galceran, Ma Teresa [University of Barcelona, Department Analytical Chemistry, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, Francesc, E-mail: fventura@agbar.es [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies {>=}94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. - Highlights: > The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface water was demonstrated. > Elimination in both potabilization processes reached levels >99% for most compounds. > Four pharmaceuticals and three drugs of abuse survived the potabilization process. - The efficiency of potabilization processes to eliminate or transform pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is evaluated.

  19. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies ≥94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. - Highlights: → The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface water was demonstrated. → Elimination in both potabilization processes reached levels >99% for most compounds. → Four pharmaceuticals and three drugs of abuse survived the potabilization process. - The efficiency of potabilization processes to eliminate or transform pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is evaluated.

  20. Granular flow behavior at sharp changes in slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni; De Blasio, Fabio; Locatelli, Michele

    2015-04-01

    This study extends some recent experiments and analyses performed by the authors to examine the behavior of granular flows along path characterised by sharp changes in slope. In particular, various series of experiments along a bi-linear broken slope (an inclined initial sector followed by a horizontal one) have been completed using a uniform (Hostun, 0.32 mm) sand and a uniform fine gravel (2 mm grains). 60 new have been performed by releasing different volumes (1.5, 2.1 and 5.1 L) on surfaces characterized by different slope angles (35-60°), type of materials (wood and plexiglass), with or without an erodible layer (sand), or in presence of a shallow water pond (0.5 cm). These geometrical features are typical of many large rock and snow avalanches, rock falls and of chalk flows. The latter are usually typical of coastal cliffs where a shallow water environment is typical. The evolution of the flow has been monitored through a laser profilometer at 120 Hz sampling frequency and high speed camera, and in this way it has been possible to follow the evolution of the flow and deposition, and to analyse the change in deposition mode at varying the slope angle, the material and the basal friction. This is an extremely interesting development in the study of the evolution of the deposition and of the final morphology typical of such phenomena, and can support the testing of numerical models. Propagation and deposition occur forward or backward accordingly to the slope angle and the basal friction. Forward movement and deposition occur at high slope angles and with low basal friction. The opposite is true for the backward deposition. The internal "layering" within the deposit is also strongly controlled by the combination of such parameters. The time evolution of the flow allowed to determine the velocity of flow and the mode of deposition through the analysis of the change in thickness, position of the front and of the flow tail. Presence of water reduces the runout of

  1. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  2. Frequency, Clinical Correlates, and Ratings of Behavioral Changes in Primary Brain Tumor Patients: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Grahame K Simpson; Koh, Eng-Siew; Whiting, Diane; Wright, Kylie M.; Simpson, Teresa; Firth, Rochelle; Gillett, Lauren; Younan, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have addressed the specific behavioral changes associated with primary brain tumor (PBT). This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviors, and the reliability of rating such behaviors among people with PBT, family informants, and clinicians. The association of behavioral changes and patient functional status will also be discussed. Methods A total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large...

  3. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchting, Karie K.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher…

  4. Alcohol Abuse as a Rite of Passage: The Effect of Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience on Undergraduates' Drinking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative studies of alcohol's ritual influences indicate that college undergraduates who drink heavily tend to view alcohol use as integral to the student role and feel entitled to drink irresponsibly. Our analyses, based on a standardized measure of these beliefs administered to approximately 300 students, confirmed these findings. Among our…

  5. Status of drinking behavior and risk factors of college students in Luzhou%泸州市在校大学生饮酒现状及危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽; 宋丽娟; 张涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of college students′drinking behavior,and to analyze the related risk factors of students′ hazardous and harmful drinking behaviors in Luzhou of Sichuan Province,and to provide the factual basis to reducing their hazardousand harmful drinking behavior. Methods A stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the investigation,and 1381 students were selected from four colleges in Luzhou form March 10,2015 to March 20,2015. They finished the survey which include self - designed demographic data,drinking situation questionnaire and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test( AUDIT). Then effective questionnaires were statistical analysis. Results ①The total past drinking rate was 73. 3% ,present drinking rate was 51. 1% ,excessive drinking rate was 41. 0% ,ebriety rate was 24. 0% ,hazardous and harmful drinking rate was 20. 8% . Male students were statistical different from girls in drinking rate(83. 4% vs. 60. 8% ),hazardous and harmful drinking rate(30. 9% vs. 8. 3% ) (χ2 =88. 39、57. 39,P <0. 01). ②The gender,age of alcohol initiation,self - rating alcohol dependence status,self - rating of alcohol consumption,the drinking days of the past year,drunk days of the past one year,the bad results of drinking and the binge drinking frequency of the past year of 8 variables were the risk factors of hazardous and harmful drinking(OR =0. 248 ~1. 647). Conclusion Male students were higher than girls in drinking rate and hazardous and harmful drinking rate in Luzhou college students. Boys,the smaller age of initiation,heavier self - rating alcohol dependence status,higher self - rating of alcohol consumption,more drinking days and drunk days of the past one year,more the bad results of drinking and the binge drinking more frequency on past one year,were easier to be hazardous and harmful drinkers.%目的:调查泸州市在校大学生饮酒现状,探讨大学生危险和有害饮酒的危险因素,为有效防治大学

  6. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  7. 青少年饮酒行为影响因素及教育对策分析%Analysis of related factors and education strategy of drinking behavior among adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡尔慧; 叶丹彦; 蔡绍先; 王德全; 陈玮莹; 李克

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 探索青少年饮酒行为的影响因素及教育对策. [方法] 对广州市2 845名初、高中在校学生的饮酒行为及其影响因素进行问卷调查.资料采用单因素分析及多因素Logistic回归分析. [结果] 高中生饮酒率高于初中生,差异有统计学意义(x2=19.69,P<0.01).男生饮酒率高于女生,差异有统计学意义(x2=46.26,P<0.01).以责骂作为教育方式、感觉孤独、缺课、晚回宿舍、父母饮酒是青少年饮酒行密切相关的危险因素(OR>1),与父母交流、学习成绩好、父母反对饮酒、认为酒精成瘾能致病是减少饮酒的保护因素(OR<1). [结论]应充分调动各种积极因素,加强中学生健康生活方式的早期干预和教育.%[Objective] To investigate the related factors of drinking behavior on adolescence and the educational strategy. [Methods] A questionnaire survey of alcohol-drinking behavior and its related issues was carried on among 2 845 junior and senior middle school students in Guangzhou. Related factors of alcohol drinking were assessed by using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models. [Results] The prevalence rate of drinking in the senior middle school students was significantly higher than that in the junior middle school students (■£ = 19. 69,Pl), while communication with parents, excellent scores in learning, being opposed to drinking by parents, considering alcohol addiction may lead to diseases were beneficial to reduce drinking behavior in adolescents(ORdrinking and healthy lifestyle should be strengthened to eliminate or reduce alcohol consumption in junior and senior middle school students.

  8. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  9. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  10. Complex estimation of functional changes in the organism of healthy rats which consumed water of the lake Kagul as drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk L.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the work results of a complex estimation of functional changes in an organism of healthy rats which consumed water of the lake of Kagul as drinking water are given. Conformity of water of the lake of Kagul to requirements of operating standard documents except for nitrogen ammonia, nitrogen nitrit and the general organic carbon is established. 3 kinds of cyanobacteriaе, in particular high levels of Aphanocapsa pulverea, which causes water "flowering" are revealed. It is shown that the use of water of the lake of Kagul as drinking, causes strengthening of activity of central nervous system in healthy rats; some increase of possibilities of organism sensitisation development and specific phagocytosis, certain displays of disbalance of hummoral component of the immune response and expansion of autoimmune processes in the organism. In the view of absence of hyginicaly significant concentration of anthropogenous pollutants, the idea that the revealed biological effects are a consequence of cyanotoxins action produced by revealed cyanobacteriaе is presented. Necessity of expansion and continuation of researches on cyanobacteriaе in the context of their revealing in water, their identifications, influences of these xenobiotics on condition of warm-blooded animals and the human is proved.

  11. Inflow rate-driven changes in the composition and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a large drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yunlin; Jeppesen, Erik; Murphy, Kathleen R; Shi, Kun; Liu, Mingliang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water lakes are threatened globally and therefore in need of protection. To date, few studies have been carried out to investigate how the composition and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in drinking water lakes are influenced by inflow rate. Such CDOM can lead to unpleasant taste and odor of the water and produce undesirable disinfection byproducts during drinking water treatment. We studied the drinking water Lake Qiandao, China, and found that the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the lake increased significantly with inflow rate (p water safety and requires higher removal efficiency of CDOM during drinking water treatment processes.

  12. How to Motivate Energy Efficiency Online : ICT Can Help to Induce Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Graml, Tobias; Baeriswyl, Michael; Staake, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For energy conservation purposes it is not sufficient to rely on energy efficient technology, energy savings also require changes of behavior and daily routines. However, ICT can play an important role in supporting behavior change. A first step to behavior change is to actively deal with one's energy consumption. We present an interactive online application called aWattgarde which provides customers of an Austrian utility company with insights about their electricity consumption and with sug...

  13. Behavioral change in longitudinal studies: adoption of condom use by homosexual/bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J G; Adib, S M; Koopman, J S; Ostrow, D G

    1990-12-01

    We compared reporting serial cross-sectional prevalence of sexual behavior over time, to reporting individual patterns of behavioral change in a cohort of homosexual men at a six-month interval. Aggregate prevalence rates underestimated the magnitude of change to safer practices, and failed to provide information on relapse to less safe practices. We conclude that it is important to report data based on individual fluctuations in behavior for the evaluation of change over time.

  14. Text Messaging as a Tool for Behavior Change in Disease Prevention and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those i...

  15. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy. PMID:24933263

  16. Effect of changes in the deuterium content of drinking water on the hydrogen isotope ratio of urinary steroids in the context of sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Degenhardt, Karoline; Federherr, Eugen; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Saugy, Martial

    2013-03-01

    The hydrogen isotope ratio (HIR) of body water and, therefore, of all endogenously synthesized compounds in humans, is mainly affected by the HIR of ingested drinking water. As a consequence, the entire organism and all of its synthesized substrates will reflect alterations in the isotope ratio of drinking water, which depends on the duration of exposure. To investigate the effect of this change on endogenous urinary steroids relevant to doping-control analysis the hydrogen isotope composition of potable water was suddenly enriched from -50 to 200 ‰ and maintained at this level for two weeks for two individuals. The steroids under investigation were 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol, 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (ANDRO), 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one (ETIO), 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol (excreted as glucuronides) and ETIO, ANDRO and 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one (excreted as sulfates). The HIR of body water was estimated by determination of the HIR of total native urine, to trace the induced changes. The hydrogen in steroids is partly derived from the total amount of body water and cholesterol-enrichment could be calculated by use of these data. Although the sum of changes in the isotopic composition of body water was 150 ‰, shifts of approximately 30 ‰ were observed for urinary steroids. Parallel enrichment in their HIR was observed for most of the steroids, and none of the differences between the HIR of individual steroids was elevated beyond recently established thresholds. This finding is important to sports drug testing because it supports the intended use of this novel and complementary methodology even in cases where athletes have drunk water of different HIR, a plausible and, presumably, inevitable scenario while traveling.

  17. Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking and Alcohol-related Health Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA-FANG ZHANG; YUN-XIA LU; XIAO-XIA QIU; YA FANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between drinking environment, attitudes and situation and alcohol-related health problems. Methods A sample of 2327 respondents was randomly collected from Wuhan, Hubei Province in China by a face-to-face interview. The structural equation modeling analysis was performed for the data collected. Results Both parents' drinking behaviors and respondents' drinking situation strongly impacted the alcohol-related problems and diseases. Friends' or peers' drinking behaviors influenced the respondents' drinking attitudes and behaviors. Males experienced more alcohol-related problems and diseases than females. Conclusions Comparatively, parents' drinking behaviors exert the most significant influence on drinkers. Therefore, it is beneficial to restrict parents' drinking behaviors for the offsprings and the whole society, and an intensive professional education in early motherhood is also necessary for Chinese women.

  18. Study of the Relationships between Tea Drinking Behavior and NAFLD%饮茶习惯对非酒精性脂肪性肝病的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婷; 江晓玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between tea drinking behavior and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases ( NAFLD ) so as to provide an easier way towards effective NAFLD prevention.Methods A case - control study was used to research the relation.A questionnaire was used to investigate the drinking tea behavior and NAFLD from the subjects who had a physical examination in a Chinese people's liberation army hospital during August and December, 2008.Results Significant differences in tea drinking behavior existed between the case group ( 82.3% ) and the control group ( 95.5% ) ( P <0.05 ), implying that tea drinking was a protecting factor for NAFLD ( OR =0.218 ).The protective effects increased with the duration of tea drinking.Further, the protective effects of green tea is more obvious than those of red tea ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion The behavior of tea drinking is an protective factor against NAFLD.Green tea exhibits stronger protective effects than red tea.%目的 探讨饮茶习惯与非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)的相关关系,为NAFLD提供简便易行的防治方法.方法 采用病例对照研究方法,以中国人民解放军某医院体检部2008年9-12月参加健康体检的人员为研究对象,调查NAFLD的患病情况和饮茶习惯,分析二者间的关系.结果 共调查147例NAFLD患者(病例组)和179例健康对照者(对照组).发现对照组中饮茶者所占比例(95.5%)显著高于病例组(82.3%),差异有统计学意义[χ2=15.095,P<0.05,OR=0.218,95%CI(0.095,0.497)],提示饮茶为NAFLD的保护性因素,且随着饮茶时间的增加该作用更明显.绿茶的保护性作用显著高于红茶(P<0.05).结论 饮茶对NAFLD有保护作用,且绿茶的保护作用更为明显,初步提示饮茶是一种较好的预防NAFLD的方法.

  19. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  20. Interactive effects of drinking history and impulsivity on college drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period for changes in alcohol use and drinking related problems. Prior research has identified a number of distinct developmental alcohol use trajectories, which appear to be differentially related to young adult drinking outcomes. Another correlate of alcohol use in early adulthood is impulsivity. The primary aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of impulsivity in the relation between patterns ...

  1. How Mandated College Students Talk About Alcohol: Peer Communication Factors Associated with Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kate B; Lust, Sarah A; Reid, Allecia E; Kalichman, Seth C; Carey, Michael P

    2016-09-01

    Relatively little research has examined how peer communication influences alcohol consumption. In a sample of mandated college students, we differentiate conversations about drinking from conversations about harm prevention and provide evidence for the validity of these communication constructs. Students who violated campus alcohol policies and were referred for alcohol sanctions (N = 345) reported on drinking patterns, use of protective behavioral strategies, perceived descriptive norms for close friends, and serving as social leader among their friends; they also reported on the frequency of conversations about drinking, about drinking safety, and about risk reduction efforts. Predicted correlations were found among types of communication and conceptually related variables. General communication was related to consumption but not protective behavioral strategies, whereas safety/risk reduction conversations correlated positively with all protective behavioral strategies. Both types of communication were associated with social leadership. Safety communication moderated the relationship between peer descriptive norms and drinks per week; more frequent talking about safety attenuated the norms-consumption relationship. Peer communication about both drinking and safety may serve as targets for change in risk reduction interventions for mandated college students. PMID:26861808

  2. 父母、同伴及文化取向对青少年饮酒行为的影响%The analysis of the influence on the drinking behavior of students by parents,peers and cultural orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄烨; 梁雪梅; 刘可智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence on drinking behavior of the students by parent,peers and cultural orienta-tion.So to provide a scientific proof for the intervention of adolescent binge drinking.Methods Stratified cluster random sam-pling method was used in this study.644 students were randomly selected from 12 classes in the 4 schools in Luzhou city.The students were asked to finish the following questionnaires:the general questionnaire,the alcohol consumption scale(including the parents and peers'attitude toward alcohol)and the youth and cultural orientation scale.Results 644 questionnaires were handed out and retrieved 604 valid questionnaires,the effective rate was 93.8%.The total drinking rate was 36.6%.The male 's drinking rate was 38.3% and the female's was 34.5%.There were no statistical differences between the male and female drinking rate(P>0.05).There were no statistical differences in the drinking rate among the 3 different drinking attitude of parents groups (support,neutral,opposed to drinking alcohol)(P>0.05).Alcohol drinking rate was the highest in the peer support group (48.8%),while the drinking rate of the peer against drinking group was the lowest (32.2%).The drinking rate of the peer neutral group was between the above two groups (35%)and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05)。父母对饮酒持支持、中立、反对态度的3组青少年饮酒率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。同伴对饮酒持支持、中立、反对态度的3组青少年饮酒率分别为48.8%、35.0%、32.2%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。饮酒组与非饮酒组传统文化倾向得分比较[(3.12±0.55)分 vs.(3.26±0.58)分]差异有统计学意义(t=-2.95,P=0.03)。结论青少年饮酒行为普遍,父母的饮酒态度对青少年饮酒行为影响小,同伴对饮酒的支持态度更容易让青少年产生饮酒行为。“传统文化倾向”可能是青少年饮酒的保护因素。

  3. Changes in Driver Behavior Resulting from Pedestrian Countdown Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Huey, S. Brian; Ragland, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effects that pedestrian countdown signals have on driver behavior. Observations of two intersections, one with pedestrian signals and one without, were made focusing specifically on driver behavior during the amber and red phases. It was found that drivers at the pedestrian countdown intersection were less likely to enter the intersection at the end of the amber phase than those at the traditional pedestrian signal intersection. It was also found that drivers at the in...

  4. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partner...

  5. Changing work, changing health: can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees' schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees' health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors.

  6. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  7. Regulating the Way to Obesity: Unintended Consequences of Limiting Sugary Drink Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Brent M Wilson; Stephanie Stolarz-Fantino; Edmund Fantino

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined whether a sugary drink limit would still be effective if larger-sized drinks were converted into bundles of smaller-sized drinks. METHODS: In a behavioral simulation, participants were offered varying food and drink menus. One menu offered 16 oz, 24 oz, or 32 oz drinks for sale. A second menu offered 16 oz drinks, a bundle of two 12 oz drinks, or a bundle of two 16 oz drinks. A third menu offered only 16 oz drinks for sale. The method involved repeated elicitation of c...

  8. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions. PMID:25658754

  9. Human electrocardiogram changes caused by exposure to arsenic through drinking water%水砷暴露致人群心电图改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅扬; 李媛媛; 高彦辉; 赵丽军; 刘加勇; 孙殿军

    2015-01-01

    Objective Through studying the relationship between different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and ECG changes,to investigate the effects of arsenic on human cardiovascular system.Methods During 2008-2013,people that over 20 years old and over 10 years of drinking arsenic water were investigated in 15 villages of Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia according to the historical data of endemic arsenic poisoning through drinking water,who were divided into control group (< 0.01 mg/L),low arsenic group (0.01-< 0.05 mg/L),medium arsenic group (0.05-< 0.10 mg/L) and high arsenic group (≥0.10 mg/L) according to the concentration of water arsenic.Arsenic concentrations in drinking water samples were detected by the method of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.ECG-site inspections were finished to record 12-lead ECG.The effect of different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water on ECG was studied.Results ECG of 1341 people were surveyed,and abnormal rate was 11.56% (155/1 341),including abnormal rate of control group,low arsenic group,medium arsenic group and high arsenic group which was 5.7% (9/158),12.85% (59/459),12.02% (28/233),and 12.02% (59/491),respectively.The abnormal rate of control group was lower than that of low arsenic group,medium arsenic group and high arsenic group (x2 =6.141,4.391,5.090,all P < 0.05).ECG changes were characterized by cardiac arrhythmias and ST-T changes.A variety of arrhythmias abnormal rate of control group [0(0/158)] was lower than that of low arsenic group,medium arsenic group and high arsenic group [4.58% (21/459),3.86% (9/233),3.46% (17/491); x2 =7.483,6.247,5.618,all P < 0.05].In addition,there were significant differences among the four groups in the rates of right ventricular enlargement and myocardial ischemia (x2 =9.525,9.848,all P < 0.05).Conclusions ECG changes of the residents in the areas of water-borne-endemic arsenic poisoning are characterized by cardiac

  10. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  11. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  12. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  13. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  14. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  15. Some Structural Changes That Might Facilitate the Development of Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Considers three types of organizational changes that may facilitate the development of behavioral medicine teaching, practice, and research over the next decade: (1) role of Department of Behavioral Medicine within the medical school; (2) support for development of research collaborations across centers; (3) changes in role and organization of…

  16. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnai...

  17. Changes in Price Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Industry: Evidence Using Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    The implications of market development in the catfish industry on catfish price behavior are explored using cointegration. It is hypothesized that market development, through increases in competition between processors and shifts in consumer preferences toward fish, has caused changes in price behavior among levels of the catfish market. Using monthly catfish price data, a cointegration analysis of subsets of prices shows that price behavior has changed through time, with catfish prices becom...

  18. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, ...

  19. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  20. Climate change and drinking water supply. Effects, action demand, adaption possibilities; Klimawandel und Trinkwasserversorgung. Auswirkungen, Handlungsbedarf, Anpassungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, Daniel [DVGW Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V., Technisch-Wissenschaftlicher Verein, Bonn (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The partners in freshwater supply are accustomed to long-term planning and investment decisions, taking into account changing boundary conditions. For this reason, they should be able to adapt to global climate change, in cooperation with research, politics and other players. The contribution outlines the consequences of global climate change that are to be expected in Germany and the actions required to deal with them. Adaptation options are explained, and information and support possibilities especially for water providers are presented. (orig.)

  1. Differential pathways of positive and negative health behavior change in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Covadonga; Park, Crystal L

    2016-08-01

    This longitudinal study applied a stress and coping model to examine the differential pathways of perceived positive and negative health behavior changes. Participants with congestive heart failure completed self-report measures of psychological resources, coping strategies, and perceived behavior changes and were assessed again 6 months later. Patients with higher positive affect and spiritual well-being reported more positive health behavior changes over time, effects mediated by approach coping. Alternatively, patients with lower psychological resources reported more negative behavior changes over time, effects mediated by avoidance coping. The results suggest that different psychological resources are related to different types of coping which, in turn, are associated with perceived positive or negative changes in health behavior over time.

  2. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit

  3. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers.

  4. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189

  5. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  6. Collective Behavior of Market Participants during Abrupt Stock Price Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Under uncertainty, human and animal collectives often respond stochastically to events they encounter. Human or animal individuals behave depending on others' actions, and sometimes follow choices that are sub-optimal for individuals. Such mimetic behaviors are enhanced during emergencies, creating collective behavior of a group. A stock market that is about to crash, as markets did immediately after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, provides illustrative examples of such behaviors. We provide empirical evidence proving the existence of collective behavior among stock market participants in emergent situations. We investigated the resolution of extreme supply-and-demand order imbalances by increased balancing counter orders: buy and sell orders for excess supply and demand respectively, during times of price adjustment, so-called special quotes on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Counter orders increase positively depending on the quantity of revealed counter orders: the accumulated orders in the book until then. Statistics of the coming counter order are well described using a logistic regression model with the ratio of revealed orders until then to the finally revealed orders as the explanatory variable. Results given here show that the market participants make Bayesian estimations of optimal choices to ascertain whether to order using information about orders of other participants.

  7. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-12-15

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  8. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  9. Collective Behavior of Market Participants during Abrupt Stock Price Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Under uncertainty, human and animal collectives often respond stochastically to events they encounter. Human or animal individuals behave depending on others' actions, and sometimes follow choices that are sub-optimal for individuals. Such mimetic behaviors are enhanced during emergencies, creating collective behavior of a group. A stock market that is about to crash, as markets did immediately after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, provides illustrative examples of such behaviors. We provide empirical evidence proving the existence of collective behavior among stock market participants in emergent situations. We investigated the resolution of extreme supply-and-demand order imbalances by increased balancing counter orders: buy and sell orders for excess supply and demand respectively, during times of price adjustment, so-called special quotes on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Counter orders increase positively depending on the quantity of revealed counter orders: the accumulated orders in the book until then. Statistics of the coming counter order are well described using a logistic regression model with the ratio of revealed orders until then to the finally revealed orders as the explanatory variable. Results given here show that the market participants make Bayesian estimations of optimal choices to ascertain whether to order using information about orders of other participants. PMID:27513335

  10. Gene expression changes in serotonin, GABA-A receptors, neuropeptides and ion channels in the dorsal raphe nucleus of adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats following binge-like alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintick, Jeanette N; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol binge-drinking during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of excessive adolescent ethanol binge-drinking on gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of alcohol preferring (P) rats. Repeated binges across adolescence (three 1h sessions across the dark-cycle per day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session) significantly altered the expression of approximately one-third of the detected genes. Multiple neurotransmitter systems were altered, with the largest changes in the serotonin system (21 of 23 serotonin-related genes showed decreased expression) and GABA-A receptors (8 decreased and 2 increased). Multiple neuropeptide systems were also altered, with changes in the neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone systems similar to those associated with increased drinking and decreased resistance to stress. There was increased expression of 21 of 32 genes for potassium channels. Expression of downstream targets of CREB signaling was increased. There were also changes in expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes, axonal guidance, growth factors, transcription factors, and several intracellular signaling pathways. These widespread changes indicate that excessive binge drinking during adolescence alters the functioning of the DRN and likely its modulation of many regions of the central nervous system, including the mesocorticolimbic system.

  11. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  12. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pale skin » Cognitive–behavioral skills-based approaches » Motivation and feedback-related approaches » Behavioral interventions by health ... students ages 18–24, 1998–2005. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (Suppl. 16):12–20, ...

  13. Multiple health behavior change: a synopsis and comment on “A review of multiple health behavior change interventions for primary prevention”

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Winter; Buscemi, Joanna; Coons, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The ninth column on Evidence-Based Behavioral Medicine is a synthesis of a recent systematic meta-review of multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions published by Prochaska and Prochaska in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine (Am J Life Med 5:208–221, 2011). Health risk behaviors are highly prevalent and increase the risk of developing and exacerbating chronic disease. The purpose of the meta-review was to examine the efficacy of MHBC interventions in a variety of population...

  14. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Lagunes, Paul; Green, Donald P; Vavreck, Lynn; Peer, Limor; Gomila, Robin

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote. PMID:26398217

  15. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers’ Social Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Lagunes, Paul; Green, Donald P.; Vavreck, Lynn; Peer, Limor; Gomila, Robin

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote. PMID:26398217

  16. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    Full Text Available To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  17. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. ...

  18. Transcriptional control of behavior: Engrailed knockout changes cockroach escape trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, David; Marie, Bruno; Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Bacon, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The cerci of the cockroach are covered with identified sensory hairs, which detect air movements. The sensory neurons which innervate these hairs synapse with giant interneurons (GIs) in the terminal ganglion which in turn synapse with interneurons and leg motorneurons in thoracic ganglia. This neural circuit mediates the animal's escape behavior. The transcription factor Engrailed (En) is expressed only in the medially born sensory neurons, which suggested it could work as a positional deter...

  19. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, G.; Lo, S.H.; Peters, G-JY; Ruiter, R. A. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field...

  20. Parent Predictors of Child Weight Change in Family Based Behavioral Obesity Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Family based behavioral treatment for overweight and obese children includes parenting skills targeting the modification of child eating and activity change. The purpose of this study was to examine parenting skills and parent weight change as predictors of child weight change in a sample of 80 parent/child dyads who were enrolled in a family based behavioral weight loss program for childhood obesity. Eighty overweight and obese children and their parents who enrolled in treatment in two site...

  1. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. PMID:25903243

  2. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions.

  3. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  4. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, PMID:26593935

  5. Assessing sexual motives for drinking alcohol among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Christopher W; Wray, Tyler B; Pantalone, David W; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kruis, Ryan D; Mayer, Kenneth H; Monti, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Individuals who drink alcohol for the explicit motive of facilitating or enhancing sex may be more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having sex under the influence of alcohol. However, efforts to assess sexual motives for drinking (SMDs) have been very limited to date. We examined the psychometric properties of a 5-item measure of SMDs in a sample of HIV-positive heavy drinking men who have sex with men. Findings provided excellent support for the scale's internal consistency and concurrent validity with a well-established measure of sexual alcohol expectancies (SAEs). Good discriminant validity was also established, as SMDs were correlated with other drinking motives but uniquely predicted the proportion of sex acts occurring under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, over and above other drinking motives and SAEs. SMDs were not significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse. Adjusting for alcohol problem severity, higher SMDs were associated with lower willingness to consider changing drinking. Results suggest this measure of SMDs exhibits sound psychometric properties and may be useful in studies examining the association between alcohol use and sexual behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  7. Theory-based behavior change interventions: comments on Hobbis and Sutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin; Ajzen, Icek

    2005-01-01

    Hobbis and Sutton (this issue) suggest that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can be used in interventions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Although this suggestion has merit, CBT is only one of many applicable methods for producing belief and behavior change. Moreover, CBT's primary purpose is to help people carry out intended behaviors, not to influence intentions, and that it is more useful in face-to-face than in community-level interventions. Contrary to Hobbis and Sutton's critique, TPB can accommodate core beliefs or fundamental assumptions, but the theory suggests that interventions targeted at such beliefs are less effective than interventions targeted at behavior specific beliefs. PMID:15576497

  8. Subjective State, Blood Pressure, and Behavioral Control Changes Produced by an "Energy Shot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Ossege, Julianne; Maloney, Sarah F; Bardgett, Mark E; Brown, Clifford J

    2014-06-01

    Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy(®)) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products.

  9. Selective Breeding for a Behavioral Trait Changes Digit Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Reginia H. Y.; Jessica L Malisch; Hannon, Robert M.; Hurd, Peter L.; Theodore Garland

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger) divided by the fourth digit (ring finger) tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized") in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ra...

  10. Behavior change following self-confrontation: a test of the value-mediation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, J W; Rankin, W L; Greenstein, T N; Kearney, K A

    1977-04-01

    This study presents a reanalysis of data from Rokeach's self-confrontation experiments using path analytic techniques. Contrary to Rokeach's interpretations, findings indicate that behavior changes following self-confrontation are not primarily mediated through changes in value priorities. Rather, the available data suggest that the self-confrontation process involves the resolution of inconsistencies between behaviors and self-conceptions that are revelaed during the treatment session. The authors interpret these findings within the framework of Rokeach's general theory of self-disatisfaction and cognitive-behavioral change. Suggestions for future directions in self-confrontation research are offered.

  11. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: Emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior: Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Chung, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical ...

  12. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  13. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  14. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  15. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  16. Antecedents and consequences of organizational change : 'Institutionalizing' the behavioral theory of the firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; Saka - Helmhout, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight the conditions under which organizations initiate changes in two distinct institutional contexts. While the focus within behavioral research has been on aspiration-driven organizational change, the effect of institutional dynamics on the probability of change has been giv

  17. Thinking about Drinking: Need for Cognition and Readiness to Change Moderate the Effects of Brief Alcohol Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Christy; Wood, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the efficacy of brief motivational interventions (BMI) and alcohol expectancy challenge (AEC) in reducing alcohol use and/or problems among college students. However, little is known about variables that may qualify the effectiveness of these approaches. The present analyses tested the hypothesis that need for cognition (NFC), impulsivity/sensation-seeking (IMPSS) and readiness to change (RTC) would moderate the effects of BMI and AEC. Participants (N = 335) were hea...

  18. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders frequently appear in childhood. There is often lack of objective data to support a specific clinical diagnosis. Ultimately it is likely that alterations in production, concentration, storage, release, reuptake and degradation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid play key roles in the manifestations of mood disorders. We sought to determine if more gross anatomic patterns of regional brain activation in a 'baseline' state might also supply an objective means of verifying the presence of a mood disorder characterized by anger or aggressive behavior. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred for SPECT brain imaging with the diagnosis of an attention deficit disorder or autism. All had been reported as having temper problems on the routine questionnaire completed by the parents prior to SPECT imaging. The patients, who were not sedated, had absolute cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon 133 gas inhalation technique followed by intravenous injection of Tc-99m HMPAO with an administered dose calculated according to patient age and weight. One hour following the injection, high resolution brain SPECT imaging was performed using a Picker triple headed camera with fan beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT studies using 3D volume rendered semi-transparent images with dual cut off windows of 88 percent (high) and 60-65 percent (lower value depending on the patient absolute mean cortical blood flow), as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal sections. The dual window 3D display helped demonstrate increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children with similar clinical diagnoses but whose parents did not report temper problems. These preliminary findings support the proposition that an increase in perfusion to the temporal

  19. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  20. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors. PMID:26963733

  1. Effects of (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline on glutamate transporter 1 and cysteine/glutamate exchanger as well as ethanol drinking behavior in male, alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aal-Aaboda, Munaf; Alhaddad, Hasan; Osowik, Francis; Nauli, Surya M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is largely associated with alterations in the extracellular glutamate concentrations in several brain reward regions. We recently showed that glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is downregulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for 5 weeks in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and that upregulation of the GLT-1 levels in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex results, in part, in attenuating ethanol consumption. Cystine glutamate antiporter (xCT) is also downregulated after chronic ethanol exposure in P rats, and its upregulation could be valuable in attenuating ethanol drinking. This study examines the effect of a synthetic compound, (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline (MS-153), on ethanol drinking and expressions of GLT-1 and xCT in the amygdala and the hippocampus of P rats. P rats were exposed to continuous free-choice access to water, 15% and 30% ethanol, and food for 5 weeks, after which they received treatments of MS-153 or vehicle for 5 days. The results show that MS-153 treatment significantly reduces ethanol consumption. It was revealed that GLT-1 and xCT expressions were downregulated in both the amygdala and the hippocampus of ethanol-vehicle-treated rats (ethanol-vehicle group) compared with water-control animals. MS-153 treatment upregulated GLT-1 and xCT expressions in these brain regions. These findings demonstrate an important role for MS-153 in these glutamate transporters for the attenuation of ethanol-drinking behavior.

  2. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)

  3. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  4. Measuring change in work behavior by means of multisource feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, Froukje; Visscher, Adrie; Scheerens, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of interventions is among the most critical issues faced by the field of human resource development today. This study addresses the potential of multisource feedback for training evaluation. The central research question is whether or not it is possible to measure change in wo

  5. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  6. Positive Exercise Experience Facilitates Behavior Change via Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parschau, Linda; Fleig, Lena; Warner, Lisa Marie; Pomp, Sarah; Barz, Milena; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf; Lippke, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Motivational processes can be set in motion when positive consequences of physical exercise are experienced. However, relationships between positive exercise experience and determinants of the motivational and the volitional phases of exercise change have attracted only sparse attention in research. Method: This research examines direct…

  7. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness ...

  8. Exploring Beta’s Changing Behavior ofSwedish Real Estate Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Medhat

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the beta and risk behavior of the Swedish listed real estate stocks. Such a study will provide a clearer picture for investors and researchers about the changing nature of that behavior over time. The research method is based on descriptive statistics and CAPM beta regression analysis of the monthly returns. Correlation analysis is employed to identify diversification benefits within the sector stocks. In order to understand the behavior of beta/riskiness over time,...

  9. Behavior Change and Perceptions of Change: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Token Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, David, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Token economies often reduce problematic classroom behavior in preschool settings. In the present study, direct observation and teacher ratings of child behavior and treatment acceptability were utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of a token economy in a Head Start classroom. Because many teachers express concerns about the effort required to…

  10. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  11. [Sugary drinks and glycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Susana; Alçada, Manuel; Azevedo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing all over the world. Most affected are people changing from a traditional lifestyle to an environment with both availability of high energy diet and less physical activity. Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of dietary glycemic carbohydrates, representing their ability to raise blood glucose concentrations. It refers to the postprandial blood glucose response expressed as a percentage of the response to a reference food (glucose or white bread) containing the same carbohydrate content. Given the present high consumption of sugary drinks, the putative contribution of these products to obesity deserves investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the GI of some drinks from the Portuguese market. Postprandial glycemia after ingestion of apple Frutis, peach Frutis, Green tea Frutea, green tea, black tea, lupin infusion, rooibos infusion, raftilose solution or bran solution has been determined for two hours in a caucasian population of young adults of any sex, 17 to 24 years of age. Apple Frutis GI was found to be 54.3, i.e., a low GI; Frutea Green tea had a GI of 64.7, considered as a moderate GI; peach Frutis showed a high GI, 86.6. Green and Black teas as well as rooibos and lupin infusions, all with added glucose (25 g), did not change glycemic response in comparison with the reference solution (water with 25 g glucose). No differences were seen after raftilose and bran solutions by comparison with the reference solution. GI information may help the choice of carbohydrates to include in a healthy diet. Formerly considered as a parameter of interest to diabetic patients, it may actually interest anybody concerned with a healthy diet. This study has been performed by medical and nutritional science students, who observed glycemic excursions in themselves, after drink ingestion. This experiment allowed them to see the impressive rise of glycemia after ingestion of a sugary drink, by comparison with basal levels which would not

  12. Tracking drinking behaviour from age 15-19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess (1) changes in drinking behaviour over time among Danish adolescents and (2) use of which alcoholic beverages and what drinking patterns would have the strongest predictive effect on later alcohol consumption.......The aim of this paper was to assess (1) changes in drinking behaviour over time among Danish adolescents and (2) use of which alcoholic beverages and what drinking patterns would have the strongest predictive effect on later alcohol consumption....

  13. Organizational Behavior Change: The Effectiveness of Behavior Modification Techniques with and without Participatory Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Goldstein, Marc B.

    This study examines a naturally occurring experiment in a large urban hospital faced with budget cuts, in which departments were ordered to reduce employees' overtime without jeopardizing service quality. The study focuses on two departments that chose to use behavior modification techniques. In one department (Radiology) the intervention combined…

  14. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  15. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  16. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  17. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  18. Sexuality on Campus: Changes in Attitudes and Behavior During the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Milton; Abramowitz, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=4,885) in 1969, 1973, 1977, and 1981 to examine changes in sexual attitudes and behavior. Results indicated sexual activity and permissiveness increased between 1969 and 1977, especially for women, but moderated by 1981. (JAC)

  19. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data shows promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions. PMID:25011006

  20. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in Pregnant and Lactating Women and Available Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposur...

  1. Selected Health Behaviors that Influence College Freshman Weight Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Danella Gilmore; Corwin, Sara J.; Valois, Robert F.; Sargent, Roger G.; Morris, Richard Lewis

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors investigated the effect of physical activity (PA), fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol use on 6-month weight change in 193 college freshmen (78.8% white, 88.2% women, 94.5% on a meal plan). Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey in fall 2002 (baseline) and spring 2003 (follow-up). Results:…

  2. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; de Farias-Junior, Paulo Mecenas Alves; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  3. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  4. RUSSIAN DRINKING: TOO LATE FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Evgenjevich Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian drinking for the first time demonstrates weakening of specialization in spirits drinking and stabilization of amount drunk. This suggests expectations of drinking qualitative turn, i.e. to consumer’s choice oriented to quality of drinking rather than to quantity, and further to lessening the drinking norm. Experience of wine-drinking countries of Europe and influence of pan-European homogenization of patterns of drinking, favor such a perspective. The marked decrease of drinking norm in wine-drinking countries was achieved with the minimal state intervention. Survey data (n=904 is provided to corroborate the claim that Russian drinking is able to self-regulate. The data witness weak support for government’s measures taken to restrict access to beverages sale in terms of age, time, place, and price; customers are likely to value freedom of choice unbridled. Governmental pursuance of simplistic access-and-pricing restrictive policies recently undertaken, may force Russian drinking back to another cycle of alcoholisation within the old ‘northern’ model. Bootlegging expansion, formerly progressive specialization in spirits drinking, habit of making gross purchases in population are explained by former experiences of coping with deficits, dry campaigns, and traditional culture of religious and secular abstinences. Scarcity of modes of compensatory behaviors and low concern for health also back up the special cultural status of alcohol. Government should seek for positive measures, viz. wider sporting involvement for students and inclusion for disabled to revive the nation’s regard for health and awareness of health-related risks.

  5. Multiple Health Behavior Changes in a Cancer Prevention Intervention for Construction Workers, 2001-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Amy E.; Devine, Carol M.; Beard, Binta; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hunt, Mary K.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Few multiple behavior change interventions have addressed tobacco use in conjunction with fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among high-risk blue-collar workers. Tools for Health, a cancer prevention intervention for construction laborers, was effective in achieving behavior change for smoking cessation and fruit and vegetable consumption separately. This study examines whether addressing smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption was successful in achieving positive...

  6. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H.; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user exper...

  7. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Texeira, Pedro J; Carraça, Eliana V; Marques, Marta M; Rutter, Harry; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse is high in lifestyle obesity interventions involving behavior and weight change. Identifying mediators of successful outcomes in these interventions is critical to improve effectiveness and to guide approaches to obesity treatment, including resource allocation. This article reviews the most consistent self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change interventions targeting ove...

  8. Deciphering behavioral changes in animal movement with a ‘multiple change point algorithm- classification tree’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte eMadon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of tracking tools has improved our nascent knowledge on animal movement. Because of model complexity, unrealistic a priori hypotheses and heavy computational resources, behavioral changes along an animal path are still often assessed visually. A new avenue has recently been opened with change point algorithms because tracking data can be organized as time series with potential periodic change points segregating the movement in segments of different statistical properties. So far this approach was restricted to single change point detection and we propose a straightforward analytical framework based on a recent multiple change point algorithm: the PELT algorithm, a dynamic programming pruning search method to find, within time series, the optimal combination of number and locations of change points. Data segments found by the algorithm are then sorted out with a supervised classification tree procedure to organize segments by movement classes. We apply this framework to investigate changes in variance in daily distances of a migratory bird, the Macqueen’s Bustard, Chlamydotis macqueenii, and describe its movements in three classes: staging, non-migratory and migratory movements. Using simulation experiments, we show that the algorithm is robust to identify exact behavioral shift (on average more than 80% of the time but that positive autocorrelation when present is likely to lead to the detection of false change points (in 36% of the iterations with an average of 1.97 (se = 0.06 additional change points. A case study is provided to illustrate the biases associated with visual analysis of movement patterns compared to the reliability of our analytical framework. Technological improvement will provide new opportunities for the study of animal behavior, bringing along huge and various data sets, a growing challenge for biologists, and this straightforward and standardized framework could be an asset in the attempt to

  9. [Short-term impact of changes in drinking-and-driving legislation in Guadalajara and Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, Lourdes; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa

    2014-06-01

    The municipalities of Guadalajara and Zapopan, Jalisco State, Mexico, have participated in efforts to reduce road traffic injuries. They have participated actively in the Mexican Road Safety Initiative since 2008. As a result, in September 2010 they passed laws to reduce the legal alcohol levels for driving motor vehicles. To assess the short-term impact of these measures on rates and severity of alcohol-related collisions and injuries, we conducted a secondary analysis of official databases on mortality, morbidity, and collisions. We performed a time-series analysis to assess the trend. Significant changes were observed in the monthly proportion of alcohol-related deaths and collision rates following these interventions. The article concludes with recommendations to improve the reform's enforcement and results.

  10. Intergenerational transmission of drinking motives and how they relate to young adults' alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether parental drinking motives are associated with young adults' drinking motives, and their association with young adults' drinking behaviors. Methods: The sample consisted of 290 18-year-old and 289 20-year-old drinking young adults and their parents. Results: For the y

  11. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eOettingen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task towards their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people’s personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  12. Changing environmental behaviors through smartphone-based augmented experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Bruno Miguel Inácio

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestrado em Engenharia de Informática The use of persuasive technologies can induce changes in attitudes or behaviours, even in individuals that other strategies of persuasion can not reach effectively. In addition, this type of technology can be applied in numerous areas such as health, education, finance, e-business, among others. Although persuasion can be seen as something negative, being used to serve the interests of the persuader rather tha...

  13. Behavioral Landscapes and Change in Behavioral Landscapes: A Multiple Time-Scale Density Distribution Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Nilam; Coccia, Michael; Conroy,David; Lorek, Amy; Orland, Brian; Pincus, Aaron; Sliwinski, Martin; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In developmental arenas, it is well accepted that multiple observations are needed to obtain a robust characterization of individuals’ behavioral tendencies across time and context. In this paper, we fuse core ideas from the study of lifespan development with intraindividual variability based approaches to personality and methods used to characterize the topography of geographic landscapes. We generalize the notion of density distributions into bivariate and multivariate space and draw parall...

  14. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  15. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation se...

  16. Effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Silva, Napoleão C; Patrício, Janini J; Palmas, Daphne; Mendonça, Bruna P; Bittencourt, Mariana O; Cassol-Jr, Omar J; Barichello, Tatiana; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-04-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia. Male Wistar rats underwent Cecal Ligation and Perporation (CLP) with "basic support" or were sham-operated. After 30 days, the animals were submitted to a model of schizophrenia by injection of Ketamine. The behavior tests were performed after 30 min of the injection of Ketamine or saline. Ketamine in doses of 15 and 25mg/kg increased locomotor activity, latency to first contact in the social interaction and stereotyped behavior. Some changes caused by sepsis may be associated with a predisposition to develop schizophrenia in the animal model.

  17. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  18. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  19. Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on College Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non-college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  20. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field.

  1. Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting, alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol use over time. A total of 428 families, c

  2. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: a look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Ehret, Phillip J; Hummer, Justin F; Prenovost, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment.

  3. An explorative analysis of the links between learning behavior and change orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey); Caluwé, L.I.A.; Nistelrooij, van A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The article presents an explorative study on the links between learning behavior and change orientation of individuals. When reading literature on how to develop employees and organizations, it strikes one how less focus there is on learning and change needs of individuals. This paper deals with thi

  4. Does staying in school (and not working) prevent teen smoking and drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2012-07-01

    Previous work suggests but cannot prove that education improves health behaviors. We exploit a randomized intervention that increased schooling (and reduced working) among male students in the Dominican Republic, by providing information on the returns to schooling. We find that treated youths were much less likely to smoke at age 18 and had delayed onset of daily or regular drinking. The effects appear to be due to changes in peer networks and disposable income. We find no evidence of a direct impact of schooling on rates of time preference, attitudes towards risk or perceptions that drinking or smoking are harmful to health, though our measures of these factors are more limited.

  5. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent inter-rater and test-retest reliability and shows convergent validity with measures of language and communication skills. The BOSCC Core total demonstrates statistically significant amounts of change over time compared to a no change alternative while the ADOS CSS over the same period of time did not. This work is a first step in the development of a novel outcome measure for social-communication behaviors with applications to clinical trials and longitudinal studies. PMID:27062034

  6. Health behavior change benefits: Perspectives of Latinos with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Burrows, Kimberly; Aschbrenner, Kelly; Barre, Laura K; Pratt, Sarah I; Alegría, Margarita; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the perceived benefits of engaging in health behavior change from the viewpoint of overweight and obese Latinos with severe mental illness (SMI) enrolled in the U.S. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 obese Latinos with SMI who were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a motivational health promotion intervention adapted for persons with SMI. Overweight and obese Latino participants believed that engaging in health behavior change would have both physical and mental health benefits, including chronic disease management, changes in weight and body composition, and increased self-esteem. Interventions that explicitly link physical activity and healthy eating to improvements in mental health and well-being may motivate Latinos with SMI to adopt health behavior change. PMID:26873582

  7. Advanced behavioral analyses show that the presence of food causes subtle changes in C. elegans movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eAngstman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used and studied model organism, C. elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  8. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Nicholas B; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  9. Modeling and reinforcement to combat HIV: the MARCH approach to behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galavotti, C; Pappas-DeLuca, K A; Lansky, A

    2001-10-01

    Theory and research suggest that behavioral interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS may be most effective when they are personalized and affectively compelling, when they provide models of desired behaviors, and when they are linked to social and cultural narratives. Effective strategies must also take into account the opportunities and obstacles present in the local environment. The Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV (MARCH) projects combine key aspects of individual behavior change with efforts to change social norms. There are 2 main components to the program: entertainment as a vehicle for education (longrunning serialized dramas on radio or television portray role models evolving toward the adoption of positive behaviors) and interpersonal reinforcement at the community level (support from friends, family members, and others can help people initiate behavior changes; support through changes in social norms is necessary for behavioral effects to be sustained over time). Both media and interpersonal intervention activities should be linked to existing resources in the community and, wherever possible, provide increased access to preventive services, supplies, and other supporting elements. PMID:11574317

  10. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  11. Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies. PMID:18556638

  12. Modeling and reinforcement to combat HIV: the MARCH approach to behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galavotti, C; Pappas-DeLuca, K A; Lansky, A

    2001-10-01

    Theory and research suggest that behavioral interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS may be most effective when they are personalized and affectively compelling, when they provide models of desired behaviors, and when they are linked to social and cultural narratives. Effective strategies must also take into account the opportunities and obstacles present in the local environment. The Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV (MARCH) projects combine key aspects of individual behavior change with efforts to change social norms. There are 2 main components to the program: entertainment as a vehicle for education (longrunning serialized dramas on radio or television portray role models evolving toward the adoption of positive behaviors) and interpersonal reinforcement at the community level (support from friends, family members, and others can help people initiate behavior changes; support through changes in social norms is necessary for behavioral effects to be sustained over time). Both media and interpersonal intervention activities should be linked to existing resources in the community and, wherever possible, provide increased access to preventive services, supplies, and other supporting elements.

  13. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change. PMID:16182458

  14. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  15. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered. PMID:27135378

  16. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  17. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms. PMID:26259087

  19. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  20. Binge drinking impacts dorsal striatal response during decision making in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott A; Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of both increased risk taking and increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. However, it is unclear whether brain functioning abnormalities in adolescent binge drinkers are a result of alcohol use itself or whether they represent premorbid risk characteristics. The current study addresses this question by using a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) task, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), at both baseline, while all subjects were alcohol-naïve, and revisit, when half of the subjects had emerged into regular binge drinking (n=13) and half remained alcohol and substance-naïve (n=13). Region of interest (ROI) analysis revealed that during decision making, there was a significant binge-drinking related reduction in brain activation in the dorsal striatum, an effect associated with degree of recent use. Furthermore, whole-brain analysis revealed a decrease in fronto-parietal brain activation prior to initiation of alcohol use, in adolescents who went on to binge drink. Additionally, there were numerous regions, both cortical and subcortical, in which there was a significant time-related developmental change, across groups. These results demonstrate how abnormalities in decision-making related circuitry might both lead to and perpetuate alcohol drinking behavior. These findings help aid in our ability to disentangle consequences of binge drinking from potential risk markers for future binge drinking, and may help guide future prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:26826511

  1. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  2. Increases in Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ...

  3. Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those interventions using text message as the primary mode of communication were included. Study quality was assessed by using a standardized measure. Seventeen articles representing 12 studies (5 disease prevention and 7 disease management) were included. Intervention length ranged from 3 months to 12 months, none had long-term follow-up, and message frequency varied. Of 9 sufficiently powered studies, 8 found evidence to support text messaging as a tool for behavior change. Effects exist across age, minority status, and nationality. Nine countries are represented in this review, but it is problematic that only one is a developing country, given potential benefits of such a widely accessible, relatively inexpensive tool for health behavior change. Methodological issues and gaps in the literature are highlighted, and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:20354039

  4. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change.

  5. Children's behavioral health system transformation: one state's context and strategies for sustained change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Deborah S; Stephan, Sharon H; Kaye, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the State of Maryland as a case study of sustained change efforts in the service delivery system for children with significant behavioral health needs and their families. A punctuated equilibrium paradigm is introduced to describe Maryland's behavioral health system transformation over the course of three decades. The context and specific strategies that characterized Maryland's execution of its recent Mental Health Transformation State Incentive Grant are highlighted. There is a discussion of one of the pinnacle achievements of Maryland's transformation efforts, the recent statewide establishment of care management entities for children with behavioral health challenges, and its implications for behavioral health in the context of health care reform changes. This case study illustrates how a state can systematically and incrementally develop systems of care for children and families that are values-based, sustainable, and flexible. PMID:23657753

  6. The Importance of Autonomous Regulation for Students' Successful Translation of Intentions into Behavior Change via Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sheng Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a high prevention potential in adolescents. This study investigated the relations between physical activity and intention, autonomous regulation, and planning. We hypothesized that planning mediates the relationship between intention and behavior and that this mediation should depend on the level of autonomous regulation. Stratified randomization sampling method was administered to assemble a sample of =534 students among two schools in China. To test the hypothesis, autonomous regulation, intention, and physical activity were assessed at baseline as well as planning and follow-up physical activity four weeks after the pretest. A moderated mediation model confirmed that planning mediated the intention-behavior relation with the effect of planning being moderated by autonomous regulation. Study results demonstrated that autonomous regulation facilitated the translation of intention into behavior change via planning. To promote physical activity among adolescents, interventions targeting planning and autonomous regulation might facilitate successful translation of intentions into behavior change.

  7. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......: Children (N=54, 7-12 years) and parents were randomly allocated to different treatment groups (involved, not involved). Observed behavior, self-reported behavior and cognitions were assessed separately for mothers and fathers at pre-, posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: There were no differences over......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system....

  8. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic......Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...

  9. Using education on irradiated foods to change behavior of Korean elementary, middle, and high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Eunok; Kim, Jaerok; Choi, YoonSeok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Educational interventions targeted food selection perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Education regarding irradiated food was intended to change food selection behavior specific to it. SUBJECTS AND METHODS There were 43 elementary students (35.0%), 45 middle school students (36.6%), and 35 high school students (28.5%). The first step was research design. Educational targets were selected and informed consent was obtained in step two. An initial survey was cond...

  10. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Skye; Miller, Melinda M.; Filipski, Sarah B.; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables and husbandry practices can influence physiology and alter behavior in mice. Our study evaluated the effects of cage change on serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL/6 male mice. We examined the effects of 3 different methods of performing cage transfer and of transferring mice to a clean or a dirty familiar cage microenvironment. The 3 different handling methods were forceps transfer, gentle transfer with gloved hands, and a passive transfer t...

  11. ACUTE BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN THE GUPPY (Poecilia reticulata) EXPOSED TO TEMEPHOS

    OpenAIRE

    SELVİ, Mahmut; SARIKAYA, Rabia; Erkoç, Figen

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temephos  is an organophosphorus  insecticide used to control mosquito, midge and black fly larvae. This  study was aimed to determine the acute toxicity of temephos on behavior of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. Behavioral changes at each temephos concentration were recorded. The experiments were repeated 3 times. The 96 h acute toxicity range of temephos to adult male guppies was within 10 ...

  12. Changes in Routine Health Behaviors Following Late-life Bereavement: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between late-life spousal bereavement and changes in routine health behaviors. We review six behavioral domains/modifiable risk factors that are important for maintaining health among elderly populations: physical activity, nutrition, sleep quality, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and body weight status. Thirty-four articles were identified, derived from 32 studies. We found strong evidence for a relationship between bereavement and nutrition...

  13. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 ...

  14. 在校大学生饮酒行为及其相关知识认知度的现状调查%Prevalence study on the drinking behavior and awareness of alcohol-related knowledge in college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂花; 汪萌芽

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of alcohol-drinking behavior,awareness of alcohol-related knowledge and the potential influ-ential factors on the drinking behavior among the college students . Methods:By using a conventional random sampling method ,we conducted a survey on 559 students from 9 faculties of 2 higher institutions in Wuhu city with anonymous Questionnaire for Adolescent Behavior ,Attitudes and Knowledge of Alcohol-Drinking,and analyzed the drinking statues and in-fluencing factors.Results:①392 of the 559 students were drinkers (70.13%),and male drinkers(61.22%) were significantly higher than female ones(38.78%) (χ2 =75.97,P <0.01).Alcohol-drinking was less prevalent in students from one-child family than those with more than one child(36.73% vs 63.27%)(χ2 =9.28,P<0.01).②The drinking frequencies were different between male and female students (χ2 =96.39,P<0.01).The initial attempt of drinking generally started from 16 to 22 years old,yet the males were different from females in age distri-bution(χ2 =96.11,P<0.01).③Drunkenness appeared absent or occa-sional in the total subjects,and the expenditure on drinking was statisti-cally different in males from females(χ2 =82.84,P<0.01).④Parents′and teachers′attitudes towards alcohol drinking as well as parents′drink-ing behavior had produced significant impact on the drinking behavior of college students(χ2 =10.55,P <0.01).⑤The prevalence was signifi-cantly associated with the awareness of whether the alcohol was available in campus(χ2 =10.10,P <0.01) and frequencies of physical exercise (χ2 =10.10,P<0.01).In addition,the drinkers were significantly dif-ferent from non-drinkers in awareness of and attitudes towards alcohol use (χ2 =8.95,P<0.01).Conclusion:Alcohol use appear prevalent in col-lege students.These results suggest that the students shall be subjected to education on the alcohol-related health problems to prevent poor mental health from this behavior .%目的:了

  15. Inflow rate-driven changes in the composition and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a large drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yunlin; Jeppesen, Erik; Murphy, Kathleen R; Shi, Kun; Liu, Mingliang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water lakes are threatened globally and therefore in need of protection. To date, few studies have been carried out to investigate how the composition and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in drinking water lakes are influenced by inflow rate. Such CDOM can lead to unpleasant taste and odor of the water and produce undesirable disinfection byproducts during drinking water treatment. We studied the drinking water Lake Qiandao, China, and found that the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the lake increased significantly with inflow rate (p C3 and a negative relationship between inflow rate and the first principal component (PC1) scores, which, in turn, were negatively related to the concentrations and relative molecular size of CDOM (p < 0.001), i.e. the concentration and molecular size of CDOM entering the lake increased proportionately with inflow rate. Furthermore, stable isotopes (δD and δ(18)O) were depleted in the upstream river mouth relative to downstream remaining lake regions, substantiating that riverine CDOM entering the lake was probably driven by inflow rate. This was further underpinned by remarkably higher mean chlorophyll-a and in situ measured terrestrial CDOM fluorescence (365/480 nm) and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU), and notably lower mean PC1 and CDOM spectral slope (S275-295) recorded in the upstream river mouth than in the downstream main lake area. Strong negative correlations between inflow rate and a(250):a(365), S275-295, and the spectral slope ratio (SR) implied that CDOM input to the lake in rainy period was dominated by larger organic molecules with a more humic-like character. Rainy period, especially rainstorm events, therefore poses a risk to drinking water safety and requires higher removal efficiency of CDOM during drinking water treatment processes. PMID:27192356

  16. Hubungan Antara Tingkat Pengetahuan Dengan Konsumsi Terhadap Soft Drink Pada Siswa Kelas XI SMA Sutomo 1 Tahun 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Hardi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Soft drink is carbonated drink with added seasoning and sweetening such as sugar. Consumption of soft drink have bad effect for health and adolescence like to consume this kind of drink. Consumption of soft drink can be affected by factor of knowledge where knowledge have affection to development of behavior. This study aim to determine whether there is association between degree of knowledge with consumption about soft drink of student class XI SMA Sutomo 1 Medan year 2010. Thi...

  17. Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior? A meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Harris, Peter R; Epton, Tracy

    2014-03-01

    Several theories construe risk appraisals as key determinants of decisions and actions, and this idea has been supported in correlational studies. However, correlational data cannot answer the question, "Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior?" The present review meta-analyzed experimental evidence in order to address this issue. We identified 4 elements of risk appraisal-risk perception, anticipatory emotion, anticipated emotion, and perceived severity-and located experiments that (a) engendered a statistically significant increase in risk appraisal among treatment compared to control participants and (b) measured subsequent intention or behavior. Heightening risk appraisals had effects of d+ = .31 (k = 217) and d+ = .23 (k = 93) on intention and behavior, respectively. There was evidence that the elements of risk appraisal combined to influence outcomes. For instance, heightening risk perceptions had larger effects on outcomes when anticipatory emotions or perceived severity was also increased. Crucially, risk appraisal effects were augmented by coping appraisals: Risk appraisals had larger effects on outcomes when response efficacy and self-efficacy were enhanced or when response costs were reduced. The largest effect sizes were observed when risk appraisals, response efficacy, and self-efficacy were simultaneously heightened (d+ = .98 and .45, for intention and behavior, respectively). These findings indicate that heightening risk appraisals changes intentions and behavior. However, the direct effects of risk appraisals were generally small. Exploiting synergies among the elements of risk appraisal, and between risk appraisals and coping appraisals, should make for more effective behavior change interventions. PMID:23731175

  18. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  19. Promoting health behavior change using appreciative inquiry: moving from deficit models to affirmation models of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Charvat, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a new theoretical approach to health promotion and behavior change that may be especially suited to underserved women. Appreciative inquiry (AI), an organizational development process that focuses on the positive and creative as a force for an improved future, is described and adapted for use as an intervention to achieve health behavior change at the individual level. Guiding principles for its use with clients are provided, and an example of its application is illustrated in a hypothetical case study of an African American woman of low-socioeconomic resources who is attempting to increase lifestyle exercise following a cardiac event. AI is contrasted with the more traditional problem-solving approaches to the provision of care. The advantages, challenges, and issues associated with the use of AI as a health behavior change strategy are discussed. PMID:17159634

  20. Electronic game: A key effective technology to promote behavioral change in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Goodini, Azadeh; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebraeil

    2016-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is a very unpleasant and unbelievable experience. Appropriate management and treatment of these diseases require a high degree of patient engagement. Interactive health electronic games are engaging, fun, challenging, and experiential and have the potential to change the attitude and behavior, which can improve the player's health. The use of these digital tools, as one of the most attractive and entertaining modern technologies, canem power patients, provide suitable palliative care, promote health behavior change strategies, increase patient engagement, enhance healthy lifestyle habits, improve self.management, and finally improve the quality of life of the patients. Finally, the aim of this article was to describe electronic games and their effects on the promotion of behavior change in cancer patients. In addition, this article describes categories, characteristic features, and benefits of this digital media in the lifestyle modification of cancer patients. PMID:27461596